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IPT’S CRANE and RIGGING TRAINING MANUAL Mobile-EOT-Tower Cranes by RONALD G. GARBY Published by IPT PUBLISHING AND TRAINING LTD. BOX 9590, EDMONTON, ALBERTA CANADA T6E 5X2 www.iptbooks.com Email: iptpub@compusmart.ab.ca Phone (780) 962-4548, Fax (780) 962-4819 Toll Free 1 (888) 808-6763 Printed in Canada by JASPER PRINTING EDMONTON, ALBERTA, CANADA

<, High Line Formula Example Weight = 6,000 Ibs. Total Load = S,= 10.1 $,=41 Pull = 6,000 Ibs, 2,000 ibs. Mlustration #568 ~ High Line Tension Formula 10 D,=4 oad x D,S,/H(D, + D,) 2,000 x 4x 10.1/1(10 + 4) 84800/14 = 34,628 The left side tension is 34,628 pounds. T, = Load x D,8,/H(D, + D,) Te = 12,000x 10x 4,1/1(10 + 4) T, = 492000/ 14 = 35,143 The right side tension is 35,143 pounds. Chain Fall Tension The tension on two chain falls drifting a load can be enough to extensively overload them. Calculating the tension uses the same method as that used for a high line. Chain fall (or come-a-long) tension will vary when a load is lifted, then drifted over to another location. The tension on each chain fall can be worked out by formula for various Positions. See illustration #57. RIGGING Chain Fall Tension 55 Example Tensions While Drifting aLoad T, = LoadxD,S,/H(D, + D,) T, = LoadxD,S,/H(D, + D,) Load on chain fall B (initial position 1) = 2000 pounds. Load on chain fall A (final position 3) = 2000 pounds. S, = 6.182 = 12.3 3.8D2 = 11.4 Chain fall A (position 2) = Load x D,S,/H(D1 + D2) Chain fall A = 2000 x 11.4x6,1/ 4.78.8 + 11.4) The tension on chain fallA = 139080/71.44 = 1947 pounds. Chain fall B (position 2) = Load x D,S,/H(D, + D,) Chain fall B = 2000x 3.8.x 12,3/ 4.7(3.8 + 11.4) The tension on chain fall B = 93480/71.44 = 1808 pounds. PSG] fone oso oul Grn) ere nosis vos iustation #87 ~ Chain Fall Tension Formula Note: The above formula is based on both chain falls being positioned at the same elevation. 56 | RIGGING Sling Loadings Factor Chart Sling Lengths and Distances Between Lift Points Calculating Sling Leg Stress The tension on the sling legs of symmetrical loads can be found by using the diagram and chart from illustration #58 in two ways. Mlustration #584 ~ Sling Loading Caleulation Sling angle (degrees) x yY z 1.97 2.88 10 1.94 1.93 15 1.88 1.47 20 1.81 1.19 25 1.73 1.00 30 1.64 88 35 1.52 78 40 1.42 ral 45 1.29 66 50 1.15 61 55 1.00 58 60 85 56 65 68 54 70 52 52 75 35 51 80 18 50 85 tlustration #58B — Siing Loading Factors RIGGING Sling Lengths and Distances Between Lift Points (illustration #58) Calculating Sling Loading Method A: 1. Divide distance (D) by sling length (L). 2. Look up the answer in chart column (X). Ifthe numbers do not match use the next highest number in the chart. Go to the (Y) column and select the num- ber beside the (X) number. Multiply the load weight by the (Y) col- umn number to get the sling leg load. Method B: 1. If the sling angle is known, look up the angle in column (2). 2. Goto the (Y) column and select the num- ber beside the (Z) column (sling angle). 3. Multiply the load weight by the (Y) col- umn number to get the sling leg load. Bo Sling Loadings/Softeners Softeners All sharp corners should be covered by pads or softeners to prevent the sling from being bent or cut. These softeners can be made from a split pipe section, padding or block- ing, see illustration #59. good rule to follow is to make sure that the length of contact of the wire rope is equal to. one rope lay, or seven times the rope diam- eter. lustration #89 - Softeners 58| RIGGING Rigging Attachments/Clips Rigging Attachments Wire Rope Clips Rigging attachments, (clips, shackles, etc.) UBolt Type should always be of the forged type and should have the size and safe working load stamped on them. Wire Rope Clips Using wire rope clips is the most common method of making an eye or attaching a wire rope to a piece of equipment. There are two main types, the U Bolt and the Fist grip. These clips will develop approximately 60% of the wire rope strength when properly applied, but can drop to 40% when improp- erly applied. Note: OCHS/OSHA regulations prohibit the use of clips to make eyes for slings and chokers. Sling eyes must be of a type made with a Flemish splice and a hydraulic pressed swaged fitting. When using U Bolt clips the U section must be on the dead or short end, as indicated in illustration #60A. Always use a thimble to prevent the wire rope chokers from wearing the eye. Tighten the clips before tension is placed on the rope. Then tighten again after the load is on the wire rope. It is important to use the correct clip lay for the lay of the rope, otherwise the sharp ridges between the corrugations in the forging will Tun across and cut the strand. Fist Grip Type The fist grip clip offers a wide bearing sur- face for maximum strength and greater holding power. A wrench can be swung ina full arc for fast installation. cliatanala aaa aeolian RIGGING | Application of Wire Rope Clips [59 Application of Clips A fist grip clip, also known as a J clip or a oe double saddle clip is shown in illustration #61A. pemea tant on nn cee A double base clip s shown in illustration ihuteation #608 - Fist Grip Type Clips Number & Spacing Formulas Number of Clips - Rule of Thumb Number of wire rope clips = the diameter of the rope x3 + 1 to the next whole number. Example: 1% inch wire rope: Dx3 + 1(NWN) = clips required 1% x 3 + 1 to the next whole number = 6 clips Spacing of Crips - Rule of Thumb Spacing of wire rope clips = the diameter of the rope x6 Example: 1% inch wire rope: Dx6 = clip spacing 1% x 6 = 9inch spacing tlustration #618 - Double Base Clip 60 RIGGING Application of Wire Rope Clips "APPLICATION OF WIRE ROPE CLIPS: T-Bolt and Saddle Type Integral Saddle and Bolt Type Rope Diam. [Minimum ‘Amount of Rope Toque | Maman “Amount of Rope Torque inches No. of to turn back in in No. of To tur back in ips inches rom Trimble _| tbs Foot | Clips inches ftom Thimble _| Lbs Foot we 2 3M = = = 7 He 2 bu = 2 au 30 ve 2 au 5 2 au 30 we 2 si 30 2 4 | 30 Ey 2 bu 5 2 5 } te 2 eu 6 2 Su ro ve 3 " 6 2 ee 5s us 3 iM 98 3 ™ 130 oe 3 2 98 3 @ 130 ¥ 4 18 130 3 4 130 te 4 aie 225 4 a 2s 1 4 24 225 4 6 225 ve 5 28 225 4 2 25 tm 5 30 360 5 49 360 1 6 ane 360 5 45 500 vw 5 so 360 5 3 500 138 5 an 365 ™ 8 6 465 | 2 7 2 850 “Apnly fist clip one base wid rom end ot wire rope. Tighten nus. Apply second clip nearest thimble, Do not ighten aus. ‘AppWy all alher cips, leaving equal epace belween tach cip. For maximum holaing power, install 6 0: 7 diameters apart. Take up rope slack TIGHTEN ALL NUTS EVENLY ON ALL CLIPS to recommended torque ‘Table #14 Wire Rope Clip Appilcation RIGGING | Clip Installation/Shackles 61 Proper Clip Installation ‘STEP 1 APPLY FIRST CLIP - ONE BASE WIDTH FROM OEAD END OF WIRE ROPE - U-BOLT OVER DEAD END. TIGHTEN NUTS EVENLY TO RECOMMENDED TORQUE, STEP 2 APPLY SECONO CLIP - NEAREST EYE AS POSSIBLE - U-BOLT OVER DEAD END - SNUG UP NUTS BUT 00 NOT TIGHTEN, ‘STEP ALL OTHER CLIPS - SPACE EQUALLY BETWEEN FIRST TWO. STEP 4 TIGHTEN ALL NUTS TO RECOMMENDED TORQUE, APPLY TENSION STEP 5 AECHEOK NUT TORQUE AFTER ROPE HAS BEEN INOPERATION. apey SEnSION (\\ (—) ) tt WL ag WR siRewon ROUNOEN SAETY TPE ANGHON SHACKLE ANCHOR SHACKLE ANCHOR SHACKLE SOREN PN ‘CHAIN SHACRLE Illustration #634 ~ Shackle Types OUND Biv CHAIN SHACKLE SAFETY TYPE, CHAIN SHACKLE 62 RIGGING Shackles The screw pin anchor and the screw pin chain shackle are the most commonly used shackles. The anchor type is better when using two slings to lift a load. The safe work- ing load of each shackle should be stamped on the bow section and is rated in tons. The shackle is sized by the diameter of the bow section, not the pin diameter. General Shackle Rules 1. Use only the proper pin, never replace with a bolt. 2. Neverusea screw pin shackle if the pin can roll under load (illustration #63C). 3. Shackle pins are: '/,, inch larger than the bow on sizes up to ’/,, inch; '/, inch larger than the bow on sizes '/, inch to 1%/, inch; '/, inch larger than the bow on sizes 1°/, anaover. 4. Shackles are meant for vertical pulls. Use a larger size when lifting a load with two chokers spread out at a wide angle. Shackles/Hooks 5. The pin of a shackle is usually hung on a hook and the load slings are placedin the body or anchor part, see illustration #63. Washers can be used on the pin as spacers to keep the shackle hanging evenly on a hook, IMustration #638 — Shackle on Hook Mustration #63C ~ Do Not Let Rope Run Over Pin RIGGING Shackle Safe Working Loads/Hooks 63 Shackle Safe Working Loads SHACKLES Weldiess Construction Forged Alloy Stee! ——— Stock | Inside wicth | Max. Sale Working Diameter ALPin Load Single Vertical (Inches) (inches) Pull (Pounds) She oe 665 v4 ee 1.000 6 "a2 1.500 w ame 2.000 me ae 3.000 ” ine ‘4.000 % 16 6.500 % ™ 9.500 te oy 13.000 1 ime 17.000 te me 181000 1 ane 24000 18 aia 27.000 es 28 34.000 1m 2 50.000 2 ou 70,000 20 eo 100.000 3 5 150,000 Table #15 ~ Shackle Safe Working Loads Hooks All hooks should be made from forged steel, except grab and sorting types. All hooks should be equipped with safety catches. Forged hooks with the rating stamped on are the best quality available. The safe working load is reduced if the load is applied anywhere between the saddle and tip of the hook, as indicated in illustration #64. Inspect hooks regularly and look for wear in the saddle; cracks; nicks; gouges; or corrosion. Check the hook attachment and securement. Make sure the safety latch is not damaged or malfunctioning. The throat will open if the hook has been ‘over loaded or tip loaded. Destroy the hook if there is any distortion. OCHS/ OSHA regulations specify a hook should be replaced if the throat has opened 15%, or the body is twisted 10°. 64| RIGGING Hook Loading/Hooks (S.W.L.) Hook Loading Grab Hook Safe Working Loads GRAB HOOKS (Clevis Type and Eye Type) Forged Alloy Stee! exancen “ a s font ASS orecaren OFF CENTER OFF CenreR Ong cThroat_ | For Size | Maximum Sale ¢ Opening | of Chain | Working Load Y (Inches) (Inches) (Pounds) (| Whe % 2,750 Ae He 4,300 f y # % 5,250 ae ee AS me ne fe he 7000 cavcaney —caNcanay —cavennay —chwcanny can canny ba 2 13583 Sto | “oeeuce™ “orenes” “Grmareo” “ornares™ the a 26,000 ie ‘eto isso ‘ono Oxo Me 1 34°000 Mustration #64 - Hook Tip Loading ‘Table #16 - Grab Hook Sate Working Lond Note: Hook characteristics are regulated by ANSI B30.10 RIGGING | Hooks (S.W.L.) Hook Safe Working Loads EYE, SHANK, SWIVEL HOOKS CHAIN SLIP HOOKS. SLIDING CHOKER HOOKS Forged Alloy Steel Salety Factor of 5 536 Forged Ally See Satety Factor of & CG Forged Alloy Steel Safety Factor of 5 Eye Swivel Shank Cevis Sicing Throat | Maximum Sale Tioat | For Size] _Maxmum Throat | ForRope | Maximum Opening | Working Load Opening | ol Chain | Sale Working | | Opening | Sze | Sale Working inches) (Pounds) Uineres) | inches) | Loac Pounds) | | inenes)_| inches) _|Load (Pounds) * 600 1 2750 we | MM 4,500 1 1.500 1s Me 4300 * * 2.500 ™ 4.000 tHe w 5250 % ” 3.400 we 5.500 He the 7.000 ™ * 5.100 ave 6.800 6 w 9.000 1 Mu 8.000 % 8.400 2 * 13500, ims | met 15,000 tHe 10.000 2a “ 19250, tm | ttm | 23.000 2a 12.500 ay a 26,000 2ve_| ta-t | 30,000 2a 16,000 3 1 34,000 3 19,200 Table #19 ~ Sliding Hook aime 26,000 ‘Table #18 ~ Clovis Eye Hook Safe Working Loads Ls 33,400 Sate Working Loads ‘Table #17 ~ Eye, Shank, Swive! Hook Safe Working Loads 66 RIGGING Headache Ball Allcrane hooks that are used for lifting should be equipped with swivels and headache balls. The headache ball must be attached securely $0 that it cannot slide up and down the line, see illustration #65. The headache ball must be heavy enough to keep the crane hoist line tight when low- ering without a load Headache Ball/Wedge Sockets Wedge Sockets ‘A wedge socket must be attached with the load line pulling in a straight line from the pin. See illustration #66. Non-rotating rope is not recommended for use with wedge sockets however they are commonly com- bined. IMustration #68 ~ Correct Wedge Socket Use RIGGING Wedge Sockets When attaching a wire rope to a wedge socket pull the dead end through further than necessary. This allows the end to be cut off periodicaily when there is wear at the socket. Safety regulations vary concerning the dead end attachment. Three methods of securing the dead end of the wire rope are shown in illustration #67A,B,C. In illustration #67A, the dead end is clipped to the load line, The dead end should have alittle slack, the clip saddle is placed on the load line and the clip should not be tight enough to damage the load line. illustration #678 is the method which is most popular. Ashort stub of rope is clipped tothe dead end. lustration #67C is a method which is in many safety regulations, but sometimes cannot be used due to the fact that the loop is too big, and as a result it snags on projections in confined spaces. Wedge Sockets 67 Note: Check with the applicable OCHS/ OSHA department. There is a wide dis- crepancy about which method is permit- ted in different areas. SADDLE ON LIVE END, Ce = o LOOP CaN INTERFERE WITH BOOM llustration #67 ~ Wedge Socket Dead Ends RIGGING Eye Bolts The safe working load for shoulderless and shouldered eye bolts are the same for verti- cal loads. Angular loading is not recom- mended for shoulderless eye bolts. Eye Bolts For added safety, always use eye bolts of the shoulder type and which are made of forged alloy steel. The safe working load is reduced with angu- lar loading, as indicated in table #20. EYE BOLTS — Shoulder Tye Only — Forged Carbon Stee! “i \ I = ‘Stock Diameter ‘SAFE WORKING LOADS (LBS) CORRESPONDING TO ANGLE OF PULL (inches) Vertical 75° 6" 45° Less than 45° % ‘500 275 175 125 oe 800 440 280 200 * 3,200 660 420 300 * 2/200 4,210 770 550 % 31500 1925 1,225 875 NOT % 5,200 2,860 1,820 1,300 RECOMMENDED * 7,200 31960 2/520 1,800 1 10000 5,500 3,500 2\500 1% 15,200 8,360 5,320 3,800 1 21,400 41,70 7,490 5,350 ‘Table #20 - Eye Bolt! Safe Working Loads RIGGING Eye Bolts The eye must be aligned as shown in illus- tration #68A. Shims may be used to assure correct seating. Do not insert the point of a hook in an eye. Always use shackles for connecting, as in |_ Eye Bolts illustration #69. a A sto eS @ Bf > OE WEN THe EVE Botts USE A SHIM OR WASHER, Ilustration #684,8 - Eye Bolt Alignment 4 NconrecT (CORRECT USE A SHACKLE llystration #69 ~ Eye Bolt Connecting, SEENON N/T NT NN Never run a choker through a pair of eye bolts. See illustration #70. The resulting sling leg load stress will be much greater than what it would be if two separate slings were used, The horizontal portion of the choker will create a comprehensive force ontheload. © NEVER USE ACHOKEA ‘THROUGH THE EVEBOLTS {Mustration #70 ~ Do Not Run Choker Thru Eye Bolts 70 Turnbuckles Turnbuckles should be of alloy steel and should not be welded. The safe working load depends on the diam- eter of the threaded portion. The safe work- ing loads of turnbuckles are indicated in table #21. TURNBUCKLE SAFE WORKING LOAD. ‘Stock | Jaw, Eye, Stub, | Hook End Diameter | — End Fittings Fitting (inches) (Pounds) (Pounds) ve 500 400) Se 800 700 * 1,200 41,000 % 2,200 1,500 w 3500 2.250 % 5,200 3,000 a” 7.200 4,000 ea 10,000 5,000 m% 15,200 5,000 1% 21,400 7,500 1M 28,000 ‘Table 421 ~ Turnbuckle Sate Working Loads RIGGING Turnbuckles Various turnbuckle attachments are indi- cated in illustration #71. Bl le saw stua ig) IMustration #71 ~ Turnbuckle End Fittings vas REDUCED ‘caPAcTY caren ee ee eress eee eee RIGGING Turnbuckles If vibration is present, it is important to lock the frame of the end fitting, as in illustration #72A. Do not use jam nuts on turnbuckles which do not come equipped with them. They add to the load on the thread. 