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Ekk;k-fo|k-foKku-O;klaxkpk-ck;ksMkVk
- thou gk vKkrakrhy izokl vkgs- cgqrsd yksd

thoukP;k okVpkyhpsa ljG fuosnu djrkr- eyk gsa


terfg ukgha vkf.k iVrfg ukgha- thou cs nqus pkj
vkk xf.krkxr i)rhusa O;rhar gksr ulrsa rj rsa cs
nqus lgk d/kh vkB d/kh ngk] cgq/kk vkkp i)rhusa
pkyr vlrsadks.kR;kfg ok~e;kpk ik;k ekuokph vfHk:ph
vlrak dkek u;s- dkj.k ^^tUeuk tk;rs kwnz%
laLdkjkr~ f}t mP;rsA** ;k kwnzRokph dehr deh
o;kse;kZnk o;kph 25 oks ekuyh vkgs- eh ,d
vfrlkekU; ek.kwl vlY;keqGsa O;foakrhy gsa
kwnzRo lai.kkl eyk iw.kZ 60 oks ykxyh- R;kuarj
ek;k vYierhizek.ksa gsa kwnzRo laiwu vki.k iqjsls
izcq) >kyks vkgksr vls tk.koY;kuarjp o;kP;k
65 O;k okhZ eh ys[ku dj.kkl lqjokr dsyh^^Kkunso kd** gk ek>k ifgyk ys[k 2003
lkyakrhy vkgs- uarjP;k dkGakr Eg.kts 2005i;ZUr
Kkunso vkf.k Kkusojh ;kp fok;koj 4 ys[k
fyfgys- Ek/;arjhP;k dkGakr ^fkokd*] ^egkjkV
fnu*] ^fookd* rlsp egkjkVkP;k vfLersyk
vuql:u eh th ^^egkjkV iapakx fnunfkZdk** r;kj

dsyh] frpsa iw.kZ Lo:Ik fokn dj.kkjs 4 ys[k


fyfgysKku xzg.kkpsa vkf.k Kku nkukpsa ,d izHkkoh lk/ku
;k Vhus dakgha dkG lakks/ku d:u eh ,d dWlsV
Vsi jsdkWMZj r;kj dsyk- gk laiw.kZ vksiu vkgs- dWlsV
MkbZOg dj.kkjk esdWfu>e] izh vWfEIyQk;j] esu
vWfEIyQk;j] vkWfLlysVj] vkWVkseWfVd ysOgy dUVksy]
jsfDVQkbZM Mh-lh- vkj- ih- Lohp] jsX;qysVsM ikWoj
lIyk; ;akrhy loZ dkWEiksuUV~l gs ok;lZlfgr lxGs
vksiu vkgs- ;kpsa dyj Nk;kfp=fg dk<wu Bsoys
vkgs- rlsp ;k fo|qr~ eaMy ;kstuspk Mk;xzke r;kj
dsyk vkgs- ;kph jpuk vkf.k dk;Zi)rhpsa vkdyu
gks.;klkBha ,d foLr`r ys[k fyfgyk vkgs- ;koj
ccujko x:M] lrhk tkskh vkk xk;dakph xk.kh
jsdkWMZ dsyh vkgsr- ccujkoakuh rj rcyk isVhpk
,d tksM fdrhrjh fnol ek;k ?kjhap Bsoyk gksrkxks- uh- nakMsdj- R;akP;kp Hkkksar cksyk;ps >kY;kl
rs ek>sa ?k fe= gksrs- R;akph eyk vfrk; fiz;
>kysyh dknacjh ^^e`.e;h**- R;koj jlxzg.kkRed
Qkj eksBk ys[k eh fyfgyk vkgs- gsa ek;k
thouakrhy ,d eksykpsa lek/kku vkgsek;k ;k fo|kO;klaxkyk dkWEI;qVjpsa dekyhps
lgk; >kysa- vo?ks 6 gtkj :i;s nsu vkt eh

