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Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

Session III.2
Instrumentation, Recording systems
Data transmission & Archiving

April 5, 2006
CETRAC, Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

Topics covered:

Types of seismic instruments


Other equipment needed
How sensors are installed
Data transmission (telemetry)
Data archiving (storage)

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

Seismometer:
An instrument to record seismic
waves (vibrations caused by
earthquakes or explosions)

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

A simple seismometer

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A large seismometer 1200kg, 2m

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

Todays seismometers use


electromagnetic feedback to
hold the mass still. This allows
seismometers to be made and
more compact and sensitive.

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

An observatoryclass
seismometer

Streckeisen STS-1 Very Broadband Seismometer

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

A seismometer
placed in a
borehole.

Teledyne KS-54000-I Borehole Seismometer

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High frequency
seismometers
Streckeisen STS-2
Guralp CMG-3T
Teledyne GS-13

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

Our eyes see only part of the light from the Sun.

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

Short period sensors do not record long period signals

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

An insensitive (strong
motion) seismometer:
good for recording
violent shaking
Kinemetrics FBA-23

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

LOG M/SEC

IRIS GSN SYSTEM

EQUIVALENT EARTH PEAK ACCELERATION (

20

Why more than


one kind of
seismometer is
used

PERIOD (SECONDS)

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

Other equipment needed:


Clock to time the data

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

Other equipment needed:


Clock to time the data
DAS to convert electric current
to numbers for a computer to
process

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

IDA MK8 DAS

Another popular model

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Vault of an
observatory

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Vault of a
regional
seismic
station

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

Other kinds of equipment needed:


Clock to time the data
DAS to convert electric current
to numbers for a computer to
process
A source of electric power

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Thermoelectricity

Solar power

Power for an
observatory:

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

A regional
station:

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

Where is a good place to put a


seismometer?
Far from human-gnerated noise
(roads and machinery)
Far from the ocean
On solid (competent) rock
In a temperature-stable environment

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

uplink circuit
wire or radio

Recording Room

Seismometer Borehole

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Recording room:

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Seismic vault under


construction in
Madagascar:

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Seismic vault under


construction in
Madagascar:

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Vault of an
observatory

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

When a vault or
tunnel is not
available, a
seismometer can
be placed in a
borehole to
reduce noise.

Pallekele, Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

At PALK, the wellhead


and recording room are
very close.

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

The wellhead cover


protects the electronics
against damage.

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

Data Telemetry
To transmit data, the following
must be considered:

Type of circuit to carry the data


Format of the data
The computer application(s) to
manage the data transmission

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

Types of circuits

local area network (LAN)


leased telephone lines
VSATs
local Internet service
provider (ISP)
Mbarara, Uganda

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

IRIS/IDA Telemetry Topology

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

Data formats:

SEED (FDSN standard)


Earthworm (US Geological Survey)
SAC (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory)
SEISAN (University of Bergen, Norway)
Others

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Networks integrating IRIS/IDA Data

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

Data archiving:
On-site recording media
DAT tape
CD-R

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In San Diego,
comprehensive
data analysis

Sri Lanka Earthquake & Tsunami Warning Training Program

Data are then sent to the IRIS Data


Management Center in Seattle, USA
where they are available to anyone
who requests copies. For more
information, see http://www.iris.edu.