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RUNNING HEAD: WIRELESS STANDARDS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Wireless Standards Executive Summary


HTM 520 Health Information Exchange
Terresa L. Roulhac
23 June 2015

WIRELESS STANDARDS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Wireless Standards Executive Summary


As healthcare continues to grow and expand with the use of technology; so must
the standards that are used to protect and safeguard its use while making sure that
meaningful use criteria are being utilized. Standards are important in establishing
consistent protocols that can be adopted universally, fueling compatibility and
interoperability. Wireless standards refer to the speed in which information is exchanged
among wireless devices and equipment. It is the standards that particular equipment
conforms to and is often suited to the users needs (Winder, n.d.).
There are four different types of wireless standards in use today. The personal
Area Network (PAN) is the computer network used to communicate with devices that
include mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDA) and the PAN is usually a few
meters. The local Area Network or (LAN) links two or more computers wirelessly. Radio
communication is used to accomplish the same functions that wired LANs do.
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is the third type of wireless standard and is
trademarked by the IEEE 802.16. The metropolitan area network is simple to construct
and cost effective. The last standard is the Wide Area Network (WAN) and is used to
connect local (LANs) together allowing for communication of computers in different
locations. The Internet is the largest WAN (Wireless Standards, n.d.).
Benefits
Wireless technology affects several different aspects of healthcare and many areas
have seen improvements because of it. Patient health monitoring, tele-surgery, mobile
wireless biosensor systems, and wireless tracking of patients have been affected because
of wireless technology (Wireless Technology Benefits Medicine Mobile Health Care
IT, n.d.). The benefits of wireless standards include Speed, More users, and less outside
interference. Wireless standards allow for providers to monitor patients wirelessly by
using medical devices. Also, patients can get their medical data and treatments directly
uploaded to their electronic medical record decreasing the chances of repeat tests and
lowers costs. Another benefit of wireless standards is the ability of a provider to monitor
a patient constantly without interrupting the workflow and care the patient is receiving.
Device management allows for a healthcare provider to download drug information
needed for a new infusion pump for example (Laurello, 2013).
Corresponding standards:
Many corresponding wireless networks provide the opportunity to switch between
alternative wireless access networks. User transparency is the basic theme for wireless
standard interoperability. Many interoperability issues can be address with reconfiguring
a level within a network. For example, context awareness, load sharing among different
spatially coexisting wireless networks and control of congestion. (Mahjabeen, Sayem,
Ahmed, & Rafique, 2010).
It is important to understand the vocabulary of wireless standards for a number of
reasons. In order to ensure that an organization achieves proper interoperability within the

WIRELESS STANDARDS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

chosen network, learning the basics is key. A typical IT network contains clients,
switches, and routers, which make up the network infrastructure. Often times there is
confusion with three common terms related to wireless networks. Understanding the
difference between hubs, which is a repeater that collects incoming traffic and repeats the
traffic to other ports. There is also the switch that inspects incoming packets before
sending them out to the right destinations and the router that joins multiple networks
together (Wireless and Ethernet DAQ: A Beginners Guide to IT Vocabulary, 2013).
Example
The institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) are known as the best
standard for computer and electronic industries. LAN follows IEEE 802 standards. IEEE
has several specifications in the 802.11 families that range from 802.11a -802.11r. Each
section is dedicated to a different aspect of wireless standards. For example, 802.1e
defines the Quality of Service that supports LANs, while 802.11g deals with wireless
LANs for short distant transmissions. IEEE 802.11 specifically deals with over-the-air
interface with wireless clients and a base station or between two clients wirelessly. There
is also an 802.1x standard that allows network administrators to determine who has
access to IEEE 802 Lan service access points to protect communication among
authorized devices and authentication (Beal, n.d.).
Barriers and Challenges
There are a number of risks and barriers associated with wireless standards.
Rogue access points is related to access points that do not fit with the organizations
security policy or when left unattended can be at risk for an authorized user. Also
Hardware infrastructure that has not been properly configured allow for hackers to easily
access to the wireless network. Other risks include sniffing which is a passive monitoring
where someone can eavesdrop to all transmissions within a wireless network. Identity
theft, replay attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, jamming and MAC flooding are also
risks associated with wireless network systems (Retterer, & Casto, n.d.).
Other important challenges are related to wireless standards. Security and privacy
of any wireless system is important because it is not wired like an Ethernet system.
Ethernet systems are tangible and it is not easy to contaminate the system. Wireless
systems are vulnerable to outside contamination, and it is important to have proper
training for personnel who understand the equipment and have the proper tools. Also, the
system must meet the required bandwidth of an organization while protecting the system
from neighboring interference. Reliability of the system and who controls the system is
also important (Lutovsky, n.d.).
Interoperable networks also have a number of issues that include: Session
management, QoS, Mobility, Self-organization, Connectivity issues, end-to-end service,
and authentication, accounting, and authorization (Mahjabeen, Sayem, Ahmed, &
Rafique, 2010).
Wireless healthcare work requires research, awareness of risk, engagement of
stakeholders, and must have a proactive approach to safe, reliable deployment and must
be secure (Jepsen, Buckley, Witters, & Stine, n.d.).

