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BARENTS

AP

Newsletter
on
Occupational
Health
and Safety

2008 11 1
Vol.

No.

OSH profiles

BARENTS
AP

Newsletter on
Occupational
Health and Safety

Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A
FIN-00250 Helsinki
Finland

No.

Contents
3 OSH profiles an instrument for policy, practice and collective
learning
Jorma Rantanen
4


Editor in Chief
Suvi Lehtinen

7 OSH management at the national level: Systems approach


in Russia
Marat Rudakov

Editor
Janike Makela

Layout
Milja Ahola
Translations
Anatoly Vinogradov and authors
Photograph on the cover page
ILO/Moscow
The responsibility for opinions, expressed in signed
articles, studies and other contributions rests
solely with the authors, and publication does not
constitute an endorsement by the Finnish Institute
of Occupational Health of the opinions expressed
in them.
,
,

;
,
.
The electronic version of the Barents Newsletter on
Occupational Health and Safety on the Internet can
be accessed at the following address:
http://www.ttl.fi/BarentsNewsletter.

:
http://www.ttl.fi/BarentsNewsletter.
Printed publication
ISSN 1455-8459
On-line publication
ISSN 1458-5952

Vol.

Publisher
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health

2008 11 1

2008

12 Work and health country profiles for European countries


Timo Kauppinen
14


16 National OSH profiles an overview of the CIS countries
Wiking Husberg
20

26 Lithuania: national OSH profile
Remigijus Jankauskas
28 :

31 National Occupational Safety and Health Profile of Finland
Suvi Lehtinen
32 :

34 5th SIHLWA in Oslo
Suvi Lehtinen
35

OSH profiles an instrument for policy,


practice and collective learning
Jorma Rantanen
Finland

n the modern societies occupational safety and health policies


and programmes are expected to
be based on facts and evidence to as
great an extent as possible. The fields
of governance, policy making, and
policy implementation, as well as the
practical safety and health work tend
to become increasingly complex. This
is due to the growing fragmentation of
the structures that were constructed in
the industrialized societies of the last
century and the ever accelerating speed
of change in work life. New risks, challenges and also new opportunities arise
continuously in work life. The complex
phenomena also require more complex
descriptors than can be provided by
statistics with only one or a few parameters. There is also a need to combine
quantitative and qualitative information
to gain a comprehensive picture of the
safety and health situation and its trends
in countries and sub-national systems.
All this requires better knowledge management systems than before.
In the field of occupational safety
and health, collaboration between
several different actors is typically
necessary in order to make any practical
impact on health and safety: legislators,
government authorities, employers,
trade unions, and several expert organizations, sometimes even community
administration and the public must be
involved. They all need information
that is easy to absorb, useful for actual
needs, and reliable in content.
In the mid-1990s, the World Health
Organization started to discuss international networking for health research in
order to produce an effective response to
the major health problems of the world.
In that context, the need of comprehensive data source for identifying of
global health problems and for sharing

information between network members


led to the construction of country health
profiles. The objective was to generate a
comprehensive view of the health situation and the priority health problems in
WHO member countries (1).
Gradually the needs for knowledge
management in several other sectors,
including occupational safety and
health, became actual, and the creation
of country profiles was identified as a
possible solution. At present, about 30
national occupational health profiles
from both industrialized and developing countries have been produced, and
ILO has collected some 55 concise
national occupational safety and health
profiles. Some 15 more comprehensive
national OSH profiles are available, for
example from Australia, Azerbaijan,
China, Finland, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan,
New Zealand, Singapore, and the
Russian Federation (http://www.ilo.
ru/osh/nloshprof.html), and many more
countries are planning to make their
own. The ILO Convention No. 187
from the year 2006 requests countries
to prepare and periodically update
national policies and programmes for
occupational safety and health. An
occupational safety and health profile
will be an important instrument for
policy making and programme preparation such as those recommended by
the ILO.
In the preparation of occupational
safety and health profiles, the choice of
descriptor parameters was a challenging task. The problem was twofold: on
the one hand, there was lack of data
on several important parameters, and,
on the other hand, certain parameters
that could possibly be included might
not have a high relevance for the total
picture. Therefore, it was necessary to
divide the parameters into groups on

topics found to be the most relevant for


the profile, each containing a number
of individual parameters. The groups
established were a) Prerequisites for
health and safety, b) Conditions of
work, and c) Outcomes and consequences on safety and health (2). The
adding of one more category of Human
resources and competence has been
discussed recently.
Profile making should not be seen
as a one-time action, but a continuous
process. In the majority of countries it is
also likely to constitute a learning process producing continuously better and
more representative information. Some
Members of WHO, such as China, are
currently preparing the first update of
their OSH profile (3), which in the case
of China will also mean combining the
occupational safety and health and occupational health profiles.
In addition to national profiles,
sub-national, provincial, county, community or sectoral profiles have also
been prepared or are under preparation.
They play a growing role in the stimulation of local level practical programmes
and actions.
Availability of data is a challenge
in profile generation. Typically, official
statistics on occupational accidents
and diseases are available in most
countries, but the gaps in reporting
systems are substantial, and vast sectors, such as small-scale enterprises,
self-employed, and the informal sector
remain uncovered. Some countries
have complemented the information
with data from special surveys carried
out for research or other purposes. In
cases where all needed information
cannot be gained through surveys,
complementary information has been
acquired through quick questionnaire
studies among well-informed actors or

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:3 4

interviews of field workers and experts.


In this respect the modern web surveys
will provide new opportunities for quick
data collection.
The country profiles are going to
play an ever increasing role in policy
making and practical programmes.
They provide certain benefits that make
them relevant for several actors. The
following merits have been listed for
profile making (4, 5):
They combine information from
several sources together to form a
comprehensive, but comprehensible
picture.
They indicate strengths and weaknesses of the systems as well as
priority problems.
They provide the same information
for multiple actors and parties.
If repeated, they enable an analysis
of trends and possibly permit evalu-

ation of effectiveness of policies and


programmes.
They may identify new problems and
new needs for safety and health.
They indicate the needs for development of data and information
systems.
The use of the profiles is likely to
become more prevalent in the future.
There is a need for the development
of data systems, statistics and other
information sources to render the
profiles more descriptive and reliable.
A special challenge results from the
rapid change of work life, creating
the need for profile updating to be a
continuous process. This would also
require special infrastructures for data
collection, data analysis and processing, profile drawing, and the acquisition of user information.

Contact information:

Professor Jorma Rantanen, MD,


PhD
President of ICOH
jorma.rantanen@ttl.fi

References
1. The Global Advisory Committee on
Health Research. A research policy
agenda for science and technology to
support global health development. A
synopsis. World Health Organization,
Geneva 1977.
2. Rantanen J, Kauppinen T, Lehtinen
S, Mattila M, Toikkanen J, Kurppa
K, Leino T. Work and health country
profiles of twenty-two European
Countries. People and Work Research
Reports 52. FIOH 2002.
3. National Profile Report on Occupational Safety and Health in China.
China Academy of Safety Sciences
& Technology, Beijing China, 2004.

