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. . , . .

2010

512
1473-2
191

. ., . . : 2 .: / . . -. , 2010, . 1. 143 c.
ISBN 978-5-94356-912-8

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-
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: , , , , .
: , () ,
, . :
.
.

- .-. , . .

ISBN 978-5-94356-912-8

, 2010
c . ., . ., 2010

1.
5
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2. , ,
2.1.
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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18
18
26
34
46
60

3.
67
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.2. . . . . . . . 70
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.
86
4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.2. . . . . . . . . 92
4.3. . . . . . . . . . 96
5.
5.1. . . .
5.2. . . . . . . . . .
5.3. . . . . . . . . . .
5.4. . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5.
5.6. .

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100
100
102
108
115
118
127

133

137

138

142


,
-
. , , , , . , 2.3.1
. .
, ,
. . ,
. 201011 ( ). ,
, . .

1.1.
, . , ,
. ,
.
a A : a A. a
A, a 6 A. , .
,
, , . , P ,
, A , P , :
A = {x | x P } A = {x | P (x)}. ,
. , a A : P (a)
, a A P , a A : P (a) , a A,
P .
: N = {1, 2, 3, . . .}
, Z , Q R .
B A, B A. : B A. ,
A, B, B A,
, : B A. , , ,

1.

. A P (A) 2A .
. A1 , A2 , . . . , An , A1 A2 . . . An =
{x | x A1 x A2 . . . x An } , A1 A2 . . .An = {x | x A1 x A2 . . . x An }
A1 , A2 , . . . , An . A B
A \ B = {x | x A x 6 B}.
B A,
A \ B B A.
A , A B
B.
, . , {a, b} {b, a} ,
. , ,
,
. n a1 , a2 , . . . , an
(a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) n-. . n- (a1 , a2 , . . . , an )
(b1 , b2 , . . . , bn ) , a1 = b1 , a2 = b2 , . . .
. . . , an = bn .
1.1.1. , {{a}, {a, b}}
{{c}, {c, d}} , a = c b = d.
1.1.1. A1 , A2 , . . . , An ,

A1 A2 . . . An = {(a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) | a1 A1 , a2 A2 , . . . , an An }.
n- A
An = {(a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) | a1 A, a2 A, . . . , an A}.
, n = 2,
A.
X Y . f , X
Y ,
X Y ( f : X Y ).
.

1.1.

, y Y x
X f , :
f (x) = y, xf = y, xf = y. ,
, . . xf f (x).
Z X, Zf {y Y | x Z : xf = y},
Z Y . Z = X, Xf
Im f .
f : X Y g : Y Z. ( ) f g
f g : X Z, x X x(f g) = (xf )g.
, f g f , g.
f g
f g.
. f g f g
, g, f :
(f g)x = f (g(x)). ,
f g , . ,
. , .
. ,
x X y = xf Y .
: Y ,
X. , Y ,
.
1.1.2. f : X Y X Y , y Y x X , y = xf .
: f : X Y .

,
X Y . , xf =
y1 xf = y2 , y1 = y2 . :
Y X. ,
f : R R,
xf = x2 , 4 : 2 2.
, .

1.

1.1.3. f : X Y
X Y , x1 , x2 X x1 f = x2 f
1-1
x1 = x2 . : f : X Y .
, 1.1.2 1.1.3 , .
1.1.4. f : X Y X Y
, .
1-1
: f : X Y .

f : X Y , ,
,
f 1 : Y X, : x = yf 1 ,
y = xf . . X Y , ,
.
1.1.2. ,
1) , ;
2) , ;
3) , ;
4) .
1.1.3. ,
.
1.1.4. m, n N, X m
, Y n . ,
.
1. : X Y .
2. m = n.
, , , ,
X ( ),
. , X ,
.
1.1.5. X .
Y X ,

1.2.

: X Y . , :
1. Z X
: X Y , Y = X \ Z.
2. Z X , : X Y , Y = X \ Z.
. 1.1.4 1.1.5,
X , , X. ,

,
.
1.2.
, ,
. , N
, m n
, . , , n + m
m+n. m < n,
x, x + m = n . .
( ) .
( ) -
- ( ), 800 . ..,
-,
. , ,
, .
, , (
, ). , , ,
. ,
, ,
( )
. . ,

10

1.

, . .
, , , . . , ,
.
.
,
.
. 1. N m n
k = m + n, m n. . , N2 N ( + : N2 N). , ,
, (m, n)+ = k
m + n = k, . : ,
( m n),
, ? , , , m + n = n + m, ,
.
, ,
. , f : N2 N (m, n)f = mn ( m
n), , , , mn , , nm .
.
2. S A . A. f g
f : A A g : A A A,
: S 2 S, , S. ,
(f g 6= g f ). , , R2 . f
, g
90 .

1.2.

11

, , , ,
.
y
1

f
A
O
1

, A (1, 0)
f g B (0, 1):
A(f g) = (Af )g = Ag = B.
, A g f
C (0, 1):
A(g f ) = (Ag)f = Bf = C.
, f g g f .
A ( , )
A2 A. ,
.
3. Z
,
f . ,
, x Z xf = x. x y =
(x, y) = (x, yf )+ = x+(y) x, y Z.
f ,
, .
, ,
, .
4. .
V A, B, C

12

1.

. , D
, . . , A, B, C
, D ABC.
f : V 3 V ,
, ,
V .
, , n
, n .
.
1.2.1. A .
f : An A n- ( n-) A. , n- , A, n A
A. n
f .
.
1.2.2.
A = hA, f1 , f2 , . . . , fk , . . .i, A f1 , f2 , . . . , fk , . . .,
. A
A, A.
, , .
. 1. A = hZ, +, , f i, +,
, f .
2. A = hS, i, S
A, .
3. A = hR[x], +, i, R[x]
R ,
.
4. A = hF, +, i, F R R, ,
x(f + g) = xf + xg.

1.2.

13

5. A = hP (A), , , \, i, P (A)
A, , ,
. , , \
, .
6.
: hN, i, hZ, :i, . , Q
, 0 . Q Q \ {0}
, hQ , :i .
.
1.2.1. :
1. Z ?

+
2. hQ
i, Q+ ,
,
?
, R+ .
3. hN, f i, f : N2 N (m, n)f = ...(m, n) m n?
1.2.3. A n- f . B A
, B n f B (. . f ,
B, B),
B f . B n- f |B : B n B,
(b1 , b2 , . . . , bn )f |B = (b1 , b2 , . . . , bn )f ,
( ) f B.
. B A f , , ,
f B f ,
A.
. 1. Q, Z, N R +, R. ,
, , N
.

14

1.

2. 1.1.3, A .
1.2.2. 2Z 2Z + 1
. ,
Z , ? : , , , , ; :
, , . () ,
n 2n (3n ).
1.2.3.
a b. M Z ,
a, b M M . , M = Z.
1.2.4. B A A = hA, f1 , f2 , . . . , fk , . . .i A, A. B = hB, f1 |B , f2 |B , . . . , fk |B , . . .i
A.
. 1. B = hN, +, , i
A = hZ, +, , i. A (
), ,
N, .
2. A = hF, +, i, F R R,
, x(f + g) = xf + xg. Fb
F . B = hFb, +, i A.
1.2.4. (. . , ) :
1. hZ, f i, f .
2. hZ, i.
3. hP, f i, P , f 3- , .

1.3.

15

1.3.
,
.

, . ,
.

, .
1.3.1.
A = hA, f1 , f2 , . . . , fk , . . .i B = hB, g1 , g2 , . . . , gk , . . .i
, fi gi
ni . A B ( A ' B), : A B
, i (a1 , a2 , . . . , ani ) Ani
((a1 , a2 , . . . , ani )fi ) = (a1 , a2 , . . . , ani )gi .
, , A B.
. A B A B,
1 : B A, . , , ,
B A. ,
A B, B A,
. . A B.
. 1. A = hR, +i, B = hR+ , i, R+ .
: R R+ , x = 2x . , A B. , R R+ ,
. , x, y R

(x + y) = 2x+y = 2x 2y = (x) (y),


, , , . , ,
x1 = log2 (x), B A.

16

1.

2. A = hZ, +i, B = h2Z, +i, , , 2Z .


: Z 2Z, x = 2x. , ,
, (x + y) = 2(x + y) = 2x + 2y =
x + y , . , A ' B.
, . , ,
, ,
(, ).
, A B . , . A
B , ,
. A B , , ,
, ,
. , . , A B
, .
. ,
. ,
() ,
() , .
.
. A = hZ, i, B = h2Z, i. Z 1,
, x Z
1 x = x. 2Z . , A B
. , , . 1 = 2k, 2 = 2n, k, n
. ,
: 4kn = (2k) (2n) = 1 2 = (1 2) = 2 = 2n.
n 6= 0, 2k = 1, . , 2 = 0,
1
3 = 2m, 0, 3 6= 2 = 0.

1.3.

17

4km = (2k) (2m) = 1 3 = (1 3) = 3 = 2m.


2k = 1; . ,
, , A B .
1.3.1. :
1) hZ, +i hZ, i;
2) hP (A), i hP (A), i, A ;
3) hQ, +i hQ+ , i, Q+ ( 1 );
4) hN, f i hN, gi, f g ?
1.3.2. a, b . Aab hR, f i f , xf = ax + b.

{Aab | a, b R}?

2
, ,
2.1.
. .
: , . , ,
. ,
. :
(x+y)x. , ,
y (, x y ). , ,
. , ,
:
(x + y) x = (x + y) + (x),
(1)
(x + y) + (x) = (y + x) + (x),

(2)

(y + x) + (x) = y + (x + (x)),

(3)

y + (x + (x)) = y + 0,

(4)

y + 0 = y.

(5)

(1) . , : x + (x) = 0 (4). 0, , ,


, (5). (2)
. . , (3) (
).

2.1.

19

, ( ),
. ( )
( ).

. .
2.1.1. G = hG, i
,
( ):
1. a, b, c G (a b) c = a (b c)
( ).
2. e G , a G
a e = e a = a ( ).
3. a G a1 G , a a1 = a1 a = e ( ).
. , . , ,
. , .
. 1. G = hZ, +i.
. 0, a, ,
. : hQ, +i, hR, +i, hQ , i, hR , i.
2. S ,
, , G = hS, i . ,
.
,
1 : a b = b a. ,
2 (. 1.2).
2.1.2. G = hG, i (

20

2. , ,

), a, b G
a b = b a ( ).
.
ab ab. , , , , . , , +, ,
0, a a.
( ) ( ) .
, , ,
, . . G = hG, i
G.
2.1.1. G (
), g . ,
g : G G, xg = xg
x G, G .
2.1.2. G . , , 2, . ,
g G ,
3, .
g1 , g2 , . . . , gn G.
n
Y

gi = (. . . (g1 g2 ) . . .) gn .

i=1

2.1.3. ,
n
Y
i=1

gi =

k
Y
i=1

gi

n
Y

gi .

i=k+1

. , 2.1.3, : (
).

2.1.

21


. ,
,
.
2.1.3. G = hG, i
,
. ,
.
. N
( ),
,
( ).
2.1.4. A . ,
hP (A), i . ?
2.1.3, : ,
.
2.1.4. G = hG, i . H = hH, |H i ,
|H H.
. ,
. , hN, +i hZ, +i,
,
.
, H = hH, |H i H. , , H G, : H 6 G.
. 1. G : G
1 = {e}, e
G.
2. n nZ = {nk | k Z}
, n, Z
.

22

2. , ,

2.1.5. G . , H G, a, b H :
1) ab H; 2) a1 H.
G G.
|G|. . g G. n , g n
G, g n :
gn = g g . . . g .
|
{z
}
n
g G
n , g n = e, e G,
n . , g . g
|g|.
2.1.6. , .
, g 0 = e g n = (g 1 )n ,
n ,
.
2.1.7. h G.
, H = {hn | n Z} G.

. + , ,

.
2.1.5. R = hR, +, i
, :
1. R .
2. a, b, c R (a + b)c = ac + bc
( ) c(a + b) = ca + cb (
).

2.1.

23

. , R R.
, , , .
, ,

.
, , , . , , 1. , ,
1 6= 0, ,
. , .
R R .
2.1.6. F = hF, +, i
, (, , ) ,
.
,
.
1. a, b, c: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) .
2. a, b: a + b = b + a .
3. 0 a: a + 0 = 0 + a = a .
4. a (a): a + (a) = (a) + a = 0 .
5. a, b, c: (a + b)c = ac + bc .
6. a, b, c: c(a + b) = ca + cb .
7. a, b, c: (ab)c = a(bc) .
8. a, b: ab = ba .
9. 1 a: a 1 = 1 a = a .

24

2. , ,

10. a 6= 0 a1 : aa1 = a1 a = 1 .
,
, 17 ( 16, , ), , , 110, .
. 1. hZ, +, i, hQ, +, i,
hR, +, i .
, .
.
2. P (A) A 4 : B, C
A B 4 C = (B \ C) (C \ B). hP (A), 4, i
.
3.
( ).
, ()
(), () , ( ).
. nZ . , ,
.
, ()
.
. ,
, 0 1 ( !),
:
+
0
1

0
0
1

1
1
0

0
1

0
0
0

1
0
1

, Z2 , Zn n (. ).
Z2 , ,
a Z2 a 0 = 0 a = 0.

2.1.

25

, , (. ).
, (
).
2.1.1. R .
a R a 0 = 0 a = 0.
. a0 = 0,
. a0 = b.
b + b = a0 + a0 = a(0 + 0) = a0 = b.
b + b = b b
, (b + b) + (b) = b + (b). b + (b + (b)) = 0,
, b + 0 = 0, b = 0.
, ab = 0,
, , a = 0 b = 0. , ab = 0,
. , ,
.
.
2.1.2. .
. F a, b F ,
ab = 0, a 6= 0 b 6= 0. ab = 0 b1 , b (
10). (ab)b1 = 0b1 .
a(bb1 ), ,
9 10 a. 2.1.1
0. .
2.1.1 , , 2.1.2 , .
, , , ,
. .
2.1.8. n. k k ,
k n. Zn = {k | k Z}. ,
, : i + j = i + j,
i j = i j, Zn , ,

26

2. , ,

Zn . n.
2.1.9. , Zn
, n .
2.1.10.
,
.
2.2.
2.2.1. M , . . M , M .
. 1. N ,

2k 1, n = 2k,
n =
2k, n = 2k 1,
, n = 2n , ,
.
2. M = {1, 2, 3} 1 = 2,
2 = 3, 3 = 1, , M 1 = 2, 2 = 3, 3 = 2, .
, M , . , 2 :

1 2 3
=
.
2 3 1
,

. - . ,
. ,

1 2 3
2 1 3
=
=
.
2 3 1
3 2 1

2.2.

