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EkgkjkV

fnunfkZdk % Lo:Ik nkZu


ys[ku eakd % 1
vkEgh fganw/kehZ; vkgksr] vls Eg.k.;akr
dks.krkfg nksk ukgh- ek= vktferhl ;akr
dakgha xq.kfg ukgh] gh dVw oLrqfLFkrh vkgs
;keqGsa ^eh fganw vkgs-* gh fuOoG iksdG
vkf.k fujFkZd ?kksk.kk gksu jkfgyh vkgsthoukpk ewyxkeh fopkj dj.ksa gkp ;akoj
mke vkf.k lq;ksX; mik; vkgs- gk vR;Ur
O;kid o nh?kZdkyhu m|ekpk fok; vkgsthouakr ewyxkeh ifjorZu gksu R;akrhy loZ
{ks=as iw.kZr;k cny.ksa v;ko;d vkgs;kpkp ,d izkFfed iz;Ru ;kLo:iakr eh
vki.kkiq<s ^fganoh fnunfkZdk* lknj dsyh
vkgs- ;kyk ^egkjkV iapakx fnunfkZdk* vlsa
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uako fnys vkgs- ,dk O;kid fVdksuakrwu ;k


fnunfkZdspsa Lo:i vkf.k brj fnunfkZdsP;k
rqyusar dk; Qjd vkgs] R;kpsa fnXnkZu
djrks1 ukrkG] bZn] bR;kfn vU;/kehZ; l.k
rlsp mRlo vkeP;k fnunfkZdsar ;s.kkj
ukghar2 dks.kR;kfg jktdkj.kh] lektdkj.kh
mnkgj.kkFkZ yksdekU; fVGd] N=irh kkgw
egkjkt] N=irh fkokth egkjkt vls
dks.khfg&yksdkskj iq:k vlysa rjh&R;akP;k
iq.;frFkh ;akr ;s.kkj ukghr- dkj.k R;k
iq.;frFkh ukghr] rj rs Jk)fnu vkgsrR;k R;k oxZlewgakr R;kpsa ikyu OgkosR;kpizek.ksa R;akP;k t;aR;kfg ;akr ;s.kkj
ukghr- dkj.k t;aR;k dsoG nsokfndakP;k
vkf.k vorkjakP;k vlrkr- nkt;afr vlrs]
uGt;afr d/kh ,sdyh dk\ jketUEk] .k
tUe Eg.krkr- jkeiq.;frfFk d/kh ,sdyh dk\
3

3 iq.;frFkh dsoG lar] egkRes] lr~iq:kakP;k vlrkr- nsgkpsa vkoj.k Vkdwu rs


cz:i >kysysa vlrkr- loZ= O;kIr gksrkrrh iq.;ioZ.kh] rks iq.;fnol- Eg.kwu rh
iq.;frfFk- mnkgj.kkFkZ Kkunso] jke.k]
foosdkuan] je.kegfkZ] xksanoysdj] Lo:ikuan4euq;izk.;kph t;afr]vFkokk ok<fnol
vkEgakl vfHkiszr ukgh- tUeysY;k eqykph Ikkw
voLFkk vlrs- R;akr ifjorZu gksu iw.kZ
euq; voLFkk izkIr gks.;kl th ok< Ogkoh
ykxrs R;klkBha 3@4 oksZ ykxrkr- iw.kZ
ok<hlkBha vk.k[kh 2@3 oksZ /kjyh rj
eqykpk o;oksZ 7 Ik;ZUr ok<fnol djkokifgys ok<fnol R;kyk frrdsls dG.kkj
ukghr- ek= ksoVps 2 ok<fnol R;kyk
pakxys dGrhy- gs vkiY;k fganwlaLdkjkuqlkj
eqykyk dqadokpk ik ykowu rkEg.kakrhy
fujaktukusa R;kl vkS{k.k d:u lktjs djkosr-