30 gtkjkpk dkWEI;qVj okijrks vkgs- ,dk eqykyk


R;kP;k vMp.khP;k osGha enr dsyh Eg.kwu R;kus gk
ek;k ?kjha vk.kwu Bsoyk- vkrak rks us.kkl r;kjp
ukgh- rks Eg.krks] ^^loMhuqlkj eh rqeps loZ iSls
nsbZu- i.k gk d/khp us.kkj ukgh- rqeP;kdMs ek;k
dkWEI;qVjpsa lksusa >kysa- rqEgh rks g;krHkj okijk;koj eh 3@4 gtkj :Ik;s [kpZ dsyk- vWfUVOgk;jl
lkWVosvj] foaMks] ,DLih vkf.k fOgLVk nksUghapkfg
lekosk dsyk vkgs- isu MkbZOg] lh-Mh- jkbZfVax vlk
[kwi m|ksx dsyk- ;koj VkbZi dsysY;k ys[kakP;k
iqdG QkbZYl r;kj >kY;k vkgsr^bysDVkWfuDl % izkjaHk o izokl* vlk ek>k ,d
ys[k-laxzg vkgs- ;akr dWlsVph varxZr jpuk]Lihdjph
varxZr jpuk o dk;Z ;karhy ckjdkO;akpsa rikhyokj
o.kZu fnys vkgs21 tqyS 1969 viksyks 11 panzkoj mrjysaR;k laiw.kZ okZHkj eh ^Lisl* ;k fok;kpk Qkj
[kksyoj tku vH;kl dsyk- lxGh orZekui=sa]
ekfldsa ;akpk Hkykeksk xk r;kj >kyk- R;karhy
ksdMks dk=.ksa dkiwu dk<yh- 1969lkyha isijph
fdaer 10 iSls gksrh- 21] 22] 23] 24] 25 ;k
fnolakP;k R;k osGP;k ldkGP;k ifgY;k ikuakP;k
,dk daiuharhy dkWUVWDVjus eyk ika<;kkqHkz >sjkWDl

fnY;k- uohu isilZ vkkk 10@10 iSkkyk vk.kys


vkgsr vls okVrsa21 tqyS 1969 ;k fnokh ldkGha ekuokus
fooakrhy nql;k xzgxksykoj ifgys iky BsoysaEg.kwu ek;k ^egkjkV iapakx fnunfkZdsar* varjkG
;qxakrhy ^fookd* izkjaHk >kY;kps ekuys vkgsvkf.k ;koj ,d eksBk ys[k fyfgyk vkgsldkGdkjkus d/kh okijyk ukgh vlk eksBk VkbZi
okijyk vkgs-

Ekkuo panzkoj

mrjyk-

vkiyk ewG fok; ?ksa- ekxs fyfgY;kizek.ksa ek;k


vk;q;akrhy ifgyk ys[k 2003 lkyakrhy Eg.kts
o;kP;k 65O;k okhZpk vkgs- rksikosrksa Vkp.ksa] fVi.ksa
vla[; fyfgyh i.k eyk R;akr dkagha ne okVsuk1949 iklwu kkys; vH;kl laHkkGwu eyk ukukfo/k
fo|kO;klaxkpk tks ,d foy{k.k Nan tMyk rks
mkjkskj ok<rp xsyk- b;kk 4Fkh iklwu 7oh i;ZUr
,dk HkY;k eksBk ykdMh isVk;akr esGkakP;k
i|koY;k] fluseakP;k i|koY;ke/kwu QkMysY;k
pakxY;k xk.kakP;k dkxnakpsa ,d eksBs iqMdsa] Lrks=sa]
eaxykVdsa] yksdakph iqLrdsa] NksVs dkO;laxzg] dFkk

laxzg] vlk ,d vtc[kkuk r;kj >kyk gksrk- 8 oh


uarj mifuknkiklwu dqlqekxztki;ZUr izkFkfed
Lo:ikph cjhp iqLrdsa tek dsyh- 1957 Eg.kts
dkWystP;k ifgY;k okkZiklwu rs 1963 i;ZUr Eg.kts
fMQsUle/;sa lfOgZlyk ykxsi;ZUr tkLr eksBh iqLrdsa
okp.;kl lqjokr dsyh- 1949 rs 1963 i;ZUr
vkRefparu] eukseaFku izpaM izek.kakr >kysaeyk vls okVrsa] eyk rls okVrsa] gsa eyk ilar
ukgh] gsa ek>sa er vkgs] eyk vls Bkei.ksa okVrsa
bR;kfn- ;k lokP;k myVlqyV dksyakVmMkk R;k 14
okkr eh gtkjksosGak ekjY;k- vki.k gh Kku-lk/kuk
djrks dk\ dak ksa-ikpksa iqLrdsa okpwu vki.k
vkiY;k ykMD;k dYiuk dqjokGrks vkgksr\ gh Kku
lk/kuk ukgh rj gk kgk.ki.kakrhy osMsi.kk lq:a
>kyk vkgs- ;k loZ xksVh /;kuha vkY;koj ek>sa Mksds
Hk.kk.kwu xsys- eh dekyhpk vareqZ[k >kyks- gk ek>k
vuqHko vkgs- dks.k rwa\ dk; rq>h gSfl;r\ gsa
dlysa euksjkT; djhr jkfgyk vkgsl\ gsa O;FkZ
dkygj.k vkgsroKku] /keZ] dkO;] lkfgR;] Hkkkk&laLr]
ejkBh gs ek>s ftOgkGkkps fok; vkgsr- ;k nskakr
izkphu dkGkiklwups izpaM laLr HkakMkj vkgsejkBharfg Kkunso dkykiklwu Eg.kts kds 1212