27

2.2.1. S(M )
M .
. , S(M ).
, -, . , M .
, .
x, y M x( ) = y( )
(x) = (y). , x = y. , x = y. , . , , , 1
1 , , , .
x M y = (x 1 ) 1 M
, y( ) = ((x 1 ) 1 )( ) = ((x 1 )( 1 )) =
(x 1 ) = x. , . .
, hS(M ), i .
, .
, x M x = x.
, 1 , , , .
2 3 . , .
:
2.2.1. f : X Y , g : Y U , h : U W
, (f g) h = f (g h).
. x X.
:
x((f g) h) = (x(f g))h = ((xf )g)h = (xf )(g h) = x(f (g h)).
, 2.2.1.
S(M ) , , .

28

2. , ,

1 2 3
1 2 3
. =
,=
.
2 3 1
2 1 3

1
2

2
3

3
1


1 2

2 1

3
3

1
1

2
3

3
2

2.2.1.
1.
, 6= .
2. .
3. 100 100 .
4. 1 1 , .
2.2.2. S(M ) M
M . M .
M
M , . , M
n , M Sn ( n)
, M = {1, 2, . . . , n}. M .
, .
2.2.2. , |Sn | = n!. S3 . S3 . S3 .
Sn

1
i1

2
i2

...
...

n
in

, {i1 , i2 , . . . , in } = {1, 2, . . . , n} 1 = i1 , 2 =
i2 , . . . , n = in .

i1
j1

i2
j2

...
...

in
jn

2.2.

29

, 1 :

i1 i2 . . . in
1
=
.
1 2 ... n

M = {1, 2, . . . , n} Sn . i M . i = i, . . i
,
i . i 6= i, , i .
supp()
. ,

i1 i2 . . . is k1 . . . kt
=
,
j1 j2 . . . js k1 . . . kt
il 6= jl l {1, 2, . . . , s}, supp() =
{i1 , i2 , . . . , is }. , supp() = {j1 , j2 , . . . , js }
supp() , . .
supp() = supp(). , supp() = supp( 1 ) = supp(),
, 1 .
i1 supp() i1 = i2 , i2 = i3 . ., s , is {i1 , i2 , . . . , is }. s - M , ,
supp(). , is = i1 , i2 , . . . , is
i1 , . . . , is1 . {i1 , i2 , . . . , is }
s ( ). : , ,
. ,
, , M ( ).
, M , supp()
.
.

1 2 3 4 5 6
=
.
6 3 2 1 5 4

30

2. , ,

{1, 6, 4}, {2, 3}, {5} M ,


. M = {1, 6, 4} {2, 3} {5}
supp() = {1, 6, 4} {2, 3}.
supp() ,
.
2.2.3. Sn

i1 i2 . . . is1 is k1 . . . kt
,
i2 i3 . . .
is
i1 k1 . . . kt
{i1 , i2 , . . . , is , k1 , . . . , kt } = {1, 2, . . . , n} s > 2,
s (i1 , i2 , . . . , is ).
i1
is

i2

i3

, ,
.
. 1.

1 2 3 4
1 2 4 3
=
= (1, 2, 4) = (2, 4, 1) = (4, 1, 2)
2 4 3 1
2 4 1 3
3.
2.

1 2
4 3

3
2

4
1

2.2.2. || s (
Sn ) s.
. = (i1 , i2 , . . . , is ). k , i1 k = i1 , s. il s = il
l = 1, 2, . . . , s.
2.2.4. Sn ,
supp() supp() = .

2.2.

31

2.2.3. , = .
. i M .
.
1. i 6 supp() supp(). i = i = i.
2. i supp(). i = i = i.
3. i supp(). i = i = i.
. 1 , 2 . . . , k ,
1 2 . . . k 1 , 2 . . . , k .
2.2.3. 2.2.3.
2.2.2. Sn .
= 1 2 . . . k
1 , 2 , . . . , k . c
.
.
, M = {1, 2, . . . , n} . ,
{i1 , i2 , . . . , is } .
1 = (i1 , i2 , . . . , is ) . , = 1 , . , supp(1 ) supp(),
1 = 11 . i supp(1 ), . . i = il l {1, 2, . . . , s},
i1 = il 1 = il (11 ) = (il 11 ) = il1 = il = i. supp(1 ) 1 .
, i 6 supp(1 ), i1 = i(11 ) = (i11 ) = i.
, 1
. , 1
supp(1 ) = supp() \ supp(1 ),
, supp()
. ,
1 = 2 . . .k 2 , . . . , k ,
. = 1 1 supp(1 )supp(1 ) = , = 1 2 . . .k
.
, = 1 2 . . .m . i1 supp(), l
, i1 supp(l ). 1 , 2 , . . . , m
, , , i1 supp(1 ).

32

2. , ,

i1 1 = i1 = i1 1 = i2 , i2 1 = i2 = i1 = i3 , . . . , is 1 = is =
is 1 = i1 . 1 = 1 = 1 1 = 1 1 , 1 .
. , i , (i).
.

1
6

2
3

3
2

4
1

5
5

6
4

= (1, 6, 4)(2, 3) , , = (1, 6, 4)(2, 3)(5).


,
, M , , .
, , .
,
.
2.2.5. 2 .
2.2.4. Sn
.
. 2.2.2 .
= (i1 , i2 , . . . , is ) s. ,
= (i1 , i2 )(i1 , i3 ) . . . (i1 , is ) .

. ,

.
. (1, 2)(1, 3)(1, 2) = (2, 3).
. .

2.2.

33

2.2.6. Sn , supp()
m , k . d() m k. sgn() = (1)d() . ,
sgn() = 1, , sgn() = 1.
.
d() = 5 2 = 3, sgn() = (1)3 = 1, . . .
. M
M
( ).
2.2.3. .
. , = (i, j) Sn . , ,
. , , d( ) = d() 1.
= 1 2 . . . k ( ). ,
supp() = {i} = (i). i j, ,
, . .
i, j {k1 , k2 , . . . , ks }, . .
= (k1 , k2 , . . . , ks ) ,
i, j supp(). i = k1 , j = km (, ). , (k1 , . . . , km , . . . , ks )(i, j) = (k1 , . . . , km1 )(km , . . . , ks ).
, (, i, j, , ). ,
d( ) = d() 1.
i {i1 , i2 , . . . , is } i = i1 , j
{j1 , j2 , . . . , jt } j = j1 (,
). (i1 , i2 , . . . , is ) (j1 , j2 , . . . , jt ).
(i1 , i2 , . . . , is )(j1 , j2 , . . . , jt )(i, j) = (i1 , i2 , . . . , is , j1 , . . . , jt ) ,
. ,
d( ) = d() + 1.

34

2. , ,

. . , .
1. , , d().
. ,
, , sgn() = 1. = 1 2 . . . k
. 2.2.3 sgn(1 ) = sgn(1 ) = (1)1 . ,
sgn(1 2 ) = (1)2 . . , sgn() = (1)d() = (1)k .
2.2.4. ,
, , d().
.
2. , Sn . sgn( ) = sgn() sgn( ).
2.2.5. 2 2.2.3.
2.2.6. , M . , An Sn Sn . An . , n > 3
An 3.
2.2.7. , Sn 2.
2.3.
2.3.1. S. S m n ( (m n)-) -

2.3.

35

a11 a12 . . . a1n


a21 a22 . . . a2n

..................... ,
am1 am2 . . . amn

aij S, i {1, 2, . . . , m} , j {1, 2, . . . , n}


. ,
, . . m = n, ,
n . m
n S Mmn (S),
(n n)- Mn (S).

. ,
A = (aij ) A = (aij )mn , .
A B ,
, , : A = (aij )mn ,
B = (bij )mn , A = B aij = bij i = 1 . . . m, j = 1 . . . n.
.

1 1 1
1.
2 3 {1}.
1 1 1

1 5 N.
2. 1 2 3 4 5

1
2

3.
3 4 1 N.
4
1 n n, m1 m. 2 5, 3
4.
. , , , .
. , n
S n- S, . . n- S n S. Mmn (S) m n S

36

2. , ,

m-, n- S, ,
, m- (S n )m S n .
,
. I = {(i, j) | 1 6 i 6 m, 1 6 j 6 n}.
A = (aij ) Mmn (S)
I S,
(i, j) aij S, Mmn (S)
.
S +.
:


a11 . . . a1n
b11 . . . b1n
a21 . . . a2n b21 . . . b2n


........... + ..........
am1 . . . amn
bm1 . . . bmn

a11 + b11 . . . a1n + b1n


a21 + b21 . . . a2n + b2n
=

....................... .
am1 + bm1 . . . amn + bmn

,
2.3.2. A = (aij )mn , B = (bij )mn
S c .
A B C = (cij )mn = A + B
S , cij = aij + bij .
S , .
2.3.3. A = (aik )ms B = (bkj )sn
S , . S . A B
C = (cij )mn = AB S m n,
cij =

s
X

aik bkj = ai1 b1j + ai2 b2j + . . . + ais bsj .

k=1

, , i-
j- , i-
j-
.

2.3.

37

. S = Z .

0 1
123
10+22+34 11+23+35
16 22

2 3 =
=
.
450
40+52+04 41+53+05
10 19
4 5
, A B
, , .
2.3.1. hR, +, i , n . Mn (R) .
. , , .
1. hR, +i , hMmn (R), +i .
. A = (aij ), B = (bij ), C = (cij ) Mmn (R).
R , i, j aij + bij =
bij + aij (aij + bij ) + cij = aij + (bij + cij ). , A + B = B + A
(A+B)+C = A+(B +C). , , , R.
, A = (aij ) A = (aij ). , Mmn (R)
.
2. A = (aij ), B = (bij ) Mms (R) C = (cij )
Msn (R). (A + B)C = AC + BC.
. D = (dij ) = (A + B)C, F = (fij ) = AC +
BC. i, j
dij =

n
X

(aik +bik )ckj =

k=1

n
X
k=1

(aik ckj +bik ckj ) =

n
X
k=1

aik ckj +

n
X

bik ckj = fkj .

k=1

, D = F .
A(B + C) = AB + AC
, , .
.
, .

38

2. , ,

2.3.1 ( ). hS, +i X = (xij )mn S.


m X
n
X

xij =

i=1 j=1

n X
m
X

xij .

j=1 i=1

. S , . ,
X.
3. A = (aij ) Mms (R), B = (bij ) Mst (R) C =
(cij ) Mtn (R), (AB)C = A(BC).
. D = AB, F = BC G = (AB)C = DC,
H = A(BC) = AF . , G = H. , -,
G H m n. ,
i {1 . . . m}, j {1 . . . n}
s
!
t
t
t X
s
X
X
X
X
(ail blk )ckj =
gij =
dik ckj =
ail blk ckj =
k=1

s X
t
X
l=1 k=1

k=1

ail (blk ckj ) =

l=1
s
X
l=1

ail

k=1 l=1

t
X

!
(blk ckj )

k=1

s
X

ail flj = hij .

l=1

13 , , , Mn (R) . .
,
R ( R ) Mn (R). , n = 1, : R M1 (R),
a = (a)11 , , .
R M1 (R).
, R , M1 (R) .
-, R , Mn (R) n N. ,

1 0 ... 0
0 1 ... 0

E=
............. ,
0 0 ... 1

2.3.

39

eij = 1 i = j eij = 0 , ,
, Mn (R).
E .
, n > 1, R Mn (R).
, , F , 0 1 .
M2 (F )

0 1
0 0
A=
B=
.
0 0
1 0

AB =

1 0
0 0

6=

0
0

0
1

= BA.

, M2 (F ) . ,

0 0
2
= 0,
A =
0 0
A . ,
A1 , A1 A = E, , A2 = 0
A1 , A = 0.
, F , , . F ,
.
, (
) .
2.3.4.

1 0 . . . 0
0 2 . . . 0

D = (dij )nn =
.................
0
0 . . . n

D(1 , 2 , . . . , n )

dii = i dij = 0 i 6= j. D(1 , 2 , . . . , n )


, 1 = 2 = . . . = n = .
, : E = D(1, 1, . . . , 1), 0 = D(0, 0, . . . , 0).

40

2. , ,

{aii | i = 1, . . . , n}
A = (aij )nn ,
, A. , , 0.
, A = (aij )
Mmn (F ) ( ) D.

1 0 . . . 0
a11 a12 . . . a1n
0 2 . . . 0 a21 a22 . . . a2n

D(1 , 2 , . . . , m ) A =
............... ................... =
0
0 . . . m
am1 am2 . . . amn

1 a11 1 a12 . . . 1 a1n


2 a21 2 a22 . . . 2 a2n

=
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = (i aij )mn .
n am1 n am2 . . . n amn
, A = (aij )mn
D(1 , 2 , . . . , m ) i-
A i i = 1, . . . , m.
,

a11 a12 . . . a1n


1 0 . . . 0
a21 a22 . . . a2n 0 2 . . . 0

A D(1 , 2 , . . . , n ) =
................... ............... =
am1 am2 . . . amn
0
0 . . . n

1 a11 2 a12 . . . n a1n


1 a21 2 a22 . . . n a2n

=
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . = (j aij )mn ,
1 am1 2 am2 . . . n amn
. . A = (aij )mn
D(1 , 2 , . . . , n ) j- A
j j = 1, . . . , n.
2.3.1. ,
D1 , D2 Mn (F ) D1 D2
D1 D2 = D2 D1 .

2.3.

41

D = D(, , . . . , ),
A = (aij )
DA = AD = (aij ). ,
( ) A
. , , A. , D(, , . . . , )
E, E
.
2.3.2. , Mn (F )
, F
Mn (F ), = E,
.
2.3.3. , A Mn (F ) () Mn (F )
, A .
2.3.5. A
n n

A1

A2
..

As


i = 1, . . . , s Ai
Ps
ni ni , i=1 ni = n, Ai A A,
Ai , 0.
2.3.2.

A1
B1
0

A
2

B=
A=
..

0
0
As

B2
..

Bs

, Ai Bi

42

2. , ,

i = 1, . . . , s.

AB =

A1 B1

A2 B2
..

As Bs

2.3.4. 2.3.2.
2.3.6. F , r s {1, 2, . . . , n}, r 6= s. Ers ()

r
Ers () = (tij )nn =

..

......

..
.
..
.
1

...
..
.

..
.
1
..
.
..
.

......

..

trs = , tii = 1 tij = 0 . .


, , E = Ers (0).
, A

2.3.
.

a11
1


..

ar1


Ers ()A =

.
..

as1


..

1
am1

a11

ar1 + as1

as1

am1

a12

ar2 + as2

as2

am2

...

...

...

...

43

a1n

arn

asn

a12

...

...
ar2

...
...

...
as2

...
...

...

...

am2

. . . amn

a1n

arn + asn

asn

amn

, A
Ers () r- A s- ,
.
,

a11 . . . a1r . . . a1s . . . a1n


1
a21 . . . a2r . . . a2s . . . a2n

..