4. Rantanen J. Occupational health and


safety in the 21st century. In: Neil
Pearce, Dave McLean and Rochelle
Beng (eds). Priorities in occupational
health and safety. Proceedings of the
second annual CPHR symposium in
health research and policy. Wellington,
New Zealand, 4 September 2002.
5. International Labour Organization.
SafeWork. National profiles on
OSH- Methodology. http://wwwold.itcilo.org/actrav/english/calendar/2003/A3-2912/resource/OSH/
OSH%20_Profile_Methodology.
ppt#256,1,National profiles on OSH
Methodology

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:3 4






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Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:4 6

OSH management at the national level:

Systems approach in Russia


Marat Rudakov
ILO Sub-Regional Office in Moscow

systems approach to occupational safety and health (OSH)


management at both national
and organizational levels has been
widely discussed during the past few
years (see, e.g. 1, 2). The aim of the
present article is to analyse the practical implementation of the systems
approach at the national level in the
Russian Federation (RF), based on the
requirements posed by the ILO Convention No. 187 and the ILO Recommendation No. 197.

ILO Regulations

The concept of systems approach for


OSH management at the national level
was presented in the ILO Conventions
Nos. 155 and 187 (3), the ILO Recommendation No. 197 (4), and the
ILO Guidelines on OSH management
systems (ILO-OSH-2001). These
documents contain terms and general
principles for the arrangement of the
national OSH systems, but each country
needs to develop its own system taking
into account specific national features.
In this article it is described how some
important principles have been implemented in the Russian Federation.

National policy

The mainstreams and principles of the


OSH national policy are contained in the
article 210 of the RF Labour Code:
development of a proper legislative
framework for OSH management
development of relevant OSH laws
and standards
provision of safe working conditions
at all levels, covered by management.

National OSH system

As seen in Convention No. 187, the term


national OSH system means the infrastructure which determines the main
frames for the national OSH policy and
relevant programmes. The Russian federal laws do not contain terms such as

national system for OSH management


or the RF OSH management system
(RF OSH MS), although a need for a
clear definition has been discussed for a
long time. At the same time, the current
situation analysis allows to conclude
that the basic elements for the national
OSH system in the Russian Federation
are created. Some of the most essential
of them are listed below.
A. Group of legislative and normative regulations, collective agreements
and any other relevant documents: The
basis for legal regulation and OSH management is formed in the RF Constitution, the RF Labour Code, some federal
and regional OSH laws, tripartite and
collective agreements, ratified international conventions, and other current
documents. At the same time, a great
deal of old regulations and norms,
containing the state OSH requirements,
have not been revised from the Soviet
time till now. For example, as was noted
by the Ministry of Health and Social
Development in the Annual Report 2006
on OSH in Russia, about 23% of OSH
regulations for the construction and
housing companies were adopted more
than 30 years ago, 35% more than 20
years ago, 38% more than 10 years ago
and only about 4% were adopted within
the last decade.
B. Special authorities, departments
or bodies, responsible for OSH: The
Russian Ministry of Health and Social
Development (MHSD), as well as the
regional Labour Authorities accomplish
OSH management within the framework
of their jurisdictions. The management
in the field of Occupational Medicine
is based on the Regional Centres of
Occupational Pathology, which were
established in 60 regions of the RF.
At the same time, the incomplete
administrative reforms, started in 2004,
destroyed to a large extent the previous
OSH management infrastructure, because most OSH departments in the sec-

toral executive bodies were cancelled,


as the appropriate chapters concerning
OSH activity are absent from the modernized legistation.
C. Mechanisms for guaranteeing
the maintenance of national legislative
and normative regulations, including
inspection systems: There is a state
supervision system to control and
maintain OSH legislation in the RF,
i.e. RF Office of Public Prosecutor, the
State Labour Inspection, the Rospotrebnadzor (supervision for quality of
consuming goods and services), and the
Rostekhnadzor (technical supervision
for equipment).
On average, according to the MHSD
data, there is one labour inspector per
2,600 enterprises or per 35,000 employees, and that is 3.5 times less than
in the industrialized Western countries,
where each inspector is serving less than
10,000 employees.
D. Professional training in OSH:
At present, almost the whole of Russia is covered by the network of OSH
professional training centres, supported by both the employers and the
RF Social Insurance Fund. In 2006, a
total of 654,042 workers were trained
and examined in OSH, which was less
than in 2005, when 748,063 persons
were educated. Many workers are not
trained in occupational safety and
health, and for this reason the Labour
Inspection ordered in 2006 to stop their
work in specific installations (more than
125,000 employees). The quality of
training in OSH also needs continuous
development. As the MHSD estimated,
there were only 5% high-skilled OSH
specialists in 2006.
E. Mechanism to provide recording
and analysis of data on occupational
accidents and diseases: At present there
are several authorities, empowered to
carry out registration of occupational
accidents and diseases in accordance
with a statutory power:

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:7 9

the State Labour Inspection (SLI)


collects and analyses the data on
group accidents, and on cases with
severe or fatal consequences
the Social Insurance Fund (SLF) collects and analyses the data on injured
workers, who were compulsorily insured against occupational accidents
and diseases according to the Social
Insurance Law, thus receiving a right
to insurance claim for compensation
of work-related damage
the Statistical Bureau of Russia (SBR
or Rosstat) collects and analyses data
on occupational accidents in selected
groups of enterprises of different
economic sectors
the Rospotrebnadzor collects and
analyses data on the cases of occupational diseases.
The information, presented by different
authorities, is usually disparate. For
example, the number of fatal accidents
in Russia in 2006 was reported by SBR
as 2,881, by SIF as 3,591, and by SLI
as 4,301 cases. The problem of nonregistration of accidents is also actual.
For example, in 2006 the SLI revealed
2,425 unregistered cases, including
461 fatalities. The difference in official
data on occupational accidents and
the significant number of unregistered
cases (including the undetected ones)
complicates the vision of a real picture
of the current situation in OSH.

National Programme

At present, the draft of an Action Programme on Safe Work is designed at


the national level in order to improve
working conditions and safety in Russia. The main aim of the programme
is to protect the workers health and to
improve occupational safety by implementing a system of occupational risks
management. The programme involves
both social partners employers and
employees in the risk management
system.
The programme aims at the following strategic targets:
1) to decrease the risk of occupational
accidents and diseases (the indicators: cases of occupational injuries,
morbidity and disability due to
injuries)
2) to improve the work environment
(indicators: decrease in the share of
insufficient working conditions with
poor hygiene and sanitary conditions,

reduction in the number of work with


occupational exposure to harmful
factors)
3) to decrease mortality caused by
preventable factors (indicators: the
rate of occupational fatal accidents,
the index of mortality caused by
exposure to harmful and dangerous
substances)
4) to increase lifetime and to improve
the health of the workers (indicators:
mortality of workers, average life
expectancy, rate of detected occupational diseases).
It is necessary to note the presence of the
regional action plans and programmes
for the improvement of working conditions and OSH system (Republic
of Bashkortostan, Republic of Sakha/
Yakutiya, the Kurgan, Omsk and other
regions). The Republic of Karelia and
Murmansk Oblast are developing their
regional programmes in close collaboration with international organizations,
including the ILO project for improvement of the OSH management system
in North-West Russia.