0 NOT USE JAM NUTS Lock wine wi HOLD Zz lMlustration #72 ~ Turnbuckle Locking Turnbuckles/Rings & Links 71 Rings & Links Most rings and links have the S.W.L. stamped on the forgings. If they are not stamped, use tables #22, #23, #24, #25 and #26 to calculate the safe working load WELDLESS RINGS Forged Steel — Heat Treated Dimensions Diameter inside | Safe Working Stock Diameter | Load Single inches __| inches _| Pull Pounds im 4 7,200 s 5% 5,600 Hy 4 10,600 i) 6 10,400 uA 5 17,000 ie 6 19,000 Table #22 ~ Ring & Link Sate Working Loads | Pear Shaped Links/Swivels 72| RIGGING Pear Shaped Links Swivels Pear Shaped Links Swivels ] i Zo) CY on) © Weldless Construction Weldiess Construction Forged Alloy Steel Forged Alloy Stee! \ | A\ fea) OOS Stock Inside | Maximum Sate Stock Diameter Max. Safe Working Diameter | Length Working Load ~ (Inches) Load (Pounds) (inches) | (Inches) (Pounds) ry 350 % 2A 1,600 Me 1,250 % 3 2,900 % 2.250 % aM 4,200 % 3,600 % ah 6,000 % 5.200 % 5h 8,300 % 7,200 1 6 10,800 % 10,000 1% ™% 16.750 1 12,500 Lo 8% 20,500 1% 15,200 ‘Table #23 ~ Pear Shaped Link Safe Working Loads Na Me oen Li | 45.200 | ‘Table #24 — Swivel Sate Working Loads RIGGING | End Links/Master Links End Links Master Links END LINKS MASTER LINKS Weldless Construction — ((——) Weldless Construction Forged Alloy Steel Forged Alloy Steel ‘Stock Inside Maximum Sate ‘Stock Inside Maximum Safe Diameter | Width Working Load Diameter | _ Wiath Working Load (inches) | (Inches) (Pounds) (inches) _| (Inches) (Pounds) Hs % 2,500 % 2 4,100 % %e 3,800 % 3 5,500 h % 6,500 % 2% 8,600 % 1 9,300 1 3% 20,300 % 1% 14,000 1% % 29,300 % 2 12,000 1% 5A 39,900 1 24 15,200 % 6 52,100 1% 2h 26,400 a 7 81,400 as es 30.000 Table #26 — Master Link Safe Working Loeds Table #25 ~ End Link Sate Working Loads RIGGING Spreader Beams Spreader beams are used to support long, hard to handle loads during lifting. The use of these bars eliminates load tipping, sliding or bending. They also decrease the possi- bility of very low sling angles. See illustra- tion #73A. Mlustration #73A ~ Spreader Beam Spreader/Equalizer Beams Equalizer Beams Equalizer beams are usually used on dual hoist lines to make tandem lifts, but can also be used to equalize the load on sling legs, as in illustration #738. Note: Custom fabricated lifting beams, or any other lifting device must be designed by an engineer and have its capacity clearly stamped. It should be tested at 125% of rated capacity. Mustration #738 ~ Equalizer Beam RIGGING |_ Spreader Beam Rigging Data Sheet Rigging Data Sheet Example 1 Grtcnne oaaron DAA \ oa ) RIGGING HOOK UP sons specs es cats gece: ar Tmo 5 cranes wis VE, an OX CRE MATS F TIGGING OMA SHEET FOR io llustration #74A ~ Rigging Data Sheet Example 75 76 RIGGING ing Data Sheet Example 2 [UFT GRAN DATA FOR Loar 7 uso; unm. [est crow oe: ane SST eee emmeerrimauss veneeese eo eee eee rome ree Be a coeetianeeeal| TIGGNG DATA SHEET FOR tustration #748 | Lifting Data Sheet/Manbasket Safety Manbasket Safety Requirements Manbaskets used to hoist per- sonnel have stringent regula- tions on both design and construction. ilustration #75 shows a manbasket con- structed to OSHA require- ments. The standard states: 1. A bridle sling used to sup- port the basket must have a master link or shackle to evenly distribute the weight. 2. The bridle sling and any other rigging attachments used for manbasket hoisting shall not be used for any other purpose. 3. Before personnel use a basket, trial lifts with the ees aa RRR RR ER RIGGING Manbasket Safety/Construction 7 Manbasket Safety/Construction anticipated weight must be made to any location(s) where the basket may be po- sitioned. Trial lifts shall be performed every time the crane is repositioned. The total weight of the loaded platform and related rigging shall not exceed 50% of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the crane. ‘The number of employees occupying the personnel platform shall not exceed the number required for the work being per- formed if the hoist line is non-rotating wire rope, the safety factor must be 10: 1. Acrane must be equipped with an anti-two block device. . The crane must have a flip over, positive type hook atch, ome Canadian OCHS regulations re- quire a safety line attached to the basket and to the load line above the headache ball. Manbasket Design (Must be Approved by an Engineer) Headioam shal be proved watch chowe ompoyese 6 / Sand apignt in paborn / andrea eas 42 high /Srabrait inside to minimize / Pend exposure Gate (wnen used) shall swing Inward and be equipped wit a postive latch Mirai haltway betwoon floor ang nandral | Tooboard "high Noni oor must suppor 50 Ibs. pe square fot cafbued road ‘Solid rom migra o toe board orexpanded matl wit no Spentngs larger than 172" \._ The weight ofthe ony \ platiorm ana tod capacity Shale peranarty marked onthe patorm IMlustration #75 ~ Manbasket Design | 78| RIGGING Chain Try to avoid using chain when it is possible to use wire rope. The failure of a single link of a chain results in the complete failure of the chain, whereas the wire rope is made up of many wires and strands and they must all fail before the rope breaks. Chain usually gives no warning when it is about to break, other than obvious visible signs, whereas a wire rope breaks through a progression of snapping wires and strands which can usu- ally be clearly heard. Chain is not suitable for impact loading as there is no elasticity. A wire rope should not be shock loaded either, but it does allow limited flexibility. Chains are better suited than wire rope for certain jobs as they will withstand rougher handling and will not kink. Chains are much More resistant to abrasion and corrosion than wire rope and well suited as slings in industrial plants for lifting loads such as heavy castings. Chain Identification Chain Grade Identification Chain should have an identifying mark stamped regularly on the link, as indicated in illustration #76. Chain quality identifica- tion is confusing as every manufacturer uses. adifferent system of marking, although some of the more common markings for alloy hoisting chain are ‘'A”, '‘T”, or a version of the number ''8", such as "80" or “800”. ASTER UN CHAIN Uns RIGGING Chain Safety hain Safety Tips Keep shock loading to a minimum. Cc 1. 2. @ NOE Never shorten a chain by tying a knot in it, or by bolting two links together. A chain has its maximum strength with the load running in a straight line through the links. Only use alloy hoist slings for lifting a load. Never use decking chain for lifting. With- ‘out being familiar with chain identifica- tion the strength of a chain will be unknown. For example a chain with 1/4” (6.4 mm) links can vary in S.W.L. from 1200 to 3500 (00 to 1544 kg) pounds, depending upon the grade. Never use homemade links. Never use repair links on alloy chain. Never weld an alloy chain. If the links of a chain bind on each other the chain is overstretched. Always use softeners on the corners of rectangular loads. This reduces trans- verse loading which chain is not designed for. See illustration #77. Mustration #77 - Chain Bending Around Corners: Chain Inspection 1. Cleana chain before inspection. Dirt and grease hide nicks and cracks. 2. inspect for wear. Any portion of the chain worn by 15% should be removed from service immediately. See illustration ‘#78A. — IMuetration #78A — Chain Wear RIGGING Chain Inspection 3. Inspect for stretch. Compare the chain with its rated length or with a new length of chain. A set of slings with a master link can hang and the length can be com- pared. Any length increase means wear or stretch. See illustration #78B,C. Ifthe length is increased 3% the chain must be inspected carefully. Ifitis stretched more than 5% it should be removed from serv- ice. llustration #78B,C - Chain Stretch Chain Inspection CHAIN WEAR (A391 QUALITY) MINIMUM ALLOY | MAXIMUM | THICKNESS. CHAIN | ALLOWABLE | ALLOWABLE WEAR __| AT LINK ENDS = 11/64" (171) 364" (.046) 13/64" (203) 564" (.078) 19/64" (281) 764" (109) | 22164" (.343) 27164" (.421) 34164" (531) 11164"(.171) | 40/64" (.625) 12/64" (.187)| 47/64" (.734) 41/8" 16/64" (250) | __58/64" (,906) | ‘Seo page 495 for Grade 80 Wear Chart {abit Chain Wear 4. Inspect for twisted or bent links. See illustration #78D. Inspect for cuts, gouges, or nicks. See ilustration #78E. Sy lustration #78D,E - Twisted and Gouged Links RIGGING Chain Inspection 5. Inspect for cracks. If any are found replace the entire chain. 6. Inspect for localized stretching. A chain can be overloaded in one specific area. See illustration #79B for an example. TENSION IS TENSION IS Ilustration #79A,B - Localized Chain Stretch Chain Inspection 7. Inspect the link welds. Lifted fins at the weld edges signifies overloading. See illustration #80. 8. Inspect the chain sling master rings for any wear or stretching, also check the hooks for damage, signs of overloadng or cracks. Hooks should be equipped with safety latches. Note: Chain wear gages are available from chain manufacturers and distributors. RIGGING Chain Inspection 5. Inspect for cracks. If any are found replace the entire chain. 6. Inspect for localized stretching. A chain can be overloaded in one specific area. See illustration #79B for an example. TENSION IS TENSION IS Ilustration #79A,B - Localized Chain Stretch Chain Inspection 7. Inspect the link welds. Lifted fins at the weld edges signifies overloading. See illustration #80. 8. Inspect the chain sling master rings for any wear or stretching, also check the hooks for damage, signs of overloadng or cracks. Hooks should be equipped with safety latches. Note: Chain wear gages are available from chain manufacturers and distributors. 82 RIGGING Chain Safe Working Load MAXIMUM SAFE WORKING LOAD “A” TYPE ALLOY STEEL CHAIN SINGLE VERTICAL SLING Chain Size Capacity (Inches) (Pounds) ee 3,250 % 6,600 ‘e 11,250 16,500 | % 23,000 % 28,750 1 38,750 1% 44,500 1% 57,500 156 67,000 1 80,000 1% 100,000 ‘Table #28~ Chain Sate Working Loads Chain Safe Working Load Chain S.W.L. Rule of Thumb Formula tule of thumb formula for the safe working load of chain is: Diameter squared (of the chain link) x 6 = Safe Working Load D?x6 = Safe Working Load Example: % inch diameter chain stock: % x % x6 = 3Ys tons or 6,600 Ibs. Safe Working Load = 6,600 Ibs. The above safe working load formula is based on a lower quality decking chain. As the quality of a chain will be unknown in most cases, itis safer to use a formula giving low values. Chain Sling Safety Latches Safety latches should be standard on all chain sling hooks and the hooks are to be made from forged steel. ees Fs fo EE FY FS PN OS | Chain Sling Chart RIGGING 83 CHAIN SLINGS - SAFE WORKING LOADS (BASED ON ASTM A391 CHAIN) NOMINAL | SINGLE DOUBLE CHAIN SLINGS. TRIPLE AND QUAD CHAIN CHAIN | CHAIN SLINGS Ca = 60°(30")__45°(45°)_~ 30°(60") | 60°(30°)__45°(45")__30°(60°) inch Ibs. Ibs. Ibs. Ibs. | tos. Ibs, Ibs. 9/3214) 3.250 5,650 4,650 3,250 8.400 6.800 4,900 38, 6,600 44,400 9,300 6,600 17,000 14,000 9.900 12 11,250 19,500 15,900 | 11,250 29,000 24,000 17,000 58, 16,500 28,500 | 23,300 416,500 43,000 35,000 | 24,500 304, 23,000 39,800 | 32,500 | 23,000 59,500 | 48,500 | 34,500 mom kg kg kg kg kg kg kg 7 4.475 2,570 2,070 1.475 3,820 3,100 2.225 40 3,000 5.180 4.225 3,000 7.725 6.375 4,500 13 5115 8,860 7,225 5,120 43,200 40.900 7.725 16 7,500 12,950 410,600 7,500 19,550 15,900 11,125 20 10.450 18,100 44,775 10,450 27,050 | 22,050 15,675 Notes: 1. Quadruple Sling Rating is the same as Triple Sling Rating because liting practice may not distribute oad uniformly. 2. Angles in parentheses are vertical angles. 3. See page 496 for Grade 80 Sling Chart ‘Table #29 Chain Sling Capacitos | Chain Safety 84| RIGGING Chain Safety NEVER OVERLOAD USE PADS AROUND DONTDROP LOAD CENTERLOAD ‘SHARP CORNER: ON Mustration #81 - Chain Satety Tips. RIGGING Chain Basket Hitch Whenever using chain slings for a basket hitch, ensure that they are hooked back to the master link, not the chain itself, as in illustration #82A. If the hook is hooked into the chain the capacity is reduced by one quarter of the safe working load. ‘Mustration #82A,8 ~ Chain Hooked into Master Link Chain Basket Hitch/Load Leveller Chain Sling Load Leveller Chain sling load levellers, or load position- ers are available for lifting non-symmetrical loads. The sling lengths are adjustable, and when set are locked in position. This type of sling eliminates center of gravity calcula- tions. It also eliminates the task of trying to hook up two different sling lengths to bal- ance a load. See illustration #82C. Loap LeVELLER tlustration #820. Chaln Sling Losd Levelier 86 RIGGING Come-A-Long Safety Acome-a-long is alight, effective method of lifting or pulling a load. It is also one of the most abused pieces of equipment used; generally from severe overloading. These hoists are factory tested at 150% of capacity. The average come-a-long takes less than 100 pounds of pull on the lever to lift the rated load. Therefore two average sized workers hanging off the handle could be trying to lift a load 3 or 4 times heavier than what the hoist is rated for, and also beyond its built in safety factor. On some come-a-long hoists the handle will flex when overloaded. This is meant to be a warning to back off, not to put a snipe or cheater over the handle for more leverage. See illustration #83 for a typical come-a-long, and illustration #85 for a bad come-a-long practice. See table #30A for typical come-a- long information. Come-a-Long/Chain Fall Chain Hoist Overload is accomplished very easily with- ‘out realizing it in a chain fall due to the gear- ing system. As the chain pull numbers in table #30B indicate, the pull to lift any capacity takes less than 100 pounds. Two people pulling on the hoist chain will be trying to lift far more than the hoist is rated for. See illustration #84 for a typical chain fall. lMustration #854,8 - Typical Chan Fall lMustration #84 - Typical Come-e-Long RIGGING Come-A-Long/Chain Fall Data TYPICAL COME-A-LONG SPECIFICATIONS, ‘TON TON STON Max. Capacity (Tons) he Yh 3 Standara Lint) 5 5 5 Pullon Sid. Lever to Lit Full Load (Lbs.) 88 8 95 Net Weight (Lbs) 14 28 34 Shipping Weight (Lbs) 16 26 37 Minimum Distance Between Hooks (In) 10%, 14, 7 Lover Length in) an, a, 2% Standard Langth of Chain 5" 56" tt Chain Size (In) “he ha “ha Tle #304 = Come-Lang Data 5 TYPICAL CHAIN FALL SPECIFICATIONS Maximum Capaety (Ton) “ [1 t[mil2i[s[«ts [slew Standard Lf a |e [e|s|s)/s|s|s]el|e Net Weight (Lbs) 33_|96_[ 59 | 60 | e4 | 01 | 122 | 127 | 207 | 219 Shipping Weight (Lbs) 3s_[38_| 63 | 64 | 91 | 98 | 129 | 194 | 257 | 2a SrotestDatance | same | 14 | 17% | 170 | eve | anv | 20m | 25m | ovv | ose Granovarauedts | zz | wo | «om | ee |e | woe | vee | vee | 20 | 2m Crean Load (bs. 4s | 69 | 8 | 03 | 6 | 0 | 75 | 90 | 9 | 95 Table #308 - Chain Fall Data 87 2a| RIGGING | Come-A-Long/Chain Fall Safety (CHECK HOIST BEFORE USING |_ Small Hoist Safety lustration #86 - Typical Over-the-Floor Gantry The smaller over-the-floor gantry (illustra: tion #86) and monorail hoists are OCHS/ OSHA regulated concerning design, opera- tion, and inspection. These hoists are usu- ally electric powered, but can be pneumatic or have a hand chain. General guidelines for their use are listed below: 1. Check the hoist before use and service it regularly. 