.
..

..
..
..

1
.
.
.
AErs () = .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
am1 . . . amr . . . ams . . . amn
1

a11 . . . a1r . . . a1s + a1r . . . a1n


a21 . . . a2r . . . a2s + a2r . . . a2n

..
..
..
..

.
.
.
= .
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
am1 . . . amr . . . ams + amr . . . amn
, A Ers () s- A r-
, .

44

2. , ,

2.3.3. Ers () Ers (), . . Ers () Ers () = E.


2.3.5. 2.3.3.
, ,
( )
( ),
, . , , .
2.3.2. A Mn (F )
F . E1 , . . . , Ek ,
Ek+1 , . . . , Es Mn (F ) D Mn (F ) ,
A = E1 . . . Ek DEk+1 . . . Es .
. n A.
n = 1 A = (a11 ) = D(a11 ) .
, e Mn1 (F ), A Mn (F ).
A
.
1.

a11

...

a1,n1

A = ......................
an1,1 . . . an1,n1
0
...
0

0
..
.
0
ann

0
..
.

e
A
0

...

0
ann

a11
...
a1,n1
e = ......................
A
an1,1 . . . an1,n1
Mn1 (F ). , e1 , . . . , E
ek , E
ek+1 , . . . , E
es Mn1 (F ) E
e Mn1 (F ) , A
e=E
e1 . . . E
ek D
eE
ek+1 . . . E
es .
D

2.3.
i = 1, . . . , s

..

ei

E
.
Ei =
D=

0
0 ... 0 1
0

0
..
.

e
D
...

45

0
ann

Ei , D Mn (F ). 2.3.2 E1 . . . Ek DEk+1 . . . Es =

0
0

..
..

e1 . . . E
ek D
eE
ek+1 . . . E
es

e
E
.
A
.
=
=
= A.

0
0
0
...
0 ann
0 . . . 0 ann
. , ann
A, , , ann = 0.
2. A Mn (F ) e Mn1 (F ) ,
ann 6= 0. A

a1n

..

A
.
A=
.

an1,n
an1 . . . an,n1
ann
A,
, = a1n a1
nn ( ann , ann 6= 0).
A1 . A1 = E1n ()A =

a2n

..
=
e
,
A1
.

an1,n
an1 . . . an,n1
ann
e1 Mn1 (F ). , A
A1 (1, n) 0. 2.3.3

46

2. , ,

A = E1n (a1n /ann )A1 , a1n /ann = = (a1n a1


nn ). A1 E2n (a2n /ann ),
A2 2- n-
0. , A = E1n (a1n /ann )E2n (a2n /ann )A2 .
, A,
ann . A, A
( ann ). , A = E1n (a1n /ann ) . . .
. . . En1,n (an1,n /ann )BEn,n1 (an,n1 /ann ) . . . En1 (an1 /ann ), B
,
. B , A. 2 .
3. A Mn (F ) .
ann 6= 0, , . ,
, ann = 0. A 0, ,
. , , ,
, .
, , a1n 6= 0. A , A
En1 (1). B = En1 (1)A , (n, n), 0. B
B = E1 . . . El DEl+1 . . . Et
. A = En1 (1)E1 . . . El DEl+1 . . . Et A, .
2.3.6. , ,

0 1
2
A = 1 0 1 .
2 1
0

2.4.
, .
, .

2.4.

47

2.4.1. n , Sn {1, . . . , n}, F ,


A = (aij )nn Mn (F ). (
) A F , det(A) |A| :
X
det(A) =
sgn a11 a22 . . . ann .
Sn

. Sn , aii A,
i- (i)- , i i
.
. 1. n = 1. S1 = {}, A = (a11 ) det(A) = a11 .
2. n = 2. S2 = {, (1, 2)}, sgn = 1 sgn(1, 2) = 1.

a11 a12
A=
.
a21 a22

a
det(A) = 11
a21

a12
= a11 a22 a12 a21 .
a22

(2 2)-
.

a11 x1 + a12 x2 = b1 ,
a21 x1 + a22 x2 = b2
.

b1 a22 b2 a12
b2 a11 b1 a21
, x2 =
a11 a22 a12 a21
a11 a22 a12 a21

a11 a12

6= 0. , ,
a21 a22
, 0, ,
.
.
x y
x1 =

48

2. , ,

(x1 , x2 ) (y1 , y2 ) . S ,

x x2
.
x y, 1
y1 y2
, x y ,
0.
2.4.1. , .
3. n = 3. Sn = {, (1, 2, 3), (1, 3, 2), (1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 3)},
An = {, (1, 2, 3), (1, 3, 2)}. ,

a11 a12 a13


a11 a12 a13

A = a21 a22 a23 , det(A) = a21 a22 a23 =


a31 a32 a33
a31 a32 a33
= a11 a22 a33 + a12 a23 a31 + a13 a21 a32 a12 a21 a33 a13 a22 a31 a11 a23 a32 .
,
( ),
. , n
n , n = 1, 2, 3, ,
0 ( 4). n > 3
, n , n .
, .
2.4.1. A = (aij ), B = (bij ) Mn (F ), F ,
r {1, 2, . . . , n}.
j = 1, . . . , n brj = arj bij = aij
i 6= r. det(B) = det(A).
,
.
det(B) =
P . P
sgn
b
.
.
.
b
.
.
.
b
=
11
rr
nn
Sn sgn a11 . . . (arr ) . . . ann =
Sn
P
Sn sgn a11 . . . arr . . . ann = det(A).

2.4.

49

. A (
0), det(A) = 0.
2.4.2. A Mn (F ), F . det(A)
det(A).
2.4.2. A = (aij ), B = (bij ), C = (cij )
Mn (F ), r {1, 2, . . . , n}.
j = 1, . . . , n crj = arj +brj
cij = aij = bij i 6= r. det(C) = det(A) + det(B).
, r- , , , r- , r- , ,
.
. det(C) =
X
X
sgn c11 . . . crr . . . cnn =
sgn c11 . . . (arr +brr ) . . . cnn =
=
Sn

Sn

sgn c11 . . . arr . . . cnn +

Sn

sgn c11 . . . brr . . . cnn =

Sn

sgn a11 . . . arr . . . ann +

Sn

sgn b11 . . . brr . . . bnn =

Sn

= det(A) + det(B).
2.4.3. A = (aij ) Mn (F ), r, s {1, 2, . . . , n}.
j = 1, . . . , n arj = asj , det(A) = 0.
, , 0.
. (r, s) Sn .
2.1.1 : 7 Sn .
Sn , = Sn . , sgn = sgn( ) = sgn ,
An ,
Sn \ An .
X
det(A) =
sgn a11 . . . arr . . . ass . . . ann =
Sn

50

2. , ,
X
X
a11 . . . arr . . . ass . . . ann
a11 . . . arr . . . ass . . . ann =
=
An

Sn \An

a11 . . . arr . . . ass . . . ann

An

a11 . . . arr . . . ass . . . ann =

An

(a11 . . . arr . . . ass . . . ann a11 . . . arr . . . ass . . . ann ) = 0.

An

. A = (aij ), B = (bij ) Mn (F ), r, s
{1, 2, . . . , n}.
j = 1, . . . , n arj = bsj , asj = brj aij = bij
r 6= i 6= s. det(A) + det(B) = 0.
,
.
. 2.4.2 2.4.3,
:

..
..
..

.
.
.


arj brj arj asj




..
..
..
..
+
=
+
=
.
.
.
.


asj bsj asj arj




..
..
..
..


.
.
.
.


..
..
..
..

.
.
.
.


arj arj asj asj




..
..
..
..
=
+
+
+

.
.
.
.


asj arj arj asj




..
..
..
..

.
.
.
.

..
..
..

.
.
.

a
+
a

rj
sj
rj
sj

.
.
.
..
..
..
=
+
=
= 0.

arj + asj arj + asj arj + asj



..
..
..

.
.
.
..
.

2.4.

51

2.4.4. A = (aij ), B = (bij ) Mn (F ),


F , r, s {1, 2, . . . , n}.
j = 1, . . . , n brj = arj + asj ,
aij = bij i 6= r. det(B) = det(A).
, .
. C = (cij ) D = (dij )
Mn (F ) , j = 1, . . . n
crj = asj , drj = asj cij = dij = aij i 6= r. 2.4.3 D ( r- s-
). 2.4.1
det(C) = det(D) = 0. , 2.4.2 ,
det(B) = det(A) + det(C) = det(A).
2.4.2. A = (aij )
(n n)-, i, j {1, . . . , n} , i > j, aij = 0. ,
, , 0.
, , , 0.
, , .
2.4.5. A = (aij ) Mn (F )
. , , . . det(A) = a11 a22 . . . ann .
. , ,
A .
.
, Sn : i = 1, . . . , n i 6 i. n = n,
. , (n1) = n1, n
n. , ,
(n 2) = n 2, . . ., 2 = 2, 1 = 1. , . ,
Sn i {1, . . . , n} , i > i.
A . P
a11 a22 . . . ann 0.
det(A) = Sn sgn a11 a22 . . . ann = a11 a12 . . . a1n .

52

2. , ,

. D = D(1 , . . . , n ) , T = Ers () . det(D) = 1 . . . n ,


det(T ) = 1. , .
2.4.1. A, B Mn (F ). |AB| = |A| |B|.
. , A = D(1 , . . . , n )
. B A
i {1, 2, . . . , n} i- B i .
, 2.4.1 |AB| =
= 1 . . . n |B| = |A||B|.
A = Ers () , 1. ,
. 2.4.4 |AB| = |B| = 1|B| = |A||B|.
A . 2.3.2 E1 , . . . , Ek , Ek+1 , . . . , Es D Mn (F ) , A = E1 . . . Ek DEk+1 . . . Es .
|A| = |E1 (E2 . . . Ek DEk+1 . . . Es )| = |E2 . . . Ek DEk+1 . . . Es | =
. . . = |D(Ek+1 . . . Es )| = |D||Ek+1 . . . Es | = |D|. , |AB| =
= |E1 . . . Ek DEk+1 . . . Es B| = |D(Ek+1 . . . Es B)| = |D||Ek+1 . . . Es B| =
= |D||B| = |A||B|.
2.4.3.

A=

A1

A2
..

As

. |A| = |A1 ||A2 | . . . |As |.


2.4.3. A = (aij ) (m n)- S. B = (bij ) n m S A, bij = aji i = 1, . . . , n
j = 1, . . . , m. , A, A0 A> .
.

2.4.

53

2.4.4. A B :
1) A00 = (A0 )0 = A;
2) (A + B)0 = A0 + B 0 ;
3) (AB)0 = B 0 A0 .
. , D
, Ers () , D0 = D Ers ()0 =
= Esr ().
2.4.6. A Mn (F ). det(A0 ) = det(A).
. , -, 3)
2.4.4
: (A1 A2 . . . As )0 =
= A0s . . . A02 A01 . , A = E1 . . . Ek DEk+1 . . . Es , E1 , . . . , Ek ,
Ek+1 , . . . , Es , D ,
0
|A| = |D|. A0 = Es0 . . . Ek+1
D0 Ek0 . . . E10 |A0 | = |D0 | =
= |D| = |A|.
. ,
.
2.4.5. .
, n
.
2.4.4. A = (aij ) Mn (F ). , ars A, Mrs (A)
Mn1 (F ), A r- s-
.
.

1 2 5
1 2
A = 3 4 6 M23 (A) =
.
7 8
7 8 9
2.4.5. A = (aij ) Mn (F ).
A ars Ars = (1)r+s |Mrs (A)|.
,
(r, s) ,

54

2. , ,

, , r + s ,
, .
. a23 A

2+3 1 2
A23 = (1)
7 8 = (1) (1 8 2 7) = 6.
2.4.2 ( ).
A = (aij ) Mn (F ). i, k {1, . . . , n}

n
X
|A|, k = i
aij Akj =
0, k 6= i.
j=1

. i- :
|A| =

n
X

aij Aij ,

j=1

i = 1, . . . , n, ,
k = i.
.
Pn ,
i = k, . . , |A| = j=1 aij Aij i = 1, . . . , n.
.
1. i = n, an1 = an2 = . . . = an,n1 = 0. A

..

Mnn
.


0 . . . 0 ann
Mnn = Mnn (A) , ann
A,
.

1 ... n 1 n
=
Sn 0 =
i1 . . . in1 n

1 ... n 1
Sn1 . |A| =
i1 . . . in1
X
X
=
sgn a11 . . . an1,(n1) ann =
sgn a11 . . . an1,(n1) ann =
Sn

Sn
n = n

2.4.
= ann

0 S

55

sgn 0 a110 . . . an1,(n1)0 = ann |Mnn | = ann (1)n+n |Mnn | =

n1

= ann Ann = 0 An1 + . . . + 0 An,n1 + ann Ann =

n
X

anj Anj .

j=1

2. i = n, anj = 0, , , ans .
s = n, . s < n. A1 A s- (s + 1)- . 2.4.3 2.4.6
|A| = |A1 |. s = n1, , , Mnn (A1 ) = Mn,n1 (A).
, |A| = |A1 | = an,n1 |Mn,n1 | = an,n1 An,n1 ,
. s < n 1, ,
(s + 1)- A1 (. . s- A)
(s + 2)- , s- A n- . n s .
B

..

Mns (A)
.


0
...
0 ans

|A| = (1)ns |B| = (1)ns+2s ans |Mns (A)| = ans Ans =


Pn
= j=1 anj Anj , . , A. , , s-
n- ,
Mns (A) .
3. i = n. Aj
n, A, n1
A, (n, j)
anj A, P
.
n
2.4.2 |A| = |A1 |+|A2 |+. . .+|An | = j=1 anj Anj .
4. . i = n, . i < n. i- (i + 1)-
A ,
. (i + 1)- (i + 2)-

56

2. , ,

, , i- A n- .
B.
2.4.3 |A| = (1)ni |B|.
k- A B ak
bk , : bk = ak
1 6 k < i, bk = ak+1 i 6 k < n bn = ai . ,
Mnj (B) = Mij (A) j = 1, . . . , n. |A| =
= (1)

ni

ni

|B| = (1)

n
X

ni

bnj Bnj = (1)

j=1
n
X

aij (1)

n+j+ni

|Mij (A)| =

j=1

n
X

bnj (1)n+j |Mnj (B)| =

j=1
n
X

i+j+2(ni)

aij (1)

|Mij (A)| =

j=1

n
X

aij Aij .

j=1

, .

, ,
P.
n
i 6= k j=1 aij Akj = 0. B
n, A, :
B, k- , A, k- i- A.
i- k- B (
i- A), 2.4.3 B
. , B
k- ,
|B| =

n
X
j=1

bkj Bkj =

n
X

aij Akj ,

j=1

Mkj A B ( ,
A B, k,
). .
( ). A =
(aij ) Mn (F ). j, k {1, . . . , n}

n
X
|A|, j = k
aij Aik =
0, j 6= k.
i=1

2.4.