WIRELESS STANDARDS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Security is a big issue for any wireless network. Understanding security standards
is key in any wireless standard. Four types of security standards related to wireless
standards are Protected extensible authentication protocol (PEAP) which is the first
standard that Microsoft adopted, Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is the newest standard
and is based on the IEEE 802.11i wireless security protocol, Temporal key integrity
protocol (TKIP) which prevents WEP key attacks by changing the WEP key frequently,
and Message integrity check (MIC) which is used to stop replay attacks (Retterer, &
Casto, n.d.).
Future trends
Future trends with wireless standards are seen in the increase of military reliance
on wireless technologies used for commercial use. There is an expected paradigm shift
whereas communication between commercial and military functions will become more
interoperable (Andrusenko, Burbank, & Ouyang, 2015).
Also, Cloud computing refers a network model that is accessed on the end of the
client using a PC, smartphone, or ipad. Cloud imputing extends media distribution and
allowing for use remotely if necessary. There is an expectation of increase in cloud
computing due to the projection of time frames between large commercial technology
releases to shorten. (Andrusenko, Burbank, & Ouyang, 2015). There are three main
benefits of cloud computing.
1. Self-service provisioning
2. Elasticity
3. Pay per use (Rouse, n.d.)
Other trends will include application delivery controllers will become more
mainstream, Voice over IP (VoIP) will reach its tipping point, there will be a central focus
on green networking, there will be increase in application-level network services, and the
uptake of XML aware appliance will see a gradual acceleration (Bradbury, n.d.).
As technology continues to push forward a number of standards must be put into
place to ensure that the patient information is safe and secure. There are four wireless
standards in current use today that range from personal to a more global form of network.
A number of benefits are seen with the use of the different types of wireless standards,
and with benefits are also a number of risks and challenges that must be overcome. The
future of wireless technology is more cloud base and moves forwarding merging military
and commercial networks as well as cloud computing becomes more mainstream for
patients and healthcare providers. Daniel Kraft is quoted saying, Were moving to this
integration of biomedicine information technology, wireless and mobile now an era of
digital medicine. Even my stethoscope is digital. And of course, theres an app for that
(Kraft, n.d.).

Questions for the quiz:

WIRELESS STANDARDS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. What is the largest WAN in existence? (INTERNET)


2. Which wireless standard is often used in medical environments with multimedia
capabilities? (LAN)
3. T/F PANs do not allow for peripheral devices such as mobile devices? (FALSE)

WIRELESS STANDARDS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Reference:
Andrusenko, J., Burbank, J., & Ouyang, F. (2015). Future trends in Commercial Wireless
Communication and Why They Matter to the Military. Retrieved from:
http://www.jhuapl.edu/techdigest/TD/td3301/33_01-Andrusenko.pdf
Beal, V. (n.d.) Wan wide area network. Retrieved from:
http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/W/wide_area_network_WAN.html
BEI Healthcare IT D.C., MD, VA, Business Engineering, Inc. (2011) . Retrieved
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http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/Future-network-trends-wireless-Wanwill-regroup
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sandMobileTechnologiesforHCMarch2010_000.pdf
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Laurello, J. (2013). The benefits, challenges of implementing Wi-Fi for medical device
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Lgobokwe, O. (n.d.) Wireless Technology and Healthcare. Retrieved from:
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Mahjabeen, D., Sayem, A.H.M., Ahmed, A., Rafique, S. (2010). Interoperability of
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Communications, Network and System Sciences, 2010, 3,4, 472-476. doi:
10.4236/ijcns.2010.35063 Published Online May 2010
(http://www.SciRP.org/journalijcns/)
Retterer, J., & Casto, B.W. (n.d.). Securing Wireless Technology for Healthcare.
Retrieved from:
http://library.ahima.org/xpedio/groups/public/documents/ahima/bok1_022968.hcs
p?dDocName=bok1_022968

WIRELESS STANDARDS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Rouse, M. (n.d.) Cloud computing. Retrieved from:


http://searchcloudcomputing.techtarget.com/definition/cloud-computing
Rouse, M. (n.d.). What is metropolitan area network (MAN)? Definition from
Whatls.com Retrieved from:
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/metropolitan-area-networkMAN
Winder, G. (n.d.). Wireless Network Products: What do the Standards Mean? Retrieved
From: http://www.melbpc.org.au/pcupdate/2406/2406article7.htm
Wireless and Ethernet DAQ: A Beginners Guide to IT Vocabulary. (2013). Retrieved
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http://www.rfidc.com/docs/introductiontowireless_standards.htm
Wireless Technologies / Standards. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://www.orbit-computersolutions.com/Wireless-Standards.php
Wireless Technology Benefits Medicine Mobile Health Care IT. (n.d.) Retrieved from:
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