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czfopkj

vkpk;Z Hkk;kpsa ego&

HkxoRiwT;ikn JhePN~djkpk;Z ;akuha


yksdakoj vuqxzg dj.kklkBha vkiY;k vrqy
cqf)lkeF;kZusa izpaMok|akP;k nqLrdkpsa fuokj.k
d:u&JqR;uqdwy rdkP;k cykoj mifuknakpk
;FkkFkZ vkk; Hkk;}kjak tursyk izdV d:u
nk[kfoyk- osnkpk vFkZ /keZeheaklk vkf.k czeheaklk ;akuha ykork ;srks- eU= o czk.k
;akrhy okD;akpk fopkj /keZeheaklsusa dsyk
vkgs( ijUrq /keZeheaklsusa mifukn~okD;akuk
xkS.kRo fnY;keqGsa mifuknakpk vFkZ /keZeheaklsusa
dfjrk ;sr ukgha- pkjh osnakP;k vusd kk[kakpha
vusd mifuknsa vkgsr- ojoj ikg.kk;kyk
R;akrhy opusa ijLijfo:) vlY;kpk Hkkl
gksrks- Eg.kwu vkk opuakpk leUo; dj.kklkBha Hkxoku~ cknjk;.kakuha czeheaklk dsyhR;k czeheaklsoj fdaok osnkUrlw=koj lfoLrj
Hkk; fygwu Jhcknjk;.kakuk vfHkiszr vlysyk

Jqrhpk vFkZ vkpk;kuha lakxwu o fk;ijaijk


pkyowu osnkUrfo|spk laiznk; fudaVd lq:
dsykJqfr] ;qf o vuqHko ;akoj Hkk;kph
mHkkj.kh >kyh vlY;keqGsa] vkpk;kP;k
Hkk;kpk txakrhy roKkukoj Qkjp eksBk
ifj.kke >kysyk vkgs- gYyh ikpkR;
roftKklwyk lq)ak kakdjerkpk [kksy vH;kl
djkok ykxrks- dkj.k mifuknakpk [kjk vFkZ
kadjkpk;kuhap dsyk vkgs] vkh loZ lqfo|
yksdakph [kk=h iVysyh vkgs- R;keqGsa
kakdjerkpk tltlk [kksy vH;kl gksr
tkbZy] rlrlk v}SrosnkUrkoj ;s.kk;k
vk{ksiakpk ukk gksr tku txkpsa roKku
v}Srkdms >qdwa ykxsy vlk vkepk <
fookl vkgs- Jh- e.khyky f}osnh ;akuha
eakMwD;kP;k izLrkousar vlsa EgVys vkgs dha&
^^As between Shankar and
ramanuja,

an able scholar ,

Dr.

Thibaut of Benares, gives the palm


to the latter. But all the same he
record it as his emphatic opinion
that if any one of the interpreters
of

the

understood
explained

izLFkkuks
and

has

fully

impartially

the philosophy of

the

mifukn~s it is Shankar and no one


else. ** fFkckslkj[;k iafMrkpk vks<k tjh
JhjkekuqtakdMs vlyk rjh R;kpsa LiV er
vlsa vkgs dha] vkpk;kuha mifuknakrhy [kjsa
ro tk.kwu rsa vkiY;k Hkk;akr mrjfoysa- gh
xksV nql;k dks.kkykfg djrak vkyh ukgha- iq<sa
rs Eg.krkr& this has been the
universal opinion of the best minds
of India, but I cite the authority of

Euroiean

scholar

to

assure

reader that Shankar can always be


trusted

and

unreserved

with
confidence,

the
in

most
his

treatment of philosophical points


and

his

explanation

of

the

Upanishad-doctrine ( page 1-2 ).