57

. .
, , A0 .
2.4.6. A : , .

, , .
b =
2.4.6. A = (aij ) Mn (F ). A
(b
aij ) Mn (F ), b
aij = Aji i, j {1, . . . , n}, A.
, .
2.4.2 .
2.4.20 ( b
). A Mn (F ), A
.

|A| 0 . . . 0

b = AA
b = |A|E = 0 |A| . . . 0 .
AA
..................
0
0 . . . |A|
b
. B AA,
bij =

n
X
k=1

aik b
akj =

n
X
k=1

aik Ajk =

|A|, i = j
0, i 6= j.

b .
AA
,
.
2.4.7. A , det(A) = 0, .

58

2. , ,

2.4.8. A Mn (F ).
A1 A, AA1 =
= A1 A = E.
b
2.4.3 ( ). A Mn (F ) A
. A ( ) , .

A1

A11 A21 . . . An1

1
1 b
A12 A22 . . . An2 .
A=
=

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
|A|
|A|
A1n A2n . . . Ann

. |A| = 0. ,
A A1 .
1 = |E| = |AA1 | = |A||A1 | = 0;
.
1 b
A , |A|
A . , A = (aij ) A
(aij ). , E . , 2.3.3
A = EA = A(E).
2.4.20
A(

1 b
1
b = 1 E(AA)
b = 1 E|A|E = E
A) = A(
E A)
|A|
|A|
|A|
|A|
(

1
1 b
A)A =
|A|E = E.
|A|
|A|

2.4.7. A . , .
2.4.8. GLn (F ) = {A Mn (F ) | det(A) 6= 0}.
, GLn (F )
.

2.4.

59

2.4.9. GLn (F ), 2.4.8, F ,


F .
, ,
: AX = B Y A = B
, A (, A, B, X, Y ). X = A1 B Y = BA1
.
, ,
. .
2.4.9. , A ,

, (). , , ,
( ).
2.4.10. A, B Mn (F ) |A| 6= 0.
() ,
() , ,
() ( ),
, (). , (n 2n)- (A | B),
A B, (E | X), E , X
A1 B, . . AX = B. , B = E, X = A1 . ,
A
(2n n)- ( B
)
E
( Y ), Y Y A = B.
. : . det Mn (F ) F , ,
2.4.12.4.3, 1
. ,
A = (a) M1 (F ) a, A Mn (F )
det(A) -

60

2. , ,

n 1, (. 2.4.2).
2.4.11. , ( ) .
2.5.
2.5.1. C,
.
1. C R, R
.
2. C i , i2 = 1, 1
, C, , R.
3. z C a+bi,
a, b R, R . 1, i . 2.
2.5.1. C .
. C

a b
, a, b R.
b a
:

a b
c d
a + c (b + d)
+
=
,
b
a
d
c
b+d
a+c

a b
b
a

d
c

ac bd
ad + bc

(ad + bc)
ac bd

(1)

(2)

C
.
, C . M2 (R) C,
M2 (R) , C,

a b
z=
C.
b
a

2.5.

61

(2) ,

c d
a b
ac bd (ad + bc)

=
.
d
c
b
a
ad + bc
ac bd
, C .

a (b)
b
a
C,
.
, z C
C. 2.4.3 . ,

a b

= a2 + b2 6= 0,
b
a
a = b = 0, z .
-,

1
a
b
z 1 = 2
C.
b a
a + b2
, C . , C 13 2.5.1 , , .

a 0

R=
aR .
0 a
, R C. , 2.3.2 R
M2 (R) , R . , (aE) = a R.
i C,

0 1
.
1
0
,


0 1
0
i2 =

1
0
1

1
0

1
0

0
1

62

2. , ,

, , 1
R R.
z C,

a b
,
b
a

a=

a
0

0
a

b=

b
0

0
b

z=

a
b

b
a

a
0

0
a

b
0

0
b

0
1

1
0

= a + bi.

, z z = a + bi =
= c + di. a c = (d b)i. ,
(a c)2 = (d b)2 . a, b, c, d , a c = d b = 0. a = c b = d,
, z = a + bi . , C
.
C , . i0
(i0 )2 = 1. 3 C a + bi0 , a b 1 . : C C, (a + bi) = a + bi0 ,
. , (a + bi0 ) + (c + di0 ) = (a + c) + (b + d)i0
(a + bi0 )(c + di0 ) = (ac bd) + (ad + bc)i0 (1) (2)
, .
. C
, , a + bi.
, , a+0i = a , , R C.
Q R, C.
.
2.5.2. a b z = a + bi a = Re z b = Im z . i

2.5.

63

i2 = 1
.
C , 1.
i, i. , (a + bi)2 = 1 + 0i,
C . i0 = i, ,
z = a + bi z = a bi . , z
z .
, z u : z + u = z + u zu = z u. , ,
z = z.
2.5.1. , ,
: .
. 2.1.10, , .
, : a a > 0
b R : b2 = a.
C z u , Re z = Re u Im z = Im u.
C R2 ,
( ). ,
z = a+bi (a, b).
, ,
.
z = a + bi

z (a, b). .
,
, ,
.

64

2. , ,

Im z

z = a + bi

b
r
O

'

Re z

2.5.3. z = a + bi C.

z = a + bi

r = a2 + b2 ,
z (a, b).
z |z|.
. z = a +0i, , a2 + 02
.
2.5.4. z = a + bi ,


z (a, b)
. 2. 0 .
z arg z.
. 0 ,
, 0 .
r z = a + bi.
, a = r cos b = r sin .
z = r(cos + i sin ).
.
,
z = r(cos + i sin ) u = s(cos + i sin ), , , r = s = + 2k,
k Z.
2.5.1.
z = r(cos + i sin ) u = s(cos + i sin ).
zu = rs(cos( + ) + i sin( + )).

2.5.

65

,
, .
.

.
( ). z = r(cos + i sin ).
z n = rn (cos n + i sin n).
n- z u , un = z. ,
n-
.
2.5.2. z = r(cos + i sin ) . xn = z n
x0 , x1 . . . , xn1 . k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1
xk =

r(cos

+ 2k
+ 2k
+ i sin
).
n
n

. u = s(cos + i sin )
xn = z.
sn = r n = + 2k

n
(k Z). , s = r ( ) = +2k
.
n
, k, m {0, 1, . . . , n 1}
+2k
+2m
, k = m.
n
n
, m = k + nj (j Z) +2k
+2m
=
n
n
+2k
+
2j

2.
,
n

+ 2k
+ 2k
n
r cos
+ i sin
k
=
0,
1,
.
.
.
,
n

1
.

n
n
n- .
2.5.2.
2k
1. Cn = {k | k = 0, 1, . . . , n1}, k = cos 2k
n +i sin n ,
n
x = 1.
2. x0 xn = z,
{xk = x0 k | k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1}
xn = z.

66

2. , ,

3. Cn
. < Cn , >'< Zn , + > (.
2.1.8).

3

3.1.
. ,
. ,
: . ,
,
.
R f ,
v v.
3.1.1. F . ( )
F V ( ), + ( ) v 7 v (
) F ,
.
1. < V, + > .
2. F u, v V (u + v) = u + v.
3. , F v V ( + )v = v + v.
4. , F v V ()v = (v).
5. v V 1 F 1v = v.

, .
3.1.1. V
F ; , F ; u, v V ; 0 F , 1 F , 0
V .
1) 0 = 0;
2) (v) = v;
3) (u v) = u v;
4) 0v = 0;

68

3.

5) (1)v = v;
6) ( )v = v v.
. ,
F , 0.
. 1. F .
F n = {(1 , 2 , . . . , n ) | i F } n-
F F :
1) (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) + (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) = (1 + 1 , 2 + 2 , . . . , n + n );
2) (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) = (1 , 2 , . . . , n ).
F n F .
.
, ( ) () , R2 (R3 ).
2. F K. K
F K K F ,
K (,
F K). , R
Q , C
R.
3. F (X, K) X K : (f +g)(x) = f (x)+g(x)
(f )(x) = f (x).
4. F [x] x F ,
.
5. M m n F
F A 7 A, A, , , A
.
, F Mn (F ) . , Mn (F )
. -

3.1.

69

, ,
, .
3.1.2. F A : ,
F , :
1) A ;
2) A
;
3) F a, b A (ab) = (a)b = a(b).
3.1.2.
1. , Mn (F ) F .
2. , .
3.1.3. V F . U V V , , V , . . u, v U F
u + v U u U .
. , U V
F F . , , ,
,
U , U
V . , 5
3.1.1 u U
u = (1)u U , , -
.
3.1.4. A F .
B A A,
, A, . .
a, b B F a + b B, ab B a B.
. 1. V : 0 = {0} V .
, ,
, , , .

70

3.

A.
2. R
() () C R.
3.1.3. :
1. {(1 , . . . , n ) | 1 + . . . + n = 0} F n F .
2. Fn [x] x, n, F [x]
x F . F [x] F Fn [x] .
3. Mn (F ), . .
A Mn (F ), A0 = A, Mn (F ) F .
Mn (F )?
3.2.
V F . a1 , a2 , . . . , as ( !)
.
3.2.1. ( ) a1 , a2 , . . . , as V F 1 , 2 , . . . , s F
1 a1 + 2 a2 + . . . + s as , ,
. , 1 = 2 = . . . = s = 0,
.
. , V , , 0.
3.2.2. a1 , a2 , . . . , as , , 0. .
, a1 , a2 , . . . , as
, 1 a1 + 2 a2 + . . . + s as = 0 ,
1 = 2 = . . . = s = 0.
3.2.3. a

3.2.

71

a1 , a2 , . . . , as ,
, a.
. 1.
a1 = (1, 0, . . . , 0)
a2 = (0, 1, . . . , 0)
...
an = (0, 0, . . . , 1)
Rn , , , 1 a1 + 2 a2 +
. . . + n an = (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) = (0, 0, . . . , 0) = 0 ,
1 = 2 = . . . = n = 0.
2. , a1 = (1, 1, 1), a2 = (0, 1, 2), a3 = (1, 2, 3)
R3 , 1a1 + 1a2 + (1)a3 = 0. , a3
a1 a2 : a3 = 1a1 + 1a2 .
.
3.2.1 ( ). a1 , a2 , . . . , as ,
, . . i {1, . . . , s} , ai = 1 a1 + . . . + i1 ai1 .
. ,
.
. ,
, .
,
.
.
1 a1 + 2 a2 + . . . + s as = 0. i {1, . . . , s} ,
i 6= 0 i+1 = . . . = s = 0 (, i = s).
1 a1 + . . . + i1 ai1 + i ai = 0.
i1
1
ai = i1 (1 a1 + . . . + i1 ai1 ) = ( )a1 + . . . + (
)ai1
i
i
.
i, ai = 1 a1 +. . .+i1 ai1 .
1 a1 + . . . + i1 ai1 + (1)ai + 0ai+1 + . . . + 0as
0 , ai = 1 0.

72

3.

3.2.4. A B . A
B, A
B. A B , A B, B
A.
3.2.5. A
a1 , a2 , . . . , as ,
A. A L(A) hAi.
,
L(A) = ha1 , a2 , . . . , as i = {1 a1 + 2 a2 + . . . + s as | i F, i = 1, 2, . . . , s}.
, , . . , -.
3.2.1.
1. L(A) A V .
2. A B ,
L(A) L(B). , A B
, L(A) = L(B).
3. B A ,
L(A) = L(B).

, .
3.2.1 ( ). A B
a1 , a2 . . . , ar b1 , b2 , . . . , bs , A
B. r 6 s B ,
B a1 , . . . , ar , br+1 , . . . , bs .
, , r
B A
, B.
. r = 0. , , A r 1
, r . A0
A, a1 , a2 , . . . , ar1 . , A0 -

3.2.

73

B. , , A0
A. , A0 B , , ,
r 1 6 s B ,
B 0 , a1 , . . . , ar1 , br , . . . , bs ,
B, . . L(B 0 ) = L(B).
ar L(B) = L(B 0 ). , ar
B 0 :
ar = 1 a1 + . . . + r1 ar1 + r br + . . . + s bs .

(1)

r1 = s r = . . . = s = 0, ar = 1 a1 +. . .+r1 ar1 ar
A,
3.2.1 A. , r 6 s r , . . . , s
. br , . . . , bs , r 6= 0. B 00 a1 , . . . , ar , br+1 , . . . , bs . , B 00
B 0 , L(B 00 ) = L(B 0 ) = L(B)
.
a1 , . . . , ar1 , br+1 , . . . , bs B 00 , B 0 , , ar L(B 0 )
br L(B 00 ). (1). ,
r 6= 0, (1) , br

1
r1
1
r+1
s

a1 +. . .+
ar1 + ar +
br+1 +. . .+
bs .
r
r
r
r
r
, br L(B 00 ). B 0 B 00 , ,
B B 00 .
. ,
.
3.2.6. V F , V
v1 , v2 . . . , vs , , . . hv1 , v2 . . . , vs i = V .
3.2.7. ( ) V F
V , V .

74

3.

3.2.2 ( ). V
F . .
1. V .
2. V
.
3. V ,
.
4. A a1 , a2 , . . . , ar V , V , A
.
. 1. v1 , v2 , . . . , vs V , V .
( ) , . ,
, . B. 3.2.1
B . , B,
V B.
, L(B) = V , .
2. B B 0 V . L(B) =
L(B 0 ) = V , B B 0 .
, .
3. B V ,
b1 , b2 , . . . , bn . , v V
: v = 1 b1 + 2 b2 + . . . + n bn =
1 b1 + 2 b2 + . . . + n bn . (1 1 )b1 + (2
2 )b2 + . . . + (n n )bn 0. B
, . , 1 = 1 , . . . , n = n v .
4. B V ,
b1 , b2 , . . . , bn . A
B. , B B 0 , n
A . B 0 B,
L(B 0 ) = L(B) = V . , B 0 , ,
, . 1,
, -

3.2.

75

, . 2. , B 0
V , A .
3.2.8. V
dim V .
. . 2
,
.
. V n
F . :
1. m > n m V . n
V .
2. m < n A m
V . B n , L(B) = V ,
V .
3.2.2. .
. 1. V = F n F . V , dim V = n,
, , :
a1 = (1, 0, . . . , 0),
a2 = (0, 1, . . . , 0),
...
an = (0, 0, . . . , 1)
F n ,
Mn (F ).
2. E 2 (E 3 )
(), (
) . , dim E 2 = 2 dim E 3 = 3.
3. C , R , 2.
, , ,
1 i,
a + bi, a, b R.
4. V = R[x] R .

76

3.