National Profile

The development and reviewing of the


National OSH programme has to be
based on a comprehensive analysis of
the real situation of the OSH field. The
National OSH profile, being an efficient
analytical tool, is used as a starting point
and a ground for the design of the national programme. In accordance with
the ILO Recommendation No. 197, the
national profile has to contain a brief,
but comprehensive description of the
current OSH situation in the country
and show the progress achieved in the
improvement of safety and health of the
work environment.
For many years, the MHSD of Russia (previously the Ministry of Labour)
presents annually the report on Results
of State OSH Policy Performance in the
Russian Federation, based on national
and regional data sources.
The current content of the Report
is similar to the model national OSH
profile (the legislative framework,
professional training system, scientific
researches, data on occupational accidents and others). At the same time,
it can be said that the national OSH
profile should contain significantly
more information, in order to provide
a more comprehensive picture of the

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:7 9

OSH situation.
Recently, special recommendations
for the preparation of national and
regional OSH profiles in Russia were
completed with the ILO assistance. A
pilot testing of the improved outline
and guidelines will be arranged in some
projects aimed at the preparation of
regional OSH profiles in North-West
Russia. The first project has been started
in the Murmansk region.

Conclusions

1. At present, in the Russian Federation


the main elements of the National
OSH system are available. In order
to improve the system to a high international standard it is necessary
to continue the preparations for the
ratification of the ILO Convention
No. 187 by the Russian Federation.
To realize the systems approach in
the OSH system management at the
level of an organization, it is necessary to accelerate the implementation of the International Standard
12.0.230-2007 The System of the
OSH Standards. Systems for OSH
Management. General Requirements
(ILO-OSH 2001 IDT).
2. To obtain relevant OSH information on occupational accidents it
is necessary to design the national
registration system by integrating
the data bases which are providing information separately, i.e. the
State Statistics Office, the Federal
Labour and Employment Service,
and the Social Insurance Fund. The
improved National Register should
provide a possibility to evaluate the
unregistered accidents according to
the ILO recommendations.
3. The development and adoption of
a special normative law on OSH
national and regional profiles in the
Russian Federation is an actual aim
on the way to a more objective and
reliable approach to prepare and review the national and regional OSH
programmes in Russia.
References
1. Barents Newsletter on Occupational
Health and Safety 2005, Vol. 8, No. 3.
2. Barents Newsletter on Occupational
Health and Safety 2007, Vol. 10, No. 1.
3. ILO Convention No. 187, 2006.
4. ILO Recommendation No. 197,
2006.

Contact information:

Professor Marat Rudakov


Coordinator of the ILO OHS
Project in the North West Russia
ILO Sub-Regional Office in
Moscow for the East Europe and
Central Asia
Project office: ul. Kalinina, 22, of.
405A, Saint Petersburg 198099,
Russia
Tel/fax +7-812-7869660
E-mail: rudakov@ilo.org

My LIfe...
My woRk...
My sAfe woRk

International
Labour
Office

Managing Risk in the WoRk enviRonMent

LIFE
WORK
SAFE WORK

Supported by the
INTERNATIONAL
SOCIAL SECURITY
ASSOCIATION

www.ilo.org/safework/safeday

World Day for safety and health at Work 28 APRIL 2008




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Work and health


country profiles for
European countries

Timo Kauppinen

Finland

everal international organizations, such as WHO, ILO and


EU, expressed in about the year
2000 interest in producing national occupational health and safety (OH&S)
indicators, which were considered to be
important tools for information steering
to improve well-being at work. The
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health
(FIOH) had already started its own indicator project in collaboration with the
WHO/EURO programme. The project
was led by Professor Jorma Rantanen
(former Director General of FIOH,
present President of the International
Commission on Occupational Health).
FIOH published a report on Work and
Health Country Profiles in 2001 (1).
The report described the basic concepts,
selection criteria and data sources of
OH&S indicators. It also included a
recommendation to collect indicator
data and a model country profile, which
consisted of quantitative indicator
data and descriptive information. The
WHO European Collaborating Centres
in Occupational Health adopted the
procedure recommended in the report,
and country profile data were collected
from 22 European countries (2).

Contents of country profiles


The indicators and contents of country
profiles were derived on the basis of a
conceptual model of OH&S. It included
three basic items: the prerequisites of
OH&S, working conditions, and health
outcomes. The state of prerequisites was
measured by indicators on legislation,
infrastructures and human resources
in OH&S. The indicators on working
conditions covered physical, chemical,
biological, ergonomic, psychological

12

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:1213

and social factors of work. The third


area was health and safety outcomes of
working conditions, including occupational accidents, occupational diseases,
psychological symptoms and perceived
work ability. Because the candidate list
included over 100 quantitative indicators, a more limited set of key indicators (N=16) was selected and adopted.
All indicators were defined to improve
comparability of data across countries.
The representatives of WHO European
Collaborating Centres in Occupational
Health collected indicator data and other
relevant information to be included in
national country profiles (2).

Availability and comparability of


data
The availability and comparability
of data varied widely by country and
indicator. The situation was best for indicators which were collected centrally
(e.g., the ratification rate of 22 relevant
OH&S conventions of ILO, fatal work
accidents) or provided by EU-wide
surveys (see the figure).

Professor Rantanen has summarized the lessons learned from this pilot
project as follows (2):
there is great variation in the availability of data in different countries
the inter-country comparability of
the data is low and there is a need
to complement the quantitative data
with qualitative information
there is a need to include several
types of parameters in the indicator
systems, e.g. on OH&S prerequisites,
exposures and health outcomes
a reasonable number of indicators
providing a sufficiently comprehensive description of the OH&S situation in the country is needed, but the
use of too many indicators or too
complex indicator systems should
be avoided
one single indicator parameter, or a
sum indicator comprising several parameters to give one single indicator
score for a country was found to be
less informative than a multiparameter profile
there is a need to visualize and formulate the information so that it can
be easily used for various purposes
by different types of users
the indicators should be carefully
validated to ensure the reliability of
the information obtained from the
indicators and profiles.

Figure

Although comparing countries turned


out to be questionable due to limited
availability and comparability of data,
the situation is much better when indicators and profiles are used to compare
different regions within a country, or to
follow up the time trends in a country
or in a region.