ko:u
vkpk;koj fu%kadi.ksa fookl
Bsoko;kl dakgha gjdr ukgha- vlsa loZ
Hkkjrh; iafMr o ikpkR; iafMr ;akpsa er
vkgs] vlsa LiV gksr vkgsvkpk;kuha roKkukP;k tksjkoj iwohP;kdkGha
jkVh; /kekZph&,dRokph dYiuk lokuk
vk.kwu fnyh- /kekZiklwu vkf.k oSfnd
roKkukiklwu P;qr gks.kk;k ej.kksUeq[k-jkVkyk
vR;ar izkphu vkf.k vR;ar fokq) vkk
vk/;kfRed laLrhph vksG[k d:u fnyh(

brdsap uOgsa rj frph izLFkkiuk iqu% ,dnk


HkDde ik;koj dsyh- o jkVke/;sa ftoari.kk
vk.kyk&vlsa izks- e.khyky f}osnh ;akuha
EgVysa vkgs- ( Thus he infused fresh
life in and gave resisting power to
the dying past of the nation once
more placed on solid foundation ,
the most ancient and at the same
time the most universally refined
spiritual

civilization

the

world

possesses fron the ^^ imitation of


Shankar** by Prof. M. N. Dvivedi. )
lakizrP;k loZ nq%[kkrwu eq gks.kkdfjrak fganqLFkkuusa vkf.k lk;k txkusa ;k roKkukpk
iqu% vkJ; djkok( vkf.k gsa ,o<kkp
izlaxkiqjrsa ulwu iq<sa ;s.kk;k loZ izlaxha ;kpk

ykHk ?ksrak ;sbZy- gh xq:fdYyh tursP;k gkrha


fnY;kcy vki.k Jhkadjkpk;kps _.kh vlyas
ikfgts&vlsafg Jh- f}osnh ;akuh iku 17 oj
EgVysa vkgs- India and the world at
large must find salvation and relief
from all the ills of the present in
a

fresh

application

of

this

philosophy to the situation. And


this not once but forever and anon
in all time to come. That is the
kee we have to thank Shankar
for. vkpk;kpsa roKku dks.kR;k rjh ,dk
foof{kr dkykdfjrakp gksrsa vlsa ulwu iq<sa
;s.kk;k loZ dkyke/;safg rlsap mi;ksxh
iM.kkjsa vkgs gh xksV lgt fl) gks.kkjh vkgs-

okpdakuh ,d xksV foksk y{kakr Bso.kklkj[kh vkgs( rh gh dha&vkpk;kuha vkiY;k


Hkk;akr dksBsafg ^veq[k gsa ek>sa er vkgs* vlsa
EgVysysa ukgha- myV] fBdfBdk.kha R;akuha
^veqd gsa vkSifukn er vkgs* vlsap EgVysa
vkgs( ko:u vkpk;kuha vkiyha ersa mifuknsa
o lw=sa ;koj yknyha vlk tks vkjksi vkpk;koj osGha vosGha dsyk tkrks rks vxnha Qksy
vkgs] vlsa dks.kkykfg eku.ksa Hkkx vkgsvkpk;kuha Hkk;akr izR;sd eq|kyk mifuknakpha
okD;sa izek.k Eg.kwu fnysyha vkgsrJhjkekuqtakizek.ksa vkiY;k erkyk ikskd vkha
mifuk}kD;sa u feGkY;keqGsa iqjk.kopuakpk
vkJ; dj.kkph ikGh vkpk;kuk dsOgakfg
vkyh ukgh- ^mifukr~fl)akrkyk /k:u
kakdjHkk; vkgs* vlsa MWk- fFkcksfg Eg.krkr]
i.k gsa Eg.krakuk lakiznk;kP;k vfoosdkeqGsa MWkfFkcks fujkGkk izdkjkusa vkpk;koj gYyk
dfjrkr- rs vlsa Eg.krkr dha&vkpk;kpk
fl)akr mifuknakP;k toG toG tjh ;sr
vlyk rjh rks lw=dkjakP;k erkfo:) vkgs-