o;kP;k 7 O;k okhZ& eqykyk pakxyh


let vkysyh vlrs& ok<fnol can djkokvkrak R;kyk ok<fnol u Eg.krk ^{k;fnu*
Eg.kkok ykxsy- rks {k;fnup vkgsvLrkltk; tsOgak ?ksfu vk;q;[kaM jfotkbZ
dqjrMys tkrhdha Lothoukps vls lnk rqdMs
thou f>trs?kVrs thofopkj u oGsijh frdMs
vk;q;akrhy ,d okZ xsys Eg.kwu gGgG
okVko;kl goh] vkf.k uookakZr tkLr n{k]
lko/k o tkx`r jgk.;kpk foosd lqpko;kl
gok- ;kph ;r~fdfprfg tk.kho ul.kkjh
egkew[kZ ekuotkr Eg.krs]Happy birth day to you
5 l|dkGakrhy lk/kqlar] Kkuh egkRes ;akP;k
iq.;frF;k mnkgj.kkFkZ egkRek xak/kh] fouksck]
vjfoan] ts- .kewfrZ] je.kegfkZ- R;kpizek.ksa
egRokps fnu mnk0la;q egkjkV fnu]
fkojkT;kfHkksdksRlo fnu- ;klkBha R;k R;k
lkyakrhy iapakxsa ikgwu frfFkfup; dsyk vkgs5

o rlk rks fnunfkZdsar uksanfoyk vkgs- ;k


fnunfkZdsarhy dks.krsfg fnu baxzth rkj[ks
izek.ksa vl.kkj ukghr- mnk0 egkRek xak/khapsa
nsgkolku fganw iapakxkuqlkj ^ikSk .k5]iapeh
kds 1869* ;k okhZ >kys- Eg.kwu R;akph
iq.;frfFk ^ikSk .k 5] iapeh* gh Bjrs^fkojkT;kfHkksd fnu* ^T;sB kq) 13]
=;ksnkh* rlsp ^egkjkV fnu* ^oSkk[k kq)
5] iapeh olar_rq* vlk ;srks- gk ^la;q
egkjkV fnu* egkjkVkP;k vusdfo/k xq.kxkSjoakr ?kkyokok- ;kpk rikhy vlk&
1 iapakxkuqlkj fnue Bso.;klkBha R;kph
vkf.k T;ksfrkkkL=kph izkFkfed ekfgrh-2 ejkBh Hkkkk o O;kdj.kkpk kkL=kq)
vH;kl3 izkphu o vokZphu ejkBh ok~e;kpk
vH;kl-

4 eksMh fyih gsa fkodky[kaM tk.kwu


?ks.;kpsa ,d cgqeksy lk/ku vkgs- ;klkBha
eqGk{kjkiklwu eksMh fyihpk vH;kl5-egkjkVkP;k HkkSxksfyd vkf.k brj
ekfgrhlkBha iqLrdas] ^egkjkV nkZu*&kkldh; izdkku- udkkk okpu- ^egkjkV nkZu*
xks- uh- nakMsdj- rlsp R;akpsa ^nqxZHkze.kxkFkk*
6-fkoN=irhaP;k laca/kha loZ ok~e;kpsa
voyksdu7 fko-leFkZ ;akP;kojhy vusdfo/k /ofueqfnzdakpsa Jo.kbR;kfn loZ dk;Zeakr rks fnol vR;ar
J)kHkf;q var%dj.kkusa ?kkyokokvkEgh baxzth okZ gsa ^defkZvy f;vj*
Eg.kwu letrks- rs Hkkjrkpsa Eg.ktsp fganwapsa
lakLfrd okZ vkgs vls vkEgh ekuhr
ukgh- rsa tkxfrd jktdkj.k] vFkZdkj.k]
lektdkj.k bR;kfn O;ogkjakpsa tkxfrd okZ
Eg.kwu ;k vkeP;k fnunfkZdsar vkEgh uewn
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dsys vkgs- ;klkBha fnunfkZdsar izR;sd


jdkU;kP;k mtO;k dksi;akr vxnh ckjhd
v{kjakr baxzth efguk o rkj[kk fnY;k vkgsrgs rkj[kakps vad ejkBhae/;sa fnys vkgsr15 vkWxV vkf.k 26 tkusokjh bR;kfn
ew[kZi.kkyk] osMsi.kkyk loZLoh udkj fnyk
vkgs- eh gh fganw fnunfkZdsph oSfkBsa lakxrks
vkgs- vkEgh vkiyh vk;MsafVVh] vkiyh
vksG[k iw.kZi.ksa foljyks vkgksr- vkEgkyk
/kekZpsa] Lo/kekZpsa Hkku ukgh- brdsp uOgsa] rj
rks vkEgakl nksk:Ik okVwa ykxyk vkgs- R;akr
xq.knkZu dj.ksa oSfkBsa Pecularities gkp
vkeP;kiq<hy ,deso dk;Ze vkgs- ;klkBha
vkEgh pkj fHkarhP;k vakr fganw Eg.kwu tx.kkj
fganw /keZ] fganw laLfr] fganw /kkj.kk ;akpk loZHkkosa Lohdkj dj.kkj- jkT;ikrGhoj Lor%yk
egkjkVh; vkf.k jkVh; ikrGhoj Hkkjrh;
Eg.kowu ?ks.kkj( ;akr vkEgkyk dlyhfg fnr
okVr ukgh- lsD;qyj jkV] -loZ/keZleHkko]