The work on country profiles


continues
WHO had in 2001-2005 a task force to
construct and update OH&S country
profiles. The format was slightly modified to fit better to the priorities of nonEuropean countries and low-resource
countries. This work also continues
within the WHO Work Plan 20062010.
Information on the state of OH&S is
being compiled by using the WHO
Network of Collaborating Centres. ILO
has also constructed country profiles
including indicators derived from its
own regular data collection systems
covering a wide variety of countries (3).
Some examples of country profiles are
described elsewhere in this newsletter.
These kind of indicator sets are being
increasingly used to follow up and
evaluate the progress of national action
programmes on health and well-being
at work and outside work.

References
1. Rantanen J, Kauppinen T, Toikkanen
J, Kurppa K, Lehtinen S, Leino T.
Work and health country profiles.
People and Work, Research Reports
44. Finnish Institute of Occupational
Health, Helsinki 2001.
2. Rantanen J, Kauppinen T, Lehtinen
S, Mattila M, Toikkanen J, Kurppa
K, Leino T (Editors). Work and
health country profiles of twenty-two
European countries. People and work
research reports 52. Finnish Institute
of Occupational Health, Helsinki
2002, 444p. The text of the report is
available at http://www.ttl.fi/Internet/partner/tf13/WHO+and+EURO
+Country+Profiles+Development/
Pilot+Survey+of+Twenty-two+Eur
opean+Countries+in+2002/
The country profile data are available by country at http://www.ttl.
fi/Internet/partner/tf13/Occupatio
nal+health+and+safety+profiles/
Country+Profiles/
3. ILO country profiles are available at
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/
protection/safework/worldday/products06/report06_profiles_en.pdf
Contact information:

Dr. Timo Kauppinen


Team leader
Finnish Institute of Occupational
Health
Topeliuksenkatu 41aA
00250 Helsinki, FINLAND
e-mail: timo.kauppinen@ttl.fi

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:1213

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Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:1415

15

National OSH profiles

an overview of the
CIS countries
Wiking Husberg
ILO SubRegional Office, Moscow
ILOs main objective Decent Work
is strongly promoted through the
Decent Work Country Programme
(DWCPs) developed with the three national constituents for 34-year periods.
The Programmes ensure the national
commitment and focus on both national
and international resources towards
three priorities in each country.
ILO Subregional (SRO) Office for
Eastern Europe and Central Asia has
signed DWCPs with five countries.
Safe Work is one of the main priorities
in all countries; the actual focus may be
on modernization of the national OSH
system, improved labour inspection
or occupational accident insurance,
depending on the development stage in
the country.

Good working conditions


a systematic process
Effective implementation of occupational safety and health (OSH) requirements at the national and enterprise
levels can be achieved successfully
only through the full involvement of
the social partners in the sustained
process of continual action, review and
improvement.
The new ILO OSH Framework
Convention No. 187 of 2006 (see separate article) brings together the international experience in the systematic
building of a modern OSH system by
means of a National OSH Programme.
In order to ensure a coherent and effective use of scarce resources, and also to
better coordinate efforts, this approach
includes a number of logical steps to
be followed before appropriate action
is taken.

16

The preparation of a National OSH


Profile is an essential initial step in the
process of building a good NSP. The
Profile is an inventory of all the tools
and resources available in a country to
implement and manage OSH, designed
to provide the data necessary for setting
national priorities for action aimed at
progressive and continual improvement
of workplace safety and health.
The following implementation steps
envisaged for an adequate establishment
of National OSH Programmes indicate
the place of the National profile as well
as its intended goals:
a) Agreement with the relevant country
to establish a national programme;
b) Establishment of coordination mechanism for implementation of the
programme
c) Preparation of a national profile on
OSH
d) Situation analysis to identify strong
points and gaps in the countrys OSH
framework, using the Profile
e) Identification of priorities for national action to improve the level of
OSH
f) Development of action plans (National SafeWork Programme) for
agreed priorities, including indicators of success and launching of the
National Programme
g) Establishment of sustainable mechanisms for continual improvements,
including periodic review, updating
of data, and eventual designation of
new priorities for action based on
an updated national profile document
h) aimed at the introduction of a Safety
culture and taking into account the
analysis of the historical situation
and development in each country.

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:1619

Guiding principles for the


preparation of a national profile
on OSH
A National Profile should:
i) be prepared at the country level
through a process which involves
all the national competent and other
designated authorities concerned
with the different aspects of occupational safety and health, and more
importantly the most representative
organizations of Employers and
Workers
j) include basic data on all the parameters that may affect the sound
management of occupational safety
and health both at the national and
enterprise levels, including available
legislative framework, enforcement
and implementation mechanisms and
infrastructures, workforce distribution, human and financial resources
devoted to OSH, OSH initiatives at
the enterprise level, level of protection, etc.
k) provide practical information on
on-going activities at the country
level (e.g. activities related to the
implementation of international
agreements, ongoing and planned
technical assistance projects, etc.)
l) serve as a basis for initiating a process by which a country will be able
to identify gaps in the existing legal,
institutional, administrative, and
technical infrastructure related to the
sound management of OSH
m) provide a means for improved co-ordination among all parties interested
in OSH. The process of preparing the
Profile itself may serve as a starting
point for improved co-ordination and
should facilitate communications and
an improved understanding of the potential problems and activities being
undertaken within the country.
The Sub-regional Office in Moscow has
developed, assisted by a Korean OSH
project, an outline for the preparation
of National OSH Profiles.

National OSH Profiles in Central


Asia
The Korean OSH project for Central
Asia started in spring 2007. The impact
from the participating countries has
been higher than expected. All four
countries have prepared their National

OSH Profile, and follow-up tripartite


seminars to discuss the research results
have been organized according to the
agreed plans. The project was managed
by a four-person scientific research
group, which simultaneously acted as an
advisory and management group.
The assistance to the Central Asian
countries has led to a great increase in
the interest in OSH, also at the political
level. All three ILO partners have been
very active in the preparation of their
profiles. There is a national interest to
continue the work on their own.

Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan has drafted a new Labour
Code including a chapter on OSH. Due
to the resistance of the Trade Unions,
safety committees were not included
in the law although they exist in several
enterprises. The trade unions implement
an old Soviet system of trade union inspectors society control. The role of
this inspector varies from enterprise to
enterprise, but is something between a
government inspector without right to
sanctions and a workers safety representative.
The Labour Inspection is fairly well
developed and trained. An ILO inspection audit, utilizing the EU audit methodology, was done in the country a few
years ago. The main weaknesses are the
lack of safety committees and the severe
restriction on labour inspections.
A new OSH Institute has been established, which is in need of increased
research capacity. SRO Moscow is

supporting the research institute. The


project has led to some additional unexpected results. Kazakhstan and Perm
Regional OSH Centre have established
a joint cooperation agreement on issues
related to training and research.
There is a national interest to improve the work: the Kazakh OSH institute is preparing a new research programme on OSH and wants to establish
an OSH information and training centre
in their new premises in 20092010.
Kazakhstan has in force a National
OSH Programme, which expires in
2008. The new updated National OSH
Profile will be the base for the next
national OSH programme. Kazakhstan
can be used as a good example in the
Central Asian region.