2. Use the hoist properly. This means the hook is seated correctly, the hoist and load are free, the load will lift in a straight line, the swivel is free, and the load is safely rigged. Keep everybody clear of a moving load. Do not wrap the hoist load chain around aload asa sling. Do not ride on moving loads. Do not hotrod with a powered hoist. This means not jerking or shock loading the hoist, travelling too fast, allowing the load to swing, or bumping into objects. on pe 90 | RIGGING | Load Binder (Boomer) Safety A standard binder and a ratchet binder are shown in illustration #87. STANDARD LOAO BINDER STANDARD. RATCHET BINDER, Mlustration #87A - Standard Binder llustration #878 ~ Standard Ratchet Binder 1. Hook the binder so it can be tightened. while standing on the ground, pulling the lever downward. Have secure footing. Load Binder Safety 2. The manufacturers recommend against using a snipe (handle extension) for more leverage. Use a ratchet type instead. Using a snipe can overload the chain and damage the load, it can also fly danger- ously if it slips. If an extension must be used, fasten it so it cannot fly off. After tightening, check that the handle is in the down position. Secure the handle by wrapping it with the load chain or a piece of wire. Keep well clear when releasing a loaded binder. Never use a snipe over the han- dle; use a bar and pry under the handle. When releasing by hand, push upwards with an open palm. Routinely lubricate the binder moving parts. Routinely check all parts for wear, bend- ing, or cracks. Be familiar with any regulations concern- ing the size or number of load securing ‘systems on trucks. . Be aware of the position of other person- nel when tightening or releasing a binder. RIGGING |__Load Binders (Boomers) STANDARD LOAD BINDER MIN-MAX WORKING MINIMUM CHAIN | HANDLE LoaD PROOF | ULTIMATE SIZE LENGTH | TAKE-UP | LIMIT LOAD |STRENGTH,| WEIGHT (in) (in) (in) (tbs) (Ibs) (ibs) (ibs) gla 16 4h 5400 10,800 19,000 6.70 ys the 18%, ah, 8200 16,400 26,000 11.50 "ee 24 l, 11,500 23,000 37,000 18.70 ‘Table #31-- Standard Binder Data STANDARD RATCHET LOAD BINDER MIN-MAX WORKING MINIMUM CHAIN | HANDLE | BARREL LOAD | PROOF | ULTIMATE SIZE LENGTH | LENGTH | TAKE-UP | LIMIT LOAD |STRENGTH,| WEIGHT (in) (in) (in) (in) (ibs) (bs) (tbs) (bs) haa 14 10 8 400 | 10800 | 19000 | 10.50 Shy ‘le 14 10. 8 200 _| 18400 | 33000 | 12.90 Taste 14 10 8 13000 | 26000 | 46000 | 14.38 ‘Table #32 ~ Standard Ratchet Binder Data 91 92 RIGGING Sheaves Sheaves Always check the condition and dimensions of sheave grooves before a new wire rope is placed in service. The bottom of the groove Should have an arc of support of at least 120° to 150°, as indicated in illustration #88. nope SHOULD BE SuPrORTED BY THE ShEAve OVER AN ARC OF 20-180" tustration #88 ~ Shoave Support To ensure along and efficient rope life, the grooves should be smoothly contoured, free Si Surface defects and have rounded edges. When the groove diameter wears: toless than the values for minimum conditions, regroove or replace the sheave. This is indicated on table #33. fe “Amount By whieh the Groove ‘Diameter should exceed the Mi Nominal Rope Diameter (Inches) OSmeter |For Minimum] For New or Regrooves’ inches) ___| Gondtons | __ Sheaves or Orums ‘ie and smalier RIGGING Sheave Diameter Do not operate wire rope over a sheave smaller than the "‘critical' diameter indi- cated on table #34. When using small diam- eter sheaves, the excessive and repeated bending and straightening of the wires leads to premature failure from fatigue. SHEAVE DIAMETER TABLE Rope Minimum Critical Construction Diameter | Diameter 6x3 Seale 34xD | 20x0 8 x 19 Filler Wire 30xD | 16x0 8 x 19 Warrington 30xD | 16x0 8x 19 Seale 26x | 16x0 8x 19 Filer Wire 26xD | 16xd 6x 22 Filler Wire 23xD | 16x 8x 19 Warrington 2x0 | 14x0 8x 19 Filer Wire 2x0 | t4xD 6x37 Seale 1x0 | 14x0 Table #34 Sheave Olameters Sheave Diameter (Rule of Thumb) The critical diameter of a wire rope sheave should be at least 20 times the diameter of the wire rope. TONE EEN ERROR RRR RR INRTTRRT TT TT Sheave Diameter/Blocks Blocks Blocks are used when moving heavy objects weighing more than the safe working load of a single wire rope. The sheaves transmit the load imposed by the wire rope to the center pin, then to the side straps and connections. Crane Blocks These blocks have heavy weights on the sides of the blocks to help downhaul the hook when unloaded, as indicated in illustration #89. cueex weiours Sisrmcuie is Nee oF Lock FaOM Wine ROPE BLOCKS Iustration #89 ~ Crane Blocks 93 94 | RIGGING | Sheave and Drum Efficiencies Minimum 2 ** [ora Ration = Suggested st 51 a5 45 45 6 id ato SHEAVE AND DRUM RATIOS 6 x 25.8 Flattened Strand 6 x 27 H Flattened Strand| 6 x 30G Flattened Strand| Resistant 6x 19s 8x 21FW 6 x 26WS 6x 25FW 8x 31WS 6 x 97SFW 6x 36WS 6x 43FWS: 6x 4tWS 6x7 19x 7or18 x 7 Rotation Construction” 6x 41SFW 6x 49SWS ‘ead diameter of sheave nominal diameter of ope 6 6 x 43 FW(20p) 8 x 45SFW 6 x 45WS, 8x 19S 8x 25FW E 3 op. } Note: Wire rope manufacturers indicate the efficiency, or wire rope strength decreases as it passes over sheaves. Any capacity calculations with wire rope passing over a sheave should be reduced bya minimum 5%. “Table #35-Sheave end Drum Ratios The smaller the sheave the higher the inef- ficiency. A 1” IWRC rope rated at 44.9 tons should be reduced to 42.6 tons. The reduc- tion is only calculated once, not com- pounded on multi-sheave blocks. RIGGING Wire Rope Blocks These blocks are much lighter than hook blocks as they are not subjected to the abuse of hook blocks. They are equipped with cheek straps. The cheek straps provide strength between the end attachments and sheave center pins. Two types of wire rope blocks are indicated in illustration #90A. once Hees Sims Staaes hustration #908 - Wire Rope Blocks Wire Rope Blocks/Snatch Blocks 95 Snatch Blocks Snatch blocks are used to change the direc- tion of a wire rope without having to thread the wire rope through the block, see illustra- tion #90B. Iilustration #908 ~ Snateh Block The stress on the snatch block varies with the angle between the lead and load lines. When both the lead and load lines are par- allel, the stress on the block hook is double the weight of the load, but as the angle increases the stress on the hook is reduced. To determine the stress on a hook, multiply the pull on the lead line by a suitable factor from table #36. 96] RIGGING Snatch Blocks Snatch Blocks Note: On a straight vertical pull (Illustra- tion #91A), the block rigging must hold double the load weight. 2000 POUNDS 1840 POUNDS: A Soorcunos ‘eo POUNDS ero PoUNOS: 760 POUNDS fe 10 PoUNos iomranwes | Snatch Block Tension ‘Mustration #91 MULTIPLICATION FACTORS FOR SNATCH BLOCK LOADS ‘Angle Between Lead Multiplication and Factor Load Lines 10° 1.99) 20° 197 30° 1.93 40° 1.87 50° 1.81 60" 1.73 70° 1.64 80° 1.53 90° 1.41 100° 1.29 110° 4.15 120° 1.00 130° 84 140° 68 150° 52 160° 35 170° 17 180° 00 ‘Table #36 ~ Factors for Snaich Block Loads RIGGING | Mechanical Advantage The mechanical advantage of a machine is the amount by which the machine multiplies the force applied to it in order to lift or move a load. Here, the machine is a pulley or a combination of pulleys forming a block and tackle system. The top fixed sheaves on the block have no other function than to change the direction of the rope. The sheave on the travelling block will create a mechanical advantage of 2: 1 on each sheave. Calculating The Mechanical Advantage Of ABlock System: Count the number of lines supporting the load, with the exception of the lead line when it comes down over the top block. The lead line pulling down is not counted for mechan- ical advantage. If the lead line comes up to ‘the winch from the travelling block it will be counted as a supporting line and included in the mechanical advantage, as indicated in illustration #928. Mechanical Advantage | 97 llustration #92 Load Parts Block Speed and Distance The block speed and distance of load travel is determined by the mechanical advan- tage. The speed of the load is calculated by dividing the lead line speed by the number of parts of line, or M/A; or in other words, using a5 : 1 M/A the lead line will travel five feet for every foot the load is lifted. 98| RIGGING Mechanical Advantage/Block Friction Mechanical Advantage Block Friction Example The amount of wire rope needed forthe sys- © - Load = 60,000 Ibs. or 30 tons tem is determined by multiplying the num- with a 6 part line ber of parts of line by the travel distance of the load, plus enough wire rope to go to the winch and have at least five full wraps on the winch drum. Block Friction When the load moves, part of the lifting force is lost due to friction in the turning of the sheaves, and the wire rope bending over the sheaves. The lead line pull must be increased to make up for this loss. This relationship between a rope sheave and friction is called efficiency, and is usually expressed in terms of percent. Each type of sheave has a different friction percentage. The extra load added by friction is calou- lated progressively on a line-by-line, sheave to sheave basis. - Static load on each line equals 60,000/6 = 10,000 Ibs. load on each line - Roller bearing sheaves used nae don Calculation #1 (becket line) 10, 000 eS Total * Line #2 10,000 Ibs. x 3% 10,300. * Line #3 10,300 Ibs. x 3% 30 10,609 . #4 10,609 Ibs. x 3% = 318= 10,927 « Line #5 10,927 Ibs. x 3% = 328= 11,255 * Line #6 11,255 Ibs. x 3% = 338 = 11,593 * Lead line pull = 11,593 x 3% = 348 = The lead line pull would be 11,947 Ibs. RIGGING Block Friction Ratio Block Friction Ratio To calculate the number of parts of line tobe used for a given load, or the line pull required for a given load, use table #37. Examples are provided with directions. Table #37 includes ratio charts for fibre rope blocks of 10% friction, wire rope bronze bushed sheaves at 5% friction, and wire rope roller bearing sheaves at 3% friction. Block Friction Ratio Calculations Three calculations can be made using the block friction ratio table #37. © The number of wire, or fibre rope parts of line required to make a lift. * Determine the maximum load that can be lifted with a given rigging arrangement. * Determine the lead line pull when the load weight and number of parts of line are established or the rope size is known. RATIO FACTORS TO ACCOUNT FOR FRICTION LOADS. # of | Bronze Bronze Roller Parts | bushed bushed bearing of fibre wire wire Lines| rope 10% | rope 5% | rope 3% 1 a 95 7 2 1.65 1.82 1.89 3 2.26 259 275 4.) 274 3.28 3.54 5 ant 391 431 6 3.39 4.48 5.00 7 361 4.96 5.69 8 374 Sat 6.30 9 581 687 10 613 741 1" 6.43 791 12 667 8.39 3 6.88 saa 14 7.97 927 15 724 9.62 16 7:34 9.94 7 7.42 10.30 8 7.48 1059 19 751 10.80 20 755 11.05 ‘Table #37 ~ Block Friction Ratios 100 RIGGING Number of Parts of Line Required 1, Determine the (S.W.L.) of the wire rope. Formula: diameter squared x 8 = (S.W.L.). 2. Weight of the load 3. Calculated load/S.W.L. = R (ratio). 4. Ratio chart table #37. The number of parts of line is indicated opposite the ratio in table #37. Block Friction Ratio Calculations Parts of Line Example: Size of wire rope: 1% inches Load weight: 75 tons Type of sheaves: roller bearing . S.W.L. of 1% inch rope = 1.25x1.25x8 = 12.6 tons Total weight of load: 75 tons 75 tons/12.5 = 6 (ratio) From the column under Roller Bearing wire rope 3%, we read 6.30 is the next highest number over the calculated angwer of6. The fistcolumn gives 8 parts of line. RIGGING Block Friction Ratio Calculation Maximum Load 1. The number of parts of line to be used. 2. Type of sheaves: 3% for roller bearings, 5% for bronze bushing. 3. The safe working load of the wire rope to be used or the maximum lead line pull. Formula: diameter squared x 8 = (S.W.L.) 4, Use the ratio from table #37 opposite the number of parts of line. 5. Calculate the maximum (S.W.L.) of the wire rope or the lead line pull x the ratio of the maximum load. Maximum Load Example: 14 parts of line roller bearing sheaves 3% 44 inch wire rope . 14 parts of ine. . Roller bearing sheaves: 3% loss due to friction. . % inch wire rope: .75 x .75x8 = 4.5tons (S.W.L) . Chart ratio opposite the number of parts of line: 9.27 (table #37). . Calculate the maximum load (S.W.L): 4.5 x ratio (9.27) = 41.715 0r 42 tons maximum load. RIGGING Calculations Determine the lead line pull and wire rope diameter needed when the load weight and number of parts of line are estab- lished. 1. The type of sheave: 3% for roller bear- ings, 5% for bronze bushings. 2. The total weight of the load including lift- ing equipment. 3. The number of parts of line to be used. 4. Caloulate the line pull by dividing the load weight by the Ratio (opposite the correct number of parts of the chart on table #37. 