. , V ,
f1 , . . . , fn . m ( ).
, f1 , f2 , . . . , fn , m. ,
xm+1 f1 , f2 , . . . , fn . , V .
3.2.3. , b1 , b2 , . . . , bn
F n , ,
n- b1 , b2 , . . . , bn , .
3.2.4. , Mmn (F )
. .
3.2.5. , F (X, K)
X K ,
X .
, |X| = n.
. a ( a
X), :

1, x = a,
a (x) =
0, x 6= a.
,
,
,
. ,
, .
3.2.2. B
V . .
1. B V .
2. B V .
3. B , V .
. ()
, ( -

3.2.

77

) ,
.
. (1 2). v V B, v B
, .
(2 1). B , , B, B. ,
L(B) = V B .
(1 3). B L(B) = V . B v, B.
B.
(3 1). B , B . , B
.
3.2.9. V F dim V = n. B V , b1 , b2 , . . . , bn . v V

v = 1 b1 + 2 b2 + . . . + n bn . n-
[v]B = (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) v B.
3.2.3. V n F F n .
: V F n ,
v = [v]B B V .
. B , [v]B v [v]. v =
[v]. V , ,
[u] = [v] u = v. ,
. n- (1 , 2 , . . . , n )
F n v = 1 b1 + 2 b2 + . . . + n bn V ,
. , .
[u] = (1 , 2 , . . . , n ), [v] = (1 , 2 , . . . , n ). u + v =
[u] + [v] = (1 + 1 , 2 + 2 , . . . , n + n ) = [u + v] = (u + v). ,
(v) = [v] = [v] = (v). -

78

3.

, , V , , ,
.
.
.
. V U F dim V = dim U = n. V U F n ,
, .
,

.
V n F .
A B V ,
a1 , . . . , an b1 , . . . , bn . A , i = 1, . . . , n bi B
A:
bi = ti1 a1 + . . . + tin an .

(2)

a b n, A B. ,

a1
b1

a = ... b = ... .
an

bn

(2) :

t11 . . . t1n
.............

b = T a, T =
............. .
tn1 . . . tnn
T A B.
.
3.2.3. X = (xij ), Y = (yij ) (m n). a n, a1 , . . . , an . Xa = Y a
X = Y .
. Xa = Y a ,
i = 1, . . . , m xi1 a1 +. . .+xin an = yi1 a1 +. . .+yin an .

3.2.

79

(xi1 yi1 )a1 +. . .+(xin yin )an = 0.


a1 , . . . , an , i = 1, . . . , m
j = 1, . . . , n xij = yij , . . X = Y .
v V [v]A , [v]B
v A B . , v : v = [v]A a = [v]B b.
, [v]B b = [v]B (T a) = ([v]B T )a (
). 3.2.3 [v]A a = ([v]B T )a
[v]A = [v]B T . :
T A B,
v A
v B T .
A, B, C V , a, b, c , . T
A B, S B C, P A C. c = Sb = S(T a) = (ST )a 3.2.3 ,
P A C ST . ,
[v]A = [v]C P = [v]C (ST ).
3.2.6. T A B. T , T 1
B A v
[v]B = [v]A T 1 .
. A = C , A A .
3.2.7.
V n F GLn (F )
(n n)- F . , F q, GLn (F ).
.
-.
v B
( -). , : v = b0 [v]0B . A

80

3.

v = a0 [a]0A , Te A
B -
-. ,
b = T a b0 = a0 T 0 = a0 Te. ,
- v A : [v]0A = Te[v]0B .
3.3.
.
3.3.1. V F . U V ,
U U .
. , , ,
, 3.1, , U , -,
, U .
3.3.1. U V n F . .
1. U , dim U 6 n.
2. U
V .
3. dim U = n, U = V .
. 1. U = 0 = {0}, U (
, 0).
U 6= 0, u1 U . L(u1 ) = U ,
dim U = 1 (, u1 V , ,
dim V > dim U = 1).
U 6= L(u1 ). u2 U , u1 , u2 . L(u1 , u2 ) = U , . L(u1 , u2 ) 6= U ,
u3 U \ L(u1 , u2 ). u3 u1 , u2 ,
u1 , u2 , u3 . ,
U .
V n,
n (. 1 -

3.3.

81

). , . , k,
n, L(u1 , . . . , uk ) = U . dim U = k.
2. U
V , . 4 .
3. dim U = n, B U n
V . . 1 B V .
3.3.2. V ,
U , U .
. 2 3.3.1 V , .
,
,
.
3.3.3. U1 , U2 , . . . , Us V F .
U1 , U2 , . . . , Us
U1 + U2 + . . . + Us =

s
X

Ui = {u1 + u2 + . . . + us | ui Ui , i = 1, 2, . . . , s}.

i=1

3.3.1. U , W V .
.
1. U W , U + W V .
2. U + W , U ,
W.
3. U W , U W
W U.
. - . s, ,
U1 , U2 , . . . , Us V .
3.3.2. U , W
V F . V , .

82

3.

. v1 , . . . , vr U W (, ). v1 , . . . , vr , ur+1 , . . . , us U ,
v1 , . . . , vr , wr+1 , . . . , wt W . ,
U W .

w2

v1

U W

u2

, v1 , . . . , vr , ur+1 , . . . , us ,
wr+1 , . . . , wt , , , . , :
1 v1 + . . . + r vr + r+1 ur+1 + . . . + s us + r+1 wr+1 + . . . + t wt = 0.

1 v1 + . . . + r vr + r+1 ur+1 + . . . + s us = (r+1 wr+1 + . . . + t wt ).


, , U ,
, , W . , z, ( ) ,
U W . v1 , . . . , vr U W ,
z = 1 v1 + . . . + r vr = (r+1 wr+1 + . . . + t wt ).
,
1 v1 + . . . + r vr + r+1 wr+1 + . . . + t wt = 0.
, v1 , . . . , vr , wr+1 , . . . , wt W , 1 = . . . = r = r+1 = . . . = t = 0. z = 0. , 1 v1 + . . . + r vr + r+1 ur+1 + . . . + s us = 0.
v1 , . . . , vr , ur+1 , . . . , us U , 1 = . . . =
= s = 0, .

3.3.

83

. U , W V , dim(U + W ) = dim U + dim W dim(U W ).


. , U W
U + W . ,
, U + W = hv1 , . . . , vr , ur+1 , . . . , us , wr+1 , . . . , wt i. v U + W v = u + w = (1 v1 + . . . + r vr + r+1 ur+1 + . . . +
s us ) + (1 v1 + . . . + r vr + r+1 wr+1 + . . . + t wt ) = (1 + 1 )v1 + . . . +
(r + r )vr + r+1 ur+1 + . . . + s us + r+1 wr+1 + . . . + t wt . , v1 , . . . , vr , ur+1 , . . . , us , wr+1 , . . . , wt U + W .
dim(U + W ) = s + (t r) = dim U + dim W dim(U W ).
3.3.2. U1 , U2 , . . . , Us P
V S .
s
dim S 6 i=1 dim Ui .
. 3.3.2, s.
3.3.4. U1 , U2 , . . . , Us V F . U1 + U2 + . . . + Us
, u1 +u2 +
. . . + us = 0, ui Ui , i = 1, 2, . . . , s, u1 = u2 = . . . = us = 0.
U1 , U2 , . . . , Us
U1 U2 . . . Us

s
M

Ui .

i=1

3.3.3. U1 , U2 , . . . , Us V F S = U1 + U2 + . . . +
+Us . .
1. S .
2. v S
v = u1 + u2 + . . . + us , ui Ui , i = 1, 2, . . . , s.
3. , U1 , U2 , . . .
. . . , Us ,
Ps S.
4. dim S = i=1 dim Ui .
5. Sj = U1 + . . . + Uj1 + Uj+1 + . . . + Us .
j {1, 2, . . . , s} Uj Sj = 0.
. (1 2). v S v = u1 + u2 + . . . + us = w1 + w2 + . . . + ws , ui , wi Ui .

84

3.

(u1 w1 ) + (u2 w2 ) + . . . + (us ws ) = 0, , u1 = w1 , u2 = w2 ,


. . . , us = ws .
(2 3). i = 1, 2, . . . , s Bi
bi1 , . . . , biti Ui . , B,
P B1 , B2 , . . . , Bs , S.
s
S = i=1 Ui , L(B) = S. ,
B . ,
ti
s X
X

ij bij = 0.

(1)

i=1 j=1

Pti
Ps
ij bij . i=1 ui = 0. i = 1, 2, . . . , s ui = j=1
- ui ,
i = 1, 2, . . . , s ui = 0.
Bi , ij (1) 0.
(3 4). .
(4 5). ,
j {1, 2, . . . , s}
Ps
S = Uj + Sj . dim S = i=1 dim Ui . ,

3.3.2 dim S = dim Uj +dim Sj dim(Uj Sj ).


P
s
i=1,i6=j dim Ui = dim Sj dim(Uj Sj ). Ps
3.3.2 , dim Sj 6 i=1,i6=j dim Ui ,
dim(Uj Sj ) = 0. ,
Uj Sj = 0.
Ps
(5 1). i=1 ui = 0 j {1, 2, . . . , s} ,
uj 6= 0. uj = u1 +. . .+(uj1 )+(uj+1 )+. . .+(us )
, uj Uj Sj ; .
. . 5 , U +W U W , U W = 0.
3.3.3. , , .
3.3.5. V = U W . v V
v = u + w, u U , w W . u v U
W .
. u v U , W (
U ).

3.3.

85

.
.
. 1. B b1 , b2 , . . . , bn V F . V = hb1 ihb2 i. . .hbn i n
. v V hbi i i bi , i i- v B.
2. V = F [R, R] . V+ , V V . , V+ V V .
f F [R, R]. f+ f : f+ (x) =
1
1
2 (f (x)+f (x)) f (x) = 2 (f (x)f (x)). f+ ,
f f = f+ + f . , V = V+ + V .
, V+ V = 0. V = V+ V . ,
, ,
, .
, A ,
A0 = A. A ,
A0 = A. (3) 3.1.3 Mn (F ) .
3.3.4. , Mn (F )
. , Mn (F )

.

4

4.1.
. . ,
.
4.1.1. A a1 , a2 , . . . , as V F . A L(A). A r(A).
A r. , , , . 1 , r A, L(A). ,
,
.
4.1.2. A (m n)- F .
a1 , . . . , am , e
a1 , . . . , e
an A. A F n , F m .
A a1 , . . . , am . A
e
a1 , . . . , e
an .
, . ,
, , ,
. 2.3 ,
.
.
4.1.3. A = (aij ) (m n)- F r , r 6 min{m, n}.
r r A. M , A,

4.1.

87

r r ,
, r A.
, i1 , . . . , ir
j1 , . . . , jr , mkl M aik ,jl .
. ,
, .
, ,
.
.

1 2 1 0
1 1

2 4 0 0
A=
. M =
2,
2 0
0 0 0 0
A, ,
, .
k!
4.1.1. Ckr = r!(kr)!
k r, r (m n)-
r
Cm
Cnr .

4.1.4. A
. ,
r, r r + 1.
. A 2. 2 M .
4.1.1 ( ). A = (aij ) (m n) F . , A .
. , . , , , ,
.
A r. ,
r r A ,
M r, 0.
, r + 1 A, , . , ,

88

4.

M r
r . , i1 , i2 , . . . , ir 1, 2, . . . , r
.
. , M = (aij ), i, j {1, 2, . . . , r}.
ai i- A, ai i-
M . i {1, 2, . . . , r} ai ai , r . , a1 , a2 , . . . , ar F n , . .
, .
a1 , a2 , . . . , ar F r , , . , .
3.2.3 det M = 0; . , a1 , a2 , . . . , ar A , . .
r.
m = r, . ,
m > r. , A , r, r . , - . , (r + 1)-.
ar+1 = (ar+1,1 , ar+1,2 , . . . , ar+1,r ). r a1 , a2 , . . . , ar F r , . , ar+1 :
ar+1 = 1 a1 + 2 a2 + . . . + r ar . b F n , ar+1 (1 a1 + 2 a2 + . . . + r ar ). ,
b = (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) = 0, . ,
1 , 2 , . . . , r r b
. i (i > r) , i 6= 0.
, i = r + 1. M
r + 1 A, r + 1
r + 1 .

a11 . . . a1r
a1,r+1
a11 . . . a1r a1,r+1

..
..
..
..
..
..

. M
.
M
.
.
.
.

ar1 . . . arr

ar,r+1

ar1 . . . arr ar,r+1

ar+1,1 . . . ar+1,r ar+1,r+1

0 ... 0
r+1

det M = 0. M

4.1.

89

, 1 , ,
2 , . . ., r- , r .
M , M . , r + 1- , 1 , 2 , . . . , r+1 , , , , .
M ,
0 = det M = det M = r+1 det M . det M 6= 0, r+1 = 0, r+1 . ,
b = 0 ar+1 = 1 a1 + 2 a2 + . . . + r ar .
4.1.5. (, ) A r(A).
. (n n)- A n
, det A 6= 0.
. M r+1, M
r
, , M .
, .
4.1.2. r A ,
A r.
, ,
( ) .
, . C

a1j1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

a2j2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

..................

...............
(1)

arjr . . .

,
4.1.6. .
, :

90

4.

1)
;
2) , , .
,
. , , r j1 , j2 , . . . , jr ,
(r + 1), , .
, () :
1) () ( ),
;
2) () .
:
3) () .
, , .
.
.
4.1.1.
() A .
. , ai , aj
ai + aj aj , ai ai ,
6= 0.
4.1.2. .
. m A = (aij )mn . j1 A, . , , ,
(1, j1 ), . ,

4.1.

91

j1 - .

...

a1j1
0
..
.

...
A1

0
A1 . A (1).
.
4.1.3.
1. A = (aij )mn , B = (bij )mn F .
r(A + B) 6 r(A) + r(B).
2. A = (aij )ms , B = (bij )sn F .
r(AB) 6 r(A) r(AB) 6 r(B).
. 1. C = (cij )mn = A + B. A, B, C F n ,
. i = 1, 2, . . . , m
ci = ai + bi , L(C) L(A) + L(B). , r(C) = dim L(C) 6 dim(L(A) + L(B)) 6 dim L(A) + dim L(B) =
r(A) + r(B).
2. C = (cij )mn = AB. , r(C) 6 r(B).
B, C F n , .
i = 1, 2, . . . , m ci = (ci1 , . . . , cin ) =

s
X
k=1

aik bk1 , . . . ,

s
X
k=1

!
aik bkn

s
X
k=1

aik (bk1 , . . . , bkn ) =

s
X

aik bk ,

k=1

C B. L(C) L(B)
r(C) 6 r(B).
r(C) 6 r(A) .
A C.

92

4.
4.2.