iklwu gtkjks mkekske xzaFk fuekZ.k >kys vkgsr- eh


vls Bjfoys dha] vkti;ZUrP;k Kkukph oLrqfLFkrh
uhV ckjdkbZusa vkf.k n{krsusa igk;ph- 1963 iklwu
1998 i;ZUr Eg.kts uksdjhyk ykxY;kiklwu
lsokfuo`k gksbZi;ZUr fuoMd eksBeksBkk xzaFkakpsa likVwu
okpu dsys-vftckr g;x; dsyh ukgh-r:.ki.kakrhy
tks tksk gksrk] R;kpk iqjsiwj Qk;nk ?ksrykuksdjharhy ,dp tkxk eh dk;eph /k:u BsoyhizekskudMs iw.kZ ikB fQjoyh- ;keqGsa eyk isUku
cjhp deh vkgs- dke dakghap ulk;ps i.k ukbZV
M;wVhyk yksd daVkGk djk;ps- dkj.k flD;qfjVh
psfdaxeqGsa jk=ha >ksirka ;sr uls- tkxs jgkos ykxseyk gh lqo.kZ la/kh feGkyh- eh dk;eph ukbZV
ekxwu ?ksryh- ,dk jk=har 4@5ks ikuakpk xzaFk okpwu
ikj djhr vls- T;akpk laxzg dj.kkph vko;drk
ukgh] uqlR;k okpukusa dke Hkkxsy vkh ikp gtkj
eksBs xzaFk o iqLrdsa uksdjhP;k R;k 35okakZr eh okpwu
dk<yh- ek= T;akpk laxzg dj.kaas vifjgk;Z vkgs
vkh nhM gtkj xzaFk o iqLrdsa ljG [kjsnh dsyh;akr R;k LoLrkbZP;k dkGakr gtkjks :i;s [kpZ >kysvkt R;akph fdaer yk[kakr gksbZy- ;k lokph
50@60 ikuakph mke lwph eh r;kj d:u Bsoyh
vkgs- T;kyk fpjaru ok~e; Eg.krkr vkk xzaFkakpsa

okpu dls djkos gh Qkj vo?kM dyk vkgs;klkBha dakgha iF;as dBksji.ks ikyu dj.kkph lo;
ykowu ?;koh ykxrs- rh ftjokoh] eqjokoh ykxrkrvk;- Vh- Eg.kts bafM;u VWysaV gsa {ks= igk- dso<h
izdakM cqf) R;akr dke djrs vkgs- bUQesZku
VsDukWykWth vFkok baVusZV ;kpk iqdGp mi;ksx vkgsi.k gsa Kku uOgsa] baVusZVyk Kku let.ksa gh 21lkO;k
krdakrhy va/kJ)k vkgs- ;k {ks=akr vkt?kMhyk
vxnh lqekj cqf) dke djrs vkgs- xkMhHkj ekfgrh
xksGk dj.ksa gsa Kkukpsa y{k.k ukgh] Hkkjokgdkpsa
y{k.k vkgsroKku] /keZ] dkO;] lkfgR; ;k {ks=akr rj
vkuanh vkuan vkgs- gsa ekuokP;k varthZoukpsa vk;Vh- {ks= vkgs- ;k nskkyk xkWM baUVkWfDldsVsM yWUM
Eg.kts bZojkusa vfHkHkwr >kysyh Hkwfe vls EgVys
tkrs- ;sFks [kjk bafM;u VWysUV fnlyk ikfgts- vkt
laiw.kZ myVk dkjHkkj lq:a >kyk vkgs- vkt ;k
{ks=kyk cqf)eksps] fo}ksps okoMs fnlrs vkgs- vkt
;k {ks=akr ,T;qdsVsM] gk;yh ,T;qdsVsM yksd vkgsri.k yusZM nqfeZG >kys vkgsr- vkt kakdjHkk;koj
dks.khfg izopu djhr ukghr- eEeVkP;k dkO;izdkkk
oj dks.kh fyfgr ukgh] txkFkkpk jlxaxk/kj rj
lokuh tlkdk; otZ ekuyk vkgs- czlw=kkfjjHkk;