5, Load weight/Ratio = lead line pull 6. Calculate the size of wire rope needed, safety factor of five, table #3. Block Friction Ratio Calculations Lead Line Pull & Wire Rope Diameter Example: bronze bushed sheaves = 5% — load weight = 25 tons parts of line = 8 ' . Bronze bushed sheave = 5% . Weight of the load = 25 tons . Parts of line to be used = 8 . Chart Ratio (opposite the number of parts on table #37). Ratio = 5.41 . Calculate the lead line pull = 25 tons / 5.41 ratio = 4.62 tons, . Calculate the size of wire rope needed: table #3, IWRC improved plow with a safety factor of 5; to the next highest number = % inch. 7. %" = 25.6 tons (B.S. - table #3) minus 5% = 24.3 tons. 8, Lead line pull of 4.62 tons x 5 (S.F.) = 23.1 tons of breaking strength required. 2 9 poeVa REEVING Reeving Methods Following are several tips to help block reev- ing: « ‘If the stationary block has more than two sheaves the lead line should be posi- tioned in the center sheaves to balance the block under load. * When both blocks have the same number of sheaves, the rope dead end (becket) is attached to the stationary block. When the number of sheaves per block varies, the becket is on the block with the fewer sheaves. * When reeving, the becket end should be fed through the blocks starting where the lead line exits, and continued on through toward the becket connection. This elim- inates pulling all of the wire rope through the blocks. * Before reeving, position the blocks as close together as possible. This make the process much easier with less wire rope to pull through. Reeving Methods * The popular methods of arranging wire rope and sheaves to gain mechanical advantage are lacing, square reeving, and skip reeving. Lacing Lacing is a very uncomplicated method of putting the rope through a set of blocks. The end of the wire rope is fed through the out- side sheave on the top block, continue through the outside sheave on the travelling block, up to the second sheave on the top block, and down to the second sheave on the travelling block. This method is contin- ued to the last sheave. Becket off the end, as in illustration #93. * The main disadvantage of lacing is that the line travels much faster on one side, this tilts the blocks, causing the line to scrub and wear the block supports. * The advantages to lacing are: it allows the blocks to come close together (important where headroom is at a premium) and there are no reverse bends. 104 | RIGGING | Lacing/Square Reeving Lacing Example __Mlustration #93~ Block Lacing Square Reeving The blocks are positioned with one block turned 90 degrees to the other. The main advantage is that the blocks are brought into balance and run smooth and level. Square reeving has two major disadvan- tages: * The blocks cannot come close together due to the positioning of the blocks and wire rope. This causes the block to block lines to run severe angles when close together, resulting in line scrub and sheave wear. * The wire rope used on square reeved blocks continually goes through reverse bending. Reverse bending in a wire rope will eventually result in bending fatigue. Most sets of blocks can be square reeved in two types of patterns. The better method has the lead line coming off one of the center sheaves for balance. The other has the lead line coming off an end sheave. An uneven block pull is partially offset here with the next ling coming off the sheave on the opposite end. RIGGING |_ Square Reeving [105 Square Reeving Examples IMustration #94 Iustration #95 ~ IMustration #98 — Square Reeving Four Part ‘Square Reeving Five Part ‘Square Reeving Six Part 106| RIGGING | Square Reeving Square Reeving Examples Mustration #97 ~ Square Reeving Seven Part Mlustration #98 ~ Square Reeving Eight Part RIGGING Square Reeving Square Reeving Example Ten Part - Square Reeved * Enter the lead line at the front of the sta- tionary block at sheave C. Down behind the travelling block and through sheave |. Up behind and through D. Down in front and through G. Up in front and through B. Down behind and through J. Up behind and through E. Down in front and through F. Up in front and through A. Down behind and through H. Up and becket off on the stationary block for 10 parts, as in illustration #99, Mlustration #99 - Square Reoving Ten Part 107 108] RIGGING |_ Square Reeving Square Reeving Example Twelve Part - Square Reeved * Enter the lead line at the front of the sta- tionary block at sheave D. Down in front of the travelling block and go through J. Up behind and through A. Down behind and through G. Up in front and through F. Down in front and through L. Up behind and through B. Down behind and through H Up in front and through E. Down in front and through K. Up behind and through C Down behind and through |. Up to the stationary block and becket off for 12 parts, as in illustration #100. Iustration #100 ~ Square Reeving Twelve Part RIGGING Types - Characteristics Fibre Rope Fibre rope can be made from natural fibres or synthetic fibres. The natural fibre rope is derived from plants and the synthetic fibre rope is made from chemicals. Natural Fibre Rope The length of the fibres in natural fibre rope is at most a few feet and the effectiveness in this state is very limited. The fibres are first twisted into yarns, these are laid up into strands, and finally three or more strands are formed into a rope, as in illustration #101 Construction Uses The only type of natural fibre rope that is used in the construction industry is Number One Grade Manila. The other types of natural fibre rope are not strong enough or deteriorate too quickly. Fibre Rope Types Manila Rope Number One Natural Manila is strong and durable. It is recognized by its light yellow color. As the grade and strength decreases, the color darkens. A low grade Manila is dark brown. The minimum breaking strength of a one inch diameter manila rope is 9,000 pounds (4 082 kg). Fane Ilustration #101 - Fibre Rope Construction 110 RIGGING Types - Characteristics The following types of natural fibre rope are not used in the construction industry due to various undesirable qualities. Hemp Hemp is the strongest of the natural fibre ropes. It deteriorates quickly when wet. Sisal Sisal is approximately 75% the strength of untarred hemp. It will stand exposure to sea water. Coir Coir is made from coconut husk fibres. Very elastic and about one quarter the strength of hemp. It will float on water. Cotton Cotton is approximately 60% as strong as hemp. Fibre Rope Types Synthetic Fibre Rope Synthetic ropes have individual threads and fibres that run continuously through the rope. All synthetic ropes have a common charac- teristic and thatis a resistance to rot, mildew and more strength than natural fibre rope. Nylon Nylon is the strongest rope available. It will absorb greater shock load than any other and outlast all natural fibre ropes by a wide mar- gin. Nylon is flexible, has high abrasion resistance, can be stored wet, resists most alkalis and organic solvents. It will not rot. Nylon rope is ideal for anchor lines, cou- plers, hawsers, tie-up lines, safety and mountaineering ropes. Itis also widely used in commercial fishing. Sa RIGGING Fibre Rope Types/Uncoiling han Types - Characteristics To find the safe working loads of new fibre Polyester (terylene) rope see table #38. Polyester is not as strong as nylon, but it is twice the strength of Manila, It stretches far less than Nylon but slightly more than Manila. It has excellent resistance to abrasion, chemicals and weathering. Polyester ropes are recommended wherever minimum stretch, high strength and durability are needed. Polypropylene Polypropylene is the lightest, most econom- ical and widely used, rope on the market. Strength is far greater than Manila. Other characteristics are long life, ease of han- dling, flexibility in cold temperatures, excel- lent resistance to most acids and alkalis and very good impact loading. And it floats! It is supplied in many colors and color combina- tions. Polyethylene Polyethylene is 50% as strong as nylon and resists acids and alkalis. Uncoiling Rope A new coil of rope should be laid flat, with the inside rope end on the floor. Reach down inside and pull the rope up through, unwind- ing it in a counter clockwise direction, as in illustration #102. Ilustration #102 ~ Proper Rope Uncolling Even though the rope is properly uncoiled, loops and kinks will likely form. These must be removed to prevent damage. 112 RIGGING Coiling Fibre Rope Coiling Rope After use, recoil the rope in a clockwise direction. Loop the rope over your arm and tie with two half hitches. Leave a short end for carrying or hanging from a peg, as in illustration #103. oom Illustration #103 ~ Proper Rope Colling RIGGING Whipping Natural Fibre Rope When cutting a natural fibre rope, the ends must be taped, or whipped with a small twine to prevent the rope from untwisting, as in illustration #104. llustration #104 bre Rope Whipping Melting Synthetic Fibre Rope ‘As whipping will not stay in position on syn- thetic fibre rope, the common practice is to melt the strands together after cutting with a torch or lighter to keep the end from untwist- ing and fraying. Whipping/Melting/Inspection Fibre Rope Inspection Every foot of a rope should be inspected, as itis only as strong as its weakest part. Inspect the outer surface for broken yarns or fibres, then untwist the strands and observe the inside. On manila rope, look for a bright yellow color to indicate good quality. Broken fibres or powder inside a rope indi- cates the rope has been overloaded. The interior yarns of an overloaded rope will fail first. With a natural fibre rope, pull outa fibre and try to break it, if it breaks easily the rope has been overloaded or affected by mildew or dry rot. In northern regions one must be careful not to allow natural or synthetic fibre rope to freeze. This causes the separation of yarns and fibres. A frozen rope should not be dis- turbed until it has thawed. Exposure to sunlight will deteriorate a natu- tal fibre rope over a period of time. 114 RIGGING Fibre Rope Safety Factors Fibre rope used for rope falls, or hoisting personal has a safety factor of 10. For other uses the safety factor is 5. Safety factors are used to allow for the reduced capacity of rope due to normal wear, including exposure to sun and moisture, or the extra load imposed by jerky lifting and stopping. Manila rope will fail with a continued load as the rope fibres do not run the full length of the rope. They are intertwined and will pull apart under load. If loaded within 50% of its breaking strength the rope will fail in several hours, but if loaded within 75% of breaking strength it will fail within minutes - this is due to creepage of the fibres. Fibre Rope Safety Factors/Reductions Fibre Rope Breaking Strength Re eductions Knots tied in fibre rope reduce the strength by approximately 50%. ‘An eye splice reduces the strength of fibre rope by 20%. Fibre rope bent over sharp edges such as structural steel, reduces the ropes strength by 50%. Fibre ropes bent around each other inaU reduces the strength by 50%. Manila rope guylines should be slack- ened off if they become wet as manila swells and becomes shorter. RIGGING Fibre Rope Safe Working Load (S.W.L.) 115 Formula For The (S.W.L.) of Manila Fibre Rope Formula: Diameter (in inches) squared = the safe working load in tons. D? = S.WL. (Safe working load) This formula gives a safety factor of 5 to 1. Eg: "inch Manila rope: Ye" x Ya" = Ya ton or 500 Ibs. (S.W.L.) Eg: % inch Manila rope: A" x Ya" = %e tons or 1,125 Ibs. (S.W.L.). Note: This formula is not accurate In sizes larger than 1 inch (25.4 mm) in diameter. "APPROXIMATE SAFE WORKING LOADS OF NEW FIBRE ROPE (3-STRAND ROPES) ‘SAFETY FACTOR OF 5. Manila Nylon Polypropylene Polyester Polyethylene inches (om) | be [eo | Oe | +o | Oe | vo | Re | ¥o | (Oe ko ws (482) | 100 | 453] 200 | 907] 150 | 680] 200) 907] 150 | 680 ve (635) | 120 | 544] 300 | 1961 | 280 | 1134 | 300 | 1360] 250 | 1134 vs 7a | 200 | 907] 500 | 2268] 400 | 1814} 500 | 2268 | 350 | 1588 ae (sa) | 270 | 1225] 700 | arzs| s00 | 2258| 700 | 3175] 500 | 2268 ve 127) | $30 | 2404] 1.250 | 5669) 830 | 376s] 1200 | 5443] 800 | 3629 se (1588) | 680 | 3992 | 2000 | 9072} 1300 | S697 | 1.000 | 618 | 1050 | 4763 % (1908) | 1080 | 4899 | 2800 | 12700 | 1700 | 7713 | 2400 | 10886 | 1500 | 6804 mm — (2223) | 1150 | 6985 | 3800 | 17236 | 2200 | 9080 | 3.400 | 15422] 2100 | 9525 + @sa) | 1800 | at6s | 4800 | 21772 | 2900 | 13154 | 4200 | 19051 | 2500 | 1 13390 tm a7) | 2400 | 10888 | 6300 | 28576 | 3.750 | 17010 | S800 | 25401 | 3300 | 1 4089 tm (9175) | 2700 | 12067 | 7.200 | 32659 | 4200 | 19081 | 6300 | 20578 | 3700 | 16783 | ‘Teble #38 ~ Fibre Rope Sate Working Loads 116| RIGGING Crown Knot (Back Splice) Crown Knot (Back Splice) The purpose of the crown knot (back splice) is to keep the strands at the end of a rope from unraveling, The one drawback is that it won't fit through a sheave. * Unlay the strands, as shown in illustration #105, and lay strand A over the center of the rope, then bring B down over A, finally bring C down over B and through the bight ofA. * Pull the strands tight, then tuck each one by passing it over the second strand in the rope and under the third. There should be three tucks in each strand when using natural fibre rope and five tucks when using synthetic fibre rope. Trim the ends after completing the tucks. llustration #105 - Grown Knot (Backsplice) RIGGING Fibre Rope Short Splice 117 Fibre Rope Short Splice A short splice is only used when the rope _A short splice is 85% as strong as the origi- does not have to pass through a sheave as __nal fibre rope. the short splice doubles the rope diameter. * Unlay both ends for approximately eight turns. Whip the ends of the strands, then A bring them together so they interlock with a strand from one rope between two strands of the other rope, as in illustration #106A. © Apply temporary seizing to both ropes after they have been brought closely together. * Take any one strand and passitoverthe strand nearest and tuck it under the next, as in illustration #106C. * Tuck all six strands in both ropes at least three times for natural fibre, five times for synthetic. The ends can now be feath- ered out with several more tucks, then roll the splice to smooth it out, as in illustra- tion #106E. — =o, IMustration #108 ~ Short Splice 118 RIGGING Fibre Rope Long Splice This fibre rope splice is utilized when using rope falls as the rope diameter does not noticeably increase due to the splice. * Unlay the strands for 15 turns and seize both ends. Bring the ropes together with the strands interlaced, as in illustration #107A. © Cut the seizing on rope #1 and unlay a strand, then lay a strand of rope #2 in its place until there is