4.2.1. F
( ) x1 , x2 , . . . , xn

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + . . . + a1n xn = b1 ,

a21 x1 + a22 x2 + . . . + a2n xn = b2 ,


(1)
..............................

am1 x1 + am2 x2 + . . . + amn xn = bm


ai1 x1 + ai2 x2 + . . . + ain xn = bi (i = 1, 2, . . . , m),
aij , bi F . (1). aij ,
bi .
4.2.2. x0 = (x01 , x02 , . . . , x0n ) F n
(1), i = 1, 2, . . . , m ai1 x01 +ai2 x02 +. . .+ain x0n = bi . ,
.
( ),
.
aj (a1j , a2j , . . . , amj )0 (1) xj j = 1, 2, . . . , n, b
(b1 , b2 , . . . , bm )0 (1).
(1)
x1 a1 + x2 a2 + . . . + xn an = b.

(2)

(1).
(1) A = (aij )mn .
(1). (1)
Ax0 = b.

(3)

(1).
e = (A | b), (m (n + 1))- A
A b ,
(1).

4.2.

93

4.2.1 ( ). (1) , A (1) ,


e
. . r(A) = r(A).
. (2) (1). , x0 = (x01 , x02 , . . . , x0n ) (1) , b = x01 a1 + x02 a2 + . . . + x0n an , . .
b a1 , a2 , . . . , an x01 , x02 , . . . , x0n . , (1) ha1 , a2 , . . . , an i = ha1 , a2 , . . . , an , bi,
e
, r(A) = r(A).
.
.
, ,
. e .
A
A e A.
, , .
e .
r(A) = r(A)
(1) , ,
.
4.2.1. (1),
,
.
. , 4.1.1.
.
4.2.3. A , :
1) 1;
2) , , , 0.
4.2.1.
.

94

4.

(1) . e = (A | b) A
.
, , e = (C | d).
C
Cx0 = d

(4)

e =
Ax0 = b. , r(A)
e
= r(A) = r. C (r (n + 1))-, .

1 ... r ... n
j1 . . . jr . . . jn
, c1j1 = c2j2 = . . . = crjr = 1
e xj , . . . , xj , C.
1
r
xjr+1 , . . . , xjn . (4)
.

xj = c1jr+1 xjr+1 . . . c1jn xjn + d1 ,

1
xj2 = c2jr+1 xjr+1 . . . c2jn xjn + d2 ,
(5)
...

xjr = crjr+1 xjr+1 . . . crjn xjn + dr ,


(4), , (1).
t1 , t2 , . . . , tnr n r
F . x0 F n
: x0i = fi (t1 , t2 . . . , tnr ) i = 1, . . . , n,
fji (t1 , t2 , . . . , tnr ) = cijr+1 t1 . . . cijn tnr + di i = 1, . . . , r
fji (t1 , t2 , . . . , tnr ) = tir i = r + 1, . . . , n. x0 (5). , x0 = (x01 , x02 , . . . , x0n ) (5), , t1 = x0jr+1 , . . . , tnr = x0jn , , (5)
x0 = (f1 (t1 , . . . , tnr ), . . . , fn (t1 , . . . , tnr )). (1) (5)
, (1). .
4.2.4. F . n-
(f1 (t1 , . . . , ts ), . . . , fn (t1 , . . . , ts )), fi : F s F , -

4.2.

95

(1), (1)
{(f1 (t1 , . . . , ts ), . . . , fn (t1 , . . . , ts )) | (t1 , . . . , ts ) F s }.
.
4.2.2. (1)
r. n fi : F nr F
fi (t1 , . . . , tnr ) = i1 t1 + . . . + i,nr tnr + i , i = 1, 2, . . . , n,
n r , n-
(1).
, n r F . ,
, ,
, ,
, , (1). .
(1) (5).
4.2.2.

x1 + 2x2 + x3 = 2,

x1 + 3x2 + 2x3 x4 = 4,
2x1 + x2 x3 + 3x4 = 2,

2x1 2x3 + 4x4 = 4

(6)

.
, . .
, ( ) , ,
. ,
,
, .
4.2.3. (1) (m = n)
A det A 6= 0.

96

4.

x0 = (x01 , . . . , x0n ). :
di
x0i = ,
i = 1, 2, . . . , n,
(7)
d
d = |A|, di , A
i- .
.
Ax0 = b. , (A1 b)0 . , A((A1 b)0 )0 = A(A1 b) = b. .
, x0 , A(x0 )0 = b. ,
(x0 )0 = A1 b , , x0 = (A1 b)0 = b0 (A1 )0 . ,
.
, b0 (A1 )0 = ( dd1 , . . . , ddn ).
A
(A1 )0 = ( dij ). b0 i- 1 0
(A ) , (
) .
. (7) .
4.3.
4.3.1. n F

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + . . . + a1n xn = 0,

a21 x1 + a22 x2 + . . . + a2n xn = 0,


(1)
..............................

am1 x1 + am2 x2 + . . . + amn xn = 0,


, .
. , x0 = (0, . . . , 0).
4.3.1. X (1)
F n . X n r, r .
. (1)
Ax0 = 0. x1 , x2 ( ). A((x1 )0 + (x2 )0 ) = A(x1 )0 + A(x2 )0 = 0 + 0 = 0.

4.3.

97

, x0 = x1 + x2 . , x0 ,
x0 , .
n- fi (t1 , . . . , tnr ), i = 1, . . . , n,
(1), 4.2.2.
k = 1, . . . , n r i = 1, . . . , n xki = fi (0, . . . , 0, 1, 0, . . . , 0),
1 k- . n r xk =
(xk1 , . . . , xkn ) F n . -, k = 1, . . . , n r
xk (1). -, , n r, . -, . ,
x0 = (f1 (1 , . . . , nr ), . . . , fn (1 , . . . , nr )) = 1 x1 + . . . + nr xnr .
, x1 , . . . , xnr X.
4.3.2. .
. V = F n n F , U k V .
n F ,
U .
. ui = (i1 , . . . , in ),
i = 1, . . . , k, U . By 0 = 0, B = (ij )kn
. B k, 4.3.1 By 0 = 0 n k. : ai = (i1 , . . . , in ),
i = 1, . . . , n k. A = (ij )(nk)n , .
i1 j1 + . . . + in jn = 0 i = 1, . . . , n k j = 1, . . . , k,
uj Ax0 = 0 j = 1, . . . , k. U X
Ax0 = 0. , A n k, , X n (n k) = k. , U = X
.

98

4.

4.3.2.
Ax0 = b A Ax0 = 0
. x0
Ax0 = b, X
Ax0 = b, Z Ax0 = 0.
X = x0 + Z = {x0 + z | z Z}.
. z 0 .
A(x0 + z 0 )0 = A(x0 )0 + A(z 0 )0 = b + 0 = b. , x0 + Z X.
, x
, A(x x0 )0 = Ax0 A(x0 )0 = b b = 0. ,
z = x x0 . X x0 + Z.
. Ax0 = b , , Ax0 = 0
.

.
4.3.3 (). Ax0 = b A0 y 0 = 0,
. Ax0 = b , y A0 y 0 = 0
yb = 0.
. , Ax0 = b
x0 . A(x0 )0 = b. , A0 y 0 = 0 yA = 0 ( ). , y , A0 y 0 = 0,
yb = y(A(x0 )0 ) = (yA)(x0 ) = 0.
y , A0 y 0 = 0, yb = 0,
, b0 y 0 = 0.
0
A
y0 = 0
b0
A0 y 0 = 0. ,

0
A
r(A0 ) = r
,
b0

4.3.

99


r(A) = r(A | b). Ax0 = b.
4.3.1.
, 4.2.2.
. 4.3.2 4.3.3 .
,
( ).
4.3.2. F = Z2 2

x2 + x3 + x5 = 1,

x1 + x2 = 1,
x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 = 0,

x1 + x2 + x4 = 0
. .

5

5.1.
. ( ) f : R R f (x) = a0 + a1 x + . . . + an xn , ai R.
( ), ()
. , x x2
F = Z2 2, , ,
02 = 0 12 = 1. ,
, ,
.
N0 N {0} .
5.1.1. k N0 . ( ) f x R
f (x) =

ak xk = a0 x0 + a1 x1 + . . . + ak xk + . . . ,

k=0

ak R
0. f ,
f deg f .
. x R R[x].
. , , . .
ak xk , , n
f (x) = a0 x0 + a1 x1 + . . . + an xn . , R
(a0 x0 = a0 ). ,

5.1.

101

f (x)
= a0 + a1 x + . . . + an xn . ,
P
0 = k=0 0xk 0. . (
) , deg 0 = .
P
k
5.1.2. f (x) =
g(x) =
k=0 ak x
P
k
b
x
,

ak = bk .
k
0
k=0
. x x2
Z2 .
5.1.3. R
f (x) =

ak xk , g(x) =

k=0

bk xk R[x].

k=0

h(x) =

ck x p(x) =

k=0

dk xk R[x]

k=0


f g,
P
k N0 ck = ak + bk dk = i+j=k ai bj .
: h = f + g p = f g.
. , h = f + g
p = f g ,
, .
5.1.1. R .
.
1. R[x]
.
2. R , R[x]
.
3. R , R[x] .
. , P
k
P .
, f (x) =
k=0 ak x ,
P

k
k
g(x) = k=0 bk x , h(x) = k=0 ck x , f h + gh = (f + g)h
X
X
X
ai cj +
bi cj =
(ai + bi )cj k N0 ,
i+j=k

i+j=k

i+j=k

102

5.

, ,
R.
. R
R[x] ( ) , R R[x].
5.1.1. 5.1.1 .
5.1.1. R f, g R[x], f, g 6= 0.
.
1. deg(f + g) 6 max{deg f, deg g}.
2. deg f g 6 deg f + deg g, R
, deg f g = deg f + deg g R[x] .
. , , . 2
, , deg 0 = .
. R , R[x]
R[x]
.
5.1.2. 5.1.1
. R, deg f g = deg f + deg g .

F . , F [x]
. , F [x] F . ,
.
5.2.
5.1.1 F [x].
. ,
,
.
5.2.1 ( ). F , f, g F [x] g 6= 0. q, r F [x]
, f = qg + r r = 0, deg r < deg g. q
r, , .

5.2.

103

. .
deg f < deg g, , q = 0, r = f , . , , deg f = n > deg g = m.
f (x) = an xn + . . . + a1 x + a0 b(x) = bm xm + . . . + b1 x + b0 .
n. n = 0 (
F ), . ,
, n > 0 , n,
. f1 = f bamn xnm g.
n, ,
q1 r, f1 = q1 g + r r = 0, deg r < deg g.
f = bamn xnm g + f1 = ( bamn xnm + q1 )g + r, q = bamn xnm + q1
r .
f = qg + r = q 0 g + r0 . r r0 = (q 0 q)g. q 0 q , . 2 5.1.1 ,
, deg g.
, , , . 1
r, r0 deg g.
, q 0 = q, , r = r0 .
5.2.1. q r, ,
() f g.
5.2.2. g 6= 0 f ,
q , f = qg. g
f , f g. g | f
.
, g f , f .. g , f g.
. , g f ,
: g - f .
5.2.1 ( ).
F [x] .
1. g | f g | h, g | (f + h).
2. g | f , h F [x] g | (f h).
3. deg g = 0, h F [x] g | h.
4. deg h = 0 g | f , (hg) | f .
5.2.1. 5.2.1, .
5.2.3. f, g F [x]. -

104

5.

f g d F [x], :
1) d | f d | g;
2) d0 F [x] , d0 | f d0 | g, d0 | d.
: d = (f, g).
. 2 4 ,
d f g, w f
g , w = ud, u
. ,
F . (f, g) = (u, v) ,
.
5.2.2 ( ). f, g F [x] g 6= 0.

d = (f, g) d = f u + gv,
u, v F [x]. , f g 0,
u v , deg u < deg g deg v < deg f .
. .
. r f g.
f g
g r. , (f, g) = (g, r).
. h | g h | r, 1 2 h f = qg + r. , h | f h | g,
h | r, r = f qg. ,
, ,
.
. f g,
d = g = f 0 + g 1 .
f g, g ,
. . ,
. :

f = q1 g + r1 ,

5.2.

105

g = q2 r1 + r2 ,
...............
rn2 = qn rn1 + rn ,
rn1 = qn+1 rn ,

(1)

ri 6= 0 i = 1, . . . , n.
rn = (rn1 , rn ) = (rn2 , rn1 ) = . . . = (r1 , r2 ) = (g, r1 ) =
= (f, g). , f
g rn
.
, ,
r1 = f u1 + gv1 ,
r2 = f u2 + gv2 ,
...............
rn1 = f un1 + gvn1
rn = f un + gvn ,

(2)

ui , vi (i = 1, . . . , n) F [x] (,
u1 = 1, v1 = q1 ). , d = rn
f u + gv.
d = f u + gv u
g. u g: u = qg +r.
, d = f (qg + r) + gv = f r + gv 0 .
deg r < deg g. deg f 6 deg v 0 , deg f r < deg gv 0 .
, , g f , ,
, deg d < deg g 6 deg gv 0 . ,
gv 0 = d f r, , deg gv 0 = deg(d f r) 6 max{deg d, deg f r};
. , deg v 0 < deg f .
. (1). . ,
(f, g) f g .
(f, g) f g.
5.2.4. f, g F [x]
, (f, g) = 1.
5.2.3 ( ). f, g F [x] , u, v F [x] , 1 = f u + gv.

106

5.

. (f, g) = 1, u, v, , 5.2.2. , u, v , 1 = f u + gv, d


f, g f u + gv = 1. , d .
5.2.2 ( ).
f, g, h F [x]. .
1. (f, g) = (f, h) = 1, (f, gh) = 1.
2. (f, g) = 1 f | (gh), f | h.
3. (f, g) = 1, f | h g | h, (f g) | h.
. .
(f, g) = 1, a, b F [x] , f a + gb = 1.
h = h(f a) + h(gb). , c, d F [x] ,
f c + hd = 1. h.
f c + (hf a + hgb)d = f (c + had) + (gh)cd = 1. u = c + ha
v = cd, f u + (gh)v = 1. , 5.2.3
f gh .

.
5.2.2. . 2 3 5.2.2.
, ,
, .
5.2.5. f F [x] , ,
, f = uv, u, v F [x],
, deg u = 0, deg v = 0. f .
. ,
, . , ,
.
. x2 + 1 Q[x] R[x],
2
C[x]: x2 + 1 = (x + i)(x i).

x 2 Q[x],
2
R[x]: x 2 = (x + 2)(x 2). ,
,
.

5.2.

107

5.2.3. f F [x] . .
1. af , a .
2. g F [x] f | g, (f, g) = 1.
3. g F [x] , g 6= 0 deg g < deg f , (f, g) = 1.
5.2.3. 5.2.3.
5.2.4. f F [x], f 6= 0. a F
p1 , p2 , . . . , pr , 1, ,
f = ap1 p2 . . . pr .