Kyrgyzstan
The ILO WIND programme, initiated
by the trade unions and labour inspection in Kyrgyzstan, is supporting improved working and living conditions,
health and safety in small-scale farming
in the informal rural sector using social
dialogue, neighbourhood assistance and
self-development. The project is utilizing experience from the Ministries of
Labour and Agriculture, the agro-complex trade unions, agricultural employers, women rural NGOs and the local
administration units Aiyl-Okmotys.
Trainers all over Kyrgyzstan are helping farmers to put the WIND training
manual into practice in local seminars.
The second wave of training in 200708

PHOTO BY ILO MOSCOW

The ILO WIND programme has assisted the agricultural sector in Kyrgystan.

is focusing on agrochemicals and diseases from animals.


The political impact of the programme can be seen in the national
occupational safety and health (OSH)
programme for agriculture approved
by the Government of Kyrgyzstan in
February 2007. A new rural employers association, tri-partism on regional
level and inclusion of veterinary and
agrichemical services as trainers are
additional benefits.
Being a poor country, Kyrgyzstan
lacks OSH expertise and OSH training
opportunities. The Labour Inspection is
weak and many enterprises are working
in the sphere of the informal economy.
The National OSH Profile has identified
the existing weaknesses and has led to
the compilation of resources, already
before the National Programme has
been drafted.
OSH in the informal textile (in addition to the rural) sector and Training of
Trainers in OSH are priorities for future
work in Kyrgyzstan.

Tajikistan
Migration has been a coping strategy
for the poor country. Approximately
1 million Tajiks work permanently or
temporarily outside of the country.
The social consequences of migration
on the families of migrant workers
are enormous: occupational accidents
and diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS and family
breakdowns, leaving many children
abandoned, institutionalized or forced
into prostitution and other forms of
exploitative child labour.
A Finnish-funded ILO project with
the Farmers Association in Tajikistan is
focusing on the livelihood of families,
women and children, left by men seeking work as migrants. The Talvidara
valley has now a beekeepers centre,
providing vocational training and
training in WIND, as well as tools and
equipment and veterinary services for
beekeeping. The link with microcredit
has kick-started beekeeping among
women heads of families, the annual
yield per family being around 150 kg.
The poorest country in the region
lacks OSH specialists and is relying
on technical OSH expertise from Uzbekistan in the first phase of the Korean
project. The Trade Union has, from the
Soviet times, experience in OSH and
the new Employers Organization has

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:1619

17

PHOTO BY ILO MOSCOW

representative system being created in


pilot enterprises in Uzbekistan.
In Uzbekistan, the process of modernization of the national OSH system
has been initialized as an impact of the
preparation of the National Profile. Uzbekistan has provided technical assistance to Tajikistan; Russia has provided
technical advice to Kazakhstan and
Kyrgyzstan.

National OSH Profiles in the


Caucasian countries

The analytical work for the National OSH Profile identifies also the various
branches of industry most at risk.

taken an interest in building its capacity


to improve working conditions in the
rural areas. The Labour Inspection is
very weak. The preparation of the National OSH Profile has initiated interest
in OSH and working conditions on the
political level.
The exceptionally cold winter has
temporarily halted work, as survival,
in spite of lack of fuel and electricity,
is the first priority for the Tajiks. The
country will need additional efforts in
capacity building.

Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan has an active OSH centre
(originating from the Soviet time),
which produces modular training
courses on OSH, including HIV/AIDS
and child labour as well as organizes
continuously regional training. The centre has the capacity to assist the neighbouring Tajikistan on OSH issues.
A Finnish-funded project assisting
in the improvement of the national OSH
system through the development of the
institution of safety representatives has
started in Uzbekistan. One of the first
critical challenges is the lack of training material on OSH in general and for
safety representatives in particular.
The project consists of four interlinked topics, which interact to set up
a systematic approach based on the
safety representatives, increases safety
knowledge and awareness among workers, farmers and employers and provides
practical tools for assessment of the
present working conditions.
A. Creation of the institution of safety

18

representatives and training of the


representatives
B. OSH training of trainers for industry and agriculture (latter based on
WIND)
C. Risk assessment and self-improvement of working conditions aimed
at employers (based on the WISE
methodology)
D. Development of the Soviet tradition
of workplace attestation towards
an employer-based risk assessment
methodology (introduction and
adaptation of Finnish and EU risk
assessment methodology; PK-RH,
ELMERI, Riski-Arvi)
E. Strengthening the OSH and social
dialogue capacity in the Trade Unions as the base of the creation of the
institution of safety representatives.
The ILO OSH activities in Uzbekistan
are closely linked with prevention
of HIV/AIDS, child labour and specific issues related to gender (OSH and
women). All training in the field of
OSH incorporates these issues in their
relevant context.
Labour migration from Uzbekistan
to Korea is approx 10,000 workers annually. These workers are in need of
training and information about their
rights and duties concerning working
conditions. The Uzbek OSH centre can
provide basic training in OSH, which
will improve the workers assimilation
and productivity in their new workplaces and, on their return, promote
awareness on OSH in their home country. The returning workers can be guided
to participate in the workers safety

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:1619

The work with OSH profiles in Central


Asia has generated interest in orther
parts of the CIS countries, including the
Caucasus region.

Armenia
Armenia is in the process of establishing
a new OSH system and the coordination between the different elements of
the system is still uneven. However,
tripartite partners are working in good
cooperation. The country has a big
deficit of modern information, training
and practical materials on OSH. In the
transition period many big enterprises
were closed or reorganized into small
and medium-sized enterprises. These
enterprises lack practical OSH information, some Soviet regulations are still
used in enterprises.
Armenia has approved a new Labour Code that will come into force in
2008, but there is no national law on
social insurance of workers yet. The
Union of Manufacturers and Businessmen of Armenia has initiated cooperation with the ILO Moscow in the field of
vocational training, OSH consultations
and training and in promotion of the
new interstate GOST 12.0.230-2007.
A National OSH Profile was created
in January 2008. The profile contains a
deep and detailed analysis of the OSH
situation in the country and draws good
practical conclusions. The development
of the national OSH system, the creation
of an accident insurance system, implementation of the OSH management
system, improving of OSH legislation,
creation of the OSH training and information systems, development of social
partnership and coordination between
OSH authorities are tasks to be included
in the National OSH programme in
2008. The Armenian partners note the
profile as a very good document for ef-