approximately five turns left on this strand, as in illustration #1078. Fibre Rope Long Splice * Unlaya strand on rope #2, repeat the pro- cedure exactly as was done on the other side and cut the long ends of the strands with five turns projecting, as in illustration lM / c * Tie each strand together with an over- hand knot as in illustration #107D. RIGGING | Fibre Rope Long/Side Splice Fibre Rope Long Splice * Tuck the strand twice, then cut away some of the strand and tuck twice more, as in illustration #107E. sescn& E * Cut away the remaining strands and roll the splice on the floor under foot to smoothen out, as in illustration #107F. SEMIS SESS F Ilustration #107A-F ~ Long Splice Eye or Side Splice Eye or side splices are used to make eyes in fibre rope. All eye splices used for lifting should have a metal or nylon thimble. * Manila rope should be seized six turns from the end and synthetic ropes should be seized nine turns from the end. © The rope is then untwisted to the seizing. © Tuck the middle strand, #2, under #5, as in illustration #108A. 120| RIGGING | Fibre Rope Side Splice Fibre Rope Side Splice * The remaining rounds of tucks should be * Tuck strand #1 under strand #4 on the made by passing each protruding strand rope, as in illustration #1088. over and under the next strand, usually * Turn over the partially completed splice three times for manila and five times for and lock the eye in by tucking strand #3 synthetic. Cut away the remaining strands through the last remaining strand on the and roll the splice on the floor under foot rope, #6, as in illustration #108C. to smoothen out, as in illustration #108D. lustration #108 - Side Splice RIGGING Bowline/Bowline on the Bight 121 Bowline Bowline on the Bight The bowline is one of the most popular knots. The bowline on the bight is used to form a Itneverjamsorslips underloadandiseasily non slipping eye in the middle of a rope. See untied. Ithas a 50% efficiency. See illustra- illustration #110. tion #109. Ilustration #109 - Bowne HMlustration #110 ~ Bowline on the Bight 122| RIGGING Spanish Bowline Spanish Bowline The Spanish bowline can be tied atany point _Like alll bowlines, it will not slip and is easily ina line where it is doubled up. Itis the best _untied. The correct procedure to tie a Span- rescue knot as the loops are adjustable. ish bowline is indicated in illustration #111. c D A Iustration #111 ~ Spanish Bowilne RIGGING Self Centering Bowline 123 Self Centering Bowline It compliments a barrel or scaffold hitch, as The self centering bowline is used when a __nillustration #112. knot must be tied in the center of a load and an equal leg stress is required. lMlustration #112 ~ Self Centering Bowline 124| RIGGING Running Bowline/Clove Hitch Running Bowline Clove Hitch The running bowline is used to provide a The clove hitch is used to tie a rope toa pipe choker type sling at the end of a single line. or post. It can be tied in position or slipped The knot is made around the standing part over the end, as in illustration #114. of the rope and runs freely. It has 50% effi- ciency. The correct procedure to tie a run- ning bowline is indicated in illustration #113. RIGGING Becket/Timber/Stop Hitch 125 Becket Hitch Timber Hitch Abecket hitch is used to secure the endofa _A timber hitch is used for moving planks, line or rope to the becket on a set of rope _ pipes, etc. The load must have a steady pull falls, as in illustration #115. as any slack will release the hitch. It should [BECKET OF BLOCK be used with several half hitches, as in illus- tration #116, Stop Hitch A stop hitch is used mainly to maintain the pull on a line (wire or fibre), when the end of the line must be loosened and repositioned, as in illustration #117. BECKET HITCH Mlustration #115 ~ Becket Hitch Tugen —_TMBER MTOM wren TENOOF UNE Mlustration #117 ~ Stop Hitch Mlustration #116 ~ Timber Hitch 126 RIGGING Barrel Hitch/Reet Knot Barrel Hitch Abarrel hitch is used to support a barrel ver- tically. A self centering bowline is used to complete the knot, as in illustration #118. lustration #118 Barrol Hiteh Reef Knot A reet knot is also referred to as a square knot. See illustration #119. This knot is often misused or is not tied properly. Itis referred to asa “killer” knot. It must only be used to tie the two ends of a rope together. Do not use it as a bend for joining two ropes. RIGGING Sheet Bend/Carrick Bend 127 Sheet Bend Carrick Bend A sheet bend is used for tieing two ropes of _—_A carrick bend is used to tie large diameter unequal diameter together, as in illustration ropes together, as in illustration #121. This #120. This knot is not used on large diame- —_knot will draw up tightly but will not jamb. ter rope. ‘Mustration #121 ~ Carrick Bend 128| RIGGING | Sheepshank/Catspaw Sheepshank Catspaw ‘Asheepshank is used for shortening a rope A catspawiis used to attach a rope toa hook. or for removing the tension from aweak point Especially useful if the center of the rope is inthe rope, as in illustration #122. used, as in illustration #123. Iustration #122 - Sheepshank Ilustration #123 - Catepaw RIGGING Rope Strength With Knots, Bends and Hitches © Straight lengths of rope without knots or splices represent 100% of its strength. * When a knot is tied in a rope It loses approximately 50% , of its original strength. Uustration #124 Knots = 60% Etcloncy * When a bend Is tied in a rope it loses 50% of its original strength. lustration #125 Fibre Rope Strength With Knots | 129 * When a hitch is tied in a rope it loses 25% of its original strength. Iustration #126—Hitch = 75% Efficiency * When an eye splice or a short splice is tied in a rope it loses 15% of Its original strength. SD Se Mustration #127 — Splice = 85% Efficiency 130 RIGGING Tackle Blocks ‘When reeving a pair of blocks that have more than two sheaves, the hoisting rope should lead from one of the center sheaves on the upper block. The hoisting strain is then placed on the center of the block. This pre~ Vents the block from toppling and damaging the fibre rope. The two blocks should be positioned with the sheaves in the upper block at right angles to those in the lower block, see illustration #128. Itls good practice to use the shackle block as the upper one of the pair and a hook block as the lower. A shackle Is stronger than a hook of the same size. The strain on the upper block is much greater than the lower one. Fibre Rope Blocks/Block Friction The lower block supports only the load whereas the upper block carries the load as well as the hoisting strain. A hook is more convenient on the lower block as It can be more readily attached to or detached from the load. Block Friction Do not have more than eight parts of line when using fibre rope blocks. After eight parts, the increased friction becomes greater than the theoretical mechanical advantage gained by adding more parts of line. This is indicated in the following example of dynamic loading. RIGGING Fibre Rope Block Friction 131 Fibre Rope Block Friction ‘A10% friction factor must be used everytime The static load on each line is 2,500 pounds a fibre line passes over a sheave. (1 134 kg) divided by 5, or 500 Ibs. (226.8 kg) Example: Five part set of falls with a load of _perline. 2,500 Ibs. (1 134 kg). Calculations of Dynamic Loading Becket Line #1 Line #2 . Line #3 500 Ibs. (226.8kg) | 550 Ibs. (249.4kg) | 605 Ibs. (274.3 kg) x10 x10 x10 x10 x10 x 10 50 Ibs. (22.6kg) | 55ibs. (24.9kg) | “60.5ibs. (27.4 kg) Line #4 Line #5 Lead Line Pull 665.5Ibs. (301.7kg) | 732Ibs. — (831.9kg) | 732Ibs. (831.9 kg) x10 x 10 x10 x10 +73.2ibs, +(33.2kg) 66.5 Ibs. (30.2 kg) 73.2 Ibs. (33.2kg) | 805.2Ibs. (865.1 kg) The lead line pull would increase by 61% to a total of 805 Ibs. (365.1 kg) while the load is moving. This load increase is due to friction. A RIGGING | Fibre Rope Block Friction Fibre Rope Block Friction Four Part Five Part ‘Six Part Seven Part RIGGING Load Weights 133 Estimate Load Weights Weight of Materials A lift cannot be safely made until all parties oe magn be] War are sure the crane is operating within its capacity. The crane operator and the rigger oe Tooele, gab Meter st in charge must be told the exactload weight — | umnun ue Ae or must determine the weight for them- eaorza| 500 $000 selves. To determine weight, use all the | Copper 580 8 960 information available, such as drawings, | tron 480 7 680 erection plans, shipping bills, parts man- Lead 710 11.360 uals, catalogues, and handbooks. Double —_| Stee! nea eae check the weight stated on these listed forms. as it is not unusual for them to be incorrect Table #20 - Woight of Metale or incomplete. If none of these are available, estimate the Material ‘Weight Per | Weight Per weight based on volume in Ibs. per cubic ft Guble Foot Ibs.) | Cuble Meter (na) (kg/m), or weight in Ibs. per square ft | Pure Alcohol 2 784 (kg/m?). See tables #39 - #42 for approxi | Gasoline i be mate weights. na i fa ‘Table #40 — Weight of Liquids 134| RIGGING Load Weights Weight of Materials Weight Per Weight Per ‘Square Foot Square Meter Material ‘Weight Per ‘Weight Per Matra fa a ight Per le .. Corrugated — 12 G.A. a7 Cuble Foot (ibs) | Cuble Meter (ko) Steel Sheet —14G.A. Bl Cedar 22 352 166A 15 Douglas Fir 34 544 —18GA. 12 Seasoned =206A 10 Douglas Fit 40 640 =26A 15 7 Unseasoned Stee! Plate — per inch 40 198 Douglas Fir 50 800 Wet ‘Table #42A - Weight of Corrugated Steel Sheets Douglas Fit 34 544 Glue Laminated er . Hemlock 20 480 Dunicrost [cue meter Pine 30 480 Material (oe) | tea) Pied bd Portland Cement 94 | 1223 Spruce ee ae Concrete-Stone 144 | 2311 Table #41 ~ Weight of Wood Concrete Reinforced 150 2408 Earth-Dry, Loose 74 1188 Earth-Packed, Wet 96 1541 Gravel-Loose, Dry 110 1765 Gravel-Packed, Wet 113 1814 Granite 167 2680 Limestone 165 2648 Coal 56 899 Aabl-44>8.— alah of Manet a Mave aOR TRE TR ATR TNO NN ~— 7~ RIGGING | Load Weights 135 Concrete/Rebar Data WEIGHT OF IMPERIAL AND METRIC REINFORCING BARS fees ieee) PERL WEIGHT Bucket Outside Loading Welght, Ib. Dasa [wm | gm | ‘Size diameter, height, folght, Ib. 8 gare—| ser cu.yd. inches’ __inches_ | _LW: GP" HW: a4 oees_—[ one % 38 34 240 3302S #6 11502 | 2235 ve 5 40 260 4000 = ie zou | 90ue % 50 45 320 570° = 4 1 s760 4856 | 400 640 1,910 aaa 3) | 5 % oss = 5461 | 490 776 2,075 on 313] 7907 2 671 sr7e | 62 1,123 2,940 ne 7.660 | 11.384 3 7 87 - — 4.280 ms ¥3.600 20.288 4 7 102 - = 5,180 cETRICM 6 96 105 - — 7,200 a a 96 128 = = 8,000 ee Vcuye. = 76m tin. = 26.4mm_ 1 pound = 45K 15M 1570] 1.055 “LW? “Lghiweght Bucks useful wih smal cranes 20M 2.365 | 1.583 GP: General Purpose, low-cost bucket. 25M 3.925] 2.698 HW: - Heavyweight Bucket, used for concrte wit lage aggregates orlw slump. 30M $495 | 3.009 (Reinforced concrate 1501b/cu.t. = 4050 b.cu, yo. = 2403 kom?) asi 7.660—| 5.275 asm | 3077 7912 Table #43A— Concrete Bucket Weights a a ‘Table #498 - Weight of Rebar 136| RIGGING Pipe Weights Pipe Weight Table WEIGHTS OF SEAMLESS AND WELDED PIPE NOMINAL ‘SCHEDULE NUMBER pee [aro xs Exe, ee Too [0 78 wr. | -wr._| wr. wr. [wr | wr | wr. wr_| wr_| wr_| wr. 2 305] 503) 9.03 3.65 748 on 370/766) 1370 578 10.01 3 758] 1028) 10.88 758 4431 an aan] i251 ait 4 70.70] 1498] 2758 7079 a9 mee 5 1482) 20.78) 58.55 1482| 208 3298 8 ia07| 2057| s3:16 1897 3842 4534 8 2a55| 4339| 7242 22.38| 2470| 2655] 95.66 so.es| 6089] 67.70] 7471 70 4048] 56.74] 104.19 728.08| 36.26[ 40.48] 54.74 77.00) 89.27| 108.13 | 116.65 2 4950 | 66.42) 125.40 33:38| 4377] 5356| 73.22 107.23] 125.48| 139.88 | 100.33 “ 5457| 7209] as71| 4563| 8457] €9:37| 8501 190.79] 160.78| 170.22 180.15 16 6250| 82.7| 42.05| $2.36| 6250] 62.77| 107.54 164.86 | 192.40| 223.67 248.20 8 758] 93.45 4739] 5903] 2.08] 104.76] 198.17 7208.00 | 244.14 274.00 (908.65 2 72.60) 108.13, 5273| 78.60] 10413] 125.06| 168.60 256.15 | 296.37] 541-10] 370.14 22 8661] 114.81 5807| b6e1| 11481 197.43 z r 2 9462 125.49, eaai| 94.62] 140.80 171.17 | 250.29 367-48 | 429.60 | 489-24 [642.09 28 70269] 196.17 95:73] 196.17 be M1068] 146.85 92.41 | 146.85| 16273 50 418.65 | 187.53 99.08] 167.53| 198.08 2 129.68 | 160.21 108.76 168.21 | 208.43 | 220.92 ‘2 194.67] 178.69 7112.43] 178.60] 222.78 | 244.60 36 44268] 169.57 410.11 199.87 | 296.13 282.98 2 06.71 | 22064 22181 | 270.17 | 53041 Pipe weights shown above ar given for lineal foot of plan end pipe. To convert bs/t to mete: 1 fot = 1.49 kg/m ‘Table #44 ~ Weight of Pipe RIGGING Weight of Steel Plate Iustration #129 ~ Cuble Foot of Stee! One cubic foot of steel plate = 490 pounds. 