The philosophy of Shankar would


on the whole stand nearer to the
teachings of the Upanishads than
the sutras of Badarayan Introduction to Vedant sutras Page exxvi
czlw=akrhy izR;sd lw=kpha fok;okD;sa mifuknakrhyp vkgsr o mifuknokD;akpk fufpr
vFkZ dj.kkdfjrak czeheaklk fuekZ.k >kyh
vkgs&gh xksV loZekU; vkgs- vkpk;kuhafg
Hkk;akr]^osnkUrokD;dqlqexzFkukFkZRokr~ lw=k.kke~
osnkUrokD;kfu fg lw=S% mnkR; fopk;ZUrsA*
-os- Hkk- 1&1&2&2 osnkUrlw=sa mifuk}kD;:ih iqisa xaqQ.kklkBha dsysyha vkgsr- dkj.k
lw=akuha mifuk}kD;akpk mYys[k d:u R;akpk
fopkj dsyk tkrks&vlsa LiV EgVysysa vkgsrsOgak mifuk}kD;akpk vFkZ fufpr dj.kkjs
lw=dkj mifukfRl)akrkP;k fo:) lw=sa jprhy
gsa d/kha rjh kD; vkgs dk;] ;kpk fopkj
fufoZdkj eukusa iR;sdkusa djkok-

v}Srkkha lakiznkf;d vkxzgkeqGsa T;akpsa oSj


vkgs vlsa }Srh lksMwu ckdhps ts vkpk;koj
vk{ksi ?ks.kkjs vkgsr] R;akps vkeP;k ersa nksu
ox iMrkr- 1 kakdjer pakxysalsa u
letY;keqGsa ek;soj vk{ksi ?ks.kkjs- ;akr
gsxsylkj[ks ikpkR; o dakgha vk/kqfud
lqfkf{kr 2 eqke [kksMlkGi.kkusa vkpk;
erkpk foi;kZl d:u vFkkZpk vuFkZ dj.kkjs
dakgha /kwrZ- akph ety vkpk;kuk ^eukpk
voSfnd xzg d:u Hkk; fyfg.kkjs*&Eg.k.kki;ZUr xsyh vkgs o dakgha rj ^cz gsa tM
vkgs* vlsafg Eg.krkr- vlksgsxsylkj[ks ijnskh iafMr v}Srkoj vk{ksi
dak ?ksrkr ;kpsa vpwd dkj.k jk-c-dhfrZdjakuha
vkiY;k ^Studies in Vedant* k iqLrdakr
vlsa lakfxrysa vkgs dha&^^The word Maya
plays a most important part in the
philosophy of the v}SrosnkUr and it

10

is

the word

that

has

misled

foreigners and even puzzled in a


manner,

the Indian

mind ,

the

greatest blunder in this connection


being that it is associated with the
idea

of

illusion

as

meaning

positive blank ** page 38


;sFksa ek;k kCnkpk vFkZ uhV u dGY;keqGsa
iqdGakuk v}Srro gsa dakgha rjh kwU;kRed
fdaok vHkkokRed vlkosa vlsa okVrsa- ^^The
objection urged against the Indian.
Vedant stated in general terms, are
that the Brahms of this system is
an abstraction, an infinite blank...
its ethics is the negative ethics of

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an Asceticism, which renounces the


world and withdraws from it as
from an empty illusion page 8
jk- c- dhfrZdjakuha ikpkR;akpk ojhyizek.ksa
iwoZi{k eakMwu R;akpsa [kaMufg Qkjp ekfeZdi.ksa
dsysa vkgs- rsa ftKklwauha vok okp.kklkj[ksa
vkgs- xSj letqrhusa moysY;k vk{ksiakpsa
fujlu djko;kpsa >kY;kl [kjsa mifukko
dk; vkgs gsa kakdjerkyk /k:u fyfgysa
Eg.kts >kysa- cz Eg.kts dk;\ dk;Z o
dkj.k ;kpsa vuU;Ro dlsa\ v/;klkpsa Lo:Ik
dk;\ rsa vkEgh lakx.kkj vkgksa- rlasp
vlnkfn loZ [;krhpsa [kaMu d:u
vfuoZpuh; [;kfrp dak ekuko;kl ikfgts]
v/;klkyk dkj.k vfo|k&ek;k&vKku dlsa
rsa lakxwu R;kpsa Lo:Ik o y{k.k] izR;{kkfn
izek.kakuha fl) dj.kkj vkgksa- R;kpizek.ksa eks{k
Eg.kts dk;\ rks Kkulk/; vkgs dk deZlk/;
vkgs\ thokpsa Lo:i o czkpsa Lo:i