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan has again become active in
the improvement of OSH after a period
of low profile. An intensive campaign
on OSH in the construction industry in
Baku started in 2006, spearheaded by
the Labour Inspection. Following an
order from autumn 2007 by the President to improve working conditions in
the construction industry, a high-level
seminar with the relevant ministries,
social partners and construction company top management was held in
January 2008.
The seminar is an element in the upgrading process, including the updating
of the Azeri Labour Code and modernizing the Labour Inspection, based on
a World Bank project. The process is
based on the ILO systematic approach
and the relevant conventions, including
Convention 81 on Labour Inspection.
Azerbaijan prepared a National
OSH Profile a year ago. Further to
the Profile, an in-depth analysis of the
Labour Code and the structure and
management of the Inspectorate will
be used in drafting the concept of a
modern OSH and inspection system in
Azerbaijan.
Georgia
The political leadership in Georgia is
applying a policy aimed at generating
jobs, without due consideration of social
protection, social security or proper
working conditions. For example, the
Georgian Labour Inspection has been
terminated, while the neighbouring
Armenia simultaneously created a new
Inspection with a staff of 120.
The international experience indicates the short-sightedness and the
huge cost in humanitarian and economic
costs in ignoring the long-term effects of
poor working conditions. Cooperation
between multi-national and Georgian
enterprises has been hampered due to
the poor OSH record of the country.
However, this policy defined by the
power ministry is not supported by ILO
constituents. Concern among OSH specialists, employers and trade unions has
led to the start of a process to stop the
deterioration of working conditions.
The Employers Organisation has
organized OSH seminars, is preparing a

National OSH Profile and is starting up


OSH training and information services
for their members.
The experience from Central Asia
has gone via the network of OSH specialists in the CIS countries (former
Soviet Union) to other countries and
now Armenia and Georgia are preparing their own OSH profiles based on
the outline developed in the Korean
project.

National OSH Programmes and


ratification
The assistance to the Central Asian
countries has led to a great increase in
the interest in OSH, also at the political level. All three ILO partners have
been very active in the preparation of
their profiles and are looking forward
to continuing the process by preparing
national OSH programmes.
The work in Central Asia as well as
a general increased interest in providing
proper working conditions for men and
women has led to an upswing in the
preparation of National OSH Profiles.
Year 2008 is expected to be the year
when a multitude of National OSH
Programmes will be produced.
The work on OSH seems to be even
more intense in the Russian Federation.
The Russian Federation has prepared
a draft National Programme Safe
Work, among many other activities.
Russia has not been included in this
summarizing article, because OSH in
Russia needs more space to be described
appropriately.
All material produced in the various
countries will be published in Russian
and English on the SRO ILO web, the
Internet Academy of Safework and the
CD-ROM Safework library (the last two
only in Russian).
A phase II of the Korean project,
focusing on the preparation of National
OSH Programmes in the Central Asian
countries is under consideration. The
work on National Programmes in the
Caucasian countries is continuing.
All these steps are leading towards
the implementation of the requirements
in the ILO Convention 187. Thus the
logical follow-up is the ratification of
the Convention in several CIS countries.

International
Labour
Office
Bureau
international
du Travail

My life...
My work...
My safe work

fective planning of actions in the sphere


of OSH.

Oficina
Internacional
del Trabajo

Managing Risk
in the WoRk enviRonMent

LIFE
WORK
SAFE WORK

www.ilo.org/safework/safeday

World Day
for safety
and health
at Work
28 april 2008

Contact information:

Mr. Wiking Husberg


Senior OSH Specialist
ILO Moscow SubRegional Office
e-mail:husberg@ilo.org

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:1619

19


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Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:2025

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24

The occupational safety and health of the construction industry was of special
interest in Azerbaijan.

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:2025

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E-mail:husberg@ilo.org

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:2025

25

Lithuania:
national OSH profile
Remigijus Jankauskas
Lithuania

ithuania has been an independent


republic since 16 February 1918
till the year 1940 and regained
its independence on 11 March 1990.
The area of the country is 65,300 km2
(population density 52 persons per km2)
and it is divided into 10 districts and
60 local administrations. According to
statistical data of 2006, the population
of Lithuania is 3.40 million people and
66.47% of the population live in urban
areas. The population is composed of
Lithuanians (84.6%), Russians (5.1%),
Poles (6.3%) and people of other origin
(4%). The labour force is 1.5883 million
people, of which 1.4990 million are employed. The gender distribution of the
labour force is 49.5% men and 50.5%
women. The unemployment rate has
decreased from 17.4% in 2001 to 5.6%
in 2006. The expansion of the Lithuanian economy is very dynamic with
growth rates being among the highest
ones in Europe. In 2006, the GDP went
up by 7.5% as compared to the year
2005. During the period 19952006 the
number of the registered occupational
diseases increased from 370 to 1447
cases (incidence is almost twice higher
than in the old EU countries). In the year
2005 a total of 112 fatal, 216 serious,
and 3,003 minor accidents at work were
registered (17.7 serious and 9.2 fatal accidents per 100,000 employees).

Health Programme is supervised by


the National Health Council under
the Parliament of Lithuania. The leading authority for the formulation and
implementation of the national OSH
policy is the Ministry of Social Security and Labour (MSSL). The Ministry of Health (MoH) is responsible
for the development of occupational
health services. Both Ministries are
responsible for the national policy
development, progressive extension
and implementation of activities for
the maintenance of health and safety
at work. The policy coordination and
social acceptability are within the competence of the Tripartite Council and
the Safety at Work Commission. The
enforcement of the occupational health
and safety laws and regulations belongs
to the State Labour Inspectorate under
the Ministry of Social Security and
Labour. The organizational structure of
state authorities and services responsible for occupational health and safety in
Lithuania is presented in Fig.1.
The main state institutions re-

Figure 1. Occupational health and safety system in Lithuania.

OSH system and institutions


The development of the Lithuanian
OSH policy is based on the implementation of the Lithuanian Health
Programme (19982010) as well as
the national OSH programmes adopted
by the Lithuanian Government. The
implementation of the Lithuanian

26

sponsible for occupational health are


Occupational Medicine Centre at the
Institute of Hygiene (OMC) and Central
Occupational Medicine Expert Commission (COMEC). OMC is involved
in scientific research, upgrading and requalification of the occupational health
specialists, expert research in environmental impact on human health; it also
compiles relevant information, develops
criteria for diagnosing of occupational
diseases and manages the State Register
of Occupational Diseases. COMEC
deals with the expertise of complicated
cases when establishing the diagnosis
of occupational diseases.
The main state institutions responsible for occupational safety are State Labour Inspectorate (SLI), Labour Market
Training Authority (LMTA), Technical
Supervision Service (TSS) and Institute
of Labour and Social Research (ILSR).
LMTA performs functions of labour
market vocational training, orientation
and advisory management and implements the state policy in these fields.
TSS is a control institution inspecting all kinds of potentially dangerous
equipment. It has been accredited by
the Lithuanian National Accreditation
Bureau in November 2000 following
the requirements of the standard LST
EN 45004. ILSR is undertaking both
theoretical and applied research on the
issues of labour and social policy formulation and implementation.
The main state institutions responsible for OSH management at the
regional level are County Administrations and regional OSH Commissions.
County administrations delegate representatives from the municipalities
to the regional OSH Commission and,