490/12 inches = 40.8 Ibs/sq.ft. This 40.8 Ib./sq.ft./in. of thickness is rounded off to 40 for convenience. Therefore every v4” of plate |_Load Weights one foot square * %" = Sibs. * % 15 Ibs. © 5" = 25 lbs. 0 Ibs. * %" = 35lbs. 1" = 40 lbs. Area = Length x Width A=LxW Weight = Area (in sq. ft.) x Weight/sq. tt. Oa tustration #190 ~ Are of Stee! Pte Example: 4 ft. x 12. ft. x1,” steel plate. A=Lxw A =4x12 = 485q. ft. Weight = Area x Wt. sq. ft Weight = 48 sq. ft. x 35 Ibs./sq. ft. pounds. Rectangular Container Weight = Area of All Sides (in sq. ft.) x Weight/sq. ft. Volume = Area of Base x Height Weight of Contents = Cubic ft. x Weight cu. 1680 13a RIGGING | Load Weights Calculate Weight of Stee! Pipe — send CIRCUMFERENCE Alustration #131 - Neutral Diameter of Pipe 1. Measure thickness to get wt./sq.ft. 2. Measure neutral diameter 3. Circumference = neutral diameterx3.14. __ustration #132 Surtace Aree of Pipe 4. Convert circumference to feet (use table 8. Circumference = Diameter x 3.14 = #46) 1.4479x3.14 = 4.55 ft. 5. Area = Circumference (in ft.) x Length 4. Length = 20'9” = 20'9/12" = 20.75 ft. (int) 5. Area = Circumference x Length = 4.55 6. Weight = Area in sq.ft. x Wt/sq.ft ft. x 20.75 ft. = 94.489. Pipe Weight Example 6. Weight = Area x Wt/sq.ft. = 94.4 sq.ft. x 15 1bs./sq. 18" pipe, °," wall, 20'9" long = 1416 pounds 1. Wt./sq.tt. (36") = 15 pounds 2. Neutral diameter = 17%" (1'5%") = 1.4688 ft. (table #45) 139 Decimal Equivalents tC ~~ RIGGING ‘swojeainba fewpoog - spe ge $28960" szieo sz9sto" wonoers Teuiseq ‘S1avi INS TWAINOA TWWWIOAG 140| RIGGING Inches to Decimals of a Foot INCHES TO DECIMALS OF A FOOT. WHOLE NUMBER INCHES oprtr [ste [stele = rT 0 |.0 | 0839 | 1677 | .2500 | 030 | 167 | 000 | 809 | ser | 7500 “9167 F | ve | 0082 | 0685 | ‘719 | ‘2582 | ‘8s | «219 | sose | ‘sees | 7io | 7552 e219 | | 0104 | 0997 | 1771 | ‘2604 | ‘3437 | 427 | 5108 | sea7 | 771 | 7604 9271 A | xe | 0186 | 0990 | ‘1820 | ‘26s | ‘2490 | 4329 | ‘5186 | 5900 | 6820 | 7656 | e400 | 9923 c T | ve | 0208 } 1042 | 1875 | 2708 | 542 | 4975 | 208 | 6042 | 5875 | 708 | 2542 | 975 1} se | 0260 | 1094 | 1927 | 2760 | ‘3504 | 4427 | ‘260 | 6094 | e027 | 7760 | e604 | 9427 ° Ay 0312 | 1146 | 1979 | 2812 | 3646 | 4479 | 5312 | .6146 | .6979 | .7812 |-.8646 | 9479 nN | me | 036s | 1108 | 2091 | 226s | 3608 | 4501 | 5385 | 6198 | 7031 | 7005 | see | 501 A t | % | 417 | 1260 | 2089 | 2017 | 9750 | 4580 | 5417 | 6250 | 7089 | 7017 | 2750 | 9580 ve | 0469 | 1202 | 2105 | 2969 | 3902 | 4605 | s4so | 102 | 7125 | 7960 | 8802 | seas t * 0521 | .1354 | 2188 | 3021 | 3854 | .4688 | .5521 | .6354 | 7188 | 8021 | .8as4 | 9688 N_ | se 0873 | 1406 | ‘2240 | ‘3072 | ‘908 | 4740 | $673 | 6406 | 7240 | ‘2079 | 8900 | rao c H ” 0625 | .1458 | 2292 | .3125 | 3958 | .4792 | .5625 | .6458 | .7292 | 8125 | 8958 | 9792 E | 4% | 0677 | ‘1510 | ‘2046 | 3177 | oto | .4e4e | 5677 | e510 | 7044 | 8177 | 010 | seae s % | .0729 | 1562 | 2396 | .3229 | .4062 | .4896 | 5729 | .6562 | 7396 | 8229 | 9062 | 9896 *¥e_| 0781 | 1615 | 2448 | 3261 | 4115 | 4948 | 5781 | 6615 | 7448 | 8281 | 9115 | 9948 ‘Table #46 - Inches to Decimals of a Foot lat nis 10 yoq ejqeoyidde ay yore ‘Ayjenb soysem pue INU YjOg @INsUa:eION Tima PEER AUN OF RUBUEARb EAD BE ROUROOR 6a Diu 3s ‘ior 25 enous 09 Hag ony pevedue pve paLDUIND~ Dor “any ing tm SB puke ens Ky aren Bue Pawn — PY poredwey pue peyoueno) wees Aony | O6P MUS pandunl paw pewIe | Go ‘wes ony | rst v-ASY Parodie] pie pxouenD Tools Kofy woes umpew | 2°PPO-3VS {WeUesH 9} 64 PepEEALL WOR psodwel pue peyoueng |Z epei9-3vS 18815 fOHY UOgeD WIDE povsdwes puepeysuenn | OB epeD ors tony mo | ySe V-WISY pavedwey puepeysven | agepe “ears fon wor | ¥SC VALS Parodie] pus PaI5U=AD ; * oak veaigtouvoueo) | Cok vorsaineg sueydsouny erode, pue peyouen zodhs ‘yoeis ousustenuoaien mor | szev-HISY | Bolt Head Marking oveduwey pur peyouen bedky “yooig uoqegumpow | Sze v-WISY povedwoy pue peyouen ‘yooig susuereyy uoqen moy | &8°PO-3¥S vedo pue payoueng |_6YYV_AISY 9016 UeGieD WAIPON. Is epeim-ayS x aig vaRIED URIpORIONOT | ZOPED-BvS Tos1g voaveg noT | LO ¥-WISY {o01§ voRiEDUNpeRII0 MOT |_| ePRID-3VS OIDOO OO GOGO © i i oo) wopayeeds ‘SMaI9§ PUB SHOE 1991S 40) sBupyenl apes 3VS PUE NLSV RIGGING ‘SpaBpueys pur SuoNdudseg - SisUayse4 PepeoryL ‘Table #47 - Bolt Head Markings 142| RIGGING Bolting Torque Tables TIGHTENING TORQUE GUIDE TIGHTENING TORQUE GUIDE ‘SAE GRADE 5 — Coarse Thread SAE GRADE 5 — Fine Thread size CLAMP | pam =| PLATED sae Game | puan | PLATED ‘1,-20(250) | 2,025] Bft.ibs.) 76in.tbs. 4-28(250) | 2,925 | 10f.Ibs.] 87in. Ibs. hy 18(3125)| 3,938 | 171t.tbs.| 13ft. Ibs. hy 24 (9125) | 3,675 | t9ft.Ibs.| 14f. bs. 2%, 18 (375) | 4,950 | 31.tbs.| 231. Ibs. 14-24(375) | 5,588 | 35f.Ibs.| 264. Ibs. ‘hy 14 (4375) | 6,788 | SOt. tbs.) 371. Ibs. Yhy-20 (4875) | 7,575 | 55ft.Ibs.| 41 ft. Ibs. v,-13(500) | 9,075} 76f.Ibs.) 74. Ibs. %,-20(.500) | 10,200 | 85 ft.Ibs.| 64 bs. hg 12 (8825) | 11,625 | t09f.tbs.| 82h Ibs. 18 (5625) | 12,975 | 122h.Ibs.| 91 f. bs. ‘iy-11 (625) | 14,400 | 150%. Ibs.) 1124. bs. 18(625) | 16,950 | 170ft.Ibs.| 1284. Ibs. 4-10 (750) | 21,300 | 266t.1bs.| 200K. 16(.750) | 23,775 | 297tt.ibs.| 2234. ibs. h-9 (875) 4308 bs.| 3221. 14-14 (875) | 32,475 | 474A.1bs.| 355 ft Ibs. (1.000) | 38,625 | 644t.tbs.| 483. 1-12(1.000) | 42,900 | 705ft.1bs.| 5291. bs. (1.128) | 42,375 | 794h.tbs.| 5964. 1-14 (1.000) | 32,275 | 721 1. tbs. (1.280) | 53,775 | 11208.tbs.| s40rt. 1My= 12(1.125) | 47,475 | 8908. Ibs. (1.375) | 64,125 | 14708. bs. | 1102. 1Mq+12 (1.250) | 59,550 | 1241 f. Ibs. (1.500) | 78,000 | 19501. bs.| 1462 t. 1%h- 12 (1.875) | 72,978 | 1672. Ibs. | 1254 f. bs. 11-12 (1.500) | 87,750 | 2194. Ibs. | 1645 ft. Ibs. ‘Table #48 - SAE Grade 5 Coarse ‘Tablo #49 ~ SAE Grade 5 Fine RIGGING | Bolting Torque Tables 143 TIGHTENING TORQUE GUIDE TIGHTENING TORQUE GUIDE ‘SAE GRADE 8 — Coarse Thread SAE GRADE 8 —Fine Thread azz | SAN] pian | Pave exe | CAMP] rua | uate 20(.250) | 2850] 12ttIbs.| 91. tbs. 4-28 (250) | 3,263] 14f.1bs.] 108. tbs. hq 18 (9125) | 4.725] 25ttibs.| 18. tbs.| | %4-24(9126) | 5,113] 27%. tbs.| 20ft bs. 4-16(.375) | 6,975] 44t.tbs.| aatips.| | %%-24(975) | 7.875| 49tt.ibs.| 371. ibs. ‘ha: 14 (4875) | 9,600] 70ft.tbs.| S2t.tbs.| | 7%4-20(4375) | 10,650] 784. Ibs.| S8t ibs. ‘vy 18 (500) | 12,750] 106t.tbs.| 804 bs. ‘Ve-20(.500) | 14,400] 120%t.1bs.| 90. tbs. ‘y= 125625) | 16,50] 153¢t.Ibs.| 1151. Ibs 18,5628) | 18,300] 1721t.Ibs.] 129f. bs. 4-11 (628) | 20,925] 212.Ibs.| 1591. bs. 18.625) | 23,025] 240%. tbs.) 1801. bs. 21,-10(.750) | 30,075] 376tt.tbs.| 282. Ibs. 44,-16(.750) | 33,600] 420ft.tbs.| 3154. bs. 9 (875) | 41,550] 6064t.Ibs.| 45411.tbs.| | %-14(.875) | 45,825] 6684. tbs.| 501 f. bs. 1-8 (1.000) | 54,625} 909f.tbs.| 682. bs. 1-12(1.000) | 59,700 9954. tbs.| 7464 bs. 1-7. (1.125) | 68,700 | 1288. bs.| 966 ft. Ibs. 1-14(1.000) | 61,125 | 10194. tbs. | 764. Ibs. | t%-7 (1.250) | 87,225 | 18171. tbs.| 13691. tbs.] | 1% 121.125) | 77,028 | 1444 N. tbs. | 1083. fos. 1%y-6 (1.875) | 103,950 | 2982. tbs.| 1787f1.1bs.| | 1%-12(1.260) | 96,600 | 2012. Ibs. | 1509 ft. bs. 1h,-6 (1.500) | 126,450 | 3161 ft.Ibs.| 2371 lbs. | 1%- 121.375) | 118,350 | 27121. Ibs. | 2034. Ibs. 1-12 (1.500) | 142,275 | 3557 f. tbs. | 2668 ft. Ibs. ‘Table #50 - SAE Grade 8 Coarse ‘Table #51 SAE Grade 8 Fine 144| RIGGING Metric Conversion STE TREO aa a stern cori a eee = ES Be =e = | ere: se me | eee giae ciesstha} gagesesgemcue ges | VERSES MT sano Noun) me pet ee el (aS Horta prea yard = 1.18 $5 m2 aa on test i {ate © 1.609 34 im m= S| Sega a aaeaee 2 | Becerra h | eal tse & | Besoage) eats veins | Bec Sy | HBR ARS es Eo g | Bee ot S| Ee EF amr ek Seo wan Benes (ER Ree enensn Ree oe aoe aes aaa o «| EES = | ee eee eens = ee en | pp >, (| BES a te | eae tam = ee | Bae Saw 200 Bea eet] dan gta revere | om one c_| SER a a oe ‘Table #52 - Metric Conversions 145 RIGGING Metric Conversion [QUICK METRIC CONVERSION TABLES Length and Distance From: to: smuttipty by: nies, Klometers bods Klometers ries ogeid fost meters 85048 meters feat 3:2808 Kilometers Tet 3.280.840 meters inches 3937 inches centimeters 254 ‘util miles foot 6080.27 Area, t pty rom: to: mltipty by: Square miles Square kilometers Bets ‘square feet Stuare metors 06 08 sauare feet 43.560 square miles 840 square kilometers ‘uate mies 0.3061 hectares ‘Sauare meters hectares aces 247 sees Rectares Oder Volume te sty rom: _ mut Bis po oR cube feet 3331 fore 43460 Fis pm is O83 garens 0.2642 to: mutt ogame OM pounds 22606 ‘Table #53 - Metric Conversions 146| SLING SAFETY CHECK LIST OSHA 1910.184 (c) SLINGS (e)(2y(il) (ey(4) enmmi) Damaged or defective slings shalll not be used. Do not shorten slings by using knots or bolts. Sling legs shall not be kinked. Slings shall not be overloaded. Slings used in a basket hitch shall have loads balanced. Securely attach slings to the load. Slings shall be protected from sharp edges of the load. Keep all obstructions away from suspended loads. Keep all personnel away from lifted or about to be lifted loads. Keep hands away from between load and sling. Shock loading is prohibited. Do not pull a sling from under a load resting on the sling. Inspect slings before use. Alloy steel chain slings shall have permanently attached identification stating size, grade, rated capacity, and reach. Makeshift links or fasteners shall not be used. Before use, each repaired alloy chain sling shall be proof tested to the manu- facturers recommendations. Worn or damaged chain slings shall not be used. Welding and heat treatment shall be to the manufacturers specifications. 5 ee ie Oe Oe Oe Oe nn) SECTION ONE QUESTIONS RIGGING 1. The center core of a wire rope can be made of either , OF 2. ae) abbreviation IWRC means: IWRC wire rope is approximate what percentage stronger than a fiber core? }e greater the number of wires and strands in a wire rope the more itwill be. 5. Due to its tendency to untwist, which wire rope should NOT be used on single part hotsting lines? a. regular lay lang lay A6 x 19 wire rope classification could have as many as 16 to 26 wires per strand. true false op Which wire rope classification is most likely used on ace speed cranes and multiple ‘eeving hoists? 6x 6x19 6x37 8x19 PO aPTBEnN FHS When a non-rotating rope is used in a wedge socket care must be taken to prevent: core slippage rope from unraveling wire slippage strand slippage eo 9. Anon-rotating wire rope has less Safe Working Load than an equal sized 6 x 37 IWRC because: a. IWRC has higher breaking strength b. non-rotating requires higher Safety Factor ¢. both (a) and (b) 10. Use the Breaking Strength Rule of Thumb Formula to calculate the breaking strength of 1 1/2" IWRC wire rope. nswer: 5 11. Write out the Safe Working Load Rule of Thumb formula for Wire Rope: 12. List at least two things to check when inspecting wire rope for damage: a. b. 13. Wire rope should be replaced if the outer wire wear exceeds: 1/16 of original diameter » b. 1/8 of original diameter ¢. 1/3 of original diameter d. 1/4 of original diameter 44. Corrosion of wire rope is usually caused from: a. metal fatigue b. broken wires . high speed operation d. lack of lubrication 15. What type of oil can be used to lubricate a wire rope? Answer: 16. To avoid kinking a wire rope when removing it from the shipping reel, it is essential the reel as the rope unwinds. 17. A hoist drum is an overwind type using right lay wire rope. Where is the rope connected in relation to the hoist operator standing behind the drum? a. left side b: right side c. either side 18. Using the same dimensions of drum given in the example on page 30, determine the drum capacity using 1/2 inch wire rope. a. 226 feet b. 452 feet c. 113 feet d. 907 feet 19. What is the minimum safety factor used with slings? Answer: 20. Can it be assumed that a 4 leg bridle will carry the load weight equally on all 4 legs? a. true b. false 21. When slinging a bunale of pipe or tubing which hitch provides maximum contact between sling and load? a. double basket b. bridle hitch c. 2 double wrap chokers d. single leg 22. A sling wrapped around a rectangular load in a basket is rated at the full basket hitch Safe Working Load. a. true b. false 23. List three possible defects that could justify removing synthetic web slings from service. a. b. c 24. At what angle to the horizontal will the stress on each sling leg (using two slings) be equal to the load weight? a. 15 degrees b. 30 degrees c. 45 degrees d. 60 degrees 25. When using the recommended safe lifting angle, determine the distance between the lit points on the load using two 12 foot chokers. a. 6 feet d. 12 feet 26. Sudden movements or shock loading when raising or lowering a load will the stress on the rigging hardware. b. decrease 27. List three factors to consider when preparing to make a it (refering to the object to lifted). 28. Can the standard sling stress formula be applied to a non-symmetrical load lifted with 2 sling legs? a. yes b. no 29. An engineer should always be consulted before using a high line to lift a load inside a building? a. true b. false 30. Proper rigging attachments should be the forged type with the and SWL. stamped on them. 31. Referring to the chart on page 60 how many U-Bolt clips would be necessary to make an eye ina 7 inch alameter wire rope. nswer: 32. Shackle pins are always in diameter than the rated size of the shackle itself. a. smaller b. larger 33. OCHS/OSHA regulations specify a hook should be replaced if the throat has opened ‘percent or the body is twisted degrees. 34. A wedge socket must be attached with the load line pulling in a straight line from the: a. wedge b. shank ©: pin d. point 35. There is a standard accepted rule for securing the wire rope end protruding from a wedge socket a. true b. false 36. Which type of eye bolt should be used if there is any possibility of an angular load? a. shoulder type b. shouldertess type 37. Custom fabricated lifting beams or any homemade lifting device should be: a. designed by an engineer b. have the rated capacity clearly stamped C. be test lifted at 125% of rated capacity d. allof the above 38. Any portion of a chain worn by % should be removed from service. 39. A matched set of chain slings that has one leg longer than the others is likely an indication of: (circle all correct answers) a. stretch b. wear c. cracks d. nicks 40. To safely increase the capacity of a Come-A-Long a snipe no longer than two fest can be us a. true b. false 41. The rule of thumb minimum for wire rope to sheave ratio is . 42. The main advantage of a snatch block is: a. change direction of b. change direction of wire rope c. swivel hook d. ease of installing on wire rope 43._ The main disadvantage of lace reeving is: . line speed is constant . the blocks tilt . blocks cannot be brought close together |. there are reverse bends aese 44. A single block hoisting assembly has a leadline pull of 200 pounds. If the lines are parallel to each other what is the load on the block? a. 600 pounds b. 400 pounds ©. 200 pounds d. 100 pounds 45. What is used to easily calculate the required number of parts of line in a block assembly if the load weight and the drum pulling capacity is known? Answer: 46. The most commonly used grade of natural fibre rope is: a. number one grade manilla b. number one grade hemp c. number one grade nylon d. number one grade hemp 47. Knots tied in fibre rope reduce the strength by approximately: a. 10% b. 25% ©. 35% d. 50% 48. poet to table #38 on page 115 what is the approximate SWL for 1/2 inch manila rope a. 100 pounds b. 530 pounds ¢. 