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R;kfok;ha fujfujkGh ersa vkf.k thoczkpsa


,sD;] rhu izdkjpha kjhjsa o R;akph mRifk]
rhu voLFkk o R;akP;k e;kZnk] thokpsa
mRe.k vkf.k iqujkxeu] oSfnd o.kZ o
vkJe] vkReKkuklkBha Jo.kkfn lk/kusa oxSjs
vusdfo/k xksVhapsa foospu dj.ksa vR;Ur
vkokd vkgs-

vkSifukn fln~/kkUrkpsa lkekU; Lo:Ik


vkSifukn fln~/kkUrkpsa lkekU; Lo:i iq<hy
izek.ksa vkgs-^^l`VhP;k vkjaHkha ,dp vf}rh;
lnk[;Jh lqjsojkpk;kuha uSdE;Zfln~/khar vlsa
fyfgysa vkgs- vkRero gksrsa- R;kusa Kku:ih
bZ{k.k&vkykspu d:u gh l`fV dkh djkoh
gsa euakr vk.kwu rks Lor%p cgq:i cuwu
l`fVLo:i >kyk- uarj R;kusa frP;ke/;sa
tho:ikusa izosk dsyk o rks LokHkkfod
vfo|seqGsa] Lor%P;k kqn~/k] cqn~/k] eq
LoHkkokl fol:u ^^ gk eh o gsa ek>sa **
vkk v/;klkusa drkZ] Hkksk] lq[kh] nq%[kh

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>kyk- kyk izR;{k izek.k Eg.kts&^^


vkczLrEci;ZUr** loZ izk.kakph fujfujkGkk
vusd nq%[kakiklwu lqVdk d:u ?ksu lq[k
feGfo.kklkBha fujarj izo`fk- lq[k nq%[kakpk
Hkksx kjhjakr gksrks- kjhjkoakpwu dlyasfg nq%[k
Hkksxysa tkr ukgha- rsOgak kjhj xzg.k gsa
nq%[kkyk gsrq vkgs- cjsa] gk nsg dkkus izkIr
gkasrks\
rj
iwoZtUehP;k
/kekZ/kekZeqGsa/kekZ/kekZP;k mRikhyk kkL=h; fofgr o
izfrfln~/k des vuqesa dkj.k gksrkr-dks.krhfg
des jkxkeqGsa o }skkeqGsa gksr vlrkr- jkxkyk
dkj.k^ gk fok; eyk fiz; vkg* vkh cqn~f/k
o }skkyk dkj.k ^ gk fok; eyk vfiz; vkgs*
vkh cqn~f/k- okLrfod dks.krkfg fok; fiz;Ro
fdaok vfiz;Ro k xq.kakuha ;q ulrks- rj rks
dsoG vkjksi&^ voLrqfu oLRokjksi%* vkk
Lo:ikpk vkgs- jkx}skkyk dkj.k gks.kkjh oj
lakfxrysyh cqn~f/k gh ^ vrfLeu~ rn~cqn~f/k%*
vkh vkgs- gsa loZ jTtqoj HkklysY;k
likZizek.ksa vkgs- likZph fuo`fk vf/kBkuKkukusa
Eg.kts jTtwP;k Kkukusa gksrs] R;kizek.ksa

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vk/;kfRed vfo|kewyd lalkjkph fuo`fk


