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V. K. Gupta
Project Initiation & Co-ordination

B. D. Garg
Working Group

Achal Jain
Vijyant Bhardwaj
Kumar Ravi Shankar


Presented by

Published by
Northern Railway

V. K. Gupta

General Manager, Northern Railway

Project Initiation & Co-ordination


Chief Administrative Officer/USBRL Project, Northern Railway

Working Group
Achal Jain

Chief Engineer/USBRL Project, Northern Railway

Vijyant Bhardwaj

Ex. DGM/GC-Rites

Kumar Ravi Shankar


R.S. Poonia

Chief Engineer/SECRly

Dr. F. Prinzl

GeoConsult Austria


Asstt. Engineer/IRCON

Sharanappa Yalal

Project Manager HCC

Vikas Goyal

XEN/ USBRL Project, Northern Railway

Manuscript Typing
Santosh Kumar

USBRL Project, Northern Railway

Manjit Singh

USBRL Project, Northern Railway

Printed At
KOJO Press, New Delhi

Designed By
Arpit Printographers

Northern Railway




Udhampur-Srinagar-Baramulla Rail Link (USBRL) Project A Historical Perspective



Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective






Selection of The Alignment of The Railway Line
Geology and Terrain
Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel (T-80)
Construction of the Banihal Road Tunnel in Kashmir
Evaluation/Description of different Tunnelling methods
NATM : Detail & Design
Appointment of the Detailed Design and Construction Supervision Consultant (DDC)
A New Initiative
Main Deliverables Required from DDC
Salient Features of Pir Panjal Tunnel


Exploring The Unknown




Geological And Geotechnical Investigations

Importance of Investigations Required for The Construction of Tunnel
Why these Investigations are Necessary?
Classification of Investigations
Approach to Carrying out the Investigations
Investigation During Planning and Design Stage
Investigation During Construction Stage
Geological Overview

Putting The Dream On Paper (DESIGN)


Collection of Data/Information
Site Topography
Alignment and Layout
Tunnel Drainage and Waterproofing
Geotechnical Design
Geotechnical Instrumentation and Monitoring
Design of Outer Lining
Design of Inner Lining
Tunnel Safety








Dream in Motion (Tendering)




Need for Strategizing the Construction
Early works
Main Tunnel Contracts

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction)




Construction of Pir Panjal Tunnel

Construction Materials and Their Quality Aspects
Detail of Construction Materials
Waterproofing and Permanent Groundwater Drainage
Drives (Mining and Lining)
The Access Tunnel
Shaft and Cross Passage
Construction of Cavern at Junction of Access Tunnel and Main Tunnel
Soft Ground Tunneling at the North and South Ends
Portal Development
Construction Methodology of Main Tunnel
Permanent Lining
Year wise Progress of Lining Work
Problems Faced During Construction
Anticipated Rock Class v/s Actually Encountered
Second Stage Concreting
Ballast-less Track (BLT)

Breathing Life into The Tunnel (Ventilation)




Need of Ventilation System

Design Basics/Fundamentals
Boundary Conditions for Ventilation Design against Emissions and Fire
Layout of Ventilation System
Smoke Behaviour
Waiting Time
Specifications of Machinery
Summary of the Final Longitudinal Ventilation System

Livening The Tunnel (Electrical & Mechanical Systems)




Compliance with the UIC 779-9 R provisions
A Short Description of the System
Electrical and Mechanical Installations:

Safety (Operational Concepts)




Safety Concept
Main Scenarios And Required Measures

Through The Eyes of a Camera


Appendix A :

Geodetic Survey


Appendix B :

The Role of The Roadheader


Appendix C :

Instrumentation & Monitoring of Tunnel - Section



The engineering work on a large tunnel project is so complex that number of

engineers and specialists in many areas are required to be involved in design and
construction. The decisions, of which there may be several, call for a vast amount of
technical knowhow and sound judgement based on many years of experience.
The 11 km. long tunnel the Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel represents a culmination of a
tremendous effort on the part of myriads of engineers who were involved in its
planning, design and construction engineers from Northern Railway, the Contractor
IRCON and their various Subcontractors/consultants.
Northern Railways engineers felt it worthwhile to pen down and put on paper for
the benefit of posterity the multitude of the involved technical details and the lessons
that were learnt during design and construction of Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel the
longest transportation tunnel in india. These notes, stated in the format of a book,
give discrete steps to decision making and undoubtedly provide a comprehensive
coverage of the subject for both the designer and the constructor. At its heart lies
the Capacity for Development which then is the ability to solve problems, and make
informed choices, and plan for future. The material in the Book is presented in the
vein of a comprehensive yet concise compendium. The presentations have a flow
that moves from the individual to the organization, with practical skills and
theory woven together, offering real-life engineering experience, from problem
formulation through to implementation.
This would educate the future creators in understanding the subject of tunnelling,
thus enabling them to employ their grounding in engineering to become workmanlike partners in future in such type of project.



Udhampur-Srinagar-Baramulla Rail Link

(USBRL) Project A Historical Perspective

1.1 Background
1.1.1 With a view to provide a reliable alternative transportation system to the Kashmir Valley, the Government
of India sanctioned the construction of a 326 Km long railway line to the States Summer Capital, Srinagar, taking off
from its Winter Capital, Jammu.
1.1.2 Terminating at Baramulla, near Srinagar, the railway line connects Jammu with Udhampur, then Katra,
Reasi, Banihal, Qazigund and Srinagar en route (Fig 1.1). It is one of the largest and toughest mountain - railway
project undertaken in the country since independence. The railway line traverses the young Himalayas, which is
tectonically very active and dotted with many Thrusts and Faults. Work on the Jammu Udhampur section (53 Km)
was completed and commissioned in April, 2005. Then the section from Baramulla to Qazigund (119 Km) was
completed and opened to traffic in October, 2009. Work in the remaining stretch from Udhampur to Qazigund,
totalling 154 Km, is in various stages of construction. The Udhampur-Srinagar-Baramulla rail link (USBRL-273Km)
was declared as a Project of National Importance. Some of the important salient features of USBRL Project are as
Route length
Ruling gradient
Sharpest in - plan Curvature
No. of Bridges
Max. height of Bridge
Longest individual span length
Aggregate Bridge Length
No. of Tunnels
Aggregate Tunnel Length
Aggregate Tunnel length as % of
section length
Longest Tunnel length
Max Depth of Cutting
Rly. Stations

Katra Section

Qazigund Section

Baramulla Section


1 in 100
85 m
154m Steel Girder,
over river Jhajjar
10.90 Km

1in 80
359 m
467 m Steel Arch,
over river Chenab
105.00 Km

1in 100
22 m
45 m




3.15 Km.
20 m

11.27 Km
40 m

12 m



2 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 1.1: Alignment Plan

Udhampur-Srinagar-Baramulla Rail Link (USBRL) Project A Historical Perspective

1.2 Selection of The Alignment of The Railway Line

1.2.1 In February, 1994 the Northern Railway suggested three alternative alignments (Fig.1.2) between Udhampur
and Srinagar via Qazigund. These three alignments put up for the Railway Boards consideration are indicated





1 in 40 (C)*

1 in 100 (C)*

1 in 100 (C)*


1 in 80 (C)*

1 in 80 (C)*

1 in 100 (C)*

*(C) - compensated for curvature

Fig. 1.2

4 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

In all these alternatives, the maximum in - plan degree of curvature proposed between Udhampur-Qazigund and
Qazigund-Srinagar was 60 and 50, respectively.
1.2.2 For considering any alignment between Udhampur and Baramulla, Qazigund was an obligatory point to
pass through since the Valley commences here. The alignment had to cross the Patni hill ranges before reaching
Banihal, located close to Qazigund. Thus there was a choice of skirting the mountain range, either along the eastern
corridor or along the western corridor. Interestingly, the National Highway 1A skirts the mountain range from the
eastern side. The initial effort to propose an alignment through the eastern corridor led to the realization that steep
gradients would be involved, particularly near Chenani. The choice of the eastern corridor necessitated a gradient
1 in 40 - a gradient which was initially envisaged and even approved but was later changed by the Board. This steep
grade would have required the construction of catch and slip sidings, necessitating separate tunnels. That would
have increased the total cost of construction considerably. Moreover, the steeper gradient would have sharply
brought down the speed potential of the line (because of the need for all trains to stop short of the catch sidings).
1.2.3 Another alignment, going further on the eastern side of the alignment discussed above, was also studied.
This alignment was feasible at a gradient of 1 in 100 (C) but had the serious drawback of the need to reverse the
locomotives at Udhampur. Moreover, this alignment was also much longer than the alignment passing through the
western corridor and would have needed sharper curves a distinct disadvantage.
1.2.4 In retrospect, choice of both the alignments along the eastern corridor would have fallen far short of the
aspiration of the people who aspired a faster communication with the Valley.
1.2.5 Against this backdrop, the western corridor permitted a relatively flatter gradient of 1 in 100(C) and flatter
curves, which permitted speeds up to 100 kmph and additionally had the advantage of least length of track on
curves. This corridor passes via Katra and Salal. The former is an important tourist destination, while the latter is
important on account of its vicinity to Salal Hydel Project. As such, the choice of the western corridor appeared to
be a logical choice. The western corridor, i.e. Alt.2, was finally chosen and studied in detail to optimize the alignment.
1.2.6 After approval of the Railway Board to Alternative 2, a consultant was engaged in 1995-96 for carrying out
further refinement of the alignment. The topographic sheets of the Survey of India were made use of. Later on, in
2002-03, National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) carried out the aerial photography of the alignment refined by
the Consultant. As NRSA could not fix the ground control points to validate the data, unfortunately no use could be
made of the work done by NRSA for refinement of the alignment.
1.2.7 After award of the construction work to IRCON and KRCL, RITES was engaged as per the directives of the
Government for the pre-construction survey and preliminary geo-technical investigations in two phases. RITES also
carried out detailed geotechnical investigations at the selected sites of various bridges, tunnels, cuttings and yards.
1.2.8 For finalizing the alignment, RITES carried out topographic desk study which involved creation of digital
terrain model in MX environment and generating the alignment through MX software. On the basis of this generated
alignment, locations, requiring changes from topographic considerations, were identified. The alignment was finalized
after incorporating the changes. The governing technical parameters of the finalized alignment have been explained
in the Northern Railway DPR of 1999. After this, a detailed topographic survey was carried out dividing the route
into sections of 10 km length. Topographic details of the corridor up to a width of 100 m on either side of the centre
line and between the two portals of each tunnel were thus picked up. Important control points along the alignment
were staked on the ground. A joint visit was conducted by a team of the concerned Engineers from the Railways,
RITES and KRCL and the Geologists from the GSI. Based on the observations of the Teams Report, slight changes, as
found necessary, were incorporated and this revised alignment was staked at 20 m interval for preparation of plans,
longitudinal sections, estimation of the earthwork quantities, etc. (Fig.1.3).

Udhampur-Srinagar-Baramulla Rail Link (USBRL) Project A Historical Perspective


Fig. 1.3

1.3 Geology and Terrain

1.3.1 For infrastructure development in a mountainous region, information regarding its geology and the terrain
plays a crucial role in selecting safer sites and designing structures that are safe, durable and easy to maintain.
1.3.2 The Himalayas are slightly special, being relatively young and somewhat unknown in structure. This mountain
range emerged as a consequence of collision between the Indian (continental) Plate and the Eurasian (continental)
Plate along the Indus Suture Zone. As a result of this continental collision, the northern parts of the Indian Plate
have been subjected to a compressive tectonic regime for about 40 million years, leading to the formation of a
series of thrust structures on the south of the Indus Suture Zone. In general, the thrusts show relatively younger
age of their initiation south ward, and the southern-most thrust zone, known as the Himalayan Frontal Thrust
(HFT), demarcates the geographic boundary between the Himalayan Foothills and the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The
compressive tectonic forces that continue to remain active have been responsible for the development of several
neo-tectonic structures in the Lesser Himalaya and Himalayan Foothills.
1.3.3 The Himalayas happen to be seismically active and are linked with reactivation of some of the important
faults in the Himalayan ranges. Extensive work has been done on the analysis of some of the major seismic events
in different parts of the Himalayas. Micro-seismic activity (earthquakes of magnitudes less than 4 on the Richter
scale) is also common in different parts of the Himalayas. These micro-seismic events often trigger landslides on
critical slopes that are prone to sliding.

6 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

1.3.4 Other geomorphic processes that are related to the meteorological conditions have also lead to continuous
modification of the shapes of the Himalayan ranges. Some of these changes in the slopes of mountains and drainage
basins have occurred within the experience of an average life span of humans. Emergence of the Himalayas is
considered to have caused the onset of the Indian Summer Monsoon some time in the geological past (about 8
million years ago, according to one school). The Indian Monsoon has since become more intense and well diversified
in terms of regional variations in annual rain fall. The Himalayas have also shown themselves as an ideal case for
coupled effects of tectonics and climate. Whereas the tectonics have lead to the rise of the Himalayas, high
precipitation and high relief have been responsible for faster rates of erosion. Higher rates of erosion, in turn, lead
to an increase in the rate of uplift of the mountains, and thus the tectonics-climate coupling continues to modify
the shape of the Himalayan ranges. Understanding these processes of tectonics and erosion has a great bearing on
designing, executing and maintaining the civil structures, such as rail-roads.
1.3.5 The rail alignment from Katra to Banihal traverses the most difficult terrains of the Lesser Himalayas
characterized by steep hills and deep valleys. The Main Boundary Fault (MBF) that marks the boundary between
the Outer and Lesser Himalayas is located near the Katra end of the alignment. Along the MBF, rocks of Shiwalik
Group are thrust by the Late Precambrian carbonate sequence named Sirban Limestone. Whereas the Shiwalik
Group is made up of alternate bands of claystone, siltstone and sandstone, the overlying carbonate sequence
comprises predominantly of limestone and dolomite with some arenaceous beds in the upper parts of the succession.
The limestones and dolomites of the Sirban Limestone are highly jointed and sheared in the vicinity of the MBF.
1.3.6 The Sirban Limestone is overlain by coaliferous shales and limestones named Subathu Formation of Eocene
age. These are overlain by the Jungalgali Formation that is made up of limestone, chert, quartzite, shale, sandstone,
clay bands and bauxite at a few places. Both, the Subathu Formation and the Jungalgali Formation, are exposed
along the rail alignment in relatively thinner bands of outcrops on the northern bank of the Chenab river. These, in
turn, are overlain by a thick succession of shale, siltstone and sand stone comprising Murree Formation. While the
Subathu Formation represents a marine facies, the rocks of younger Murree Formation were deposited in fluvial
and lacustrine basins.
1.3.7 The Subathu Formation and Sirban Limestone are again exposed in the upper reaches along the alignment
where they are separated by the Murree Formation by a series of strike faults. The Murree rocks continue till they
are separated by yet another important thrust named as Murree Thrust. This structure has lead the Late Proferozoic
sequence of phylhtis slates and quartzites, named Ramban Formation, to lie over Late Tertiary sequence (Murree
1.3.8 The Ramban Formation is truncated in the north by Panjal Thrust that brings a sequence of Late Precambrian
Salkala Formation of Tethyan Himalayas to lie over the rocks of Ramban Formation. The Salkhala Formation contains
large bodies of granitic rocks that are foliated and highly jointed. These, in turn, are overlain by rocks of Ramsu
Formation that are made up of slate phylhtis, quartzite, schist and limestone. The Ramsu Formation is unconformably
overlain by a sequence of agglomeratic shales, slates and phylhtis with interbeds of fossiliferous limestone. This
sequence is overlain by a thick sequence of volcanic rocks known as Panjal Volcanics that are exposed in the higher
reaches of the Pir Panjal Range beyond Banihal.
The above sequence of Late Precambrian to Tertiary ages have undergone folding and faulting during the Himalayan
orogeny. Quarternary sediments comprising fluvial, lacustrine, eluvial and glacial sediments occur in small packets
at different places in the Himalayas. These are unconsolidated sediments of variable thicknesses, met with at a few
places along the alignment (Fig. 1.4).

Udhampur-Srinagar-Baramulla Rail Link (USBRL) Project A Historical Perspective

Fig. 1.4

8 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

1.4 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel (T-80)

1.4.1 To connect Jammu with the Kashmir valley, the railway alignment has to pass through Pir-Panjal mountain
range of the Himalayas. This mountain range goes up to 2900m above the MSL. To cross these mighty mountains a
long tunnel was necessary. This Pir-Panjal tunnel is the longest, transportation tunnel in India. The length of this
tunnel is 10.960 Km. It is located between railway stations Banihal in the South and Qazigund in the North(See Fig.
1.4.2 This tunnel is straight and runs almost parallel to the North-South direction. The Tunnel portals are at
elevations 1713.15m (South portal) and 1756.22m (North portal). The Tunnel has its high point at elevation of
1771.479m above the MSL. The maximum overburden is more than 1100 m. The Kashmir valley is situated between
the two arms - the Dhauladhar-Pir-Panjal range in S-W and the Zanskar range in the N-E. Folding and Faulting is
common in the area and, in addition, the process of denudation is still continuing. This makes the geology of the
area complex and rapidly changing and hence more unpredictable. Due to these conditions the geological problems
are a great challenge for the construction work.

1.5 Construction of The Banihal Road Tunnel in Kashmir

For better appreciation of some of the aspects of Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel this topic Construction of The Banihal
Road Tunnel in Kashmir has been included.

1.5.1 History
Before the partition which followed the independence declaration in 1947 and the resulting division into the Indian
Union and Pakistan, all tourist and commercial traffic into the Kashmir Valley was nearly totally served by the
Jhelum Valley Road on which Srinagar, the capital of Kashmir, could be reached from Rawalpindi via Murree or from
the railway station Havelian above Abottabad along the Jhelum river in about one-days journey (picture no. 1). At
that time also existed the possibility to travel from Jammu via the Banihal road into Kashmir, however, this road was
only open during summer-time and because of the tedious pass crossings and the vulnerability due to damages
caused by rain this route was only seldom in use. Originally built in 1913 - 1915 as a private road of the Maharaja for
a change between his summer residence in Srinagar and winter residence in Jammu, this road was opened to traffic
for the public in 1922, after completion of the short tunnel on the Banihal pass, but it was used mainly for the local
exchange of goods.
After partition, however, this route of approx. 450 kilometers length from the railway station Pathankot via Jammu
and the Banihal pass represented the only approach to Kashmir besides the air connection served by Indian Airlines
from New Delhi into Srinagar which, during winter-time, could sometimes be interrupted for even weeks. This
route now declared to a national highway has a daily long distance traffic of 300 - 500 vehicles in each direction
which, due to the mountainous part between Udhampur, south of the Kud pass, and Qazigund, north of the Banihal
pass, still have to travel in convoys since the one-lane road with a number of by-passes and the long serpentines
and numerous blind curves and narrow passages in areas of landslide call for a one direction traffic. The mighty,
more than 4000 m high range of the Pir Panjal, which encloses the 1800 m high Kashmir Valley in the south and
southwest is pierced by the old pass road only about 100 m below the approx. 3000 m high Banihal saddle with a
220 m long and only scarcely lined top tunnel.

Udhampur-Srinagar-Baramulla Rail Link (USBRL) Project A Historical Perspective

10 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

The pass road is during winter-time totally closed for about 4 months because the huge snow amounts do not allow
a permanent clearing. Snows of up to 8 m height hide the alignment of the road and the tunnel for miles and huge
ground and snow avalanches of up to 150m width and 20m snow height force their way to the valley, which is
located 600m below the pass, and damage the road and make the pass road non approachable even during the
period of snow melting.
Since the partition the Kashmir Valley was thus every year cut off from the outside world for about one third of the
year, since the border line to Pakistan was hermetically closed as well. The Indian Government had therefore the
necessity to create a road connection from Pathankot to Srinagar which would be in operation throughout the
whole year. The Ministry of Transport, in cooperation with the Central Public Works Department, investigated the
possibility for construction of a basis tunnel through the Pir Panjal range which would be located on a level allowing
approaches throughout the whole winter and which could be kept free of snow and would not endanger the traffic
by avalanches.
The construction of such a tunnel could however only partially solve the problem of an all-weather road to Kashmir
since the national highway was subject to breakdowns due to weather effects not only in the area of the Banihal
pass, but also on other sections of the road.
The approx. 110 km long road section between Pathankot-Jammu was reinstated after the partition with an
expenditure of about 33 million Rupees, similarly to the Grand Trunk Road Calcutta-Delhi-Amritsar. Only the numerous
fords with the following steep approaches are somehow influencing the alignment. Since the fords may not allow
traffic to pass for days after heavy rains, the two longest ones were changed into viaducts in the course of last years
and thus this section is generally fulfilling the conditions of an all-weather road.
Not yet solved is the problem of the mountainous area between Udhampur and Quazigund where, after heavy
rains, the road may be blocked by rock fall of up to 20 t weight and landslides, or major lengths of the road are
totally cut off. For instance in 1957, the traffic on this section was disrupted on 99 days of the year due to such
damages and even the summer rain in 1959 caused road blockages for several weeks. The performance of the
Indian army which replaced the old suspension bridge across the river Chenab at Ramban by a new 80 m long
bridge with a 10t capacity must be appreciated, because of the water level of this wild river.
The flat road section between Quazigund and Srinagar is also not free of surprising events and so in 1954, 1957 and
1959 floods of up to 2 m depth covered this road.
It is therefore obvious that the plan of a basis tunnel on the Pir Panjal range is the most important measure to
improve the road connection between Central India and Kashmir, however, the other sections of the road have also
to be improved to achieve the utmost effect.

1.5.2 Project Studies

The initiative to create an undisturbed traffic connection during winter was taken by the Jammu and Kashmir
government which proposed to the central government in the beginning of 1952 the construction of the basis
tunnel at level approx. 2,100 m through the Pir Panjal as a matter of utmost urgency. The idea of such a low level
tunnel was already discussed 30 years earlier as foreign companies advised the Maharaja to construct a railroad
between Jammu and Srinagar, however, the idea was not followed further because of the extremely high cost.
The central government of India approved the idea and allotted necessary funds and put Mr. H.P. Mathrani, the
Consultant Engineer Roads, and the Secretary of the Ministry of Transport in charge of the planning of the project.
On a proposal of the Jammu & Kashmir Government, Mr. Mathrani entrusted the German companies Grun &
Bilfinger AG and Philipp Holzmann AG to study proposals for the best alignment based on the studies of local
conditions and to work out a general proposal for the 2 - 3 km long tunnel, considering the problems of ventilation.
The Geological Survey of India was asked to immediately start investigation of the area in question. Geophysical,

Udhampur-Srinagar-Baramulla Rail Link (USBRL) Project A Historical Perspective


meteorological and seismological tests were commenced simultaneously. Already in summer 1952 the German
advisors and the Indian geologists commenced field investigations which were supported by the Chief Engineer
D.N. Gupta and Divisional Engineer S. Narboo of Public Works Department, Jammu & Kashmir.
Originally, four alternatives, no. I IV, were investigated, however, only no.II and IV were followed up closer in
accordance with the agreements of the German and Indian groups, and based on the geological findings they were
converted into the proposals IIIa and Iva (picture 2)

12 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Finally, the alignment IVa was definitely chosen on a level of 2220 m above sea-level, i.e. just below the heavy
snow line level, and with the shortest length of the tunnel of 2560 m, a shortening of the national highway of 30
km against the existing pass road over the Banihal, this route promised the most suitable rock conditions. A tunnel
proposal at a still lower level to avoid snow implications would have been too complicated and expensive because
the slopes of the mountains below this level are flattening and to a big extent covered by loose overburden material.
Retrospectively it can be confirmed that the selection of route IVa from the geological point of view was the best
solution and that the other alternatives probably would have caused more problems and would have resulted in
still bigger amount of water to be removed. It must however be recognized that the danger caused by the avalanches
on the approach roads and on the portal areas of the tunnels have not been correctly judged: in this respect
alignment no. II would not have caused the same difficulties which the now existing low level road through
Banihal is facing. The State Public Works Department will still have to improve the southern approach to the tunnel
in respect of the dangerous and wide avalanches at mile 74 and between mile 74 and 73 as well as the portal areas,
in particular on the north side which could be achieved by construction of avalanches barriers in the upper areas of
the mountains. For the alignment no. II, this means that the approach via Tathar and Naugam to the south portal
and from Lower Munda to the north portal at Upper Munda would have definitely been free of avalanches. Even
the selected proposal no. IVa could have been improved on the north side if our proposal had been followed to
extend the length of the tunnel across the Chhankot Nala and erect the portal further north of this avalanche valley.
After completion of the tunnel now a 200m long winter tunnel is being constructed which branches off the west
tube in the vicinity of the north portal and crosses the Nala alongside the mountains and then later on joins the
national highway again.
As cross-section for the tunnel a horseshoe shape profile was proposed of approx. 8.65 m width and a double-lane
roadway of 6.70 m width and two walkways of 0.92 m with a semi-transversal ventilation. The Consulting Engineer
decided that first only a pilot tunnel of 10 m profile should be executed in order to get a better knowledge of the
rock conditions and later to widening to the full profile. While the Ministry of Transport was responsible for funding
and for the construction, the Ministry entrusted the Central Public works Department with the preparation of a
tender and the supervision during execution. The Chief Engineer, Mr. R.P. Barman, put the pilot tunnel out to
tender in March 1954 and let the work on the 6th of August to the Joint Venture C. Baresel A Stuttgart - A. Kunz &
Co.,Munich, as the best bidder. This joint venture had submitted, with their offer, an alternative proposal for the
final design suggesting two single-lane tunnels with simplified ventilation system instead of the envisaged two-lane
tunnel with traffic in two directions. To study the possible problems of the final design on existing modern tunnel
structures, the Consulting Engineer and the Chief Resident Engineer made a trip to Europe to investigate on 14
existing tunnels, such as the Mersey tunnel in Liverpool, the Col di Tenda road tunnel on the French-Italian border,
the Col du Chat road tunnel near Lyon in France and the Kaiser-Wilhelm-tailroad tunnel near Cochem. On return to
India, the Consulting Engineer, in cooperation with the Chief Engineer of the Central Public Works Department
initiated a thorough comparison of the submitted alternative proposal of the joint venture and the original proposal
and decided following a number of minor changes for the proposal of the joint venture. The cost comparison of the
Ministry revealed that the two-tube tunnel would reduce the construction cost by approx.2 million Rs. and,
considering the lower expenses for the ventilation of the twin tube tunnel against the transversal ventilation of the
one-tube tunnel, an additional saving of 10 million Rs. would be expected. While on site the pilot tunnel from the
north and from the south portal was commenced in three shifts work by the Joint Venture C.Baresel AG A.Kunz
& Co. on 1st April 1955 the project of the final tunnel was awarded to the same Joint Venture with an amount of
21.3 million Rs. which later on increased to roughly 24 million Rs.

1.5.3 Construction of the Two-tube Tunnel

When on 22nd December 1956 the Vice-President of India, Dr. Radhakrishnan, opened the west tube for temporary
traffic, the Indian government made a statement that from the first idea to construct this important project until
the completion of the investigations only one year had lapsed, until the commencement of construction less than

Udhampur-Srinagar-Baramulla Rail Link (USBRL) Project A Historical Perspective


three years and until the first temporary take-over for traffic only five years had lapsed while nowhere in the world
a tunnel of comparable size would have required less than eight to ten years to complete the local investigations
and planning only. Such a short timing, however, necessitated that the contract drawings were only of general
nature and the Joint Venture had to execute with the Consulting Engineer and the Central Public Works Department,
besides the execution of the work, a number of designs and alterations and was in many cases in difficulties to
receive in time approved drawings for the execution.

1.5.4 Geological basis

The tectonical conditions, as superficially judged during the investigation stage, proved during the execution of the
tunnel to be generally correct. The governing structure between Upper Munda and Banihal is a folded anticlinale
with a strong break along the Zewans and one minor synclinale which from the top of the Pir Panja1 flattens
downwards. The Panjal trap, comprising a grey-green basalt of basic pyroxene andesit is the main feature of the Pir
Panjal and drops on the south slope with approx. 70 north-east, and on the north slope with 30 to 40 south-west.
The selected tunnel axis IV a is approx. at right angles to the regional striking. The two folds in the North at the
interface of the trap with the zewans, and in the south at an interface of the traps with the agglomerates, were
found on the forecast stations in the tunnel in a very pronounced manner. As can be seen from the geological
profile of alternative IV a (picture no.3) from the south to north 12% of the tunnel length were agglomerate shales,
55% Panjal Trap and 34% zewans in the form of limestone and other sedimentary rocks.

Regarding stability behavior of the rock the trap was considered mainly as self-supporting which should only, to
minimize friction of the surface, be shotcreted with a 3" layer, all other parts of the tunnel length lying in other
strata were considered to have the necessity of being concrete lined 12", 15" or 18" thick, whereas the last one with
18" was alternately foreseen to receive an invert to strengthen the whole section in case of lateral pressure. In the
course of excavation of the pilot heading a detailed geological charting was undertaken by the Resident Geologist
to compare the results of the previous investigations and on the other side, to decide on the construction elements,
such as thickness of linking, joints, dewatering, insulation, by-passes, etc. which were to be determined on the
finding of the rock conditions. Also the results of the seismological and meteorological investigations influenced

14 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

the final tunnel design. In respect of earthquakes no experience at the Banihal area was available, however, on
various other points in the Kashmir Valley, between 1909 and 1946 observations were made as shown in table I:

Rossi Forel Scale

Acceleration in mm s



Upto 2.5


2.5 to 5.0


5 to 10



10 to 25



25 to 50





50 to 100




100 to 250



250 to 1000

More than 1000

Noted, intensity
not known

Total number of
earthquakes 1909- 1946





During the construction period of the tunnel a number of earthquakes were noted in Banihal of which only two on
two subsequent days in spring 1956 must be considered as heavier earthquakes which may have been in the order
VIII of the Rossi Forel scale. As the above table shows the heaviest earthquakes observed in Kashmir were of the
grade IX of the scale. Since Kashmir is located in the seismological area of the Himalaya, the government decided on
an acceleration of 0.1 g for the statical computation of tunnel vault which equivalent to the intensity X of the Rossi
Forel scale.
At the time of construction commencement available meteorogical values with respect to temperature, precipitation,
atmospheric pressure, relative humidity and wind velocities for stations in the Kashmir Valley and in the areas of
the Chenab and Tavi rivers could not be taken into consideration for the design of the Banihal tunnel since the Pir
Panjal range follows own weather and natural laws which show very abrupt differencies which in many respects
deviate from those measured in the Kashmir Valley.
In order to collect information for the tunnel ventilation and water supply the Central Public Works Department
installed on the north and south portal of the Banihal tunnel, meteorological stations. With respect to the avalanche
problem, the Joint Venture could only rely on oral information of the local Public Works Department and their
observations and experiences in the past.

1.5.5 Cross-section of the Tunnel

For both tunnel tubes a contractual clearance area in form of a horseshoe was fixed as shown in picture 4, with a
semi-circle of 2.72 m radius and a trapezoidal lower part of 5.44 m width at top at 5.03 m at about road level.

Udhampur-Srinagar-Baramulla Rail Link (USBRL) Project A Historical Perspective


The clearance height in the center is 5.54 m, the maximum width at the spring of calotte 5.44 m. The one-lane road
pavement has a slope of 1:70 and is normally 3.20 m wide, on by-passes it widens to 5.64 m, the one-sided walkway
has a railing at 1.25 width, the curbstone on the other side has a width of 0.58 m, both have been executed with a
rounded-off curb as usually used in this country. The clearance height is for Indian circumstances unusually high
and even sufficiently high for particular army vehicles. The design of the cross-section particularly took care of the
possibility, in case of necessity, to allow the installation of a channel for ventilating and fresh air supply. If one
compares this cross- section e.g. with the Lammerbuckel tunnel of the highway Stuttgart-Ulm, which is also used in
one-directional traffic only, the cross-section of the Banihal with about 30 m is not even half as big as the highway
tunnel with approx. 70 m.
The lining of the tunnel in the earlier projects was to be done in stone-masonry with a thickness of 1" per 1
clearance width. For the execution, however, instead of stone-masonry concrete and reinforced concrete was chosen
with a mixing ratio of 1:2:4 and thickness fixed at 12", 15" and 18" respectively, whereby the latter, wherever
required was to be reinforced and even provided with an invert. The Indian government was not satisfied with the
empiric formula of thickness as above mentioned, but insisted on a statical computation of the vault in accordance
with the geological charting and the resulting loadings onto the vaults.
Therefore, a calculation with a pressure ellipse according to O. Kommerell of h = 100a/p was taken into account
whereas the deformation of the tunnel top a and the permanent loosening of the rock p in percent were
estimated according to the local conditions of the rock. For the 21" profile with earthquake reinforcement and
reinforced concrete invert selected for the area of clay and debris at the tunnel ends, the calculation showed a
maximum eccentricity of the pressure resultant with the Kommerell load as indicated of only 15 kg/cm, as against
a permissible value of 52.7 kg/cm according to the Indian standard code IS-456-1953 for a mix of 1:2:4, and even
the pressure in the concrete/rock interface joint of the invert was within marginal limits.


Tunnelling Philosophy
An Engineering Perspective

2.1 Background
Tunnelling is both a Science and An art that over-arches the many disciplines of engineering - civil, structural,
geological, mechanical, electrical and computer as well as the ecological and environmental constraints. Apart from
being a highly expensive engineering enterprise, tunnels can present very difficult problems in their construction.
As more and more tunnels are built, it calls for continued improvement in tunnelling technology. Tunnel as an
alternative, has to be a cost-effective engineering solution with minimal impact on the ambient environment and
ecology. Although significant innovations have been made over the years in tunnel construction, the substantial
growth in passenger traffic and the consequent need for more efficient rapid transit systems in urban areas
necessitates more and more improvement in tunnel construction practices.
Here an attempt has been made to examine and evaluate the currently practised construction technologies i.e.
Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) method, Conventional Indian Method of Tunnelling and New Austrian Tunnelling
Method (NATM) for tunnelling through different medium i.e. through soil and rock.

2.2 Evaluation/Description of Different Tunnelling Methods

First a short overview of different construction Technologies is attempted (for better evaluation):

2.2.1 TBM Technology

i. Tunnelling by boring, using a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) is often adopted for long tunnels. An effective TBM
method requires the selection of appropriate equipment for different types of rock mass and geological conditions.
The TBM may be suitable for excavating those tunnels which contain competent rocks that can provide adequate
geological stability when boring through a long section without structural supports. However, extremely hard rock
can cause significant wear of the TBM rock cutter and may slow down the progress of the tunnelling to the point
where TBM becomes inefficient and hence uneconomical and may take longer time than the drill-and-blast tunnelling
method in such a case. The detail of TBMs commonly use in rock are as under:a. Gripper TBM (Open TBM)- For use in solid rock. The machine is locked at the rock using two or four gripper
plates. Then, hydraulic cylinders push the cutter head into the tunnel face at high pressure, grinding it with
cutter rings (Fig. 2.1).

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 17

Fig. 2.1

b. Single Shield TBM-For use in brittle or soft rock. The tunnel is lined with concrete segments. To tunnel
forward, the hydraulic thrust cylinders of the Single Shield TBM push against the last installed lining ring
(Fig. 2.2) .

Fig. 2.2

18 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

c. Double Shield TBM-These combine the principles of the Gripper and the Single Shield TBM, enabling fast
excavation even in varying rock formations (Fig. 2.3) .

Fig. 2.3

There are two major shield machines available for tunnelling in soft ground in urban areas i.e the earth pressure
balanced (EPB) and the slurry type shield machines. Selection of the appropriate shield machine depends on the
ground conditions, surface conditions, dimensions of the tunnel section, the boring distance, the tunnel alignment
and the construction period available. Both are closed-face type shield machines, meaning the head part of
machine is closed and separated from the rear part of machine. The head has a working chamber filled with soil
or slurry between the cutting face and bulkhead to stabilize the cutting face under soil pressure. The EPB type
shield machine turns the excavated soil into mud pressure and holds it under soil pressure to stabilize the cutting
face. It has an excavation system to cut the soil, a mixing system to mix the excavated soil into mud pressure, a soil
discharge system to discharge the soil and a control system to keep the soil pressure uniform. Therefore, EPBM may
not be applicable for the rocky strata that where it is difficult to turn the excavated soil into slurry. It can be used at
ground which is predominated by clayey soil. The slurry type shield machine, on the other hand, uses the external

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 19

pressurized slurry to stabilize the cutting face, similar to bored piles or diaphragm walls using Bentonite to hold
back the trench wall. The slurry is circulated to transport the excavated soil by fluid conveyance. Besides having an
excavation system, the slurry type shield machine has slurry feed and discharge equipment to circulate and pressurize
the slurry and a slurry processing equipment on the ground to adjust the slurry properties.
ii. The sequential steps for construction of tunnel by TBM:

Schematic construction sequence for working by TBM

iii) Schematic representation of EPBM ( See Fig.2.4,Fig.2.5)

Fig. 2.4

20 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 2.5

iv) Types of cutting face of EPBM ( See Fig. 2.6)

Fig. 2.6

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 21

v) EPBM circulation system (See Fig. 2.7)

Fig. 2.7

vi) Typical site utilization plan for working with EPBM including working shaft, gantry crane, segment stock yard,
tanks, etc. (See Fig. 2.8)


Fig. 2.8

22 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

vii) Section view of the for working with EPBM site utilization ( See Fig. 2.9)

Fig. 2.9

viii) Schematic representation of a slurry type TBM shield machine (See Fig. 2.10)

Fig. 2.10

ix) Sketch showing Cutting head of slurry type shield. ( See Fig. 2.11)

Fig, 2.11

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 23

x) Types of cutting face of slurry type shield ( See Fig. 2.12)

Fig. 2.12

xi) Slurry type TBM : Slurry circulation system ( Representative) (See Fig. 2.13)

Fig. 2.13

xii) Slurry type TBM : Slurry circulation system ( Line Diagram) (See Fig. 2.14)

Fig. 2.14

24 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

xiii) Slurry type TBM : Slurry Circulation system ( See Fig. 2.15)

Fig. 2.15

xiv) Slurry treatment plant. ( See Fig. 2.16)

Fig. 2.16

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 25

xv) Typical site utilization plan for working with slurry type TBM including working shaft, gantry crane, segment
stock yard, tanks, etc. ( See Fig. 2.17)

Fig. 2.17

xvi) Section view of the site utilization for working with the slurry type TBM (See Fig.2.18)

Fig. 2.18

26 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

2.2.2 Shaft Construction

i) Shaft construction using diaphragm wall method (See Fig. 2.19,Fig.2.20)

Fig. 2.19

Fig. 2.20

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 27

ii) Shaft construction using diaphragm wall method - Access stairs, ventilation and passenger hoist are provided (
See Fig. 2.21)

Fig. 2.21

28 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

2.2.3 Launching and Operation

i) Main body of the shield machine being lowered into launching shaft (See Fig. 2.22)

Fig. 2.22

ii) Lowering the main body of shield machine into launching shaft ( See Fig. 2.23)

Fig. 2.23

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 29

iii) A receiving shaft to accommodate dismantling ( right) and assembling (left) TBM at the same time (See Fig. 2.24)

Fig. 2.24

iv) The shield machine at work ( See Fig. 2.25)

Fig. 2.25

30 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

v) The functioning part of TBM ( back up) at the rear (See Fig. 2.26)

Fig. 2.26

2.2.4 Conventional Indian Method Of Tunnelling

In conventional Indian method of tunnelling, the excavation is done by Drill and blast method and thereafter steel
ribs with backfilling by tunnel muck or lean concrete is used as an almost automatic first step in tunnel support.
This being a passives support system, a considerable damage is done to the rock mass before the ribs interact with
it. The combination of the drill-and-blast method of excavation and steel rib support system delays the supporting
action, allows opening of the existing joints, creates new fractures, permits loosening of the rock mass in the roof,
mobilizes higher tunnel closures and greater rock loads which require larger excavation and thicker support. All
these problems result in increased cost and completion period. The steel ribs invite unwanted loosening, and a
potential weakening-because-of-loosening (Fig.2.27,2.28).The tunnel construction that is based on extensive use
of steel ribs the conventional Indian Method (Fig. 2.29) is unfortunately slow in most of the rock classes.

Fig. 2.27

Fig. 2.28

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 31

Fig. 2.29

2.2.5 NATM (New Austrian Tunnelling Method)

Construction methodology has been dealt with in detail in chapter 6.
This method is an observational and sequential construction method.
i) One of the most well known methods using some elements of an observational approach is the New Austrian
Tunnelling Method, referred to as NATM. The method, embraces multiple concepts of geotechnical engineering
and is not just some single concept method. It has often been mentioned as a value engineered version of
tunnelling due to its use of light and some what informal support system. It has long been understood that the
ground, if allowed to deform slightly, is capable of contributing to its own support. NATM, with its use of modern
means of monitoring and surface stabilisation, (such as by shotcrete and rock bolts), utilizes this concept systematically
and effectively. The location of excavation in the proposed tunnel is first divided into segments. These segments are
then mined sequentially with supports. Some mining equipment, such as road-headers and backhoes, are commonly
used in the tunnel excavation. The ground to be excavated for excavation must be fully dry for working with NATM.
Ground dewatering is an essential process before start of the excavation.
ii) The main principles of NATM are:
a) The main load-bearing component of the tunnel is the surrounding rock mass. Support is informal i.e. it
consists of earth/rock-anchors and shotcrete, but support and final lining have confining function only.

32 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

b) Maintain strength of the rock mass and avoid detrimental loosening by careful excavation and by
immediate application of support and strengthening means. Shotcrete and rock bolts applied close to the
excavation face help to maintain the integrity of the rock mass.
c) Rounded tunnel shape: avoid stress concentrations in corners where progressive failure mechanisms
d) Flexible thin lining: The primary support shall be thin-walled in order to minimize bending moments and to
facilitate the stress rearrangement process without exposing the lining to unfavorable sectional forces.
Additional support requirement shall not be added by increasing lining thickness but by rock bolting. The
lining shall be in full contact with the exposed rock. Shotcrete fulfils this requirement.
e) Statically the tunnel is considered a thick-walled tube consisting of the rock and the lining. The closing of
the ring is therefore important, i.e. the total periphery including the invert must be shotcreted.
f) In situ measurements: Observation of tunnel behavior during construction is an integral part of NATM.
With the monitoring and interpretation of deformations, it is possible to optimize the working procedures
and the support requirements.

2.2.6 Why the TBM Method was not adopted for construction of Pir panjal Tunnel

Because of Likelihood of encountering-Mixed Geology (non-uniform medium)

Heavily Faulted and/or Wide Fault Zones

High Squeezing Effected Anticipated in the middle portion, with High Overburden almost 1100 to 1200 m.

Heavy Water Flows in the Lime Stone Zones with High overburden

Ground Movement that could easily trap the TBM.

The TBM technology is suitable for excavating through nearly uniform medium with no serious obstacles.
The TBM method with shield is also used for tunnels in pervious ground below water level.

2.2.7 Why Conventional Indian method of tunnelling was not adopted in

construction of Pir panjal Tunnel

This method of construction is not flexible enough to accommodate required changes to suit ground
conditions/encountered geology like :

Vary the support system as per requirement

Splitting of the excavation face to tackle varied geological conditions

To carry out Ground treatment

Tackle heavy ingress of water

2.2.8 Why NATM was adopted for construction of Pir panjal Tunnel
NATM provides for more cost effective, flexible and safe tunnelling methodology without the long mobilization
process endemic with TBM procurement. NATM is well suited for tunnelling in ground with varying geology. As
such, the New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM), was the appropriate alternative.

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 33

2.3 NATM : Detail & Design

2.3.1 Development of Natm

The name NATM (New Austrian Tunnelling Method) was introduced by Prof.Rabcewicz in 1962 to
differentiate this new method from the then old Austrian Tunnelling Method which was one of several
tunnelling methods that were developed during the first half of the 20th century. Typical for these old
European methods were small headings with temporary timber support, which were systematically widened
to the full cross section. During the installation of the final lining, usually made of bricks and stone masonry,
the timber strutting was removed but timber lagging often was left in place. Another characteristic was the
use of heavy side walls and foundation beams but no invert (no ring closure), Figure 2.30

Fig. 2.30 : Karawanken Railway Tunnel, Cracking due to missing ring closure

ii) Rabcewicz initiated a new and entirely different tunnel construction procedure and disregarded completely
the generally used state-of-the-art techniques. He also introduced newly developed construction
technologies into tunnelling.
iii) Rabcewicz had collected a profound tunnelling experience between the two world wars when he was
working on hydropower and railway projects in Persia and Turkey. He summarized his knowledge and
understanding of tunnelling in a systematic way in his book Rock Mass Pressure and Tunnelling which
was published in 1944. The books title is characteristic for some of the important topics which he described.
iv) He differentiated very clearly between the pressure from rock mass loosening, real rock (squeezing) pressure
and swelling pressure. He recognized that the development of the loosening pressure is related to the

34 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

shortcomings of the construction procedure and the temporary support with timber struts and lagging,
which could not prevent material loss, loosening and excessive movements even at low pressure. He stated
time factor and rock mass structure as important parameters for control of loosening and the necessity to
maintain a three dimensional stress distribution throughout the procedure of excavation and support
installation. On the other side he explained that real rock mass pressure can be observed when the
stresses at the side walls exceed the rock mass strength. If this happens the stresses will be redistributed,
away from the opening, deeper into the rock mass where confined stress conditions exist and the so called
protective shell is developed. Rabcewiecz also distinguished the different behavior of the various rock
types under high pressure with spalling appearances in hard rock and large plastic deformation in soft
rock. He stated that in the latter case even strongest support can not withstand the pressure if installed too
early. In this respect he criticized the practice of lining design of that time, as being only suitable to support
the loosening pressure. He introduced and insisted in the importance of monitoring as a compulsory
requirement for his new tunnelling method.
v) Other tunnel engineers to be mentioned for their contributions during the very early stage of the
development of the NATM are Dr.Lauffer who introduced the rock mass classification system in 1962,
Prof.Pacher who described the rock mass behavior in the Fenner-Pacher characteristic curve and Prof.Mller
who was a leading member of the Salzburg Circle a group of tunnel engineers who met regularly in
Salzburg for exchange of experiences and new ideas.
vi) Important break through events were the successful application of the NATM in the Massenberg Tunnel in
Austria and in the Schweikheim Tunnel in Germany in 1964 which were both tunnels with shallow cover. At
the Massenberg Tunnel, Figure 2.31, the design and construction method was changed after great difficulties
were encountered during construction.

Fig. 2.31: Original and New Design (after stand still) of the Massenberg Tunnel

vii) With the Tauerntunnel, which started in 1970, the method was applied for the first time in a tunnel with
high overburden and real rock mass pressure. It was also used in the talus section at the portal zones where

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 35

soft ground with large boulders had to be tunnelled. The 6.5 km long main tunnel section with more than
1000 m overburden consisted of various rock types including long sections of highly stressed Phyllites. For
the stabilization of the heavy rock mass pressure with large deformations, longitudinal slots in the shotcrete
were used for the first time. In combination with long rock bolts this section was also successfully completed
and the tunnel was a technical and economical success.

2.3.2 Basic Principles of NATM


It is important to understand that NATM is a construction procedure and the excavation and support have
to be seen always in cross sectional and longitudinal direction. It has been always avoided to limit the
application of NATM by the definition of particular and distinct guide lines. The application depends widely
on the particular conditions of each tunnel project and a generalization and simple copying may lead to an
inadequate design in other conditions. For better understanding some of the basic principles of the method
are summarized below:.
a) The major load bearing member is the rock mass.
b) The primary support shall help to:

maintain the integrity and strength of the rock mass around the opening,

shall be slim but shall have a good contact with the rock mass and shall cover the whole area of the
rock face (shotcrete),

shall strengthen the rock mass (bolts, grout)

shall provide immediate protection to workers (steel ribs, wiremesh) and

shall be installed as quickly as possible

c) Effective ring closure shall be achieved fast. This is provided by the rock or by the installation of an invert,
if the rock strength is too low.
d) Two dimensional stress conditions shall be avoided.
e) The excavation area shall be as large as possible and if possible full face excavation shall be used. Small
partial excavations shall be avoided.
f) Tunnel cross section should have a smooth and rounded shape.
g) The Rock mass and support interaction (system behavior) must be continuously controlled by monitoring.
h) The inner lining should increase the factor of safety of the permanent support and shall be installed only
after complete balance of the stresses when deformations have stopped.
ii) Rock Mass Classification of Lauffer (1962)
a) In 1962 a rock mass classification system was introduced by Dr.Lauffer.
b) The Lauffer diagram (Fig. 2.32) shows the relation between the unsupported effective span (m) and
the standing time (h) in relation to seven Rock Mass Classes which he separated in accordance with the
rock mass behavior. As such, classes A to G represent rock mass behavior types. He also indicated the
characteristic range of application. He proposed that the rock mass classification shall accompany the
project from the design to the final documentation. This system has been used with some modifications
until recently and still provides the basis for the Rock Mass Behavior types which are described later.

36 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 2.32: Rock Mass Classification system of Lauffer

X-axis: Stand Time (h), Y-axis: Effective
Span (m), Rock mass classes A to G

Shaded area presents characteristic range of application

iii) Characteristic Curve of Pacher (1963)
The characteristic curve, Fig. 2.33 generally called the Fenner Pacher curve, shows the relation between
deformation (X-axis) and load/support development (Y-axis - up) and deformation and time of support
development (Y-axis - down). It represents the interaction of the rock mass and the support system with
time. In non stable rock mass the decrease of the radial stresses with deformation will have a low point
after which the loosening pressure and the required support increase. The point of pressure balance of the
rock mass and the support should be always on the downward curve of the radial stress.

Fig. 2.33: Fenner Pacher Curve

X-axis: Deformation, Y-axis: up: Load/Support
Development down: Time

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 37

2.3.3. Geotechnical Tunnel design

i) Basic Procedure of the Geotechnical Design
The present status of tunnel design in accordance to NATM has been described in
these are guidelines published by the Austrian Society of Geomechanics. The guidelines were recently republished
still as a draft as Guideline for Geotechnical Design of Underground Structures with Conventional Excavation.
These guidelines have been developed by a working group of engineers from clients, contractors and consultants in
Austria using the experience gained in many projects constructed in accordance with NATM over several decades.
In Austria the guidelines serve as a supplement to the Standard OENORM B-2203-1, Regulation of the Construction
Contract for Mined Tunnelling.
The following sections, limited to the Design Phase, are partly an extract of the Austrian Draft, and provides a
better understanding of the design process. The Geotechnical and Tender Design as used for the Pir Panjal Railway
Tunnel follows widely the Austrian Draft.
ii) Purpose Scope of Work
The intended purpose of the Austrian Draft is to summarize the state of the art for conventional tunnelling in
Austria. The design, contractual applications and construction management are described in detail.
Fundamental requirements for conventional tunnelling projects in Austria are:

Evaluation and classification of the ground conditions with respect to particular project requirements

Design subdivided in phases, staged with the project (and construction) development, which provides the
framework for a range of potential applications

Construction methods suitable for standard plant, equipment and materials

Back-checking of the predictions by geotechnical monitoring and adjustment to the conditions encountered

Flexible contractual models for fair remuneration

iii) Geological Geotechnical Evaluation

a) The main task of the geotechnical design is the economic optimization of the construction considering the
rock mass conditions as well as safety, stability, and environmental requirements.
b) The variability of the geological architecture including the local rock mass structure, rock mass and soil
parameters, stress and ground water conditions requires that a consistent and specific procedure be used
during the design process. The key influences governing the geotechnical design are the ground conditions
and behavior.
c) Existing schematic rating systems and their recommendations for excavation and support have been
developed from experience under specific conditions. A generalization for other rock mass and boundary
conditions frequently leads to inadequate design. Consequently a technically sound and economical design
and construction can be achieved only by applying a project specific and rock-mass-specific procedure.
d) In spite of all uncertainties in the description of the rock mass conditions, underground engineering needs
a strategy, allowing a consistent and coherent design procedure that is traceable throughout the entire
project. The procedure outlined in this guideline consists of several phases.
e) There are two basic phases:

38 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

A. Phase 1: Design

This phase involves determining the expected Rock Mass Types (RMT) and Rock Mass Behavior, categorized
into Rock Mass Behavior Types (BT), as well as the construction measures derived from the rock mass behavior
under consideration of the actual boundary conditions. Excavation classes are then determined based on
the behavior types and the excavation and support methods.

The design should also contain a baseline construction plan. This plan describes the expected rock mass
conditions, assumptions, and the boundary conditions the design was based on. The plan also has to contain
clear statements describing which measures cannot be modified during construction, as well as the criteria
for possible modifications and adjustments during construction.

The results of all phases of the geotechnical design have to be summarized in a geotechnical report.

B. Phase 2: Construction

During construction geotechnical-relevant rock mass parameters have to be collected, recorded, and
evaluated to determine the rock mass type. Monitoring data together with the rock mass type allows the
behavior type to be determined. Excavation and support measures have to be chosen based on the criteria
laid out in the baseline construction plan.

The geotechnical design and the baseline construction plan have to be continuously updated based on the
findings on site. The improved quality of the geotechnical model allows an optimization of the construction
while observing all of the safety and environmental requirements.

The relevant data and assumptions made for all decisions on site have to be recorded. Relevant information
in connection with the rock mass behavior has to be collected, evaluated and analyzed in both phases.

The guideline shall help to follow a systematic procedure. All concepts, considerations and decisions shall
be recorded in a way, that a review of the decision making process is possible.

f) Definitions

Part of the earths crust, composed of rock and/or soil, including

discontinuities, anisotropy, and voids filled with liquids o gases.


Aggregate consisting of mineral components, developed from natural



Mineral aggregate, whose properties predominantly are determined by

the physical/chemical bond.


Accumulation of inorganic solid particles with occasional organic

admixtures. The properties are predominantly governed by the
composition, the compactness, and the water content


Soil and solid rock with similar properties


Surface across which some property for a rock mass is discontinuous


Rock Mass of identical properties.


Rock Mass with similar behavior with respect to excavation, spatial and
time dependent behavior and failure mode, without consideration of
sequential excavation and support.


Behavior resulting from the interaction between rock mass, excavation,

and support.

BASELINE CONSTRUCTION PLAN A summary of the Geotechnical Design, including any limitations or
freedoms for on-site design decisions.

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 39

A. Phase-1-Design
Basic Procedure
The geotechnical design, as part of the tunnel design, serves as a basis for approval procedures, the tender documents
(determination of excavation classes and their distribution), and the determination of the excavation and support
methods used on site .
The flow chart (Fig.. 2.3) shows the basic procedure, consisting of 5 general steps, to develop the geotechnical
design, beginning with the determination of the rock mass types and ending with the definition of excavation classes.
The five steps, which have to be followed, include:
Step 1 Determination of Rock Mass Types
The first step starts with a description of the basic geologic architecture and proceeds by defining geotechnically
relevant key parameters for each ground type. The key parameters, values and distributions are determined from
available information and/or estimated with engineering and geological judgment; values are constantly updated
as pertinent information is obtained. Rock Mass Types (RMT) are then defined according to their key parameters.
The number of Rock Mass Types elaborated depends on the project specific geological conditions and on the stage
of the design process.
Step 2 Determination of Rock Mass Behavior Types (BT)
The second step involves evaluating the potential rock mass behaviors considering each rock mass type and local
influencing factors, including the relative orientation of relevant discontinuities to the excavation, ground water
conditions, stress situation, etc. This process results in the definition of project specific Behavior Types.
The rock mass behavior has to be evaluated for the full cross sectional area without considering any modifications
including the excavation method or sequence and support or other auxiliary measures.
The rock mass behavior types form the basis for determining the excavation and support methods as well as assist
in evaluating monitoring data during the excavation.
Step 3 Determination of the excavation and support
Based on the defined project specific behavior types, different excavation and support measures are evaluated and
acceptable methods determined.
The System Behavior is a result of the interaction between the rock mass behavior and the selected excavation
and support schemes. The evaluated System Behavior has to be compared with the defined requirements. If the
system behavior does not comply with the requirements, the excavation and/or support scheme has to be modified
until compliance is obtained.
Once the acceptable excavation and support methods have been determined, both risk and economic analyses
should be performed to allow appropriate assessments during the tender process.

40 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 2.34: Schematic procedure of the geotechnical design

Step 4 Geotechnical report-baseline construction plan

Based on steps 1 through 3 the alignment is divided into homogeneous regions with similar excavation and
support requirements. The baseline construction plan indicates the excavation and support methods available for
each region, and contains limits and criteria for possible variations or modifications on site.

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 41

This is the final step in the geotechnical design process. All possible geological conditions should be addressed with
a defined range of excavation and support methods as well as the probability or likely hood of occurrence.
Step 5 Determination of excavation classes
In the final step of the design process the geotechnical design must be transformed into a cost and time estimate
for the tender process. Excavation Classes are defined based on the evaluation of the excavation and support
measures. The excavation classes form a basis for compensation clauses in the tender documents. In Austria the
evaluation of excavation classes is based on the regulations in ONORM B2203-1. At other places the local or agreed
regulations should be used.
The distribution of the expected behavior types and the excavation classes along the alignment of the underground
structure provides the basis for establishing the bid price during tender and the bill of quantities during project
iv) Detailed Assessment
a) Determination of Rock Mass Types

A Rock Mass Type is defined as a geotechnically relevant rock mass volume, including discontinuities and
tectonic structures, which is similar with respect to following properties
- in rock: rock type, mineral composition, strength (intact rock rock mass), rock- and rock mass conditions,
types of discontinuities, discontinuity properties, hydraulic properties
- in soil: grain size distribution, density, mineral composition, parameters of the soil components, matrix
parameters, water content and hydraulic properties
See Table 2.1 for key Parameters in Basic Rock Types.

Different Rock Mass Types have different characteristic parameters that influence their mechanical behavior.
To determine different rock mass types relevant key parameters have to be evaluated and defined. Rock
masses with similar combinations of relevant parameters are distinguished as one Rock Mass Type.

The definitions of the Rock Mass Types have to be based on the current knowledge in each project stage,
considering their importance for the successful completion of the project. The number of defined Rock
Mass Types is project specific and depends on the design phase as well as on the complexity of the geological
conditions in the project area. In general, in early design phases, a rough discrimination will be sufficient,
with increased information in subsequent design phases the distinction between the single Rock Mass Types
will be, and has to be more precise.

The final task in this step is to assign the Rock Mass Types along the alignment.

- Selected key parameters describe the geotechnically relevant properties of the rock mass. Table 2.1 is
intended to provide assistance for the selection of the relevant parameters for different rock types.
Depending on project specific boundary conditions, weighting of the parameters may be required. In
any case it has to be checked if the selected parameters are sufficient to adequately describe the rock
mass properties.
- The determination of the various parameters shall be based on local standards and regulations. The
reasons for the use of other standards or procedures have to be clearly explained.
- Identical lithological types with significantly different discontinuity and/or intact rock properties have to
be specified as different Rock Mass Types if this difference results in a different behavior type when
considering the variation in influencing parameters.

42 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Table 2.1: Example of selected key parameters for different general rock types

- Different key parameters may be required depending on the type and use of the underground structure.
The number of parameters used for the definition of the Rock Mass Types and their mode of classification
can change as the project progresses.

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 43

- Collection of the relevant geotechnical parameters and influencing factors is done preferably during the
preliminary design. Investigations during the tender design should concentrate on reducing the uncertainty
or risk in geotechnically critical areas.
- Simple rating methods can be used in early project phases (feasibility study, preliminary design). Frequently
in these phases parameters from literature or previous experience have to be used due to lack of data
from the project area.
- Empirical and numerical methods, as well as in situ tests may be used in later project phases (project
approval, tender design) for the determination of the properties of a representative rock mass volume.
- Rock mass strength, deformation characteristics, hydraulic properties, as well as specific properties (for
example pronounced anisotropy, low friction of discontinuities, time dependent behavior, intercalation
of other rock types, etc.) have to be evaluated and shown in the documents.

b) Determination of Rock Mass Behavior Types

The rock mass behavior is determined for each rock mass type by evaluating the effect of the influencing
factors on the response of the rock mass with the full excavation geometry. First the orientation of relevant
discontinuity sets relative to the axis of the underground structure must be determined; the appropriate
stress conditions defined, as well as the local ground water conditions for single homogeneous sections
along the alignment. After assigning all relevant properties and influencing factors to each section, the rock
mass behavior (reaction to the excavation) can be evaluated for each section of the underground structure.
The expected rock mass behavior is then categorized into the general types listed in Table 2.2, and the
distribution along the alignment determined.

The Rock Mass Behavior Types form the basis for the design of the excavation sequence and appropriate

- An unsupported and indefinitely long cavity has to be assumed When considering long underground
structures (tunnels). Sequential excavation steps are not considered in this phase. All construction
measures (excavation and support, as well as auxiliary measures) shall be derived from the determined
rock mass behavior determined in a consistent manner.
- For underground structures with a limited length (portals, caverns, lay-bys, etc.) the evaluation should
consider the entire length and geometry.
- The following influencing factors are usually considered for the evaluation of the Rock Mass Behavior:
a) Rock Mass Type (RMT)
b) Virgin stress conditions
c) Shape, size, and location of the underground structure
d) Excavation method
e) Relative orientation of the underground structure and discontinuities as a basis for kinematical
analyses, and the influence of the rock mass structure on the stress redistribution
f) Ground water, seepage force, hydraulic head
For the determination of the rock mass behavior the following evaluations are recommended:
g) Kinematics: Kinematical analyses for the determination of discontinuity controlled overbreak and
sliding of wedges

44 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Methods: Key Block Theory , analyses using stereographic projection
h) Rock mass utilization: evaluation of the ratio between the strength of the rock mass and the spatial
and transient stress situation in the vicinity of the underground opening.
Methods: analytical and numerical methods
i) Time dependent effects: evaluation of creeping, swelling
j) Failure mechanisms: possible failure mechanisms of the rock mass have to be analyzed and described
at least qualitatively (for example: spalling, shearing along discontinuities as result of stress release,
shear failure, etc.)
Methods: model tests, analytical analyses, numerical analyses, which allow the modeling of discrete
failure planes, case histories, which are backed up by measurement results.
- Analytical and/or numerical methods are to be used, which provide appropriate modeling methods for
the characteristics of the rock mass types under evaluation under the given boundary conditions.
- The Rock Mass Behavior Types resulting from the analyses have to be assigned to one of the general
categories listed in Table 2.2. In case more than one Behavior Type is identified in one of the general
categories, sub types have to be assigned (for example 2/1, 2/2 for a rock mass with a different potential
for overbreak with different combinations of joint sets or orientations)
Behavior Type (BT)

Description of potential failure modes/mechanisms during excavation of the

unsupported rock mass


Stable rock mass with the potential of small local gravity induced falling or sliding
of blocks

Stable with the potential of Deep reaching. discontinuity controlled, gravity induced falling and sliding of
discontinuity controlled
blocks, occasional local shear failure
block fall

Shallow shear failure

Shallow stress induced shear failures in combination with discontinuity and gravity
controlled failure of the rock mass.

Deep seated shear failure

Deep seated stress induced shear failures and large deformation

Rock burst

Sudden and violent failure of the rock mass, caused by highly stressed brittle
rocks and the rapid release of accumulated strain energy

Buckling failure

Buckling of rocks with a narrowly spaced discontinuity set, frequently associated

with shear failure

Shear failure under low

confining pressure

Potential for excessive overbreak and progressive shear failure with the
development chimney type failure, caused mainly by a deficiency of side pressure

Ravelling ground

Flow of cohesionless dry or moist, intensely fractured rocks or soil

Flowing ground

Flow of intensely fractured rocks or soil with high water content

10 Swelling

Time dependent volume increase of the rock mass caused by physical-chemical

reaction of rock and water in combination with stress relief, leading to inward
movement of the tunnel perimeter

11 Heterogeneous rock mass Rapid variations of stresses and deformations, caused by block-in-matrix rock
with frequently changing
situation of a tectonic mlange (brittle fault zone)
deformation characteristics
Table 1.2: General categories of Rock Mass Behavior Types

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 45

c) Records

Each Rock Mass Behavior Type has to be described sufficiently. The following list represents the minimum
- Sketch of the expected rock mass structure
- Rock Mass Type(s)
- Orientation of relevant discontinuities relative to the underground structure
- Rock mass strength/utilization
- Ground water, both quantities and influence on rock mass behavior
- Rock mass behavior (behavior during excavation, face stability, type of failure mechanism, long term
behavior) with sketches of expected failure mechanisms
- Displacements, estimate of magnitude, orientation, and development over time

In case more than one Behavior Type is determined in one general category, the delimiting criteria for the
sub types can be:
- Rock Mass Type
- Rock mass structure
- Ground water
- Kinematics, failure mode
- Magnitude and time dependent development of displacements

d) Determination of excavation and support

After the Rock Mass Types and the Behavior Types have been determined, appropriate construction methods
(excavation sequence, separation of faces, support methods, and auxiliary measures if required) are
determined. The following step evaluates the System Behavior (representing the interaction between the
rock mass behavior and construction measures), which is then compared to the design requirements.

Influencing factors for the System Behavior are:

- Rock Mass Behavior Type
- Shape and size of underground opening, considering intermediate construction steps
- Spatial and timely construction sequence
- Time dependent properties of the rock mass and support elements, if relevant
- Support elements, their place and time of installation

- The analysis methods depend on the boundary conditions of the underground structure investigated.
Basically the following methods for analysis of the System Behavior are applicable:

Analytical methods


Numerical methods


Comparative studies, based on experience from previous similar projects

- The variability of the influencing factors, as well as the influence of the construction on the environment
has to be considered.

46 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

- Analysis and Proofs: The system behavior shall be confirmed by analyses and compared with the design
requirements. The analysis of the system behavior shall decide:
a) The stability of all construction stages.
b) The compliance with environmental requirements (surface settlements, vibrations ground water
disturbance, etc.)
c) that displacements are within defined limits (critical strain, serviceability, compatibility)

e) Determination of excavation classes

After the final determination of all construction related measures related to the rock mass behavior,
excavation classes must be determined. In Austria this is according to ONORM B2203-1. The excavation
classes by definition are required to specify the underground work, enable a cost estimate, and provide the
basis for compensation. The two parameters, the round length and a support rating (normalized support
quantity value) define the excavation classes.

An excavation class may be assigned to more than one Behavior Type, as the same measures can be
appropriate for different rock mass behavior types. On the other hand it may be required to design more
than one excavation class for one Behavior Type, in case the variation of properties requires a wider range
of support measures. Preferably in such cases separate Behavior Types should be defined, with clear limiting
criteria (for example range of displacements, volume of expected overbreak, etc.). However, if one Behavior
type requires different excavation classes depending on local influencing factors then the criteria should be
reevaluated and new behavior type determined with clear limiting criteria (for example the expected range
of displacements, volume or location of expected overbreak, etc.

To establish the bill of quantities a prediction of the distribution of excavation classes is required. This
distribution has to be established for the most probable distribution of Behavior Types, and should also
show the likely variations of excavation classes resulting from the distribution (variation, spread) of
influencing factors. When establishing the distribution of excavation classes along the alignment the
heterogeneity of the rock mass has to be considered. In very heterogeneous ground, frequently changing
the excavation and support methods in many cases will be technically and economically unfeasible.

f) Geotechnical Report

The results of the geotechnical design have to be summarized in a Geotechnical Report. In this report, the
single steps outlined in this guideline have to be shown in a way to allow a review of the decisions taken.

The individual reports submitted by the various expert teams involved in the project form the basis for the
Geotechnical Report. Experts, geotechnical engineers and the tunnel designer should prepare the report in
a joint effort.

Contents of the Geotechnical Report

- A summary of the results of geological and geotechnical investigations, and the interpretation of the
- A description of the Rock Mass Types and the associated key parameters
- A description of the Rock Mass Behavior Types, the relevant influencing factors, the analyses performed,
and the geotechnical model on which the BT is based
- A report on the determination of excavation and support, relevant scenarios considered, analyses applied,
and results

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 47

- The baseline construction plan
- Detailed specifications to the Baseline construction plan (system behavior, measures to be determined
on site, warning criteria and limits, etc.)
- Report on the determination of excavation classes, their distribution along the alignment
Contents of the Baseline Construction Plan
The baseline construction plan summarizes the geotechnical design and should contain following information:
- Geological model with distribution of Rock Mass Types and Behavior Types in a longitudinal section
- Sections, where specific requirements for construction have to be observed
- Fixed excavation and support types (round length, excavation sequence, overexcavation, invert distance,
support quality and quantity, ground improvements, etc.)
- List of measures to be determined on site (support ahead of the face, face support, ground improvement,
drainage, etc.)
- Description of System Behavior (behavior during excavation, deformation characteristics, utilization of
supports, etc.)
- Warning criteria and levels, as well as remedial measures according to the safety management plan

2.3.4 NATM Process on site

The simplified steps of an underground transition created with NATM are shown below.
Step #1
Cutting a length of tunnel,with a roadheader/
Excavator/Drill &Blast

48 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Applying layer of shotcrete on reinforcement
mesh and thereafter Rockblt

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 49

Primary lining applied to whole cavity, which
remains under observation.

Final lining applied.

Completed Tunnel

50 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel


Appointment of the Detailed Design and Construction Supervision Consultant (DDC)

A New Initiative:

2.4.1 The detailed design and construction of the new Rail line project in Pir Panjal range of the Himalayas (a
relatively young Geological Formation) was a big challenge for Engineers. It is well known that Himalayan
geology is complex full of frequently changing formation and surprises. Folds, thrust zones and Faults are
common. The strata comprises Fluvioglacial deposits, Limestone , Quartzite , Slate and Tuff , Volcanic traps
and bands of Shale, Sandstone and Limestone. The geology along the chosen alignment comprises rocks
with unconfined compressive strength ranging between 60MPa to 140 MPa, and at places laden with
considerable amount of trapped water.
2.4.2 All Underground works are prone to unforeseen problems. Geological and Geotechnical investigations can
only provide some clues to these problem but their gravity can best understood only when encountered. In
Pir-Panjal tunnel the defined alignment shows it commencing in soft ground with low overburden at each
end. This low cover was due to the nallahs flowing over the tunnel alignment. Both nallahs are perennial in
nature and are situated at tunnel meters 220 and 442 at its North and South ends respectively. The tunnel
alignment passes under populated villages, NH-1A, and an Aquifer with considerable charge of water. These
make the construction more difficult.
2.4.3 It is also to be noted that the region falls in seismic Zone-V of the country ,which experiences severe tectonic
movement and seismicity.
2.4.4 Besides the unpredictable geology, the terrain, the mode of communication and the climatic conditions
impose further challenges in the construction of the countrys longest railway/transportation tunnel. It was
almost a dream to construct this Tunnel which would be open a marvel of civil engineering. National Highway
NH 1A is the only link between Jammu and Srinagar, the winter and summer capitals of the state of Jammu
& Kashmir. Landslides close this Highway frequently during the snows and also the rainy season. This cuts off
road communication the only available economical mode of communication between the two capitals.
2.4.5 The clear objective of the Indian Railways is to establish a dependable all weather rail transportation in the
state of Jammu and Kashmir and connect it with the rail network in the rest of the country.
2.4.6 The in house knowledge and expertise available in this field within the Railways was very limited and
inadequate to meet the requirements of design of the tunnel of this magnitude. The tunnel had to be designed
and constructed catering for ventilation and disaster safety aspects. Considering these factors, it was desirable
to engage the services of a consultant who would design the tunnel system as a whole, together with the
construction methodology, also rendering the technical know-how during the process of construction through
the variable strata conditions.
2.4.7 Keeping the above requirements in view, the notice for expression of interest for design of this tunnel was
issued, inviting applications from different firms agencies, who were interested in associating themselves
with the design and construction supervision of this tunnel.
2.4.8 In response of NIT for this work, 25 firms/consultants showed interest, evaluation and selection of Consultant
for this complex and highly specialized assignment was done on QCBS method (quality and cost based system).
In the evaluation, 80% weight age was given to the technical competence of the consultant.

2.5 Main Deliverables Required from DDC

2.5.1 The detailed design and construction supervision consultant (DDC) required to prepare detailed engineering
documentation required for actual implementation of work In summary, the DDC had to :

Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 51

(i) Develop design criteria: The consultant shall prepare comprehensive design criteria that achieve the
objectives of the Project which had to deal with the vagaries of the varying geology coupled with soft
ground and high overburden and trapped water formations.
. The design criteria was to be prepared and presented in such a way that these could be readily applied by
the DDC and any other design consultant (such as the one that was to be engaged under a design and
construct contract). The design criteria has to include all requisite and incumbent assumptions regarding
loads imposed, deformations expected and to be accounted for in the design in a way that the proposed
method could deal with the varying geology and other existing conditions.
(ii) Prepare schematic designs for all elements of the Project, Notwithstanding any earlier feasibility studies,
the DDC was required to develop the relevant outline designs for a number of different options for the
main Tunnel, the Access drive inside the tunnel, the Shaft, the approach roads and, if appropriate, the
slope protection works to enable options to be objectively compared against each other. Each option had
to developed in sufficient detail to demonstrate that the project objectives and design criteria had been
complied with and to enable estimate the preliminary construction costs to enable prepare the construction
program. The DDC had then to formulate an objective method for comparing the options in order to select
the design of the preferred scheme.
(iii) Formulate the construction methodology, construction sequences and the construction program.
(iv) Design the Tunnel ventilation system during construction and during subsequent service
(v) Design the Drainage system as appropriate during and after construction
(vi) Define the scope and requirement of safety and disaster management
(vii) Detailed planning;-The DDC was required to prepare a program for all aspects of the project implementation,
including for the activities within the DDCs scope of services and those that were to be undertaken by
others concerned. This was to be referred to as the project program. This program had to reflect the agreed
procurement strategy and Scheme Designs for all elements of the Project. It had to be achievable and
accompanied by a commentary which had to identify options and alternative scenarios where ever
(viii) Define requirements for any further investigations or tests, Additional studies prior to and during the detailed
design phase (expected to be needed) to provide important information that would reduce any uncertainty
that would be associated with the technical, and commercial aspects of the Project. The DDC had to identify
the extent of the above studies and any other studies considered appropriate which would lead to the
overall objective of reducing all risks to acceptable levels. As part of this undertaking the DDC had to define
in detail where and if appropriate how the additional studies would be executed and what the objectives of
the studies would be.
(ix) Prepare tender documents for all elements of the Project. The DDC was required to prepare comprehensive
detailed technical specifications, setting out the objectives of the requisite studies, the required deliverables
and the information that would be provided by the DDC to form part of the studies. These technical
specifications, where appropriate, had to set out the minimum requirements for tests e.g. scale, duration,
sample type, etc.
(x) Assist with the prequalification and appointment of contractors who would be responsible for the
construction of this long Tunnel forming part of the Construction of Udhampur Srinagar Baramulla
Broad Gauge Rail Link

52 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

2.6 Salient Features of Pir Panjal Tunnel










10.960 Km



11.215 Km


10Aug 2005


30 July 2005

WIDTH OF TUNNEL AT 2.167 M above rail level

8.394 m

FINISHED WIDTH At rail level

7.331 m

FINISHED HIGHT Above rail Level

6.629 m


48 m2


26 m













1713.15 m


1756.22 m


1771.479 m at CH 159+124


100 KmPh




1 IN 100





1676 mm





Tunnelling Philosophy An Engineering Perspective 53

Fig. 2.35: Cross section of Pir Panjal Tunnel

54 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel


Exploring The Unknown

3.1 Geological And Geotechnical Investigations

3.1.1 These investigations are the key to tunneling with comprehensiveness that urges well for reliability and
simplicity that permit convenient repetition of procedures and support-systems during construction.
Knowledge of ground conditions plays a key role in choosing the optimized construction technique which
ultimately leads to successful completion of the Project. It is important to realize that the ability to influence
the project outcome (in terms of cost and schedule) is easier only through proper site investigations.
3.1.2 However, it is worth mentioning here that no matter how much of the ground we test in the preliminary site
investigation, how many bore hole cores we test in the laboratory, even then we can test only a small portion
of the total strata affected by the construction of the Tunnel.
3.1.3 Preliminary site investigations only help in making merely an informed decision but investigations conducted
during construction and the continuous measurements made during construction are essential to compare
the actual with the data anticipated from the preliminary site investigations. It is important to realize that
the preliminary site investigations only help in closing-in on the ground model that develops and evolves as
the project progresses.
3.1.4 Site investigation is defined as the overall investigation of sites associated with tunnel construction including
the overhead and subsurface strata investigation. The aim of site investigation is to produce a full three
dimensional model of the site including the overhead and the subsurface strata. This can assist in guessing
the associated risk involved in the tunneling work. The risk can then be assessed and its mitigation attempted
using the appropriate construction technique.
3.1.5 The cost involved in carrying out appropriate site investigation can range between 1% to 3% of total the cost
of the Tunnel Project. It is important to use this money wisely to enable encounter the risks likely to be faced
during the actual construction.
3.1.6 In the subsurface works pre- and post-construction investigations play important roles in planning, designing,
and in the actual construction work. Tunnel construction is governed by the ground through which it is to
penetrate and hence overhead and subsurface site investigations are vital to obtain the requisite ground
characteristics the geotechnical and hydrological parameters. Hidden Geology and Hydrology not only
influence the cost of the project but also the completion time, the potential in service behavior of the
structure and in deciding the long term maintenance strategies and procedures. The Geology of the area can
affect the alignment of the railway line in hilly terrain. Hence a serious combined effort is necessary from all
parties that are involved in planning, designing and construction.

Exploring The Unknown 55

3.1.7 Geology of the strata to be tunneled through plays significant role in the planning and construction of the
tunnel. Subsurface work can pose formidable, if not impossible challenges to the geotechnical design and
construction teams.
3.1.8 In this chapter an attempt is made to explain the importance of geological and geotechnical investigations
that were required in planning, designing and constructing the Pir-Panjal Railway Tunnel. It emphasizes on
overall approach and the flexible rules set out for investigation in the complex geological conditions. Great
care had to be taken in the geological and geotechnical investigations called for in the construction of this
10.960 Km long Pir-Panjal tunnel. The Tunnel construction schedule necessitated construction of an Access
Tunnel and Shaft for creating additional faces (fronts) for taking up the Tunnel excavation. This tunnel is for
a single track Broad Gauge Railway line with approximately 3m wide side service road in the west side of the
tunnel. It is a straight tunnel aligned nearly in N-S direction. It has a maximum overburden of 1.2 Km and
minimum overburden as low as 10m.

3.2 Importance of Investigations Required for The Construction of Tunnel

3.2.1 Geology of the area affects almost every major decision that must be taken in the planning, design, and
construction of a tunnel. Geology dictates the cost of the project and behavior of the structure. Indeed
geology and hydrology of the area in the tunnel construction dominantly effects nearly all aspects of planning,
design, construction and even the subsequent maintenance work.
3.2.2 In view of rather complex geology and surface conditions in the Pir-Panjal range, our approach had to be
very flexible and yet elaborate. This definitely helped in deciding the support systems in a way that lead to
limited over-breaks in the excavation, less risk of collapse and ultimately prevented any major incidents. This
helped in optimizing construction time and cost. Geological and geotechnical investigations in complex
geological ambience can be divided in three phases, namely:- 1) investigations required during fixing of
alignment, 2) investigations required before detailed design and tendering and 3) investigations required
during construction.
3.2.3 Himalayas present a rather young folded mountain range whose geology is complex and rapidly changing.
Detailed geological and geotechnical investigations of the project area were carried out and a surface map of
the project area 500m either side of the alignment was developed together with tectonic and drainage map.
On the basis of these maps limited seismic surveys were conducted in the soft ground near the portals to
know more about the effects of the low overburden strata there.
3.2.4 Due to steep slopes, accessibility along the tunnel alignment was severely limited to allow extensive
geotechnical investigations along the alignment. Geo-technical explorations were carried out by drilling 76mm
dia cores and testing them. More deep bore geotechnical investigations were done in an attempt to understand
the medium to be tunneled through, to establish various bedding planes and to verify the geological profile
based on the captured surface geological data. M/s RITES and M/s Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited
(MECL) were engaged for drilling bore holes varying in depth from 30m to 640m. Majority of these extended
below the formation level of the tunnel. Deep bore holes were drilled by wire line method hence were
susceptible to deviate from direction and some times the results could well be misleading. Despite these
limitations, a fairly good knowledge of the rocks that were likely to be encountered, was obtained from
initial investigation. A total of 14 bore holes were drilled in all.
3.2.5 A significant variation was expected between the predicted geology and the actual geology owing to presence
of weathering in the rock under low rock cover and presence of deep seated faults and folds. Probe holes
were drilled during the progress of the Tunnel work in entire length. These proves very useful in obtaining
the required Geological and Geotechnical inputs. Based on the results of these probe holes and the geology
actually encountered, geological predictions were made for the approaching face. This helped in deciding

56 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

the support system in advance. In addition to probe holes, Seismic prediction method at the face was also
used to know the geology ahead, but this method was not found very useful on account of rapidly changing

3.3 Why these Investigations are Necessary?

These are necessary in order to:
3.3.1 Establish at least the general nature, the pattern and some properties and behavior of the rock/soil mass,
3.3.2 Assess the the most probable conditions and the most unfavourable conceivable deviations from these
conditions which play a major role in the assessment of geology.
3.3.3 Establish a design based on a workable hypothesis regarding the behavior anticipated under the most probable
of conditions.
3.3.4 Estimate the quantities likely to be executed on the basis of the working hypothesis as construction proceeds.
3.3.5 Estimate the quantities under the most unfavourable conditions.
3.3.6 Selection in advance of any action on or modification of the design for every foreseeable (significant) deviation
of the observable findings vis--vis those predicted on the basis of the working hypothesis.
3.3.7 Modify design to suit actual site conditions.

3.4 Classification of Investigations

3.4.1 The required investigations can be classified as follows:

Preliminary investigations,

ii) Design investigations and

iii) Control investigations.

i) Preliminary Investigations
Investigations needed to access general suitability of the site and compare different alignments with due consideration
of third party.

ii) Design Investigations

Investigations needed to provide information required for design of tunnel including its construction methodology.

iii) Control Investigations

Investigations required during construction or execution of the project for checking and alerting against the ground
characteristics and ground water condition.
3.4.2 A typical site investigation comprises following four key elements:

i) Desk Study:
Collection and review of the existing information pertinent to the site, including its geological map, its old and new
topographical maps, various aerial photographs and local records. It should also provide information to assist in the
planning of subsequent site investigations (usually regarding the location, the depth and the type of bore holes).

Exploring The Unknown 57

ii) Site reconnaissance walk-over survey:

In tunneling projects, it is rarely possible to walk over the entire length of the proposed tunnel alignment, but it
should be attempted as it can provide useful and detailed knowledge of site for future planning. This is particularly
important when planning any intrusive ground investigation and in the location of portal/adit/shaft.
It is important to record site photographs with sketches and notes and compare these with desk study, to elaborate
the data.

iii) Ground investigations:

A ground investigation is based on desk study and site reconnaissance. Ground investigation is conducted in order
to explore the design parameters and includes assessment of:
a) The strength of ground, its stability and various loads expected on the lining.
b) Modulus values such as the Youngs modulus (E) to assess how much the ground will deform with changes
in stress.
c) Sub-aqueous condition and ground permeability since these can influence stability of the medium and
make tunnel construction difficult.
d) The hydraulic regime which can be extremely important in underground construction and the investigation
includes determining the ground level(s), water pressures, pressure of any confined aquifers, and the water
e) Other aspects include determining the swelling properties of clays, cavities (karsts) and abrasiveness
3.4.3 Assessment of the nature and engineering properties of the sub-strata is done by field investigations by
following two methods:i) Non-intrusive exploration - by field in-situ testing used for determining additional information regarding substrata.
This includes geophysical method to obtain information over relatively large area of subsurface ground and hence
to decide on the location of bore holes and provide information about the nature and variability of sub surface
between the bore holes.
Some of important Geophysical methods are:
a) The Seismic refraction method
b) The Electrical resistivity method
ii) Intrusive exploration - soil and rock sampling for visual and lab testing (for Primary stress condition) by:
a) In situ Sampling
b) In situ Testing:

Standard Penetration Test;

Cone Penetration Test;

Determination of principal in situ stress (using hydraulic fracturing prior to construction);

Plate Load Test;

c) Laboratory Tests:

Uniaxial test

Triaxial test

58 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

3.5 Approach to Carrying out the Investigations

Kashmir Valley is situated between the two arms of high and rugged mountain ranges: Dhauladhar/Pir-Panjal Range
of middle Himalayas in the South West and Zanskar Range or Great Himalayan Range in the North East. Pir-Panjal
range is part of lesser Himalayas. The general trend of Pir-Panjal mountain range and strike direction of bedding is
NW SE. Folding and faulting is very common in the area. This makes the geology of the area complex. The process
of denudation and weathering make the situation even more complex. Presence of glaciers in the past has also
distorted the litho-sequence. All the structure disorder and the actions of weather, water, and vegetation make the
subterranean zone very complex. Looking to these complexities, an elaborate geological and geotechnical
investigation was planned
For the Pir-Panjal tunnel, geological investigation was carried out in two stages:

Planning and Design Stage:
For alignment fixing, planning the tunnel work, designing, finalizing the construction methodology and the
cost estimation

Construction Stage:
For excavation for the Tunnel

3.6 Investigation during Planning and Design Stage

3.6.1 Surface Mapping
i) Surface mapping in the Pir-Panjal area was done to 1:25000 scale by Geological Survey of India. Based on this map
and with the help of satellite data, a Geological map of the area was generated. This map shows the track of
lineament and master joints. This map was verified by a few traverses taken in the involved area.

Fig. 3.1: South Portal Pir-Panjal Railway Tunnel

Exploring The Unknown 59

ii) In March, 2004 a team of geologists conducted engineering mapping of the area of approximately 1.0 Km wide
corridor along the alignment of tunnel, to a scale of 1:1000. Typical samples of rocks were collected. Large number
of structural data was recorded during field mapping. This data was used for structural analysis of the area. It was
observed that the basic tectonic setting of Pir-Panjal range in the area of tunnel alignment is dominated by a highly
folded structure:

Fig. 3.2: Map based on surfacing maping

3.6.2 Geological Setting along the Pir-Panjal Tunnel

This is indicated below in a Tabular form:
Chainage Km

Geological Description


Clayey silt and gravel - silt intercalation.


Quartzites and shales usually dipping to northeast at 30 to 40 degrees. Steeper layers exist near fold
cores and faults. Fold axis strike sub-horizontal northwest-southeast, dipping slightly towards
southeast. Faulting usually rectangular to folding and schistose, parallel to folding and in some cases
parallel to schistosity. The folding is brittle deformation. A strongly fractured zone with numerous
changes of schistosity along a series of brittle folds results in a repeated switching between northeast
and southwest dipping between 154.250 and 154.700.


Agglomeratic slates usually dipping to northeast at 30 to 40 degrees. Steeper layers due to folding.
Faults as before, but with increase of structures parallel to schistosity. Repetition of tuff and
conglomerate layers due to folding around agglomeratic shales.


Panjal Trap, dipping steeply towards southwest. In outcrops south of Panjal Range the dip direction
is northeast at 40 to 50 degrees. North of Panjal Range the dip direction is southwest again at 40 to
50 degrees. The transition zone must be the Panjal Range itself. Faulting parallel to schistosity and as


Quartzites, shales and thin limestone layers dip steeply to moderately into southwestern direction.
Faulting sub-parallel and parallel to schistosity, some rectangular faults and a few west-east bearing


Limestone section with a tectonic intercalation of a 500 m thick quartzite-sandstone sequence.

Dipping steeply to moderately into southwestern direction. Change of dipping (usually between 35
and 65 degrees) due to large scale folding. Predominance of parallel to schistosity and rectangular
faults or fault zones.


Quartzites with minor shale, occasionally with small limestone and volcanic intersections, dipping
to southeastern direction.


Clayey silt and gravel silt intercalation.

60 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

3.6.3 Seismic Survey

Seismic Refraction profiles were performed along and across the tunnel alignment in the soft ground area near
portals. These profiles indicate the overburden of weathered rock with fluvio-glacial deposits and a layer dominated
by gravel with silt and sand matrix. A distinct border is shown between the weathered and jointed rock mass and
the hard rock. The latter was encountered only at the lowest levels of profiles.

3.6.4 Bore Hole


A total of 14 bore holes were drilled in 2 different phases along the alignment of the tunnel. The total
length of the drilling was 3800m approximately. In the first phase, 6 bore holes in the wide vicinity of the
portal area were drilled. These bore holes were not more than 30m deep. These bores were used for fixing
the alignment and knowing the geological setting and geotechnical situation near the portal and in soft
ground area. These bores were also used to verify the seismic report generated earlier.

ii) In the second phase, 8 bore holes were drilled in close proximity of the tunnel alignment. These bores were
deep, depth ranging from 150m to 640m. The data of these bores was used for establishing the geology at
the tunnel formation level. The data was also used in the detail design of the tunnel.

Fig. 3.3: Bore Hole No. - B-3/80, Chanage - 157+200, Depth - 450.50 - 454.50 Rock Andesite,
Core Length - 3.0 m, Bore Hole Length 640 m.

Exploring The Unknown 61

iii) Large number of lab and field tests were conducted in the bore holes and on the extracted samples. Point
Load Test, Permeability Test, SPT, and camera tests down the holes were performed in the field. Abrasion
Test, UCS, Triaxial Tests, Brazilan Tests, petrography, sieve analysis, etc., were conducted in the laboratory.
On the basis of data so collected the rock mass was classified. All this lead to better design with the ultimate
aim of better construction.

Fig. 3.4: Geological section of Pir Panjal Tunnel generated on the basis of the collected design date

3.7 Investigation During Construction Stage

3.7.1 Construction of Pir-Panjal tunnel during the last one and half years progressed at an average rate of 100m
per month per face.
3.7.2 During construction, the work face mapping and the field mapping, on mapping scales of 1:100 and 1:500,
respectively, are conducted in the tunnel and along the tunnel alignment. This help in understanding the
geology of the medium being tunneled through more accurately as it is correlated with the actual geology of
the excavated strata. Advance probing by drilling from the face along the alignment is carried out to know
the geology of the area ahead. Generally 20m long probe-holes with 5m overlaps are drilled, in the presence
of experienced geologist. These horizontal holes help to obtain information about the lithology ahead of
tunnel face, the water bearing zones, the extents of faulted strata, the strength of the rock, weathering
grade of lithology, and approximate condition and extent of the fracture condition of the rock mass. This
helps in defining the rock supports well in advance. It also helps in preparing more accurately the geological
section anticipated ahead of the face so that the construction team may be better prepared for the oncoming situation.

62 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 3.5: Probe Hole Record of Pir-Panjal Tunnel

Fig. 3.6: Anticipated Geology of Access Tunnel during design

Exploring The Unknown 63

Fig. 3.7: Anticipated Geology of Access Tunnel during Construction

(Redraw of rock line on the basis of Probe Holes and other data)

Fig. 3.8: Actual Geology of Access Tunnel based on the actual excavation

In some cases where overburden is less vertical bore holes are also drilled. Samples from the face-zone are tested
for UCS and Point Load Test. This data, in conjunction with the data obtained earlier is then used for any design
modification required at site by the field designer. Water samples are tested for finding the quality of water and
correlating it with the near by springs and wells. This helps in understanding the hydrology in the tunnel zone.
Tunnel Seismic Prediction (TSP) survey ( Fig.3.9) was carried out for this Tunnel. Tunnel Seismic Prediction is one of
the tools of geological investigation. Data of TSP alone can not be very useful. TSP data together with the other
collected geological data, and correlating these with the geology of the actually excavated strata can be helpful in
predicting the geology and hydrology of the tunnel. This can be very useful in a tunnel where there is a large
fluctuation of water inflow into the tunnel coupled with relatively less lithological variation.

64 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 3.9: TSP (Tunnel Seismic Prediction) Result for Pir-panjal Railway Tunnel

In soft ground portion of the tunnel alignment where water masses existed over/around the tunnel bore, moisture
content of the soil was monitored and the Moisture Tests alerted against saturation in the strata on account of the
water mass.

Exploring The Unknown 65

Fig. 3.10: Moisture Test conducted at North Portal of Pir-Panjal Tunnel under a nallah

Carrying out elaborate and flexible geological and geotechnical investigations during the construction of Pir-Panjal
tunnel proved useful in tackling the rather rapidly changing complex geology of the area and it is fair to say that it
is hence that no major untoward incident took place. Investigations during construction helped in deciding the
appropriate support system. Hence there were limited over-breaks during the excavation, ensuring less risk of
collapses. This helped in optimizing both construction time and cost. Although, geological investigations are costly
and time consuming but they are cost-effective since they help in reduction in the cost and time over-runs.

3.8 Geological Overview

Alignment between south portal and Panjal Range..

66 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Alignment between Panjal Range and north portal.

South Portal situation.

Exploring The Unknown 67

Situation at North Portal.

Rock Types
Alluvial Deposits and Slope Debris

Slope debris intercalation with alluvial deposits and loess.

68 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Slope debris intercalation with alluvial deposits and loess.


Banded silicified limestone.

Exploring The Unknown 69

Limestone with marly intercalations.

Limestone in different colours.

70 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Part of Sample PP 05 (silicified limestone near Charil).

Fossiliferous limestone near chainage Km 160.000.

Exploring The Unknown 71

Magmatic Dyke

Chaotic quartz veins predict a presence of a magmatic dyke.

72 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Situation of magmatic dyke at Tathar.

Weathering of magmatic dyke in field.

Part of Sample PP 06.

Exploring The Unknown 73


Sligthly weathered quartzite in field.

Cross bedded conglomerate and sandstone quartzite near margin to tuff.

74 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Quartzite with shallow intercalations of shale near north portal.

Part of sample PP 02. Cross bedding in quartzite.

Exploring The Unknown 75


Thinly bedded shale near access tunnel.

Thinly bedded shale near access tunnel.

76 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Agglomeratic shale as intercalation between tuff.

Part of sample PP 04: Shale bearing micas as intercalation between tuff.

Exploring The Unknown 77

Tuff, Tilloids and Conglomerates

Agglomeratic tuff.

Agglomeratic tuff.

78 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Conglomerate layer in tuff.

Part of sample PP 03: Conglomeratic section in agglomeratic slates.

Exploring The Unknown 79

Andesites and Basalts (Panjal Trap)

Mid to coarse grained quartz in fine red to green matrix.

Coarse grained quartz in fine grained green matrix.

80 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Part of sample PP 01. Medium grained andesite with coarse grained quartz.

Joint set in Andesite.

Exploring The Unknown 81


Different faults with different offsets at chainage Km 155.600.

82 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fault in Andesite (Panjal Trap).

Exploring The Unknown 83

Fault in Quartzite.


Fold in limestone at chainage Km 161.500.

84 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fold in limestone at chainage Km 162.000.


Cavernuous limestone at chainage Km 160.400.

Exploring The Unknown 85

Cavernuous limestone at chainage Km 161.400.

Cavernuous limestone at chainage Km 161.800.

86 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Dolines at chainage Km 159.600.


Verinag Spring (4.5 km offset to tunnel, Spring No. 1).

Exploring The Unknown 87

Spring at chainage Km 162.640 (Spring No. 4).

Spring at Lower Mundai (1.1 km offset to tunnel, Spring No. 2).

88 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Periodical spring at Lower Mundai (0.9 km offset to tunnel, Spring No. 3).


Putting The Dream On Paper (DESIGN)

4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 This chapter explains the Design methodology and brings out the important parameters for civil design.
4.1.2 The Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel, a part of Udhampur Srinagar Baramulla rail link project across the Pir Panjal
range, is one of the key structure on this new railway line. It is located between the proposed railway stations
Banihal (CH 151+040) in the South and Qazigund (CH 168+872) in the North.

4.1.3 Design Philosophy:


Tunnel design of Pir Panjal Tunnel was driven by the paramount philosophy of flexibility in design to deal
with rapidly varying ground conditions.

ii) Geological conditions of Himalayas is quite identical to European Alps i.e. varying geology, stress conditions,
faults/folds, high overburden, low rock mass strength etc., consequently large deformations which are
needed to be taken care in design of Pir Panjal tunnel.
iii) Although, no amount of geological/geotechnical investigations can do justice to the project of this magnitude
and hence the uncertainties ahead of face shall always remain for tunneling. Moreover, during design stage
it was felt that required geological campaigns is yet to be done, it means that large stretches of the tunnel
has to be excavated without the benefit of detailed subsurface investigations. Therefore, Tunnel design
must be capable to deal with the geotechnical uncertainties.
iv) In NATM design philosophy, this can be achieved by the sufficient number of standard excavation classes
and support modifications based on observed behavior.
v) A design life of 120 years is specified for the tunnel. In addition, keeping in view the future requirement of
electrification and to minimize maintenance requirements a semi dry tunnel was considered the best option.
Therefore, to achieve design objectives the drainage system and lining must fulfill rigid quality criteria. This
can be achieved by:
An initial support consisting shotcrete reinforced by fibres or mesh, rock bolts, lattice girders
A waterproofing membrane including protective geotextile with shotcrete smoothening base
An inner concrete lining, reinforced or un-reinforced, to provide Permanent stability
A drainage system which avoids hydrostatic water pressure built-up behind the lining

90 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

vi) Another important aspect of the tunnel has been the location of tunnel in Zone V as per IS-1893:2002.
Earth quake criteria consideration hence became important for design approach. High EQ zone implies that
the site is liable to ground shaking of intensity of IX and above on the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale.
Although Earthquake damage to subsurface structures is usually much less serious than to surface structures
because damage decreases rapidly with increasing depth. The principle of design was kept to follow the
two-level design approach to encounter earthquake influence.
The lower-level event (functional evaluation ground motion) is likely to occur during the lifetime of the
structure. The tunnel is to be designed to withstand such a motion without damage due to such a motion
so that it remains functional during and after the earthquake, and
The upper level event (safety evaluation ground motion) has low probability of occurrence during the
lifetime of the project. The tunnel must be designed to withstand such a motion without significant

4.1.4 The Main Tunnel:


The Main Tunnel is a single track railway tunnel for the operation of passenger and freight trains. On the
left side of the track, looking towards increasing chainage, is a motorable path of 3 m width which will be
used in emergency and for maintenance operations. This path is directly accessible from both portals and
from the Access Tunnel.

ii) Railway traffic through the tunnel shall comprise ten passenger and ten freight trains per day. From the
present outfit of the rolling stock of Indian Railways the trains will be moved by diesel locomotives. As the
lifetime of the tunnel is 120 years, electrification using an overhanging catenary system (OCS) and electric
locomotives is a long-term plan without a fixed time schedule. Provisions of the respective non infringement
zone valid for the electrified track in tunnels has been considered, but necessary installation will be designed
at a later stage.
iii) With the proposed final mined portal location of the Main Tunnel at CH 152+600 (south) and at CH 163+560
(north), the total tunnel length is almost 11 km (10,960 m).
iv) With the cut & cover of around 255 m on both portal, the length of Tunnel increases slightly. The tunnel is
a mountain tunnel with an average elevation of approximately 1750 m and a maximum overburden of
approximately 1100 m.
v) Except for a length of about 42.30 m at the North Portal the tunnel is completely straight and runs almost
parallel to North - South direction. The alignment of the railway tunnel crosses the National Highway No.1,
which is the only road connection between Qazigund and Banihal. The crossing is near the south portal of
the existing twin single lane high way tunnels which extend in direction from southwest to northeast. The
elevation of these tunnels is more than 450 m higher at about 2200 m and their length is approximately
2500 m.

4.1.5 Access Tunnel:


For interim access to the main tunnel being driven, a nearly 772 m long inclined access tunnel was
constructed, intersecting the main tunnel at CH 155+350 i.e. at about 2.75 km from its south portal.

ii) The portal of the access tunnel is in Tathar Village, about 100 m southwest of National Highway NH-1A. The
portal location is at an elevation of about 1811 m and the formation level at the intersection is at an
elevation of about 1741.30 m. The access tunnel was used as an intermediate access in order to accelerate
the work and shorten the construction period of the main tunnel. By this approach 2750 m length from the
South portal, including the soft ground section of 610 m from north portal were not on the critical path of

Putting The Dream On Paper (DESIGN) 91

the construction program. During operation the access tunnel shall be used for emergency and maintenance
entrance and exit. If required it can also be used for additional ventilation.

4.1.6 Access Shaft and Cross Passage:


Another intermediate access to the main Tunnel (in order to reduce the excavation from the North side)
was also provided by a 56 m deep access Shaft and an approximately 36 m long Cross Passage at a chainage
of CH 162+950. The ground elevation is nearly 1810 m and the formation level at the intersection is at El
1760 m. By the construction of the cross passage, driving of the main tunnel towards south will be rendered
independent of the 610 m long soft ground portion to the north portal. By this concept the soft ground
portion is not on the critical path and risk of delay in the soft ground tunnelling will not affect the construction
program. Access Tunnel, Access Shaft and Cross Passage and the 610 m long Main Tunnel section between
Access Shaft and North Portal were included in separate Tender Packages for early completion of the
Construction Works. By this approach more driving faces were created and construction time reduced. In
addition the risk of unforeseen delay at the difficult soft ground tunnel sections was successfully avoided.

Fig. 4.1: Project Layout

4.2 Collection of Data/Information

Consultants have reportedly used following documents /references as the base information for the design purposes.

List of documents
Document name


Report on geotechnical investigations for proposed tunnel No.8 for KATRAQAZIGUND rail link (k.m.152.610 to k.m. 163.300)

July- 2003

Detailed project report for Udhampur-Srinagar-BaramullahNew BG Rail link.

Narrative report Volume -1


Pre-construction survey for KATRA- QAZIGUND New BG railway line (ph.1)

(k.m. 30 to k.m. 50 and k.m. 142 to k.m. 168)


Report on geotechnical investigations for proposed tunnel no. 74( revised)

KATRA- QAZIGUND Rail link (k.m. 144.400 to k.m. 145.720)


92 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel


Tender Document for Construction for civil works including tunnels bridges
earthwork e.t.c. in zone iv (k.m. 142 to 152)of laole-Qazigund section of
Udhampur- Srinagar-Baramullah New BG Railway link project.


Tender Document for Construction for civil works including tunnels bridges
earthwork e.t.c. in zone iii (k.m. 134 to 142)of Laole-Qazigund section of UdhampurSrinagar-Baramullah New BG Railway link project.


Report on Geological and remote sensing studies k.m. 30 to k.m. 50 and

k.m. 142 to k.m. 164 by geological survey of India.


RITES report on Rehabilitation of Jawahar Tunnel for DGBR

May 1988

Indian railway Permanent Way Manual


10 Railway Track Formations [T.M.42]


11 UNACE - Recommendations of the multidisciplinary group of experts of safety in

tunnels (RAIL)


12 Construction of the Banihal tunnel in KashmirPublished in Bautechnik,

June 1960, no.60, pg no. 209 to 225.


13 Indian railway schedule of dimensions 1676 mm.(5 ft. 6 in.) Gauge 1939.


14 Flood estimation report for Western Himalayas (Zone VII)


15 Hand book for estimation of design discharge for railway Bridges [T.M. 50]


16 Drawings showing cross-section of Delhi Metro tunnel with rigid OCS (Five Nos.)


17 Drawings showing the general arrangement ballast less track structure (six Nos.)

2002 & 03

18 Meteorological data of Banihal and Qazigund including temperature, precipitation,

wind velocity and wind direction. INDIA METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT Srinagar.
19 Meteorological data of Banihal and Qazigund up to the year 2002 including temperature,
precipitation, wind velocity and wind direction. INDIA METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT Pune


IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED: Tender for Detailed Design Consultancy and Construction Supervision of
about 12.5 km long Railway Tunnel across Pir Panjal Range in Laole-Quazigund Section in the State of J&K


IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED: Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel - Inception Report, Feb 2004


IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED: Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel - Geotechnical Interpretative Report, May 2004


IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED: Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel Design Manual , May 2004


IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED: Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel Structural Analysis Report - Early Underground
Works-Structural Analysis General Cases- Part 1 (Access Tunnel) , May 2004


IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED: Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel Structural Analysis Report - Early Underground
Works-Structural Analysis General Cases- Part 2 (Access Shaft & Cross Passage) , May 2004


IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED: Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel Structural Analysis Report - Portal Excavation
Works-Structural Analysis & Support System of Temporary Slopes-Part1 (Access Tunnel) , May 2004


IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED: Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel Structural Analysis Report - Portal Excavation
Works-Structural Analysis & Support System of Temporary Slopes-Part 2 (North Portal), May 2004

Putting The Dream On Paper (DESIGN) 93


IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED: Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel Structural Analysis Report - Early Underground
Works-Structural Analysis General Cases- Part 3 (Main Tunnel between North Portal and Access Shaft), May

10. IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED: Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel Structural Analysis Report - Portal Excavation
Works-Structural Analysis & Support System of Temporary Slopes-Part 3 (South Portal), May 2004
11. IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED: Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel Structural Analysis Report - Underground WorksStructural Analysis General Cases- Part 4 (Main Tunnel), June 2004
12. IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED: Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel Electromechanical Design Report: Part 1
Tender Design, June 2004
13. IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED: Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel Ventilation Report: Part 1 Tender Design,
June 2004
14. IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED: Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel Maintenance Manual/Report: Part 1 - Tender
Design, June 2004
15. IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED: Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel Tunnel Safety in Operation - Stage 1: Conclusion
on Civil Design
16. IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED: Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel Health & Safety during Construction
17. Austrian Society for Geomechanics: Conventional Tunnelling - The Austrian Draft
18. FLIEGNER, E. (Juni 1960): Der Bau des Banihal Tunnels in Kashmir. In Die Bautechnik Jahrgang 37, Heft 6, S.
209- 225
19. HAZRA, P.C. & PRASARD, K.N. (1963): A Note on the Stratigraphy of the Banihal Region, Pir Panjal Range,
Kashmir. Records of Geological Survey of India, Vol.93, Part 2.
20. TIKU, A. K. & KRISHNA MURTHY, K.S. (1974): An Inspection Note on the reported Rock Falls in the Jawahar
Tunnel Jammu Srinagar Highway, Jammu & Kashmir State. Geological Survey of India, Engineering Geology
Division (West), Northern Region.
21. RITES (May 1988): Report on Detailed Investigation for Repairs and Improvement to Jawahr Tunnel on NH
1A, Jammu - Srinagar
22. RITES (May 2003): Report on Geological and Remote Sensing Studies; Geological Survey of India (including a
geological map and a tectonic map with lineaments)
23. RITES (July 2003): Report on Geotechnical Investigations for proposed Tunnel No. 80 (including a geological
longitudinal section and borelogs of 6 core drillings)

4.3 Site Topography

i) The tunnel alignment traverses through the steeply sloping, highly undulating hill slopes of the Pir Panjal Range,
which is part of the young Himalayas. Formation levels at tunnel portals are at elevations 1713.63 m (South Portal)
and 1756.70 m (North Portal). Respective ground elevations at the tunnel axis are nearly 1729.40 m and 1775.62 m.
The tunnel has a high point of elevation, 1771.47 m, at approximately two thirds of the tunnel length from its South
Portal i.e. (CH 159+124).
The minimum overburden above tunnel crown at the Portals is about 8 m in the south and 12 m in the north while
the maximum overburden is approximately 1100m. About 4 km of the tunnel length has an overburden of more
than 500 m and about 650 m of the tunnel length has an overburden of more than 1000 m.
ii) Following the longitudinal section and starting at the south portal, overburden increases gradually to about 300

94 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

m over 3 km length, then the slope increases over 1.6 km to about 15, and following to 30 towards the highest
peak at El 2890(CH 158+480) or about 1100 m overburden. The highest peak of the mountain is at about 6.50 km
from the south portal. Immediately on the north side of the peak the mountain slopes with about 30 for about 12 km, following it stretches with an overburden between 200 m and 300 m for about 2 km from where it slopes
steeply with almost 40 and finally it stretches with a shallow slope to the North Portal(Fig. 4.2).

Fig. 4.2

4.4 Alignment and Layout

4.4.1 Main Tunnel

Horizontal Alignment:
The mined tunnel section extends from CH 152+600 at the South Portal (Banihal) to CH 163+560 at the
North Portal (Qazigund) over a length of 10960 m. This length excludes the final portal sections outside of
the mined tunnel section.
Except for a length of 42.30m south of the North Portal the tunnel is straight and runs almost parallel to
North - South direction. From CH 163+517.668 the tunnel is in a transition curve of a left bend which
extends over a length of 110 m upto CH 163+627.668. The adjacent left curve has a radius of 567516 m.

ii) Vertical Alignment:

From the South Portal at Elevation 1713.63 m the vertical tunnel alignment climbs upward with a gradient
of 1 in 100 (C) for a length of 2750m, thereafter. tunnel alignment climbs upward with a gradient of 1 in
125(C) reaching the summit at CH 159+124 (Elevation 1771.479 m). Then the alignment falls at a downward

Putting The Dream On Paper (DESIGN) 95

gradient of 1 in 300 (C) to the North Portal (Elevation 1756.694 m). Around the summit, over a length of 60
m, the alignment is in a vertical curve of radius 2500 m. In total the rising gradient has a length of 6534 m
and falling gradient a length of 4426 m (Fig.4.3).

Figure 4.3

iii) Standard Cross Section of the Main Tunnel:

The main criteria for the Design of the Standard Main Tunnel Cross Section were:
a) The required dynamic clearance envelope of the rolling stock for the running track as defined in the TOR
(No-Infringement Box).
b) The required minimum width of motorable path 3.00 m at rail level.
c) The requirements for the electromechanical installations (medium and low voltage cables to be placed
in ducts).
d) Requirement of a safe placement of the water main.
e) The requirements for the permanent drainage system and connection of the side drainage to the tunnel
main drainage.
f) Construction requirements under various geological and ground water conditions.
g) A depth of 150 mm around the tunnel-arch shall be reserved for maintenance works.
iv) The overall tunnel shape follows a rounded form, rather than using straight sidewalls and an arch with a
minimum radius. With the rounded shape, zones of high stresses and associated plastification and weakening
of the ground are reduced.
v) E&M requirements require installation of 20 cables. Cables have to be separated from each other and have
to be placed away from medium voltage cables. In view of space requirement of a cable through with
separator the placement of the cables in ducts under the motorable path was preferred. In addition the
connection of the cable bundle to the niches has to be easy in the arrangement.
vi) Inner Tunnel Clearances:
To meet the above requirements the tunnel cross section was developed by adopting an inner radius of
4140 mm (inner surface of inner lining) with its centre point located at a height of 2489 mm above Rail
Level. For the tunnel side walls, the inner tunnel radius is enlarged to 5000 mm (centre points are at 2167

96 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

mm above Rail Level and 797 mm left and right of the axis respectively).
vii) Excavation Cross-section:
In accordance with the chosen method of construction (NATM), two separate tunnel lining will be installed
(primary or outer lining, and secondary or inner lining). Thickness and layout of the outer and the inner
lining depends on the rock class and the geotechnical conditions. As such the dimensions of the theoretical
excavation cross-section was developed together with the dimensions of the primary and secondary lining
and the requirements of side drainage and space requirements for installations below tunnel invert. (Fig.4.4,

Inner Clearance

Lining Type

Area (m2)

Perimeter (m)

Area (m2)

Perimeter (m)






C300 + SD





C300 + I + SD





C450 + I + SD





Legend: S Shotcrete, C Concrete, I Invert, SD Side Drainage

Table 4.1: Tunnel Dimensions

Fig. 4.4

Putting The Dream On Paper (DESIGN) 97

Fig. 4.5

viii) Main Tunnel: Particular Cross Sections:

Along the Main Tunnel, Particular Tunnel Cross Sections (Niches) have been provided to accommodate:
Medium Voltage Substations and UPS (MVS Niches),
Truck-turning bays (TT Niches) and
Maintenance substations (Maintenance Niches)
MVS and TT niches are short tunnel stubs driven perpendicular to the main tunnel axis. For installation of the
maintenance niches the tunnel cross-section was locally widened. MVS niches are short tunnel stubs of 22.20 m
length, 5.50 m height and 7.79 m width. Location of the niches depends on the ventilation arrangement and these
are situated at Km 154+100, 155+275, 157+100, 160+100, and 162+100 (5No.). The electrical niches are located in
fairly good rock conditions. Where a fault zone or a significant water ingress was encountered, the niche was
shifted by about 50 m. Power is supplied to the medium voltage substations and these were installed in Service
Buildings at both portals and in five niches (MVS niche) inside the tunnel. In each substation a medium voltage
room, two transformer rooms, and additional rooms for panels, control centre and UPS have been provided. The
layout of the substations catered for easy installation and replacement of equipment. From the substations power
is supplied to the mechanical equipment (installed in the tunnel) and to the maintenance niches.

98 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 4.6 :Plan of Medium Voltage Supply Niche

Putting The Dream On Paper (DESIGN) 99

Fig. 4.7: Section of MVS Niche

Photo 1: MVS Niche

100 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

TT niches are about 8m long, 7.79 m wide and 5.50 high, maintaining the same sectional dimensions as these of the
MVS niches. These niches have been provided at regular spacing of about 500 m centres. TT niches were so provided
that full size truck can be manoeuvred in such a way that both ways traffic can be managed on same 3 m road.
These TTNs facilitated the movement of transit mixers and extra wide dumpers during laying of BLT.

Fig. 4.8: Plan view of a Truck Turning Niche (TT Niche)

Photo 2: Truck Turning Niche

Putting The Dream On Paper (DESIGN) 101

Maintenance niches are small openings of 0.83 m depth in the tunnel side wall, 2.50 m wide and 2.20 m high. These
niches have been provided at regular spacing of about 250 m centers. Maintenance niches have been provided for
placing equipments for emergency/rescue and maintenance.

Fig. 4.9: Section of Maintenance Niche

Photo 3: Maintenance Niche

102 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

In addition to these niches, small openings are required for the access to cleaning pipes for the side drainage. The
openings and the arrangement of the cleaning pipes requires only small recesses, which have been provided in the
inner tunnel lining at regular spacing of 25m.

ix) Access Tunnel:

The access tunnel is used for removal of muck from the main tunnel drive from their intersection, going north. In
selecting the dimensions, any possible potential bottle neck in muck removal must be avoided keeping in mind the
various mucking equipments. In addition, installation of ventilation ducts, water mains, water discharge pipes,
electrical cables, etc. have to be kept in mind. Considerations have also to be kept in mind for additional ventilation
and access / exit requirement for all operations and emergencies.
The portal of the access tunnel near Tathar Village is about 100 m southwest of the NH-1A at an elevation of about
1811 m. Starting from the portal, the alignment of the access tunnel is straight and falls at a gradient of 9.7% for a
length of about 690 m, then makes a right turn and intersects the main tunnel at elevation 1741.30 m. It has a total
length of 772 m. At the curved section the gradient is 3%. A gradient of 10% can be adopted for standard tunnel
trucks but will require a well maintained road surface.
Only the straight section of about 690 m length is part of the early construction works. The remaining part is
completed by the contractor of the main tunnel.
The main design criteria of the straight access tunnel, which is about 7 m high and 8 m are:
a) Max. gradient of 10%, to avoid major problems for mucking (dumpers) during access tunnel and main
tunnel construction.
b) Required clearance envelope for muck dumpers 4.00 m (width) x 3.50 m (height).
c) Required width for supply ducts and cables (electrical power, compressed air, water main, pumping main):
0.75 m.
d) Space requirements for a ventilation duct of 2400 mm diameter, used during main tunnel excavation.
e) Required width for the installation of a muck conveyor belt used during main tunnel excavation: 2.00 m.
f) Alternatively, passage of two normal trucks as traffic frequency is more than using truck mucking only.
g) Additional passing Niches every 200 m (approximate) along the access tunnel, to provide space for an
encounter of extra wide dumpers and the installation of sump facilities.
h) Use of access/exit for normal operations and emergencies.
The design and construction of the remaining part of the access tunnel and the intersection structure with the main
tunnel is made by the contractor of the main tunnel with consideration of his method and equipment of mucking.

x) Access Shaft with Cross Passage:

In order to avoid a possible major delay in the main tunnel excavation from the north due to the approx. 610 m long
soft ground tunnel section at the north portal, an approx. 56 m deep, vertical, circular access shaft was constructed
at CH 162+950. This shaft is located near the end of the soft ground section close to the main tunnel alignment and
has been connected to the main tunnel with a cross passage. The access through the shaft enabled an early start of
the main tunnel excavation in rock towards south. Consequently, the construction of the soft ground section in the
north was no longer on the critical path for the overall construction program. The excavation diameter of the
vertical shaft is 12 m. The excavation dimension of the Cross passage is about 11.30m high and 9.50m wide.
The main design criteria for the circular access shaft are:
a) Location: The centre of the shaft located close to the main tunnel alignment, but not closer than 30 m (to
avoid local overstressing of the ground).

Putting The Dream On Paper (DESIGN) 103

b) Connection to the main tunnel provided by a cross passage perpendicular to the main tunnel.
c) Diameter: The diameter of the shaft sufficient to allow the excavation of the cross passage and to allow for
the installation of all equipment for the main tunnel excavation (e.g. drilling jumbo and roadheader); the
shaft also requires space for an elevator and a staircase, a lifting device and corresponding loading area at
the shaft bottom, a ventilation duct (2400 mm diameter), supply ducts (water main, compressed air, pumping
main etc.) cables and a pump sumps.
d) The depth of the shaft allows the installation of a strengthening ring below invert of the cross passage.
e) A pump sump of sufficient dimension provides sufficient reservoir capacity and space for a heavy duty
pump and a spare pump. Sump dimension of 4 m diameter and 5.5 m depth provides a volume of 70 m3.

The cross passage requires sufficient height to enable a safe start of excavation for the main tunnel. The
cross passage crown is at least 1.50 m above the crown of the main tunnel. In addition it provides space
required for mucking and installation of supply ducts.

g) Requirement for the cross passage gradient is controlled by the surface drainage during tunnel construction.
A gradient of 1:100 allowed towards the shaft to allow water flow towards the pump sump in the shaft.
h) Cross passage and Access Shaft allow installation of all facilities required for access/exit for normal operation
and emergency cases.

Support: The primary support consists of shotcrete, reinforced with wire mesh; at the shaft head and
above and below the tunnel eye of the cross passage, steel reinforced shotcrete rings additionally support
the shaft lining.

xi) Portals
a) Mined Tunnel Portals - Portal Cuts

Portal cuts are required for the South and North Portals and for the Access Tunnel Portal. By replacement
of the originally envisaged 260 m long cut & cover tunnel by mined tunneling, the mined portal is at chainage
163+560, which is the original Cut and Cover Tunnel portal.

Temporary portal slopes are relatively steep and perpendicular to the alignment axis which allowed easier
commencement of the tunnel excavation. The inclination of the cuts are 3:1 (V:H) for the main tunnel
portals and 5:1 for the access tunnel portal. For higher cuts, berms of 4 m width were installed for stability,
water collection and maintenance purposes. The first berm is situated at 10 m height above the final
excavation level. Additional berms were installed at every 6 m level. Above the first berm the slope angle is
flattened to 1:1:5 (V:H) to minimize slope protection measures. Only at the South portal a steeper slope of
1:1 is used to avoid a cut very close to NH-1A.

The portal slope at the North Portal and at the Access Tunnel Portal strike almost parallel to the natural
slope and both side slopes are of similar height. Portal slope at the South Portal strikes at an angle of about
40 degree to the natural slope the slope on the right side of the cut is higher and longer. This can be
particularly unfavorable owing to the proximity of the highway which required particular support structures
for the side slopes.

Support measures for the portal cuts are evaluated on the basis of slope stability analysis. Since portal slopes are
temporary structures, controlled by monitoring, the factor of safety (SF) used was 1.3. Under earthquakes, a lower
factor of safety of 1.1. The safety of the temporary portal cuts was verified at sites by a monitoring program.

For erosion protection slope cuts higher than 5 m are covered with 150 mm shotcrete (with wire mesh).
Ground reinforcement by rock bolts (dowels) are provided at all steep cuts below the first berm. Additional
measures include lowering the groundwater table by drainage holes and providing weep holes for reducing

104 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

water pressure built-up behind the shotcrete. For draining the rain water, drainage ditches are installed at
all slope boundaries as well as on the berms. The water collected in the drainage ditches is collected by
ditches at feat of the slopes and carried onwards to the drainage channels.
b) Permanent Portals

During service-life operation the portal cuts are flattened by filling to avoid costly permanent slope protection
measures. The mined tunnel has been extended by a cast in-situ tunnel section (cut and cover tunnel),
which is backfilled to the required slope angle. Length of the cut and cover tunnel has been finalized as
156m and 99m on north and south respectively.

The cut and cover section is constructed bottom up. It commences with excavation for the concrete invert.
Immediately after excavation, a lean concrete leveling layer is placed as a working platform for placement
of the reinforcement. Together with the reinforcement, the water main, ducting as required and the
necessary installations are prepared and the final invert cast. The reinforcement of the arch section is then
installed and the outer formwork and the shuttering erected and the arch section cast.

The cut and cover section of Pir Panjal Tunnel has been built with same internal dimensions of the mined
tunnel. On the outside, plane sidewalls and a roof arch are formed. A vertical or inclined side of the cut &
cover tunnel makes the final portal.

4.5 Tunnel Drainage and Waterproofing

4.5.1 General
The project requirement was to achieve a semi-dry tunnel. This means that while water inflow cannot be tolerated
with regard to the electrical system, local wet patches or local dripping of water can be accepted. In order to
achieve such semi-dry tunnels, a waterproofing system and conveyance of the water to the drainage system will
be provided where substantial water inflow will be observed to continue after excavation.

4.5.2 Water Proofing


A continuous waterproofing system is installed between the primary (outer) and secondary (inner) linings.
This is critical where water ingress over large areas occurs e.g. at karst sections and heavily faulted and/or
thinly bedded rock sections with water seepage. In addition continuous water proofing is also installed
along the soft ground sections at the tunnel portals.
The water proofing system consists of a geotextile layer and a PVC waterproofing membrane.

ii) The geo-textile material acts as a drainage layer and protects the waterproofing membrane against the
rough shotcrete surface. It requires a minimum thickness as specified in the works specifications. It is fixed
to the shotcrete surface locally by means of plastic discs and nails. Before installing the geotextile layer, all
sharp evidences and edges are evened out and a final 20 mm smoothening shotcrete layer sprayed.
The waterproofing membrane is the actual water barrier and will be fixed to the plastic discs by means of
thermal welding. Connection of the membrane parts is also by thermal welding. The waterproofing system
is installed in the tunnel roof and the tunnel sidewalls.

Putting The Dream On Paper (DESIGN) 105

Photo 4: Fixing of water proofing membrane in Pir Panjal Tunnel

4.5.3 Tunnel Drainage

The main tunnel has a drainage system to collect groundwater inflow as well as the water from condensation,
leakage and spillage. The drainage is collected by 560 mm dia drainage tubes of HDPE pipe (main collectors) which
run all along the tunnel. From the high point, water flows through the collector towards the portals. At the portals
the collector connects to the outside drainage system, installed in the tunnel approach ramps. Along the tunnel,
manholes are provided at 50 m spacing. Surface water in the tunnel is collected throughout the tunnel in shallow
ditches, which run along the tunnel. These drainage canals collect any surface water from spill off or similar and
also from minor seepage point at the sections that may have no water proofing. Pipe connections to the main
collector are provided at the manholes.
In tunnel portions with somewhat significant water seepage the seepage water will be collected by the perforated
side drainage pipes installed in no fines concrete outside the water proofing system. Connections from the side
drainage pipes to the main drainage pipe are also provided at the manholes.
At sections with large water inflow where an invert is not required, a drainage layer is provided below the invert

106 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

slab level and water is collected by a continuous and perforated drainage pipe installed in the gravel filter. A separate
manhole and connection to the main tunnel collector is installed for this invert drainage at the location of the
collector manhole.
In accordance to the tunnel gradients, the minimum gradient of the drainage pipes is 0.5 % towards the north
portal and 1.0% towards the south portal.
Manholes allow for maintenance and cleaning of the collectors and the connecting pipes. For cleaning the side
drainage pipes, respective connections and openings are provided at about 25 m spacing. The size of the pipes is
decided on the anticipated maximum amount of inflowing water.

Fig. 4.10: Cross Section of Drainage

4.6 Geotechnical Design

4.6.1 General

The rock classification system used, was based on the Austrian Standard OEN B2203 leading to different
rock classes as were identified during the tunnel excavation. Different Rock classes demand different support
systems based on the rock mass behavior. The main task of the geotechnical design is the economical
optimization in the construction, considering rock mass conditions as well as safety, stability and
environmental requirements.

ii) The basis for this approach is a geotechnical rock mass characterization procedure, which aims to correlate
rock mass types and their behavior. The result is the development of a rock mass model (geotechnical
master plan).
During the design phase the following steps were followed:

Step 1: Determination of Rock Mass Types, which define the basic geological architecture and the relevant
geotechnical key parameters for each ground type.

Step 2: Establishment of the Rock Mass Behavior Types, describing the potential failure mechanisms during
excavation of the unsupported rock mass with full excavation geometry without considering excavation
method, excavation sequence or support system.

Step 3: Based on the different Rock Mass Behavior, excavation sequence and support system is determined
and described in different Rock Class Types. For the evaluation of the System Behavior, the interaction

Putting The Dream On Paper (DESIGN) 107

between the rock mass behavior and the selected excavation and support schemes is checked.

Step 4: Based on the results of steps 1 3, the alignment is divided into sections and those with similar
excavation and support requirements identified and the respective rock class is then allocated. The estimated
distribution provides the basis for the cost and time estimate.

4.6.2 Rock Class (Support Types)


Rockmass Type and Rockmass behavior have already been explained in Chapter 2 earlier.

ii) Based on Rock Mass Behavior types, the excavation sequence for each behavior type and all required support
measures are determined and defined in various Rock Class Types. Full face excavation is considered in
favorable rock conditions, whereas in unfavorable rock conditions top heading and bench/invert excavation
becomes necessary. For top heading and bench/invert excavation, the maximum allowed distance between
top heading and subsequent bench/invert has to be defined. After development and ordering of the rock
classes the system behavior of the rock mass and the support measures are checked with analysis.