880 pounds d. 1,080 pounds 49. Which splice is used when forming an eye in fibre rope? a. side splice b. short splice c. long splice d. bowline splice 50. The knot used as a rescue knot is: a. bowline on a bight b. self centering bowline c. Spanish bowline d. running bowline . This knot is known as a “killer” knot because it is often used improperly. iswer: 52. Referring to illustration #129 on page 137, how much would a 1 foot x 1 foot x 3/8 inch thick piece of plate weight? a. 5 pounds b. 15 pounds c. 20 pounds d. 25 pounds 53. Referring to table #47 on page 141, an SAE-GRADE 5 bolt is similar to an ASTM- A325 type 1 bolt. a. tue b. false SECTION TWO EOT CRANES 148 EOT CRANES Electric Overhead Traveling Cranes The E.0.T. crane is a machine commonly taken for granted. It is also often operated by untrained operators. When this expensive and productive piece of equipment stops working because of damage from improper operating proce- dures, or lack of maintenance, it’s impor- tance is then recognized because of production delays and expensive repairs. This section on EOT cranes will discuss operations, safety awareness, pre-opera- tion inspections, and preventative mainte- nance. These are very important points to help prevent down time and operator error. This will also help to prevent damage to the crane, to the material being handled, and to help prevent accidents that occur due to improper operation while moving materials from one location to another. CMAA/ANS!I Classifications With training and proper instruction, the crane operator is a valuable asset to the company and fellow workers. Operator safety and the safety of others depends on the training and experience of the operator. Crane Service Classifications Six service classifications of EOT cranes have been established by the Crane Manu- facturérs Association of America (CMAA). These classifications are: A1, A2, B,C, D, E, F. Very few high capacity cranes are rated higher than class B at the main hoist. Class A1 (Standby Service): This crane is used for exact positioning of machinery components. It operates at slow speeds, and usually sits idle for long periods between maintenance jobs. A crane of this type would be found in a power house, nuclear reactor, turbine room, etc. EOT CRANES Class A2 (Infrequent Use): For use in pump rooms, laboratories, etc. The loads are usually light. Slow speeds and low accuracy is required. The lift frequency would be no more than several lifts per day, and the load would vary from light to full capacity. Class B (Light Service): This crane is used in warehouses, light fabrication or repair facilities. The speed requirement is slow. The lift frequency would be 2 - 5 per hour at an average of 50% load capacity. Class C (Moderate Service): This crane is found in a typical machine shop. The fre- quency of lifts is 5 - 10 per hour. No more than 50% of the loads are at capacity. Class D (Heavy Duty): This crane will han- dle loads at 50% of the rated capacity on a continual basis. Itis a high speed crane used 10-20 times per hour. Not over 65% of the rated loads are at capacity. It is found in steel fabrication shops, foun- dries, plus bucket and magnet opera- tions. CMAA/ANS!I Classifications Class E (Severe Duty): This crane oper- ates continually at high speed with capac- ity loads. The frequency is 20 or more lifts per hour. It is used in scrap yards, fertil- izer and cement plants, etc. Class F (Steel Mill AISE Specification): This crane falls under the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers’ Standard No. 6-1969, Specification for EOT Cranes for Steel Mill Service. ANSI B30 Service Classifications The three B30 service classifications estab- lished by the American National Standards Institute for hoisting equipment are in addi- tion to the design service classes estab- lished by the CMAA. For inspection and preventive maintenance guidelines, refer to ANS| Standard 830.2. The ANSI service classes are as follows: 150 EOT CRANES Normal Service: Operating at less than 85% rated load, and with rare exception, no more than 10 lifts per hour. Heavy Service: Operating at 85% - 100% of rated load, or over 10 lifts per hour. Severe Service: Either normal or heavy service under abnormal operating condi- tions. Typical Overhead Crane The typical overhead crane travels on arun- way structure or pair of tracks above the work floor. The crane includes a bridge that spans between the tracks and a fixed or trolley- mounted hoisting system. Overhead cranes, also called bridge cranes, can be manually operated but when pow- ered are usually electric, They are usually referred to as electric overhead traveling (EOT) cranes. CMAA/ANS!I Classifications/Types The cranes may be top-running on rails or underslung, in which case they are sus- pended from, and ride along, the bottom flanges of the runway beams. Bridge girders. may be either single or double. Cranes of 250 tons capacity with 100 foot spans are not unusual. EOT cranes are used by many industrial service companies and are also in stone or concrete precasting yards, steel fabricating shops, and storage facilities. See illustra- tion #133 for a typical EOT crane. Illustra- tions #134 through #154 are EOT crane examples. EEE EEK RRR RAR AANA RIVAR IT ITITTTTT TT t EOT CRANES | Typical Crane Types 151 TROLLEY. WITH HOIST Ilustration #133 ~ Typlesl EOT Crane Mlustration #135 - Semi Gantry Crane 152} EOTCRANES Typical Crane Types ~~. BRIDGE a Ilustration #198 — Overhead Travelling Crane TROLLEY AND HOIST IMustration #137 — Wall Crane tustration #139 - Overhead Cab Operated Crane EOT CRANES | Typical Crane Types llustration #141 ~ Overhead Floor Operated Crane lMlustration #143 - Semi Gantry Crane ssal EOT CRANES ustration #745= Cab Operated Crane | Typical Crane Types tMustration #147 ~ Pendant Control Crane EOT CRANES | Typical Crane Types | 155 ilustration #150 - Drop Section INTERLOCK, BRIDGE GIADER ‘BRIDGE GIRDEA RUNWAY Mustration #149 ~ Semi Gantry Crane IMustration #151 ~ Interlocking System 156| EOT CRANES | Typical Crane Types FOUR DIRECTION MOVEMENT en Mlusteation #153 ~ Floor Operated Stacker Ilustration #154 ~ Cab Operated Stacker EOT CRANES Electrification Examples 157 eee ee axeet pacer AS STUER asnnens ea re remotes Be Mut! CONDUCTOR CABLE REEL ENCLOSED BAR Ilustration #185 - Electrification Examples 158} EOT CRANES Crane Movements Three Crane Movements Variations of the three crane movements are Bridge, Trolley, and Hoist are the terms for Shown in illustrations #157 - #165. Operator the three motions which drive the standard cabs attached to the trolley are indicated in electric overhead traveling crane. See illus- _lustrations #166, and #167. tration #156. Mlustration #186 - Crane Movements aE EOL KT MARRAFARARARAAANAATNS EOT CRANES |_ trolley Types g FOR GENERAL SERVICE Mlustration #187 ~3 Motion Single Trolley SLOW, SPEED MAIN HOOK AND FAST AUXILIARY HOOK TWO MAIN. HOOKS FOR HEAVY LOADS AT SLOW SPEEDS ustration #188 ~ 4 Motion Single Trolley llustration #160 ~ 7 Motion Double Trolley 160 | EOT CRANES Trolley Types (ONE HEAVY AND ‘ONE LIGHT CAPACITY TROLLEY Iustration #161 ~ § Motion Double Trolley eeuraprenwemesineamcne THREE EQUAL OR UNEQUAL HOISTS FOR HANDLING LONG ROLLS IN PAPER MILLS Mustration #164 -7 Motion Triple Trolley {Mustration #162 ~ Bucket Crane EOT CRANES | trottey Types ‘TWO HOOKS ON THE SAME TROLLEY FOR SPECIAL BEAMS AND GRAPPLES Ilustration #165 ~ 2 Motor Double Hook llustration #168 ~ Taller Cab THE cas is. SUPPORTED FROM THE TROLLEY Alustration #167 ~ Cab on Trolley Bridge Structure The runway on which the crane runs up and down the plant are called rails. These rails are attached to the building columns on either side of the bay. Illustration #168 shows a typical bridge structure. 162| EOT CRANES | Bridge Structure 162 EOT CRANES Bridge Struts sock tage ola: eno MAIN SWITCH ‘TayCR FESTOONED TYPE ‘CROSS CONDUCTORS ‘SERIAL NO. PLATE lustration #168 - EOT Crane Parts BUMPER EXTENSION Ope Faro ms EOT CRANES Bridge and Trolley Position The bridge girders of the crane span the bay over which the crane operates. End trucks with wheels are at both ends of the crane. The wheels are usually connected by acom- mon shaft, and the motor which drives this shaft is normally mounted on the steel plat- form running along one side of the crane. This platform also serves as a convenient walkway to permit inspection of the crane. The trolley operates on two rails on top of the crane girders. The trolley is a compact mechanism containing the hoist-motor, the geared hoist drum, and also the trolley-motor by which the trolley is moved back and forth along the rails. The operators cab is usually suspended from one end of the crane with the hook and its load on the right of the operator as he faces front (opposite in left hand cabs). CAA ASA |_ Bridge and Trolley Position/Cabs Cab Position and Layout The location of the crane controls should be Positioned to allow the operator ease in operation while facing the lift area, or the direction of travel. The operator should always have a clear view of the hook and load. If an obstruction does not permit this clear view the operator must have someone issuing signals by hand or by radio. Most cranes have the control cab located at ‘one end of the bridge with the operator fac- ing out across the bridge. Other cranes may have the cab travelling across the hoist area of the bay attached to the trolley in one of several positions, A crane operatoris best positioned to have a side view of the load. An operator in a cab attached to the trolley will be looking down on a load, thus creating depth per- ception difficulties, and large loads will obstruct the operators view of the posi- tioning area. L163 164| EOTCRANES | Typical Cab Controls Typical Cab Controls See illustrations #169, #170, #171 for typical cab controls and cab layout. a 4 8 18 EOT CRANES Typical Cab Control Layout 1. Fan Switch . Heater Switch Elevator Status Light/Push-Pull Switches Magnet Controller Auxiliary Trolley Controller Auxiliary Hoist Controller Main Trolley Controller . Bridge Controller 10. Main Hoist Controller 11. Bridge Dynamic Brake Pedal 12, Bell Pedal 13. Light Switch 14. Crane Light Switch 15. Main Switch 16. Heater Switch These controls and switches are those com- monly found in EOT cranes, although the actual controls and switches and their posi- tion will vary from crane to crane, ©PNogEen Typical Cab Controls wee spe AQ WARNING BELL BUTTON lMustration #170 ~ Crane Control Pedale & Buttons 166} EOTCRANES Left/Right/Center Cab Layout Left/Right/Center Cab Layout BRIDGE DRIVE GIRDER fea MAOIST pom] +a TAQUEY a | @@9 srivce a i LEFT HAND CAB CENTER CAB Mlustration #171 — Operator Positions. RIGHT HAND CAB EOT CRANES Crane Power Rail Runways: These are the supports for the crane in the work area. The conductors for the electric power to the crane are on one side. These conductors are attached below the rail on the girders by insulators. These insulate the conductors from going to ground. They run the full length of the runway. A master switch is located at ground level and connected to the conductors. Each end of the rail run- ways should have wheel stops to limit travel of the crane. Power To Bridge: Power to the bridge is through collectors that ride the conductors. The power is tothe main line switch located on the bridge. Power from the master switch is connected to conduc- tors that run the length of the bridge span and also to controls in the cab, plus control cabinets. Crane Power/Terminology Power To Trolleys: The motors that operate the trolley racking and the motors for the hoist are powered through the conductors that run the length of the bridge. The crane operator controls, the trolley and hoist from the cab, or either a floor pendant control box or a radio control unit. EOT Crane Terminology Bridge - The bridge is made up of girders that are connected on each end to wheel trucks. There is also a walkway, conductors powering the motors, acab, controllers, and controls. Bridge Drift - This is movement of a crane after the power is shut off. It can be bridge or trolley motion while travelling, or hoist Movement while lifting or lowering. Bridge Travel - This is movement of the crane from one end of a building runway to the other. [167 168 EOT CRANES EOT Crane Terminology Bumpers - Bumpers are located on both sides of the bridge and trolley to prevent overtravel. Cab - The cab is usually hung under the bridge and contains the crane controls. Centering - Loading and unloading is accomplished in three motions: * Center bridge over loading area. * Center the trolley over loading area. * Lowering and raising of hoist over load. Controls ~ Controllers in the cab give motion to the bridge, trolley, and hoist. Control cab- inets are located on the walkway of the bridge. Controls can also be pendant or remote. Crane Braking (Mechanical) - Mechanical brakes are applied by foot pressure on a brake pedal. Crane Braking (Electrical) - Electrical brakes are applied mechanically when the hoist is not powered. Terminology Crane Braking (Dynamic) - Eddy current braking occurs when the hoist is being low- ered with a load. Drive Motors - The bridge motor drives the bridge and a trolley motor drives the trolley The hoist motor powers the load block. Festoon — Power cables are hung in draped curves on the crane. Hoist: The hoist mechanism raises and low: ers the load. Itisa drum mounted on the trol- ley which is spooled with wire rope and is driven by a motor and a gearing system. Hoist (Auxiliary) - This hoist is similar to the main Noist, but has less lifting capacity Hoist Block - The hoist block consists of sheaves, sheave pins, bearings, swivel and a hook suspended by the hoist wire rope. Hoist Movements ~ The load block is raised and lowered by the operator controls. EOT CRANES EOT Crane Terminology Hook - The hook is connected to the hoist block and is used for lifting loads. A hook safety latch prevents the slings or chains from slipping off the hook. Inching ~ Inching is the term used to indi- cate very short movements. This is accom- plished by applying motor power for a fraction of a second, then quickly removing the power to stop the bridge, trolley, or load movement after it has moved a slight dis- tance. Idler - An idler is an end truck or bogie wheel that does not drive. Load Swing - Load swing is movement of the block and load caused by acceleration or deceleration of the crane. Main Line Shaft - It is the motor powered shaft driving the bridge. Mechanical Load-Brake - This is a drag brake which is engaged only while lowering. When hoisting, the brake releases, thereby eliminating the drag on the motor. Terminology Monorail - This is a single rail with a hoist. Overhauling Load ~ This load is heavy enough to overcome the friction of the hoist- ing mechanism (gears, wire rope, drum, etc.). The motor must be aided in holding back the load by a mechanical load brake or by dynamic lowering control Pendant Control - This is the operators crane controller box hanging from the bridge or trolley by a cable. The pendant box must be supported so as to eliminate any strain on the electrical connections. Plugging - Plugging is the use of reverse motor power to stop a forward-moving load. The controller handle is moved to supply power in the direction opposite to the direc- tion of travel. When the load stops the con- troller handle must be centered at the off position, otherwise the load will accelerate in the reverse direction. 