Tkkrh; ,sD; vlY;k Hkaid roakuk vkeP;k


n;akr dkMhbrdsfg LFkku vl.kkj ukgh- ek=
O;ogkjakr okxrkuk vkEgh ;kfo:) cksy.kkj
ukgh] ;kcktwusfg cksy.kkj ukgh- vkEgh ekSu
jkgwa- vkf.k ;k Hkaid rokuqlkj u okxrak fganw
/kekZP;k ewGP;kp mnkj /kksj.kkusa orZu d:amnkgj.kkFkZ efknhauk ns.kX;k nsa- eqLyhe
cak/koakuk enr d:a- ek= ^bZoj vYyk rsjs
uke* vlyk xtj vkeP;k roakr clr
ukghgh fnunfkZdk lkoZtfud ukgh- dsoG
oS;fd ikrGhojhy vkgs- R;keqGsa gh fohlkBha] Eg.ktsp dakgha ewY; ?ksu dks.kkykfg
nsrk ;s.kkj ukgh- gh fuOoG oS;fd Lo:iakr
vlwu bpsa fe=eaMGhar o Lusg ifjokjakr
^foukewY; Lusgksik;u* ;k :ikusa forj.k
gksbZyegkjkVh; thouakr ^kkfyokgu kd* ;k
okZx.kusyk LFkku vkgs- ek;k ersa Hkkjrh;
;q) >kY;kuarj ;qf/kfBjkyk jkT;kfHkksd
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>kyk- R;k jkT;kfHkksdkiklwu th dkyx.kuk


lq:a >kyh R;kyk ^;qf/kfBj kd* Eg.krkr;k okkZpk gk kd 5105 gk vkgs- gk loakZr
izkphu kd vkgs;qf/kfBj jkT;kklukuarj ckS)] tSu] kSo]
ukFk bR;kfn laiznk;-ijaijk Hkkjrh; thouakr
lekfoV >kY;k- vkEgakl R;k udks vkgsregkHkkjrh thoukl vuqlj.kkjh rh [kjh fganw
thoui)fr vkgs] vls vkepsa er vkgsR;keqGsa vusd laLdj.ksa gksufg ^Jher~Hkxor~
xhrk* gkp fganw /kekZpk eq[; xzaFk fl) >kyk
vkgs- Hkkxor /keZfg egkHkkjr dkykuarjpk
vkgs- xhrsP;k v/;k; 9 e/khy HkfekxZ
egkHkkjrdkyhu Bjrks- fko-leFkakZph euksjpuk o ,dw.k rks dky[kaM egkHkkjr dky[kaMkyk iw.kkZFkkZusa vuq:i okVrks- ckS)] tSu]
Hkkxor ;akph Nk;klq)k R;akr tk.kor ukghbrdsp uOgsa rj egkHkkjrkP;kfg iq<s R;kusa
cjhp ikoyas Vkdyh vkgsr- Hkhe] nzks.k] d.kZ
;qf/kfBj ;akP;k lkj[kk vO;ogkjh osMsi.kk
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R;akr ukgh- fkodky[kaM ijkdkBspk rofuB