gk vkpk;kpk 1800 ikuakpk 3 [kaMakr foHkkxysyk


xzaFk igk- 1940 lkyakrhy ^Kkusojakpsa roKku* gk
ukxiwj ;qfuOgflZVhps pWUlsyj ka- nk- isaMls ;akpk
600 ikuakpk xzaFk- R;kosGha R;kojhy Nkihy fdaer
4 :i;s gksrh- 1965 lkyh rks eyk 40 :i;kl
feGkyk- vkt R;kph fdaer 500 P;k iq<s tkbZy^lkSan;Zkks/k vkf.k vkuancks/k*& jk- Jh- tksx^lkfgR;akrhy laiznk;* eksBk xzaFk&jk-ka-okfGacs- rlsp
R;akpk ^Kkusojharhy fonX/k jlo`fk* 1953
lkyakrhy vxnh ckjhd VkbZi] Xyst dkxn] fdaer
R;kdkGha 10:i;s- vQkV ifjJe d:u fyfgyk
vkgs- 350 i`Vakpk lkfgR;kojhy xzaFk vlY;keqGsa
vkt R;kph fdaer HkjelkB gksbZy^;knodkyhu ejkBh Hkkkspsa O;kdj.k* iq.ks
fo|kihBakr ejkBh QWdYVhps Mhu vlysysa ka- xksrqGiqGs] eyk nakMsdjp Eg.kkys] R;akP;k ;k xzaFkkpk
ckjdkbZus vH;kl d:u eh ^eksxjk Qqyyk* gh
dknacjh fyfgyh- gh laiw.kZ dknacjh iw.kZi.ksa
;knodkyhu Hkkksar vkgs- ^ejkBh ok~e;kpk baxzth
vorkj* vls peRdkfjd uako vlysysa nkks okeu
iksrnkj ;akpsa 1922 lkyakrhy vR;qke i.k vfrk;
nqfeZG vlysysa iqLrd nakMsdjakuh ekfxrysa- eh
Eg.kkyks] d/kh ijr ns.kkj rs lakxk- R;akuh

lakfxrysY;k eqnrhar 8O;k fnokha eyk ?kjha vk.kwu


fnysa- ek.kls tkrkr i.k R;akps xq.k /kzqoklkj[ks lnSo
pedr jkgrkr gsp [kjs!
vkrak osnok~e; lksMys rj lokr izkphu xzaFk
xhrsfkok; nqljk dks.krkp fnlr ukgh- Jhen~Hkxor~
xhrk cq)iwoZ 1]000 oks vfLrRoakr gksrh- Eg.kts
bloh luiwoZ 3]500 okkiklwu rh vfLrRoakr vkgsbrdh rh izkphu vkgs- bloh lu 2]000 uarjp
fryk egkHkkjrkP;k kakfriokrwu osxGh dk<wu
frP;koj Hkk; dj.kkph ijaijk lq:a >kyh vlkoh
vls vuqeku kadjkpk;kpsa tsa lokr izkphu Hkk;
R;ko:u gksrs- rs Eg.krkr] ^^rnFkkZfodj.kk; vusdS%
foo`rininkFkZokD;kFkZU;k;a vfi ykSfddS%vR;Urfo:)
vusdvFkZRosu x`ek.ka miyH;------** kadjkpk;kZuarj
jkekuqt] oYyHk] fuackdZ] Jh/kj bR;kfn laLr
Hkk;dkj >kys- ejkBhe/;sa Kkunso] okeu iafMr]
;akph Hkk;sa( rlsp vacstksxkbZps nklksiar ;akuh lOok
yk[k vksO;akpk ^xhrk.kZo* vlk ,d egklkxj fuekZ.k
d:u Bsoyk vkgs- R;akuk jkst 1 <Ccw iSkkph kkbZ
ykxr vls( ,o<s vQkV ys[ku rs djhr vlr;kuarj 19 vkf.k 20 ;k nksu krdakr xhrsoj
ejkBh] fganh] baxzth vkk Hkkksar VhdkRed ksadMks
xzaFk fuekZ.k >kys- 1915 lkyha yksdekU; fVGdakpsa