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:26 28

with the consent of enterprises, have


the right to develop and approve occupational safety and health improvement
programmes or measures and allocate
funds for their implementation. Besides,
County Administrations have the right
to establish a vacancy of the municipal
inspector-consultant on safety and
health in compliance with the existing
legal requirements. Following the principles of tripartite cooperation between
the social partners in the regional OSH
Commissions, employees and employers participate in the delivery of the
state policy on occupational safety and
health.
The main institutions responsible
for OSH in the enterprises are in-plant
OSH services and OSH committees.
Following the provisions of the Model
regulations on safety at work services
in enterprises approved by the MoH
and MSSL, OSH services carry out the
following tasks:
prevention of industrial injuries and
occupational diseases
supervision and control of safety and
health at work
provide consultations to employees
on the issues of occupational safety
and health.
OSH committees within the enterprises
analyse and evaluate activities of
employers, units of the enterprise
and services of occupational safety
and health
develop measures to improve safety
and health at work and proposals
concerning collective agreements
analyse causes and circumstances of
accidents at work and occupational
diseases following the provisions of
the General regulations on occupational safety and health committees
in enterprises approved by the Safety
at Work Commission.
The Lithuanian law provides for only
one legitimate form of organized workers representation, i.e. trade unions.
Four organizations of trade unions function at the national level in Lithuania:
Lithuanian Workers Union, Lithuanian
Labour Federation, Lithuanian Centre of Trade Unions, and Lithuanian
Confederation of Trade Unions. The
employers are represented by two large
confederations functioning at the national level: Lithuanian Confederation
of Industrialists and Lithuanian Confederation of Business Employers. These

confederations unite smaller branch


and regional associations and separate
enterprises.

Challenges and perspectives


Due to the deteriorated work environment and workers health in Lithuania
compared to the old EU Member
States, EU OSH Strategy for the years
20072012 and WHO Global Plan of
Action on Workers Health for the years
20082017 are seen as a great challenge
for the country.
International Labour Organization
(ILO) has established international
standards related to the organization
of national occupational health system
and services. According to the provisions of the ILO Convention No. 187,
each Member State shall establish,
maintain, progressively develop and
periodically review a national system
for occupational safety and health, in
consultation with the most representative organizations of employers and
workers (Article 4 of C187). In the
same way, each Member State shall
formulate, implement, monitor, evaluate and periodically review a national
programme on occupational safety and
health in consultation with the most
representative organizations of employers and workers (Article 5, C187).
According to the ILO Convention
No.161, each Member State undertakes
to develop progressively occupational
health services for all workers, including those in the public sector and the
members of production co-operatives,
in all branches of economic activity and
all undertakings. The provision made
should be adequate and appropriate to
the specific risks of the undertakings
(Article 3, C161).
In the year 2007, the Sixtieth World
Health (WHO) Assembly has endorsed
the Global Plan of Action on Workers Health for the years 20082017.
It urges the Member States to devise
and implement policy instruments on
workers health, to protect and promote
health at the workplace, to improve
the performance of and access to occupational health services, to provide
and communicate evidence for action
and practice and, finally, to incorporate
workers health into other policies.
According to the expert estimation
of the Lithuanian occupational health

care system and services, the development of the national system for OSH is
fully achieved in 4 main components of
12 tested (inspection system, tripartite
advisory body, occupational accidents
and diseases data collection, occupational injuries insurance). The progress
is achieved in 7 components (OSH
legislation, authority responsible for
OSH, cooperation between employers
and workers, information and advisory
services, OSH training system and research). Unfortunately, the progressive development of one component
(occupational health services) has not
started yet. The expert estimation of the
national programmes for OSH showed
that only one component (promotion of
the development of the national OSH
culture) of 5 tested was fully achieved
through the implementation of the state
programmes for occupational health
and safety in the years 19962000 and
20022004. The progress is foreseen in
such components as contribution to the
workers health protection and support by the other national programmes,
but not in such components, as analysis
of the national OSH system and setting of the expected results and indicators of progress. According to the estimation of occupational heath services,
the progressive development is achieved
only in 2 components from 11 tested
(occupational risk identification and
assessment, analysis of occupational
accidents and diseases). Some progress
is foreseen in 7 components (surveillance of risks at work, advice on work
organization, participation in the development of prevention programmes,
advice on OSH, promotion of adaptation of work to worker, information,
training and education, organization of
first aid). Unfortunately, the progressive
development in 2 components (surveillance of workers health, contribution
to vocational rehabilitation) has not
started yet.
Lithuania has defined the main
OSH problems, as well as the obstacles for positive developments and is
ready for immediate actions. There is
a draft of the National Occupational
Health and Safety Strategy aiming to
improve the existing OSH legislation,
to develop OSH education, training
and information system and to enforce
the capacities for occupational health
care with a particular emphasis on the
strengthening of occupational health

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:26 28

27

services. The expected results of its


implementation in the years 2008-2012
concern the decreasing number of heavy
and fatal accidents at work per 100,000
employed, the increasing number of
occupational medicine physicians and
other occupational heath professionals
per 100,000 employed, the increasing
number of in-plant and external occupational health services, as well as the
increasing percentage of the enterprises
having implemented the international
OSH management system.
Contact information:

Dr. Remigijus Jankauskas


Contact Point for BSN in
Lithuania
Vice-chairman of NDPHS
SIHLWA expert group
Director, Institute of Hygiene
Etmonu 3/6, LT- 01128,
Vilnius, Lithuania
Tel +370 5212 1969
Fax. +370 5212 1810
E-mail: jank@dmc.lt
www.dmc.lt,

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28

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National Occupational
Safety and Health Profile of
Finland
Suvi Lehtinen
A national OSH profile a longterm project

My LIfe...
My woRk...
My sAfe woRk

International
Labour
Office

Managing Risk in the WoRk enviRonMent

LIFE
WORK
SAFE WORK

Supported by the
INTERNATIONAL
SOCIAL SECURITY
ASSOCIATION

www.ilo.org/safework/safeday

World Day for safety and health at Work 28 APRIL 2008

The theme for the World Day


for Safety and Health at Work
organized by the International
Labour Office (ILO) on 28 April
2008 is:
Managing Risk in the Work
Environment Slogan: My life, my
work, my safe work.

,

, 2008 :


:
, ,
.

The National Occupational Safety and


Health Profile of Finland was prepared
for the ILO Labour Conference in 2006
as a model illustrating the aims of the
Promotional Framework Convention
(No. 187), which was endorsed in the
same year by the International Labour
Conference. The Convention No. 187
is described more in detail in this issue
by Professor Marat Rudakov.
The preparation of a national OSH
profile was assigned by the Ministry of
Social Affairs and Health to the Finnish
Institute of Occupational Health. The
main author of the document is Professor Jorma Rantanen who was well informed about the visions and strategies
as well as about the structure, contents,
functions and activities of the Finnish
occupational safety and health model.
As legislation, inspection and enforcement are important parts of the
OSH system, a small 3-person working
group was established where also the
Ministry of Social Affairs and Health
was represented. The Ministry was in
charge of compiling the information
on occupational safety and health legislation.