lalkjkyk vf/kBkuHkwr&lnk[;&vkRerokP;k
Kkukusa
gksrsloZ
vuFkkyk
dkj.k
vkReLo:ikpsa vKku o vKkukP;k fuo`khyk
dsoy lE;XKkup dkj.k vkgs- gsa lE;XKku
dks.kR;kfg izR;{kkfn ykSfdd izek.kakuk fok;
gksr ulY;keqGsa rh loZZ czlk{kkRdkjkl
fu:Ik;ksxh gksr] Q mifuk}kD;sap vkReLo:ikpsa dFku djko;kl o vkRE;kpsa ijks{kKku
d:u |ko;kl leFkZ vkgsr- gsa ijks{kKkulqn~/kak
laiznk;iwoZd xq:eq[kkrwu Jo.k dsysa rjp
kqn~/k Lo:iakr feGko;kps- iq<s Jo.k] euu]
fufn/;klu bR;kfndakP;k ;ksxkusa vkRenkZu
lqyHk gksu vkRelk{kkRdkj gksrks- gsap
vkRE;kpsa vijks{kKku gks;- vlk vijks{kKkuh
iwohZ foljysY;k Lo:ikyk] fuR;&kqn~/k&cqn~/k
&eq LoHkkokyk tk.krks o nsgiru gksbZi;ZUr
rks vkRekuankpk miHkksx ?ksrks- nsgikrkuarj rks
vkReLo:iha yhu gksu iqu% lalkjakr ;sr
ukgha- ^^;r~ xRok u fuorZUrs rr~ /kke ijea
ee** euq;izk.kh T;k ijeksPp xrhyk fdaok

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fLFkrhyk izkIr gksa kdrks rh gh voLFkk


gks;- kykp eks{k fdaok eqf vlsa Eg.krkr
o eks{kklkBha loZ mifuknakph izo`fk vkgs-

mifukn~&kCnkpk vFkZ
mi fu kn~ ;kpk vFkZ czfo|k fdaok
jgL;fo|k vlk gksrks- gsa dBmifuknkP;k
miksn~?kkrakr vkpk;kuha mke jhrhusa nk[kfoysa
vkgsHkk;&lns/kkZrksfoZkj.kxR;olknukFkZL;
mifuiwoZL; fDoIizR;;kUrL; :ie~mifukn~ bfr
&^ln~* /kkrwpk vFkZ fukj.k] xfr o volknu
vlk vkgs- R;kyk ^mi* o ^fu* milxZ tksMwu
iq<sa drZfj fDoi~ gksu ^mifukn~* vlsa uke
>kysa- R;kps rhu vFkZ vls&1 ,sfgd o
ikjykSfdd fok;kfok;ha vfrk; foj
>kysys eqeq{kq Y;k fo|sikkh tku fup;kusa
&vkpk;kP;k minskkusa vfo|kfn lalkjchtakpk
ukk djrkr rh fo|k- 2 th eqeq{kwauk ij
czkizr iksapfors rh fo|k- 3 vfXufo|k
LoxZizkIrhpsa fufek gksr vlY;keqGsa yksdkUrjha

16

iqu% iqu% izo`k gks.kkjk xHkZokl&tUe&tjk


bR;kfn minzolewgkl fkfFky dj.ksa k vFkkZusa
lakfxryh tk.kkjh fo|k- rSSfrfj;ksifukk;kP;k
vkjaHkha ^^ mifukfnfr fo|ksP;rsA rPNhfyuak
xHkZtUetjkfnfukkrukr~ rnolkuk}k cz.kksoksi
f;r`Roknqifuk.ka okL;ak ija Js;%** mifukn~
fo|k- rh vkiysa ifjkhyu dj.kk;k
iq:kkP;k&xHkZ] tUe] tjk bR;kfndakl fkfFky
djhr vlY;keqGsa fdaok R;akpk ukk djhr
vlY;keqGsa vFkok czkikkha usu iksapfor
vlY;keqGsa fryk mifukn~ vlsa Eg.krkr&vlsa
Hkk;akr fBdfBdk.kha EgVysa vkgsgh mifukf}|k xqIr Bso.kkpk o ;ksXk
fk;kl ns.kkpk vkxzg mifuknakr /kjysyk
fnlwu ;srks- ^xqk vknskk%* Nak- 3&5&2
^ijea xqe~* 3&17 o os0 6&22]
^ osnxqksifukRlq xqe~* os0 5&6 ^ xq
ree~ * eS0 6&19 bR;kfn fBdk.kha
fo|syk xqRo&xqIri.kk nk[kfoyk vkgs-viw.kZ

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