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^xhrkjgL;* izdkfkr >kY;koj R;kojhy vuqdwy


izfrdwy Vhdk izfrVhdakpsa tsa rqacG ;q) ;k
iq.;uxjhar xktysa R;keqGsa egkjkVkP;k cq)hyk th
,d foy{k.k /kkj vkyh vkf.k fparukph th xgurk
izkIr >kyh fryk rksM ukgh- ;k leqnz eaFkuakrwu
vusd rksykeksykph xzaFkjRusa fuekZ.k >kyh( R;akrhy
fuoMd cjhpkh eh [kjsnh dsyh- oj mYysf[kr Hkk;sa
vkf.k Vhdk feGwu 100 is{kkfg tkLr xzaFk eh [kjsnh
dsys- ;k lokZeqGsa xhrse/;sa eyk [kksyoj izosk djrk
vkykxhrsojhy ys[kekyk gsa ek>sa lokr egRokpsa
ys[ku vkgs- xhrsoj xsyh 50 oks fparu] euu]
fufn/;klu djhr vkyks vkgs- xhrse/khy vusd
fok;akP;k lakks/kuklkBha eh dekyhps ifjJe dsysaxhrsoj vusdakuh fyfgys vkgs i.k rsa xksyeksy ys[ku
>kys vkgs- xhrspk lokxh.k vH;kl cgqrsd dksBsp
fnlr ukgh- xhrasrhy yksd vkf.k insa ;akP;k
laff/kyk rj eqGhp /k:u ulrks gk R;akrhy lokr
eksBk nksk vkgs- xhrkjgL;kP;k osGha dakgha dkG [kwi
eksBs pSrU; fuekZ.k >kysa gksras- vkrak rj lxGk FkaMk
ekeyk >kyk vkgs- eksBeksBs ys[kd iqUgk iwohZpsp
tqus nG.k nGhr clys vkgsr- [kjs Eg.kts ;k
ys[kdakuk xhrsps eksyp dGys ukgh- thouakr frpsa

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useds LFkku dk; vkgs ;kpk R;akuk [k-;kvFkh ikk


ukgh-thou Mkokoj ykxY;koj ek.klkus enrhlkBha
/kkok/kko djkoh rlk rks xzaFk vkgs- xhrsoj
fyfg.kklkBha dso<s ifjJe ?;kos ykxrkr vkf.k
fdrh vQkV okpu djkos ykxrs R;kph ;k osMkakuk
dkh dYiuk ;s.kkj\ ;keqGsa vkt?kMhyk xhrsojhy
tqtch ys[kakuh orZekui=akph tkxk vMfoyh tkrs
vkgs- vQkV okpu dk djkos ykxrs\ R;kpsa dkj.k
lakxrks&
fczVhk venkuhar o uarjfg xsY;k 200 okkr
izpaM izek.kakr brD;k pqdhP;k laLdkjkpk ixMk
clyk vkgs vkf.k vkeph cqf) brdh HkzV >kyh
vkgs dha] rh HkzV >kyh vkgs ;kpkfg vkrak ikk
ykxsuklk >kyk vkgs- osMkkyk d/kh okVrs dk
vki.k osMs vkgksr Eg.kwu\ rks kgk.kkyk Eg.krks]
^^rwa osMk vkgsl dk\ dkh osMkklkj[kh cMcM
djrksl-** mieU;w ik.kakr dkyoysysa ihB o lk[kj
nw/k Eg.kwu ihr gksrk- vkbZ eyk jkst nw/k nsrs vls
vkbZfok;ha rks eksBkk vfHkekukus lakxs- iq<hy dFkk
loZJqr vkgs- rqyusyk nksu fojks/kh oLrw gO;kr uk !
[kjs nw/k fiY;kojp rqyuk lq:a >kyh- ;k foLrkjkpk
bR;FkZ vlk dha] ;k Hk;adj cqf)HksnkP;k dkGakr
vQkV okpukfkok; rj.kksik; ukgh- ;sFks Fkakcrks-

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