(3)

(3) .
. a f .
deg f = 0, f = a, r = 0, . , deg f > 0.
(3). f , p1 = a1 f 1. f = ap1 . f . f , u, v F [x] , f = uv
deg u < deg f , deg v < deg f . u = bp1 . . . ps ,
v = cps+1 . . . pr . f = (bc)p1 . . . pr .
(3).
f = ap1 p2 . . . pr = bq1 q2 . . . qs f . ,
a = b, f . F [x] ,
a(p1 . . . pr q1 . . . qs ) = 0 p1 . . . pr = q1 . . . qs .
r 6 s. r = 0. , r > 0,
r.
pr | q1 . . . qs , j {1, . . . , s} , pr | qj . , , pr | qs ,
. . qs = upr . qs , , u 0.
, pr qs , u = 1 pr = qs . , pr (p1 . . . pr1

108

5.

q1 . . . qs1 ) = 0, p1 . . . pr1 = q1 . . . qs1 , pr 6= 0.


.
.
.
5.3.
5.3.1. f = an xn + . . . + a1 x + a0 F [x], F .
f f () = an n + . . . +
+a1 + a0 F .
5.3.1. f, g F [x], F .
1. (f + g)() = f () + g().
2. (f g)() = f ()g().
5.3.2. F f F [x], f () = 0.
5.3.1 (). f F [x], F . f f x . , f ,
(x ) | f .
. f x.
f = q(x ) + r, r = 0 deg r = 0.
,
. f () = r. .
5.3.2.
1. f F [x] n n
.
2. i = 1, . . . , n i F , i 6= j , i 6= j. f, g F [x], f, g n
f (i ) = g(i ) i = 1, . . . , n. f = g.
3. i = 1, . . . , n i , i F , i 6= j ,
i 6= j. f n
, i = 1, . . . , n f (i ) = i . -

5.3.

109

f
f (x) =

n
X
i=1

(x 1 ) . . . (x i1 )(x i+1 ) . . . (x n )
.
(i 1 ) . . . (i i1 )(i i+1 ) . . . (i n )

(1)

. , (1),
.
. 1. 1 , . . . , s f . , i 6= j (x i , x j ) = 1. , , .
,
. ,
, .
, g = (x 1 ) . . . (x s ) | f .
, s = deg g f n = deg f .
2. h = f g. deg h 6 max{deg f, deg g} < n h(i ) =
= f (i ) g(i ) = 0 i = 1, . . . , n. h 6= 0,
. 1 .
3. i (1), f (i ) = i
i = 1, . . . , n. f . 2 .
. F , , . 2 , f F
( 5.1.1) f . , f, g F [x] ,
F f () = g().
5.3.2. (1), ,
1, 2, 3 1, 4, 9 .
f , f
x , x .
. .
5.3.3. f F [x], r N0 . F
f r, (x )r | f
(x )r+1 - f . 1 ,
, 1, f .
. 0, ,
.

110

5.

, r, ,
f r , . , .
5.3.3. f F [x] n
n . , f n
, F , . . f = a(x 1 )r1 . . . (x s )rs , a, i F
P
s
i=1 ri = n.
. . 1 5.3.2. 1 , . . . , s f r1 , . . . , rs . ,
((x i )ri , (x j )rj ) = 1 i 6= j. ,
( 5.2.4)
, d (x)m , d = c(x)k ,
c F 0 6 k 6 m. (x i )ri (x j )rj (x i )ki
(x j )kj , , d .
, g = (x 1 )r1 . . . (x s )rs f . deg g 6 deg f .
, deg g = deg f
f = ag, a , . . .
. ,
. .
Pn
5.3.4. f (x) = k=0 ak xk n F . f 0 ,
f 0 (x) =

n
X

kak xk1 ,

k=1

f .
. , ka,
k N a F , F , k a F .
5.3.3. f, g F [x], , F , k N. .

5.3.

111

1. (f + g)0 = f 0 + g 0 .
2. (f g)0 = f 0 g + f g 0 .
3. ((x )k )0 = k(x )k1 .
5.3.5. f F [x]. k
f (0) = f , k- f :
f (k) = (f (k1) )0 .
, .
, f (x) = x2 F = Z2 ,
, f 0 (x) = 2x = 0x = 0.
, ka 6= 0
k a F . , .
.
5.3.6. F .
p , p1 = 0 ( p 0), , F . ,
F 0.
char F .
. Z2 2. Q, R C
.
5.3.4. p
, p .
. , .
5.3.5. char F = 0, a F k N, ka = 0
, a = 0. , b F k N
b/k = b (k1)1 F .
f (x) = a0 +a1 x+. . .+an xn x = y +,
( ) y = x .
,
f (x) = b0 + b1 (x ) + . . . + bn (x )n ,

(2)

f x .
5.3.4 ( ). char F = 0, F ,
f F [x] deg f = n. f x

112

5.


f (x) =

n
X
f (k) ()
k=0

k!

(x )k .

(3)

.
. (2) k x = . f (k) () = k!bk . (3).
( ). char F = 0,
f F [x] r N. .
1. F r f
, f (k) () = 0 k = 0, . . . , r 1 f (r) () 6= 0.
, r 1 f 0 f .
2. f f
g = (f,f
0 ) , g .
, f
, (f, f 0 ) = 1.
. . 1 ,
f (r = 1), f 0 (
f 0 ).
. 1. f , ,
(2). .
2. f r, (x )r1 | (f, f 0 )
(x )r - (f, f 0 ). , g.
, f = g(f, f 0 ), g
f .
5.3.6. f (x) = x5 3x4 6x3 + 10x2 +
f
+21x + 9 g = (f,f
0 ) f (x) = 0.
, , . ,
.
5.3.7. . F
, f F [x] r,
i {0, 1, . . . , r1} f (i) () = 0. ,
(f, f 0 ) = 1, f .
. -

5.3.

113

,

. .
5.3.5. char F = 0, s N i = 1, . . . , s
ri N0 , i , i0 , . . . , iri F , m 6= k
m 6= k.
Ps f , i=1 (ri + 1), , i = 1, . . . , s
j = 0, . . . , ri f (j) (i ) = ij .
Ps
. f f = i=1 fi ,

di , gi F [x] i = 1, . . . , s. di (x) =
Q fi = di gi r
k +1
(x

)
, gi .
j
k6=i
. , 0 , . . . , r F d F [x] ,
d() 6= 0. g , r,
, (dg)(j) () = j j = 0, . . . , r.
. , u F [x] t = 1, . . . , n, n N,
v F [x] ,
(u(x )n )(t) =

n!
u(x )nt + v(x )nt+1 .
(n t)!

(4)

(4) t. t = 1

(u(x )n )0 = n(x )n1 u + u0 (x )n


, v = u0 , .
v1 ,
(u(x )n )(t1) =
,

n (t)
(u(x ) ) =
=
.

n!
u(x )nt+1 + v1 (x )nt+2 .
(n t + 1)!

n!
u(x )nt+1
(n t + 1)!

0
+ v1 (x )nt+2 =

n!
u(x )nt + v(x )nt+1 ,
(n t)!

114

5.

r. r = 0 g ( g 0)
0
(dg)() = 0 . , g = d()
,
gd() = g()d() = (dg)() = 0 .
r > 0 , r, .
, h , r, ,
j = 0, . . . , r 1 (dh)(j) () = j .
F g = h + (x )r
(dg)(j) () = j j = 0, . . . , r 1. ,
(dg)(j) = (dh)(j) + (d(x )r )(j) = (dh)(j) + (x )w (. (4)).
(dg)(j) () = (dh)(j) ()+0 = j j < r.
, (dg)(r) = r .
(dg)(r) = (dh)(r) + (d(x )r )

(r)

= (dh)(r) + dr!(x )0 + v(x ).


(dg)(r) () = (dh)(r) () + d()r! = r ,
,
=

r (dh)(r) ()
d()r!

(dg)(r) () = r . , , r! 6= 0 ,
char F = 0, d() 6= 0 .
. di
, di (i ) 6= 0 i = 1, . . . , s. , (j)
gi , ri , , fi (i ) =
= (di gi )(j) (i ) = ij , i = 1, . . . , s, j = 0, . . . , ri .
(j)
(x i )ri +1 | dk k 6= i, fk (i ) = 0
k 6= i j = 0, . . . , ri . , i = 1, . . . , s
j = 0, . . . , ri
f (j) (i ) =

s
X
k=1

(j)

(j)

fk (i ) = fi (i ) = ij .

5.4.

115

,
deg f 6 max {deg fi } <
i=1,...,s

s
X

(ri + 1).

i=1

g , , g 6= f .
h = f g. h(j) (i ) = 0 i = 1, . . . Q
, s j = 0, . . . , ri .
s
5.3.4P i=1 (x i )ri +1 | h.
s
, deg h > i=1 (ri + 1); .
5.3.8. ,
f , : f (1) = 1,
f 0 (1) = 2, f (2) = 4.
5.4.
. ,
, ,
, , .
, ,
,
.
5.4.1. n , 1, R
R[x1 , . . . , xn1 ] R
n 1 . R n R[x1 , . . . , xn ] = R[x1 , . . . , xn1 ][xn ], . . xn R[x1 , . . . , xn1 ].
. R[x1 , . . . , xn ]
5.1.1. ,
, R R[x1 , . . . , xn ].
5.4.2. axk11 xk22 . . . xknn , a R, ( ). a , n- (k1 , k2 , . . . , kn ) , ki xi , k1 +k2 +. . .+kn
.

116

5.

F .
, f F [x1 , . . . , xn ]
:
f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) =

ak1 k2 ...kn xk11 xk22 . . . xkn ,

(1)

k1 ,k2 ,...,kn

k1 , k2 . . . , kn
, ak1 k2 ...kn F
. , (k1 , k2 . . . , kn ) . , n . , ,
. (k1 , k2 , . . . , kn )
, (l1 , l2 , . . . , ln ) , i {1, 2, . . . , n} , k1 = l1 , . . . , ki1 = li1
ki > li . u, v , u v
, u v.
.
.
:
x21 x2 2x1 x2 x3 + 3x1 x33 2x22 x3 + 1.
, 3x1 x33 , x21 x2 ,
2x1 x2 x3 , .
F .
5.4.1. F , u, v, w, z
F [x1 , . . . , xn ]. .
1. u v, v w, u v.
2. u v w 6= 0, uw vw.
3. u v, w z, uw vz.
5.4.1. 5.4.1.
. F [x1 , . . . , xn ] . , F [x1 , . . . , xn ] .

5.4.

117

5.4.3. f F [x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ]
, Sn
f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) = f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ), . . f
.
. 1.
sk =

xi1 xi2 . . . xik ,

(2)

16i1 <i2 <...<ik 6n

k = 1, 2, . . . , n, . .
m
m
2. xm
1 +x2 +. . .+xn
m.

3.
.
4. 3x1 x2 + 3x1 x3 ,
= (1, 2) S3
3x1 x2 + 3x2 x3 .
5.4.2.
. n F [x1 , . . . , xn ]. g F [y1 , . . . , ym ] p1 , . . . , pm
x1 , . . . , xn , g(p1 , . . . , pm ) x1 , . . . , xn .
5.4.2. 5.4.2.
.
5.4.1 ( ).
f F [x1 , . . . , xn ] . g F [y1 , . . . , yn ] , f (x1 , . . . , xn ) =
= g(s1 , . . . , sn ), sk
x1 , . . . , xn F .
. u = axk11 xk22 . . . xknn
f . ,
k1 > k2 > . . . > kn . i
, ki < ki+1 . = (i, i + 1)
ki+1
k
i
u = axk11 . . . xki i xi+1
. . . xknn v = axk11 . . . xi i+1 xki+1
. . . xknn ,
v. -

118

5.

, f , v, u .
f , . .
(0, . . . , 0), .
(l1 , . . . , ln ), l1 > l2 > . . . > ln , (k1 , . . . , kn ) f , f . ,
, , f ,
.
k

n1
n kn
h = as1k1 k2 . . . sn1
sn . sk , 5.4.2 h x1 , . . . , xn . v h. i {1, 2, . . . , n} v
xi ki , xi
si , . . . , sn s1 , . . . , si1 . , v h u, f . f1 = f h , f . g1
F [y1 , . . . , yn ] , f1 (x1 , . . . , xn ) = g1 (s1 , . . . , sn ). , kn1 kn kn
yn + g1 (y1 , . . . , yn ) .
g = ay1k1 k2 . . . yn1

. .
5.4.3. , x21 + . . . + x2n = s21 2s2 x31 +
. . . + x3n = s31 3s1 s2 + 3s3 .
5.5.
. ,
, ,
, . , f (x) = x2 2 Q[x]
, g = x2 + 1
R. f R, g C, . . , .
, .

5.5. 119
5.5.1. K F ,
F K, . . F K ,
F , F ,
K.
, x2 2
2
x + 1, ,
.
5.5.1. F , f F [x] deg f > 0.
K F ,
K f () = 0.
. f ()
, f , F ,
K . , ()
K. , K F f F [x],
, f K. , f ()
f , f K[x].
. 5.2.4 f
F , : f = ap1 p2 . . . ps . p1 K F , f () = ap1 () . . . ps () = 0
K . , ,
f F 1.
deg f = n
f (x) = a0 + a1 x + . . . + an1 xn1 + xn .

(1)

, , deg f > 1. f = a0 + x, a0
f F , , K = F .
,
. K F
t, n. ,
K = {g(t) F [t] | deg g < deg f }.
K , + , . + .
g, h K

120

5.

g(t)h(t) f (t), . . g h = r, r gh = f q + r deg r < deg f . , K . , deg(g + h) 6


max{deg g, deg h} < deg f deg r < deg f . , r ,
K.
, K .
, hK, +i , , .
. g, h, u K
gu = f q1 +r1 , hu = f q2 +r2 (g +h)u = f q +r. g u+hu = r1 +r2 ,
(g + h) u = r. , F [t] . ,
g, h, u F [t] gu+hu = (g +h)u. ,
(g + h)u w, w = f (q1 + q2 ) + (r1 + r2 ) =
= f q + r. r1 + r2 = r,
, g u + h u = (g + h) u.
.
K
F [t]. . K, F [t], , F . ,
K .
g(t) K g(t) 6= 0. f (t) F
deg g < deg f , . 3 5.2.3 (g, f ) = 1. , u, v F [t] , gu + f v = 1
deg u < deg f . u K g u = 1, gu = f (v) + 1.
, u K
g. , K .
a, b F .
K. F
K, a + b. ab f , , ab. a b = ab F . , F K, ,
K F .
K, t = 0 + 1 t+
+0 t2 . . . + 0 tn1 F [t]. , = t K,
, deg f > 1. f () K.
t (1),

5.5. 121
f () = a0 + a1 t + a2 t2 + . . . + an1 tn1 + tn ,
k = 1, . . . n tk k t
K, . .
tk = t| .{z
. . }t .
k
ak tk ,
, f k < n ak tk , deg ak tk <
< deg f . tn (deg tn = n = deg f ).
tn f :
tn = f (t) 1 (a0 + a1 t + . . . + an1 tn1 ).
K n , t, (a0 + a1 t + . . . + an1 tn1 ). ,
f () = a0 + a1 t + . . . + an1 tn1 (a0 + a1 t + . . . + an1 tn1 ) = 0.
.
. g(x) = x2 + 1 R[x]. R. , , , R, g .
K = {a + bt | a, b R}. t2 t2 + 1 , , 1. , (t t) + 1 = 1 + 1 = 0, ,
t K g(x) K[x]. ,
K C .
t = i.
5.5.1. , g(x) = x2 + 1
F = Z2 2, f (x) = x2 +x+1
. K F ,
f . K?
1 ( ).
f F [x] deg f = n. K F
1 , 2 , . . . , n K ( ) ,
f (x) = a(x 1 )(x 2 ) . . . (x n ),
. . f K .