How was the profile prepared?

The process of compiling information


on the occupational health and safety
situation in the country according to
the table of contents provided by ILO
was a lengthy one. Even in a country
of efficient registration practices, such
as Finland finding certain statistics
and certain data needed for the profile
proved time-consuming.
The point in the whole exercise was
among others to identify the indicators
of which it is difficult to find data. If so,
it is clear that measures are needed to
develop the information system in the

country. Another important observation was that tripartite discussion and


dialogue are the only way to develop
occupational health and safety in an
appropriate and effective manner.

Questionnaire survey

In the Finnish exercise, we also sent a


questionnaire survey to the most central
organizations operating in the field of
occupational health and safety. These
were the Ministry of Social Affairs and
Health, the Ministry of Labour, the
Ministry of Education, Confederation
of Finnish Industries (EK), the State
Employer in Finland, Local Authority Employers in Finland, the Central
Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions
(SAK), the Finnish Confederation
of Salaried Employees (STTK), the
Confederation of Unions for Academic
Professionals in Finland (AKAVA), the
Central Union of Agricultural Producers
and Forest Owners (MTK), the Finnish
Association of Occupational Health
Physicians, the Finnish Association of
Occupational Health Nurses, the Finnish Occupational Hygiene Society, the
Finnish Association of Safety Chiefs,
the Federation of Accident Insurance
Institutions, and the Centre for Occupational Safety. The questionnaire included only ten questions, with the aim
of making the contribution to the survey
as easy as possible for the respondents.
The questions covered the main topics in occupational health and safety,
challenges, problems, weaknesses, and
strengths. All sixteen organizations
responded to the survey.

Tripartite discussion

In addition to conducting the survey,


the draft report was discussed in the
meeting of the Advisory Committee
on Occupational Safety and Health in
Finland. All comments by the social
partners and other organizations rep-

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:3132

31

resented in the Committee were taken


into account. Although several minor
changes were proposed, all representatives were unanimous of the principles
and major issues of occupational health
and safety.

Two versions of the profile

The National Occupational Safety


and Health Profile Finland (80 pages)
is accessible on the web at: http://
www.stm.fi/Resource.phx/publishing/
store/2006/05/aa1155885585766/passthru.pdf
Some of the chapters included in the
original Profile needed to be condensed
for the brief version by excluding some
of the information. A 187-page version
that includes the full analysis of the
Finnish occupational safety and health
system, as well as some historical data
is accessible at: http://www.stm.fi/Resource.phx/eng/subjt/safet/publi/publicateng.htx.i1229.pdf.
The aim of this broader analytical
report is to provide the reader with
useful background information for the
phases of development in Finnish occupational health and safety. From the
viewpoint of the evolution of working
conditions, the report discusses the developments in the whole society.

Utilizing the models

The ILO challenges all countries to


develop systematically occupational
safety and health. A national profile
can be used as a starting point for this.
It reveals the strengths, but also shows
what is missing, and what should be
emphasized. To ensure that not all
countries must start from scratch, this
National Profile of Finland can be used
as a model. It is, however, important to
recall that Finland as a small country
has many advantages that make it easier
to prepare such a profile. Moreover,
the long history of OSH development
in Finland meant that the amount of
information available was probably
greater than in many other countries.
The existence of a model profile should
encourage others to carry out a similar
exercise in their own countries.


() 2006

,


187 ,
( -

Contact information:

Suvi Lehtinen
Finnish Institute of Occupational
Health
suvi.lehtinen@ttl.fi

32

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:32 33

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publi/publicateng.htx.i1229.pdf.

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suvi.lehtinen@ttl.fi

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:32 33

33

5th SIHLWA in Oslo


Suvi Lehtinen

he 5th meeting of the SIHLWA


Expert Group of the Northern
Dimension Partnership in Public
Health and Social Well-being was held
on 67 March 2008 in Oslo, Norway.
The beautiful and expansive surroundings of the meeting venue can be
expected to have enhanced far-sighted
visions for the work plans of the subgroups.
As has become standard practice,
the three sub-groups of the SIHLWA
Expert Group (Adolescents; Alcohol;
Occupational Safety and Health) convened for plenary sessions, but the major part of the two days was devoted to
discussions concerning the work plans
of the sub-groups.
The discussions of the OSH group
were to a large extent based on the
recently-endorsed NDPHS Strategy
on Health at Work. On the basis of the
Strategy, a framework project plan was
drafted last autumn before the Pre-PAC
Forum in mid-November 2007. The aim
was to produce a practically-oriented
project plan for the implementation of
the newly endorsed Strategy on Health
at Work. It consists of five modules corresponding to the core contents of the
Strategy: National and Regional OSH
Profiles; National OSH Programme;
Development of Occupational Health
Services; Reducing Risks and Preventing Accidents through Training and
Interventions; and Provision of Information Support.
The project plan on activities in
North-West Russia was approved; funding for the activities has been granted by
the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs.
The aim is also to involve other partners, the Baltic States, the other Nordic
countries, and Poland and Germany in
the project with additional funding from
other sources. The appropriate forms
and contents of collaboration for each

34

partner country will also be discussed


in the next annual meeting of the Baltic
Sea Network on Occupational Health
and Safety, scheduled for the beginning
of October this year.
Five countries were represented
in the SIHLWA OSH Group meeting:
Estonia, Finland, Lithuania, Norway,
and the Russian Federation. In addition, three international organizations,
WHO, ILO and NDPHS Secretariat,
contributed to the work of the OSH
sub-group.

The participants of the OSH


sub-group discussed in detail
how the newly endorsed
NDPHS Strategy on Health at
Work can best be implemented
in practice.

Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:34

,
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This thematic report contains the country


reports of Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Norway and the Russian Federation.
The report is accessible at:
http://www.ndphs.org/?database,searchresults
Barents Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety 2008;11:3435

35

Editorial Board
Valeri Chashchin, Dr.
Centre of Occupational Health, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
Vladimir Masloboev, Prof.
Kola Science Centre, Russian Federation
Juri Lupandin, Prof.
Petrozavodsk State University, Russian Federation
Evgeny R. Boyko, Dr.
Institute of Physiology, Ural Division Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian
Federation
Anatoly Vinogradov, Ph.D,
Secretary General, Kola Science Centre, Russian Federation
Ingvar Holmr, Prof.
Lund Technical University, Sweden
Randi Eidsmo Reinertsen, Research Director, Prof.
SINTEF Health Research, Norway
Irmeli Kinnunen, Regional Director
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland

Collaborative organizations -
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health
Institute of Sanitary-Epidemiologic Research, Petrozavodsk
Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Archangelsk
Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences
Kola Research Laboratory of Occupational Health
National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway
North-West Public Health Centre, St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg Scientific Research Institute of Labour and Occupational Diseases
State University of Petrozavodsk
SINTEF Health Research, Norway
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway