You are on page 1of 77

Chapter 4:

Network Access
Introduction to Networks v5.1

4.0 Introduction
4.1 Physical Layer Protocols

Chapter Outline

4.2 Network Media


4.3 Data Link Layer Protocols
4.4 Media Access Control
4.5 Summary

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Section 4.1:
Physical Layer Protocols
Upon completion of this section, you should be able to:
Identify device connectivity options.
Describe the purpose and functions of the physical layer in the network.
Describe basic principles of the physical layer standards.

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Topic 4.1.1:
Physical Layer Connection

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Types of Connections
Home Router

Connecting to the
Wired LAN

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Network Interface Cards


Wired Connection Using an
Ethernet NIC

Connecting to the Wireless


LAN with Range Extender

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Topic 4.1.2:
Purpose of the Physical Layer

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

The Physical Layer

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Physical Layer Media

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

Physical Layer Standards

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

10

Topic 4.1.3:
Physical Layer Characteristics

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

11

Functions
Manchester Encoding

Modulation

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

12

Bandwidth

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

13

Throughput

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

14

Types of Physical Media

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

15

Section 4.2:
Network Media
Upon completion of this section, you should be able to:
Identify the basic characteristics of copper cabling.
Build a UTP cable used in Ethernet networks (scope does not include cabling

area discussion).
Describe fiber-optic cabling and its main advantages over other media.
Connect devices using wired and wireless media.

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

16

Topic 4.2.1:
Copper Cabling

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

17

Characteristics of Copper Cabling

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

18

Copper Media

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

19

Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cable

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

20

Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

21

Coaxial Cable

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

22

Copper Media Safety

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

23

Topic 4.2.2:
UTP Cabling

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

24

Properties of UTP Cabling

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

25

UTP Cabling Standards

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

26

UTP Connectors
RJ-45 UTP Plugs

RJ-45 UTP Socket

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

27

Types of UTP Cable

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

28

Testing UTP Cables


UTP Testing Parameters:
Wire map
Cable length
Signal loss due to attenuation
Crosstalk

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

29

Topic 4.2.3:
Fiber Optic Cabling

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

30

Properties of Fiber Optic Cabling

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

31

Fiber Media Cable Design

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

32

Types of Fiber Media


Single Mode

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

33

Types of Fiber Media (cont.)


Multimode

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

34

Network Fiber Connectors


Fiber Optic Connectors

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

35

Network Fiber Connectors (cont.)


Common Fiber Patch Cords

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

36

Testing Fiber Cables

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

37

Fiber versus Copper

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

38

Topic 4.2.4:
Wireless Media

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

39

Properties of Wireless Media

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

40

Types of Wireless Media

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

41

Wireless LAN

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

42

Section 4.3:
Data Link Layer Protocols
Upon completion of this section, you should be able to:
Describe the purpose and function of the data link layer in preparing

communication for transmission on specific media.

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

43

Topic 4.3.1:
Purpose of the Data Link Layer

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

44

The Data Link Layer

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

45

The Data Link Layer (cont.)


Layer 2 Data Link Address

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

46

Data Link Sublayers

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

47

Media Access Control

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

48

Providing Access to Media

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

49

Data Link Layer Standards

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

50

Section 4.4:
Media Access Control
Upon completion of this section, you should be able to:
Compare the functions of logical topologies and physical topologies.
Describe the basic characteristics of media access control methods on WAN

topologies.
Describe the basic characteristics of media access control methods on LAN

topologies.
Describe the characteristics and functions of the data link frame.

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

51

Topic 4.4.1:
Topologies

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

52

Controlling Access to the Media

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

53

Physical and Logical Topologies


Physical Topology

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

54

Physical and Logical Topologies (cont.)


Logical Topology

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

55

Topic 4.4.2:
WAN Topologies

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

56

Common Physical WAN Topologies

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

57

Physical Point-to-Point Topology

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

58

Logical Point-to-Point Topology

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

59

Logical Point-to-Point Topology (cont.)

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

60

Topic 4.4.3:
LAN Topologies

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

61

Physical LAN Topologies

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

62

Half and Full Duplex


Half-Duplex Communication

Full-Duplex Communication

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

63

Media Access Control Methods


Contention-Based Access

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

64

Media Access Control Methods (cont.)


Controlled Access

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

65

Contention Based Access CSMA/CD

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

66

Contention Based Access CSMA/CD


(cont.)

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

67

Contention Based Access CSMA/CA

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

68

Topic 4.4.4:
Data Link Frame

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

69

The Frame
Frames have three basic parts:
Header
Data
Trailer

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

70

Frame Fields

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

71

Layer 2 Address

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

72

Layer 2 Address (cont.)

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

73

Layer 2 Address (cont.)

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

74

LAN and WAN Frames


Examples of Layer 2 protocols:
802.11 Wireless Frame
PPP Frame
HDLC
Frame Relay
Ethernet Frame

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

75

Section 4.5:
Summary
Chapter Objectives:
Explain how physical layer protocols and services support communications

across data networks.


Build a simple network using the appropriate media.
Explain how the Data Link layer supports communications across data networks.
Compare media access control techniques and logical topologies used in

networks.

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public

76

Thank you.