vlwufg iw.kkZFkkZusa O;ogkjh vkgs- ukgharj
izrkijko] ejkBh lSU;kps ljlsukirh] ,o<;k
eksB;k vf/kdkjinkoj vl.kk;k O;hoj
larkiwu ^lyk dk; fufeks dsyk\ [kkukl
xnsZl esGok( vU;Fkk vkEgkl rksaM nk[kowa
udk-* vlk Hk;adj ik.kmrkjk d:u egkjkt
m[kMys ulrs-tkrhcak/ko vl.kk;k eq/kksGP;k
?kksjiM;akuk daBLuku ?kkrysa ulrsa- vkf.k
[kaMksth [kksiM;kpk ,d gkr] ,d ik; dye
dsyk ulrk- egkHkkjr dkykiklwu Hkkjrh;
bfrgklakr >kysY;k vusd pqdk egkjktakuh
dVk{kkus VkGY;kdks.kR;kfg
ckcrhar
bfrgklkph iqujko`fk gksa fnyh ukgh- thou
gkp ,d laxzke vkgs- Eg.kwu ^xfueh dkok* gas
;q)ra= vf[ky thoukyk ykxw gks.kkjs O;kid
ro vkgs,d rsa gfjdFkk fu:i.k A nqljsa rsa
jktdkj.k A frljsa rsa lko/ki.k A loZ
fok;h AA egkjkVkph [kjh mfr lk/kk;ph
vlsy rj fko-leFkZ gkp vknkZ leksj
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12

Bsokok ykxsy-dkj.k ghp thou-i)fr varhe


dY;k.kdkjh gks.kkjh vkgs- th HkO;rk o
R;kxkdMs >qd.kkjh vlsy rhp thou dygakr
fVdsy- veki oSHko o izpaM lkeF;Z vl.kkjh
iskokbZ jE;rk o HkksxkdMs >qdY;keqGsa frpk
gGqgGq gkl gksr xsyk- lk/;k jkg.khusa
jkVkph mfr gksrs vkf.k pSuckthusa R;kpk
gkl gksrks-&izfl) bfrgkldkj fxcu- R;kps
gs mn~xkj vkgsrfoe laor~ blohluiwoZ 58 O;k okhZ lq:a
>kyk- Eg.kts brdk rks izkphu vkgskkfyokgu kd blohlukuarj 78 okakZuh
lq:a >kyk- egkjkVkpk ijeHkwk.k vlysyk
fkokd blohlu 1674 iklwu lq:a gksrks;k okhZ fkokd 330 vkgs- ^^Kkunsoh izdV
fnu** Eg.ktsp ^Kkunsokd* blohlu 1290
iklwu lq:a gksrks- ;k okhZ Kkunsokd 714
vkgs- ;qf/kfBj kd 5105 vkgs-

12

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vkEgh Lor%yk fganw Eg.korks] egkjkVh;


lacks/krks] gh vkeph tUekiklwu ykHkysyh
izfr vkgs- gh vkEgh eqke Lohdkjysyh
xksV ukgh- gk vkepk /keZ vkgs] Lo/keZ vkgsgh vkeph fofkB Hkwfedk vkgs- vkf.k
O;kidkpk fofkBkkha
fojks/k ulrks rj
R;kpk ladqfprrskha fojks/k vlrks- vkEgh
vkeph fofkBrk tiyh ukgh rj vkeph
vk;MsafVVh] vkeph vksG[kp vkEgh xekowu
claw- vkf.k vls ?kMsy rj vkepsa vfLrop
uV gksbZy- var%dj.kakr ladqfprrk ulsy]
R;akr mnkjrk vlsy rj fofkBkpk vkxzg
nksk:i u gksrak mrhyk [k;kvFkhZ lgk;d
gksrks- ekuork] fooca/kqrk] lerk gh
vO;ogkjh roiz.kkyh vkgs- Lo/keZ ikyuakr
ladqfprrk ulsy rj ojhy roakpsa vkikrr%
ikyu gksrs o thou /kU; gksrs- dsoG ojhy
rokojp thoukph }kjdk mHkkj.ksa Eg.kts
gosar v/kj ykascdG.;klkj[ks vkgs- vkakP;k
gkrha roakpk dksjMk mn~?kksk dj.;kiyhdMs
dakghafg ;sr ukgh- thou O;FkZ gksrs- Hkkjrh;
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bfrgklakr vkk pqdk Qkj >kY;k vkgsrmnk0 d.kkZpsa nku] vkksdkph vfgalk] vewrZ
rokoj mHkk vlysyk cq)/keZ- ;klkBha&
^fko-leFkZ Lej.k gsa egkjkVkpsa thou vkgs-*
;k thou-i)rhpsa foLej.k >kY;keqGsa iskokbZ
,o<h oSHkolai vlwufg e`R;qiaFkkl ykxwu
v[ksj frpk ukk >kyk-

bfr ys[kulhek
vkIik Bksacjskds 1925
fnuakd % 25@12@2005

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