(2)

122

5.

. f . deg f = 0,
F = K f = a F . deg f > 0,
K1 F 1 K1 ,
f (1 ) = 0. K1 f f = (x1 )f1 . f1 n1. ,
K K1 2 , . . . , n K , f1 = a(x 2 ) . . . (x n ) K[x].
(2) f K. ,
K K1 F .
. x2 + 1 R[x] C,
.
5.5.2. ,
f (x) = x4 5x2 + 6

Q[x] Q[ 2] = {a + b 2 | a, b Q}, .
Q, f .
.
2 ( ). ,
f (x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a1 x + a0 F [x]
f (x) = an (x 1 )(x 2 ) . . . (x n ) K F .
k = 1, . . . , n
sk (1 , . . . , n ) = (1)k

ank
,
an

(3)

sk k- n . , g n F , g(1 , . . . , n )
F .
. (3) . 5.4.1
.
. . , 1 , . . . , n
F , F F .
. i i x2 + 1 R,
i2 +(i)2 = 2 R. ,

5.5. 123
x2 + 1
, . ,
1 , 2 , 5.4.3
12 +22 = s21 (1 , 2 )2s2 (1 , 2 ). ,
s1 (1 , 2 ) = 0/1 = 0, s2 (1 , 2 ) = 1/1 = 1,
.
- . ,
x2 2 = 0
, x2 + 1 .
, ,
? ,

, , ,
C , , .
5.5.2. F , F [x] F
.
,
XVIII ,
. . ,
, ,
, , , . . , , . ,
,
R.
. , , ,
. [2] [5].

124

5.

5.5.2 ( ). f
C[x] deg f > 0. C ,
f () = 0.
.
, , f 1, . .
f = a0 + a1 x + . . . + an1 xn1 + xn .

(4)


.
1. f R[x] deg f . R , f () = 0.
. A = max{|a0 |, |a1 |, . . . , |an1 |}.
R || > 1 + A.
|a0 + a1 + . . . + an1 n1 | 6 A(1 + || + . . . + ||n1 ) =
=A

A
||n 1
<
||n < ||n .
|| 1
|| 1

(5)

n f , (5) , > 0, f () > 0, f () < 0. f (x)


,

[, ], .
. , (5)
, ai , C. , . .
5.5.3.
1. , C, | + | 6 || + || || = ||||.
2. f C[x] (4), C f () = 0, || 6 1 +
A, A = max{|a0 |, |a1 |, . . . , |an1 |}. ,
f 1 + A
.

5.5. 125
.
, .
2. f R[x] deg f > 0. C
, f () = 0.
. f (4) n = 2k m,
k N0 m .
k, ,
. ,
, R[x], 2k ,
.
R C, , f C[x]. 5.5.1 K C ,
f (x) = (x 1 ) . . . (x n ), i K i = 1, . . . , n.
. i, j {1, . . . , n} ,
i < j,
ij = i j + (i + j ).
(6)
ij K
n(n 1)
2k m(2k m 1)
=
= 2k1 l,
2
2
l . , , i ij .
g(x) K[x]
ij , .
Y
g(x) =
(x ij ).
(7)
i<j

, g . g ij . , (6)
1 , . . . , n ( ). , 1 , . . . , n ij ,
g 1 , . . . , n . g

126

5.

1 , . . . , n , . f , R. , g R[x].
, g 2k1 l
2k , (, , f ). ,
g .
, R i, j {1, . . . , n}, i < j, ij C.
, (i, j), R .
1 2 ,
(i, j) a b,

a = i j + 1 (i + j ),
(8)
b = i j + 2 (i + j ),
. (8) , (1 2 )(i + j ) = a b. ,
i + j =

ab
1 2

. i j . , i , j
, , C. .
. f C[x].
f (x) = a0 + a1 x + . . . + an1 xn1 + xn ,
,

h(x) = f (x)f (x) = b0 + b1 x + . . . + b2n1 x2n1 + b2n x2n .
h
X
ai aj .
bk =
i+j=k

bk =

ai aj = bk ,

i+j=k

bk R k = 0, . . . , 2n. , h R[x]
2 C , h() = f ()f () = 0.

5.6.

127

f () 6= 0, f () = 0. f () = f () = 0 = 0. ,
, f . .
( ). 1. f C[x] ,
0, C .
2. f R[x] , 0,
R 2.
. 1. .
f C,
f1 C f = (x)f1 . f1 f , ,
. , f .
2. f . f , , , . 1, f1 R, f .
, , f .
,
f . , f (x) = f (x). , f , f () =
= f () = f () = 0 = 0. f . (x , x ) = 1, f
g(x) = (x )(x ) = x2 ( + )x + , ,
, R. , f = gf1 , f1
f .
5.6.
.

.
, , Q
.

pi
f (x) = a0 + a1 x + . . . + an xn Q[x], ai = , pi Z, qi N.
(1)
qi
a qi ,
i = 1, . . . , n, af (x) .

128

5.

, f af (. 5.2.3).
, f Z[x], . . ai .
5.6.1. f Z[x] , 1.
f Z[x], f (x) = dp(x), d ai , p(x) . , f
Q, , f
. ,
Q Z.
5.6.1. f Z[x] Z, f
Q.
.
(). .
. f (x) = a0 + a1 x + . . . + an xn
g(x)
= b0 + b1 x + . . . + bm xm h = f g =
Pn+m
= k=0 ck xk . , p, ck k = 0, 1, . . . , n + m.
f g , p . ar f ,
p, bs g,
p. cr+s h
X
ai bj = (a0 br+s + . . . + ar1 bs+1 ) + ar bs + (ar+1 bs1 + . . . + ar+s b0 ) .
{z
} |{z} |
{z
}
|
i+j=r+s
..
..
..
6 .p
.p
.p
, cr+s p; .
. f
. , f
g, h Q[x] deg g < deg f , deg h < deg f . g
h
g(x) =

a
c
u(x), h = v(x),
b
d

5.6.

129

a, b, c, d N, u, v Z.
f=

ac
p
uv = uv, (p, q) = 1.
bd
q


qf = puv.

(2)

uv . , (2), p. ,
, (2),
q. , q p. (p, q) = 1,
q = 1. , f = puv = (pu)v (pu) v ,
f .
Q.
5.6.2 ( ). f (x) = a0 + a1 x +
. . . + an xn Z[x]. p,
:
1) p | ak k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1,
2) p - an ,
3) p2 - a0 ,
f Q.
.
Ps f = gh, g, h Q[x], deg g < n, deg h < n
Pm
g = i=0 bi xi , h = j=0 cj xj . 5.6.1 ,
bi , cj g h .
p a0 = b0 c0 , b0 , c0 .
p | b0 . , p2 a0 , ,
p c0 . a1 = b0 c1 + b1 c0 .
p a1 b0 , , p b1 c0 = a1 b0 c1 .
p p c0 , b1 .
, , p bi i = 0, 1, . . . , m.
, i < k . , p
ak = b0 c1 + . . . + bk1 c1 + bk c0 , bk c0 . p bk .
, , p bm
g. p an = bm cs
f , .

130

5.

. n f Z[x], Q. , Q
xn 2.
.
xn 2.
, , , Q, .
f Q[x] , Q .
, Q[x]
.
5.6.3. Q[x] : f Q[x],
, f Q[x], , f ,
f = uv, u, v Q[x] deg u < deg f , deg v < deg f .
. , f Z[x] deg f > 1.
5.6.1 f Q ,
Z. , f , u, v Z[x] , f = uv. u v degu +
deg v = n,
m = n2 . deg u 6 m.
0 , 1 , . . . , m m + 1 , , , .
k = 0, 1, . . . , m f (k ) = u(k )v(k ).
u(k ) f (k ). , ,
f (k ) 6= 0, f = (x k )f1 , f
. k = 0, 1, . . . , m
Mk = { Z | f (k )} .
M = {(0 , 1 , . . . , m ) | k Mk }. c = (0 , 1 , . . . , m ) M . uc , uc (k ) = k
k = 0, 1, . . . , m. , m,
m + 1 , f , u uc c M . ,
f uc , c M ,
u v, , , , f . ,
, M .

5.6.

131

. f Q[x] Q[x].
, f .
. f . f ,
. ,
f Q[x],
. , f
. , 1 , . . . , s
f ,
f , 5.2.4, (x 1 ), . . . , (x s ).
, ()
, 5.6.3. , ,
.
5.6.1. f (x) = a0 + a1 x + . . . + an xn Z[x], = pq ,
p Z, q N, (p, q) = 1 f () = 0.
:
1) p | a0 ;
2) q | an ;
3) (p mq) | f (m) m Z.
. , ,
f
. . 3
.
5.6.2. f (x) = 2x6 + 5x5 3x4 + 2x3 +
+7x2 + 2x 3
1) ,
;
2) , , , f Q[x].
, f R

132

5.

C, , f ,
. , f (x) =
= x5 10x + 10
C. , , 4,
, .


, 69
, 12
, 12
, 14
, 12
, 53
, 104

, 15

, 109
, 112
, 8

, 22
, 23
()
, 25
, 73
n, 25
- , 37
, 81
, 23
, 8

, 115
, 67
, 101
, 68
, 23
, 73
, 62
, 105
. ., 64
. ., 62
, 19
. .,
, 19
63

n- . ., 65
, 59

, 63
, 59

. ., 62
, 28

.
., 64
, 34

.
, 28
., 64
n- -
, 7
, 6
- , 77

, 6

, 33
, 92
, 33
, 92

134

,
71

, 93


, 53
, 89

, 115
, 116
, 115
, 128
, 117
, 70
., 116
, 70
, 70
, 117
, 70

, 100
, 70

., 103

.,
108
, 72
r, 109
., 108
, 34
., 103
, 78
., 109
, 35
, 106
, 57
, 128
., 40
., 110
, 39
., 109
, 39
.,
-, 41
100
, 85
., 100
, 58
., 100
, 57

, 85
, 8
, 39
, 5
, 51
, 5
, 42
, 21
, 92
, 92
, 39
, 103
, 89
, 30
, 93
, 29
, 52
, 93
, 94
, 86


, 6
, 47
, 29

, 124
,
117
, 6
, 8
, 8
, 7
, 8

, 6
, 69
, 21
, 24
, 5
, 13
, 5
, 24
, 69
, 26
, 23
, 123
, 60
, 62
, 21

, 22
, 24
, 24
, 22
, 10
, 129

, 84

135

, 36
, 101
, 7
, 27
, 67

, 75
, 35

, 6

, 89
, 87
, 86
, 86
, 86
, 119
, 92
, 96
, 92
, 92
, 92
, 35
, 35

, 13

, 67
, 36
, 101
, 81
, 83
, 7

, 108
, 93
, 98

136

, 74
, 102
, 72

, 54
, 87
, 58
, 42
, 32

, 64

, 122
, 96

, 97
, 111
, 30

, 6
(n-), 6

, 33

, 65
, 111
, 65

, 54

, 5

, 19
, 19

, 25
, 23

, 44


(f, g) 104
2A 6
An 6
A1 A2 . . . An 6
An 34
D(1 , 2 , . . . , n ) 39
Ers () 42
GLn (F ) 59
Mmn (S) 35
Mn (S) 35
P (A) 6
R[x] 100
R 23
Sn 28
U W 83
deg f 100

det(A) 47
dim V 75
C 60
N 5
N0 100
Q 5
R 5
Z 5
Zn 25
sgn() 33
supp() 29
5
d() 33
.
f .. g 103
g | f 103
r(A) 89



201011
1
1.
, , , , [4, . 4, 1]; [1, 9].
2. , ,
, , : , , ,
[1, 6, 11, 12]; [5, 63, 64, 4345]; [2, . 1, 3, 6]. : , , , , , , [4, . 4, 2].
: [6, 1], . , .
. ()
[5, 46]. : , , [6, 2]. : , . : , , , , n- [4,
. 5, 1]; [5, 46]; [2, . 1, 5].
3.
: , , . : [5, 9, 29]; [6,
4]; [2, . 1, 7, 8]. :
, ,

139

, , , , , . ,
, [5, 9,
29, 30]; [6, 4, 5]; [2, . 1, 7, . 2, 2]. , , , ,
, ,
[6, 6]; [2, . 5, 1].
4.
: ,
, , , , ,
[5, 10]; [6, 5]; [2, . 2, 1]. : ,
( ), , , [5, 1, 7]; [6, 5]; [2, . 2, 1].
: ,
, , [5, 11, 12]; [6, 5].
5.
: , , [5, 20]; [2, . 3, 1]. :
, , ,
, , [5, 21, 48]; [2, . 3, 5]. : , , , , ,
0, ,
[5, 22], [6, 16.3]; [2, . 3, 2].
: , ,
, , , [5, 5152]; [2,
. 3, 7, 8].
:

140

, [5, 49].
[5, 55].
: ,
, [5, 56-57]; [2, . 3, 6].
: ,
[5, 39, 40].
2
6.
() . , , .
,
[6, 8,9]. , [6, 10]; [7]. , . , [6, 11]; [7].
, . , . . [7]; [4, ]; [2, . 6, 4].
. ,
, .
, [6, 16]; [7].
7.

: , .
, ,
. : . , ,

. , , , ,
.

141

, , [6, 1720].
8.
, .
.
, . .
[6, 2223]; [5, 2628].
9.
: . . ,
. , , -. .
, .
. . ,
.
[5, . 14]; [2, . 4 . 10
1,3]; [3, 12, 4, 11]; [1, . 2].


1. . . . .: , 1976.
2. . . . .: , 2002.
3. . ., . . . .: ,
1982.
4. . . . .: , 1977.
5. . . . .: , 1968.
6. . . . .: , 1970.
7. . .
. : , 1991.

..

03.12.2010
60 84 1/16.
.-. . 8,9. . . . 8,3. 130 .

-
630090, -90, . , 2