170 EOT CRANES EOT Crane Terminology Radio Control - Radio signals can be trans- mitted from an operator on the floor with a control box to a receiver on the crane. Rall Runways - Runways are floor tracks, or tracks supported by beams on the side of a building, on which the crane can travel over the work area. Reeving - This is the system of wire rope connecting the upper and lower sheaves on the hoisting blocks. Skewing - Skewing is when the crane gir- ders are not perpendicular to the runway rails and one end of the crane is ahead of the other. This condition should be immediately corrected. ‘Slack Out - This occurs when the initial lift- ing tension is applied to the hoist wire rope and the load chains or slings. Terminology Torque - The ability of a motor to exert rotary force is called torque. Sufficient power is applied by controllers to the motor to move the load. Trolley ~ This is a frame which consists of ‘end trucks, a drive motor, a hoist motor, a drum with wire rope and a hoist block. It is operated through controllers and it travels on rails across the bridge structure, while supporting the load. Walkway This is an isleway across the span of the bridge girders. It allows access to the trolley, and to the bridge drive mechanism. EQOT CRANES Hoist Assembly The hoist consists of hoist motor, speed reducer, hoist brake, drum, wire rope, hoist block and hook. The brake can be solenoid operated or eddie current, depending on operations, or whether the crane is DC or AC controlled. The wire rope is securely attached to the drum. It rides in the grooves of the drum and also passes through upper sheaves, lower block sheaves and idler sheaves. The wire rope sheaves and drum reeving will depend on design and load capacity. The upper and idler sheaves are attached tothe trolley, and the lower sheaves are attached to the hoist block. The hook, with a 360 degree swivel, is attached to the hoist block. The hook has a latch guard, which prevents slings from slip- ping off the hook. See illustrations #172, #173, #174 for trolley/hoist examples Hoist Assembly If grabs or a magnet are used instead of a hook to pick up or release loads, the opera- tion is controlled by the operator. Bucket opening and closing is also directed by an operator positioned in either the crane cab, or on the floor with a pendant or radio remote control box. Note: Further details on hoist controls can be found later in this section and specific. information in the applicable crane man- ufacturers handbook. bh lustration #172 - Single Trlley-Single Holst 172 EOT CRANES Hoist Assembly/Drums Mustration #173 ~ Single Trolley-Oouble Holst Mlustration #174 - Double Trolley-Single Holst (Each) Hoist Drum The hoist drum is made of cast steel, spun steel, or rolled steel plate. It must be strong enough to withstand the stress imposed by crushing from the hoist wire rope wrapped around the drum. Wire Rope Anchorage The basic minimum requirement is that there be no less than two wraps of wire rope on the hoist drum when the load block is at its lowest position Note: The minimum number of wraps should be verified with the local OCHS/ OSHA departments the requirement may be up to five dead wraps in some areas. Also the requirement may be more strin- gent with various crane manufacturers. For examples of typical wire rope to drum attachments see illustration #175A,8,C. EOT CRANES |_ Hoist Assembly/Drums [173 Hoist Drum Most EOT crane drums are made with right and left hand grooving, See illustration #176, The drum grooving depth is normally ¥% of the wire rope diameter. The minimum groove pitch (center to center) is 1.14 times the wire rope diameter, or the diameter plus Ye” (8mm). The ‘drum diameter is recom- mended to be not less than 24 wire rope diameters for 6 x 37 rope, or 30 diameters for 6 x 19 rope. TYPE A TYPE B TvPE Ilustration #175 ~ Wire Rope to Drum Attachments, High capacity block systems with multiple parts of line (reeving), and cranes involving long lifts often need several layers of wire rope wound on the drum. A device is com- monly used to assist in even spooling on the rum. 174 EOT CRANES Hoist Assembly Drums TROLLEY GAGE DRUM HAS LEFT|AND Iustration #176 ~ Typleal Drum Grooving RIGHT HAND GROOVING DRUM DIAMETER AND GROOVING (in.) 6 x 37 WIRE ROPE | Rope prumPitch Drum [Grooving | Dia. (in.)_| Dia. (in.) | Circ. (in.) [Pitch (in.)) he 9 2.36 “y 10%, | 2.75 ep 12 3.14 he 137, | 3.53 ‘ly 15 3.93 Me 18 4.71 % 21 5.50 1 24 6.28 % 27 7.07 mh 30 7.85 Vy 33 8.64 V 36 9.42 1% 39 10.21 rh 42 41.00 Vis 45 11,78 2 48 12.58 2 _- 54 14.14 nen - 60 15.71 _ = 72 18.85 = "Table #54 — Drum Diameter and Grooving EOT CRANES Hoist Assembly - Wire Rope The most common type of wire rope used in EOT cranes is the 6 x 37 classification. This classification is suitable for crane service as it has many small wires giving it good flexi- bility. The 6 x 19 classification is also used, but usually in areas where abrasion prob- lems may be prevalent. In the 6 x 37 classification the number of wires in each strand will vary from 27 to 49, depending on how it was ordered. A wire rope with many small wires will be more flex- ible than a rope with fewer but bigger wires, however a wire rope with many small wires will be less resistant to abrasion. The num- ber of wires in a strand does not affect the nominal breaking strength. Wire rope can be ordered with either a fibre or wire core. The fibre core has better lubri- cation qualities. Wire core is stronger, does not crush as easily, and is better for use in areas of high heat. | Hoist Assembly/Wire Rope Wire Rope Safety Factor ANSI Standard B30.2. and CMAA Specifi- cation No 70 require the maximum load on the hoist wire rope to be: The load plus the weight of the hook block divided by the number of parts of reeving shall not exceed 20% of the wire rope nominal breaking strength. If the block weight is not known, the total weight of the load plus the block is some- times calculated at 1.02 times the load weight. Reeving Arrangements The pull on the drum is reduced from the actual load weight through the use of the block and tackle theory in the reeving. The higher the number of parts of line, the higher the hoist lifting capacity, however the speed of lifting is reduced by the same amount. See illustration #177A-H for typical examples EOT crane reeving. 176| EOT CRANES Hoist Assembly/Wire Rope WEIGHT AND NOMINAL BREAKING STRENGTH IN TONS FOR VARIOUS GRADES OF 6 x 37 WIRE ROPE Wi pert. (bs.) ‘Improved Plow Steel ExtralPS. | Sup Rope Dia ons) (ons) inches) | FiberCore | WireCore | FiberCore | Wire Core | WireCore | WireCore | Wire Core he 0.105) 0.116 2.74 2.94 3.40 = = 0.164 0.180 4.28 4.58 527 = = 0.236 0.260 6.10 6.58 755 = = he ose 0.38 8.27 8.89 10.2 = = ‘b 0.42 0.48 10.7 18 133 148 = he 053 0.59 13.5 145 168 185 hy oss 072 167 179 206 227 243 an 1.04 23.8 256 29.4 323 348 " 1.42, 32.2 346 398 438 486 1 1.85 418 449 517 87.8 63.0 Th 2.34 52.6 56.5 85.0 5 80.0 mh 2.89 646 69.4 793 879 975 v, 3.50 TT 83.5 96.0 117.0 wh 416 92.0 98.9 134.0 139.0 1% 4.88 107.0 115.0 192.0 = mh 5.67 124.0 133.0, 153.0 - ve 6.50 141.0 152.0 174.9 = 2 7.39 160.0 172.0 198.0 = ‘Table #55 - 6 X 37 Wire Rope Data EOT CRANES Hoist Assembly/Wire Rope eae evn nee Oo $a b & (D) t EQUALIZER ‘SHEAVES Quer ppen ‘SHEAVES, 4 PART REEVING 8 PART REEVING BRB Hoox Mlustration #1774-D ~ EOT Crane Reeving 177 | Hoist Assembly/Wire Rope 178 | EOT CRANES COTE Pf PS POP ET eS ee ey EOT CRANES: Load Block ‘The two basic load blocks are the short type and the long type. The long block type will give greater stability on loads which are rel- atively light. See illustration #178A,B for ‘examples of the short and long type. Illustra- tion #179A,B shows the block and hook ter- minology. Note: Sheaves in the hook block must be equipped with close fitting guards to pre- vent the wire rope from fouling if the block is lying on the floor with slack lines. Over- head and gantry cranes normally have the sheaves enclosed to prevent contact with hook up personnel. All hooks should have a safety latch to retain slings and lifting attachments. Handles or latch supports ‘must not be welded to hooks without post weld heat treatment. Hoist Assembly/Load Block Block sheaves should not be less than 24 diameters with 6 x 37 wire rope, or 30 diam- eters for 6 x 19 rope. Sheave efficiency is shown in table #56. Sheaves should be free of any defects which might cause rope dam- age. Proper wire rope to sheave clearance is shown in illustration #180. LONG TYPE. aeoek a wt recut SAC TORE eaoncon Atte Ae ot ag et et 180 | EOT CRANES Hoist Assembly/Load Block raReaDs SHEAVE Zz NECK eG sin 00 cis exc = 00% esd THROAT A wp TRUNNION: (POINT) we Bie ivan #1704 Block Parts = tsratin #1708 = Hook Para fxs Shen Grove oar "Ha fs 12 Pome Dana 2 eee Banat ore BBiteren 1 sn6 1 +4 wae met see Suet ne llustration #180 ~ Wire Rope to Sheave Clearances EOT CRANES Holst Assembly/Load Block 181 EFFICIENCY OF LOAD BLOCKS (Double-Reeved) Efficiency. Lead Line Factor Parts of [Antl-Frietion| Bronze |Anti-Friction| Bronze Rope Brg. Bro. Brg. Brg. 2 | 1.000 | 1.000 | .500 | .500 4 | ‘961 | 959 | 258 | 261 8 | ‘962 | ‘920 | 73 | 181 8 | o4 | ‘aa | ‘192 | ‘tat 10 926 848 108 18: 12 909 eis | .092 ‘102 Fie ie | ‘875 | 754 | 1071 | 083 S 20 843 700 058 071 le za_| ‘era | ‘050 | 051 | 064 _ TT el° Table #56 ~ Load Block Efclney saath ‘Table #57,58 diagrams: Single hooks have a CMAA rating up to 60 ton capacity. For loads over 60 ton it is rec- ‘ommended that a sister type of hook be used. When using a sister hook, the load should be balanced on each side to prevent bend- ing stress in the hook shank. This practise can be hazardous as eccentric loading can cause the block to tip 182| _EOT CRANES Hoist Assembly/Load Block SINGLE HOOK DIMENSIONS (Inches) FATS TONS. 8 « 5 Be The 0 on ah is 3 a 2 ‘ eu & é 2 Bh ei 50 oh eh & Ep e 75 a S 100 8 ih 125 a 1h 180 ro, 2 wh 200 Be 3% 20 NOTE: REDUCE DIM. "BBY Vj" WHEN A HOOK LATCH IS USED. “Table #57 - Single Hook Dimensions SISTER HOOK DIMENSIONS (inches) FATNG rows a] eVAwieHetBHEEEEG pe Fo or t % | 8h 12 oto, 18, a 3 oh 7 e | oe 2 Sf ie tee BOB ar wm | ep 12 oe ied 8a ae w | Sf om, BF Be oe og, Se ¢ B) e Bh gh Be ee gk gk : | oh Rt oh Re hes SB eh ioe hee oh |e oe ie of at OBOE a S00] oh tee tee ths’ on | oe oe me 8 8 2 Mm 8 a so | 1%, 2 an, ih NOTE: "T" = THICKNESS OF HOOK AT EVE. ARR RR OA Die £58 oSletac Honk Dimepaiong — [Fea | Hoist Assembly/Load Block EOT CRANES "peot ood ‘58 pox oq 01 peo] pore Jo 2000 oun CurLe.ep 20} ues Peo} Por aM ou oun o6n “og ovoge oun UI UAOUS 16U SBuITEs PEO Pore! LAM OOK 103 eeze0o~—=«S00=~*«SEL~SC*<“C*«tESY~SC«D sosers 6S ek. ovzsor OS cess = zest. osezse =r srBler sor eer ozszte ose 226198 66E eet oglee 00e ueozoe = eee oosszz sz. SLELZ 992 ecb Orrish 002 Lelie ez eb 09ZeSt sat Obrlsh 002 eer o80gel ost egs02t 88h ost OOrELL set sesost 901 991 ozz06 001 serch Ze ab 0v089 sk sezsoL ob 6b cers 09 02206 oor 00z Ogesh os Sr9l8 06 002 ‘yee0r sy euszz 08 ooz = geese. ov ‘vOSES 02 002 esLie se cerrs 09 008 gbele 08 O9ESy 0s 002 o89ze se ‘88298 Ov 002 velel 0e gee of 00e ‘80961 sb vrlsL 4 002 2206 oO 2206 ob 00z ges s weler z 00z 2206 t 2206 t 00z gsr nw By earoo0z) Taio By‘ ayo00z) suo, ywuso.eq suo, PROT J001d peoy paey SMOOH HOS GVOT1S3l JO0Ud ‘Table #50 - Proof Test Load for Hooks 184 EOT CRANES Hoisting Assembly/Brakes Hoist Brakes Tohold a load stationary when the hoist con- troller handle is in the "oft" position, a brake is keyed to the shaft of the hoist motor which is located on the trolley. The brake is auto- matic, and is applied by a spring when the power is off. See illustration #181. Note: OCHS/OSHA safety regulations requires each independent crane hoist to. have at least one holding brake and one control braking means. The brake is released electrically (by the current through the motor) when the con- troller handle is moved to raise or lower the load. For safety reasons some cranes, par- ticularly those of large capacity, have an additional brake keyed on the drum or to the gearing between motor and drum. In these cases, both of the brakes work simultane- ously and automatically by the motor cur- rent. See illustration #182. IMustration #181 ~ De-Energlzed Brake EOT CRANES Hoist Assembly/Brakes 185 The control Braking Means may be either electrical or mechanical. See Illustration Note: For information on Adjustable Fre- 183A,B for an example of a mechanical — quency Motor Controls see pages 263 and braking system. 264. RATCHET BRAKE NUT FRICTION WASHER BRAKE BRAKE BRAKE, PINION \ fi = lal \asroner 186 EOT CRANES Hoist Controllers (Lifting) Hoist controllers are usually equipped with vertical handles and arranged for straight- {ine lever operation, moving toward and away from the operator. Pulling the handle for- ward raises the hook and pushing the handle away causes the hook to lower. In the up direction, illustration #184, the hoist motor has to lift the load against gravity. This means that it will require more power to start a heavy load than a light one; also a heavy load will hoist more slowly than a light one. 1. Handle position 1 (first point) slow speed, low torque (or power) is supplied to start the empty hook up smoothly. 2. Handle position 2 (second point) gives an increase in speed for the empty hook being hoisted, or more torque for smooth starting of a medium size load which was too heavy to start on first point. Hoist Controllers/Braking 3. Handle position 3 (third point) gives a fur- ther increase in speed for the empty hook and pick-up in speed for the medium load, or still more power for smooth starting up of a heavy load which, due to its weight would not start on the first or second con- troller point. 4, Fourth and remaining handle positions give further increases In speeds until the full on position is reached which gives the maximum speed at which the motor will hoist the load. EOT CRANES Hoist Controllers (Lowering) 1. On first point lowering, all loads will start eon slowly. Use this point to inch the load down. If the controller is allowed to stay on this point the heavy load will reach a higher maximum speed than the empty hook or a light load. On second point lowering, an increase in speed of all loads will be obtained. . Third and remaining points will give fur- ther increase in speed, until the motor is running at the highest speed, with the controller in the full on position. When lowering very heavy loads, It is recommended that intermediate speed points (2nd, 3rd, or 4th) be used. This reduces strain on the hoisting mecha- nism and wear on the brake when the load Is finally stopped due to the slower speed at which the crane Is running. It helps to insure more accurate control by being able to stop the heavy load more quickly when necessary. Hoist Controllers (QPERATOR, Sloe oF SONTROWLER ‘luetration #186 ~ Point by Point Lowering Dynamic Lowering To prevent heavy loads from lowering too quickly, two systems are used. Both are automatic. One method is a mechanical load brake which is built into the drum mechanism to limit the maximum lowering speed of the motor under any condition.