Fig. 4.11: Typical Excavation sequence in NATM

108 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Rock Class (RC) and Rock Mass Behavior Types (RBT)


RBT Descriptions

RC 1

Stable rock mass with the potential of small local gravity induced falling or sliding of blocks

RC 2

Stable rock mass to deep reaching, discontinuity controlled, gravity induced falling and sliding of
blocks, occasional local shear failure

RC 3

Deep reaching, discontinuity controlled, gravity induced falling and sliding of blocks, occasional
local shear failure - Shallow stress induced shear failures in combination with discontinuity and
gravity controlled failure of the rock mass

RC 4

Shallow stress induced shear failures in combination with discontinuity and gravity controlled
failure of the rock mass. (Sudden and violent failure of the rock mass, caused by highly stressed
brittle rocks and the rapid release of accumulated strain energy), (Buckling of rocks with a narrowly
spaced discontinuity set, frequently associated with shear failure )

RC 5

Sudden and violent failure of the rock mass, caused by highly stressed brittle rocks and the rapid
release of accumulated strain energy, (Deep seated stress induced shear failures and large
deformation, Buckling of rocks with a narrowly spaced discontinuity set, frequently associated
with shear failure )

RC 6

Deep seated stress induced shear failures and large deformation for heavy squeezing rock mass

RC 7

Potential for excessive over break and progressive shear failure with the development of chimney
type failure, caused mainly by a deficiency of side pressure

RC 8

Potential for excessive over break and progressive shear failure with the development of chimney
type failure, caused mainly by a deficiency of side pressure, flow of cohesion less dry or moist
intensely fractured rocks or soil, flow of intensely fractured rocks or soil with high water content
Table 4.2: Rock Class and Rock Mass Behavior Types

iii) The round length is a key parameter for the selection of the rock class. Within one rock class the round length
will vary within a certain range depending on ground condition, excavation method and time required for support
installation. With skilled labor force and good equipment, round length will be in the upper range which will increase
the driving rate. A smooth excavation line and least disturbance near the excavation allow the increase of the round

Putting The Dream On Paper (DESIGN) 109

Excavation and

Top heading




T, B, I

T, B, I

FF: >3.0

FF: 2.2-3.0

FF: 1.5-2.2

T: 1.0-1.5

T: 1.0-1.5

T: 0.8-1.0

T: 1.0-1.5

T: 0.8-1.0

B: 2.0-3.0

B: 2.0-3.0

B: 1.6-2.0

B: 2.0-3.0

B: 1.6-2.0

I: 4.0-6.0

I: 4.0-6.0

I: 3.2-4.0

I: 4.0-6.0

I: 3.2-4.0

T: 50 IR

T: 100 B: 50

T+B+I: 150

T+B+I: 200

T+B+I: 250

T+B+I: 300

T+B+I: 300

T+B+I: 300

T: 1 Layer D6 1 Layer D6

2 Layers D6

2 Layers D6

2 Layers D6

2 Layers D6

2 Layers D6

Round Length (m)

Wire Mesh (mm)

Overlap Wire Mesh

Rock class (support measures)

T, B, I

T, B, I

T, B, I

R: 2 webs
L: 1 web

R: 2 webs
L: 1 web

R: 2 webs
L: 1 web

R: 2 webs
L: 1 web

R: 2 webs
L: 1 web

R: 2 webs
L: 1 web

R: 2 webs
L: 1 web






AR: 3

CTC: 1.75/RL

T+B: 4&6
CTC: 1.75/RL

T+B: 4&6
CTC: 1.75/RL

T+B: 6&9
CTC: 1.0/RL

T+B: 6
CTC: 1.6/RL

T+B: 6
CTC: 1.6/RL

Face sealing (mm)






Face bolting at T

IR: 9m with
3m overlap

IR: 9m with
3m overlap

IR: 9m with
3m overlap

IR: 9m with
3m overlap

IR: 9m with
3m overlap

Additiona Measures


Foot Widening T (mm)







1 Layer D6

1 Layer D6

1 Layer D6

Lattice Girder
Dowels: Length
(m)CTC: R/L (m)

Temporary Shotcrete
Invert (mm)



IR: l=3m,
IR: l=3m,
CTC=300-500 CTC=300-500

Top Heading



Full Face


Round Length


center to center



if required


as required

IR: l=3m,
IR: l=3m,
IR: l=3m,
CTC=300-500 CTC=300-500 CTC=300-500



Table 4.3: Summary of the different rock classes (support types) for the main Tunnel
(See Fig. 4.12, 4.13, 4.14)

110 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel


Fig. 4.13

Putting The Dream On Paper (DESIGN) 111

Fig. 4.14

4.6.3 Establishment of the Geological Master Plan


Following the determination of the Rock Classes the Rock Mass Model Plan (Geological Master Plan) is
developed by the distribution of the Rock Classes along the tunnel. The estimated distribution of the Rock
Classes is the basis for the theoretical construction time and cost estimate. Every individual Rock Class
requires a certain amount of time for excavation and installation of support measures (Table 4.3). It has to
be emphasized that additional construction time has to be considered for exceptional incidents such as
excessive water inflow, which may delay the works substantially.

ii) During construction the construction plan was continuously reviewed and revised as found necessary. Basis
for the review were continuous face mapping and observation of the actual system behavior and the
evaluation of the monitoring data.

4.7 Geotechnical Instrumentation and Monitoring

4.7.1 General

The objective of geotechnical monitoring is to provide early information about the tunnel behavior in order
to optimize excavation and support measures, to realize in time the requirements for additional measures
and to ascertain the stability of the tunnel (Observational Approach).

ii) Therefore an instrumentation system is required for the detection of ground movements, settlements,
displacements and performance of the tunnel ground support as well as the measurement of loads, stress,
and strain in the structural elements for the tunnel support.

112 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

With associated field survey and proper development, processing and visualization of the monitoring data, the
information about the actual tunnel behavior is unfolded.

4.7.2 Instrumentation and Layout

i) The location of the instruments was so selected as to optimize the interpretation of the monitoring data. This
required installation of several monitoring devices in one monitoring cross section. Two different types of
monitoring cross sections were distinguished: Standard Monitoring Cross Sections and Main Monitoring Cross
Standard Monitoring Cross Sections generally consisted, of seven monitoring points for the three-dimensional tunnel
displacement monitoring (five points in the top heading and two at the bench walls). Standard Monitoring Cross
Sections are installed at regular intervals along the tunnel at a spacing of between 5 m and 20 m, depending on the
geotechnical conditions.
Main Monitoring Cross Section includes the following devices:
a) Three-dimensional tunnel displacement monitoring as above.
b) Multiple rod extensometers (MRE) for measuring the displacements within the rock mass surrounding the
tunnel with measuring points usually at 3 m, 6 m, 9 m distances from the tunnel (12 m where required).
Typical extensometers are installed at three locations in the top heading. In soft ground and shallow
overburden (less than 50 m), ground extensometers might be installed from ground surface ahead of the
tunnel excavation. In a typical arrangement one instrument was installed along the tunnel axis and one
each near but outside of the side wall.
c) Radial Pressure Cells (PC) for measuring the stresses between the shotcrete and the surrounding rock mass.
Pressure cells had a minimum dimension of 300 mm x 300 mm. In total five pressure cells were installed in
the top heading.
d) Shotcrete Strain meter Devices (SM) for measuring the strains in the shotcrete lining. In total three strain
meter measurement devices were installed in the top heading.
e) Measuring Anchors and Load Cells were provided according to the prevailing geotechnical conditions.

Piezometer to measure water pressure outside the lining.

Main Monitoring Cross Sections were installed at spacing between 100 m and 200 m based on the encountered
ground conditions.

4.8 Design of Outer Lining

4.8.1 General
This Pir Panjal tunnel is characterized as a tunnel with high overburden and widely varying rock mass types and
geotechnical conditions along the route. Geotechnical parameters and primary stress conditions varied over a wide
range along the 11 km tunnel route. As the real and somewhat precise information is available only at the tunnel
face, an observational design approach, following the principles of the New Austrian Tunneling Method, was used.
Reasonable interpretation of the possible rock mass behavior types and the variety of the required support measures
are the key parts of this approach and formed the basis of the tender design. Actual application of the support
types, including adaptations of the measures, were carried out during construction. For this approach, analysis
methods shall provide quick information on the rock mass behavior and the system behavior (interaction of rock
mass and support type) for the selection of the adequate support measures (rock class) for the many different
conditions. It was necessary to assess excavation in different rock mass types under various primary stress conditions.

Putting The Dream On Paper (DESIGN) 113

For this purpose the analysis also allowed for easy and fast parameter variation. The use of simple analysis methods
is sufficient and preferred. Sophisticated design tools like FE analysis or similar are not required as they are inadequate
due to the limited accuracy and variation of the model and the input parameters.

4.8.2 Analysis Methods

For the ground conditions of hard and soft rock with medium and high overburden and soft ground with shallow
overburden, two types of analytical / semi-empirical analytical methods were used:

Feder (Mining University of Leoben, Austria ) and

ii) Erdmann /Duddeck (Technical University Braunschweig, Germany).

a) Feder Approach
Structural analysis by Feder has been frequently used in Austria, other parts of Central Europe and in Taiwan for
tunnels in weak to hard rock conditions and under medium and high overburden.
The design approach after Prof. Feder is an analytical approach based on closed form solution for a circular
opening in an elasto-plastic medium with a primary stress field of Ko = 1.0. This method allows the analysis of
ground behavior, during excavation with and without installation of the support elements of the outer lining.
This analysis approach has been extended by Prof. Feder to allow for primary stress fields different from Ko = 1.0,
for different rock strength parameters in the elastic and the plastic (fractured) zone around the tunnel and for a
volume increase of the rock mass material in the fractured zone due to crack development.
The method allows for easy and fast parameter studies regarding the determination of the stress and displacement
field around a tunnel and the development of the plastic zones.
Bending moments are derived by assuming an eccentricity of the normal forces by 1/20 of the shotcrete shell
thickness or 20 mm whichever higher.
b) Erdmann/Duddeck Approach
Structural analysis using the approach of Erdmann/Duddeck has been frequently used in soft ground conditions in
Germany, Austria, Singapore and Taiwan.
This analytical approach uses elastic, uniform soil/rock conditions and full shear bond between the elastic lining
and the subsoil. A circular and lined tunnel is modeled. As a result of the Erdmann / Duddeck calculation, normal
forces N, bending moments M and shear forces V in the shotcrete shell, at the crown, bench and invert, are obtained.
Erdmann/Duddeck calculations can be used for soft ground and shallow tunnels with an overburden in the order of
up to about 50 m. For design of the support measures, stress relaxation is considered for overburden in excess of 25
m. This is in accordance with the design approach for the German High-Speed Rail. Accordingly, following load
assumptions are used:

For overburdens less than 25 m, full overburden is taken.

In case of an overburden between 25m to 50m the assumptions of the height of soil/rock mass acting onto
the tunnel lining is limited to 25m above crown.

Overburden of 25m is equivalent to about three times the diameter of the tunnel crown. This assumption is more
conservative than the approach used for the German High-speed Rail (Neubaustrecke) where an overburden equal
to the diameter of the tunnel-crown is adopted.

114 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

4.9 Design of Inner Lining

4.9.1 General
The design of the secondary lining in rock was based on the primary lining support and the information collected.
In general the secondary lining was installed only after deformations had diminished to an acceptable low magnitude.
For this purpose the tunnel opening is considered as stable. Installation of the secondary lining was mainly for the
purposes of long term durability of the lining, permanent support against a possible seepage water pressure
developing locally, and for support against residual rock pressure in heavily squeezing rock. In case of part
deterioration of the outer lining in the long term, the lining will take part of the support pressure created by the
outer lining in the stabilization of the rock mass.

4.9.2 Analysis of Inner Lining at High Overburden and Rock

As the secondary lining of higher quality and had at least the same thickness as the outer lining, a particular design
of the secondary lining for rock and/or high overburden was not required in principle. By the stabilization of the
tunnel opening, only normal forces that act on the outer lining, will be transferred to the inner lining. A control of
the inner lining can be carried out with an analysis using the load exhibited by the support pressure of the outer

4.9.3 Analysis of Inner Lining at Shallow Overburden and Soil

Analysis of the inner lining with soil cover and shallow overburden was carried out using frame analysis. Such an
analysis is a conservative approach. The outer lining load of the over burden was limited to 25 m. This represented
an overburden of about three times the tunnel diameter and is considered conservative.

Fig. 4.14: Tunnel finished Section after Inner Lining

4.9.4 Analysis of Cut & Cover Portal Sections

Analysis of the cut and cover portal sections was carried out using frame analysis. In addition, seismic loads were
considered by a quasi static approach. Though seismic loads in general are not critical, due to the lower factor of
safety and higher soil parameters under dynamic conditions.

Putting The Dream On Paper (DESIGN) 115

4.10.3 Independent of inspection schedules and necessary actions, a maintenance program has to be developed
for structural items, mechanical equipment and electromechanical installations, because these require regular

4.10 Tunnel Safety

4.10.1 Tunnel Safety in Operation

A clear concept for safety and disaster management was required for this. This included the identification
of possible types of dangers, defining the primary safety tasks and determining the various safety measures.

ii) Types of danger were identified as those from train break downs, from operational and / or structural
failures, fire, fumes, etc.
iii) Determination of safety measures included organizational tasks (responsibilities, rescue stations, preparation
and availability of safety -manuals), infrastructure provisions (niches, communication), Mitigation measures
(ventilation, escape and rescue), etc.
iv) All this made it necessary to provide the following in the civil design of the tunnel:
a) Access tunnel as escape routes and safe areas.
b) Provision for all requisite installations in accordance with safety standards and guidelines (UIC code).

116 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel


Dream in Motion (Tendering)

5.1 General
5.1.1 The Tendering philosophy was aimed to explore all term and condition required for successful completion of
project, assuming that a contract should contain clauses to deal with all expected incidents, which may or
may not occur during execution of the work.
5.1.2 GC-Rites was assigned the job of Detail design and construction supervision (DDC) consultancy in the beginning
of year 2004, in month of Feb-2004 inception report was furnished by the Consultant. Based on analysis
done by the consultant as spell out in the inception report , it had been decided that to adhere the target ,
maximum no. of faces should be created by strategizing the construction work.

5.2 Need for Strategizing the Construction

5.2.1 The major problem in construction planning, that was faced at the tender design stage, was the presence of
soft ground at both South as well as North portals to a length of about 600m on each side. The material was
fluvio-glacial alluvium and the alignment at the north end crossed under a perennial stream. The entire area
was under crops with minor irrigation canals employed to irrigate the cropped fields at the proposed portal
and in its vicinity.
5.2.2 These soft ground length caused a lot of anxiety to the planners. The Designers made a preliminary guess of
excavation rates of 1 m/day and 4m/day through soft ground and hard rocks respectively. A preliminary
construction program was drawn up based on two working faces. It painted a gloomy picture (Fig. 5.2),
based on 1 and 4 m/day excavation rates , the total excavation period would not be less than 65 months after
the contractor mobilization at site, i.e. estimated 42 months for excavation of nearly 9.80 km of main tunnel
in rock, approximately 21 months for the balance 1.20 km of main tunnel in soft ground.
At this point the nearly 11Km tunnel appeared to be a critical drive. This was not acceptable and a new
construction plan had to be thought of. Happily the gravity of the situation finally led to a novel approach to
planning and tendering.

Dream in Motion (Tendering) 117

Photo 5.1: Farm Lands at North portal Location in 2004

Photo 5.2: Land under Cultivation at South portal in 2004

118 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 5.1: Construction Programme (without any additional faces)

5.3 Early works

5.3.1 As explained, obviating excavation in the soft ground became necessary as it was important to find another
access to strike the rock face in the main tunnel. It was necessary to bye pass the soft ground on each side. The
topographical set-up of the tunnel alignment vis--vis the Pir-Panjal range was peculiar, in that it did not allow
much room for any convenient change in the alignment to overcome the problem. Hence new elements were
brought in.

5.3.2 South Portal

On the southern side (Bichlari Valley), the alignment struck oblique to the axis of Pir-Panjal range. This provided a
unique possibility of providing an Access Tunnel (Adit) near Tathar Village. On detailed examination of the area
near this village, the location for an Access tunnel was fixed. This Access Tunnel is 780m long, at a downgrade of
nearly 10% and meet the main tunnel at CH 155+350 (2750m from the South Portal). This was the least length of
the adit which would provide faster access to the Rock face of the main tunnel. Construction of this adit was
estimated to take 9.5 months leading to a saving of nearly 11 months vis a vis the Soft ground tunneling at the
south portal, not only could the period be shortened but the construction of the adit could be started earlier than
that of the main tunnel. The provision of adit and access shaft made it possible to go for Early Works tenders!
Tender for lesser amount of work was easier to be floated and awarded. Consultant was requested to provide
separate tender drawings and specifications for calling of early works tender in a short span of time (three months).

5.3.3 North Portal

On northern side the situation was far more difficult to handle. The northern slope of the Pir-Panjal ranges rises
steeply and almost strikes perpendicular to the tunnel alignment. Hence the possibility of advantage of an economical
adit was not there. Instead, an Access shaft of 60m depth was planned near the rock line about 610 m from the
North Portal. This shaft was joined to the main tunnel using a cross passage 30 m long with adequate size to allow

Dream in Motion (Tendering) 119

commencing mining into the rock towards south. Thus soft ground section was completely taken away from the
critical path.

5.3.4 Schematic Layout

i) The planned schematic layout after introduction of the aforementioned Access Tunnel and Shaft is shown in Fig.

Fig. 5.2: Schematic Layout with Access Tunnel and Shaft

ii) The final layout enabled the following four separate major drives for the main tunnel:
a) MTS This drive was planned to start excavation from South Portal towards Access Tunnel cross passage.
b) MTS 2 This drive was proposed to start excavation from the Access Tunnel cross passage towards North.
c) MTXS This drive was proposed to start from Access Shaft Cross Passage towards South.
d) MTN This drive was planned to start from North portal and end short of cross passage of Access Shaft-a
soft ground drive.
iii) Besides the above major drives, shorter drives MTS1 (from the Acees Tunnel towards South portal) and MTN1 (a
25m drive from the Access Shaft Cross Passage towards North Portal) were planned to breakthrough to the major
drives at these locations.
The longest drive was MTXS and it was planned to be 4.2 Km long instead of 5.7 Km as per original planning.
Considerable time was thus saved by taking soft ground at both portals out of critical path.

5.3.5 Revised Construction Schedule:

With the Access Tunnel and Shaft constructability confirmed after site investigations, the revised construction plan
was drawn up and is presented in Fig.5.3 below.

120 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 5.3: Revised Construction Schedule

As can be seen from above, critical drive was planned to be started much in advance by introduction of the Shaft at
the North portal. The drive lasting approximately 40 months was planned to complete at the end of 63 months, a
saving of 9 months. This planning incorporated the more detailed cycle times for various rock classes which translated
to a progress of 2.5 - 3.5 m/day in place of 4m/day assumed during previous planning for rock excavation. This was
possible due to completion of geological mapping and detailed investigation which provided more information
about the ground conditions. From this information we were assured that savings in time made by inclusion of the
Access Tunnel and the Shaft would be more than 9 months ( See Fig 5.1 and 5.3).

5.3.6 Early Works Tenders

Based on above, decision was taken to float two following early works Tenders :

The Shaft and the Access Tunnel

ii) North side Soft Ground tunneling

The tenders were floated in May, 2004 while the main tunnel tender design was still in progress. The contracts were
awarded in August 2004.

5.4 Main Tunnel Contracts

5.4.1 After awarding the early works, the work for the main tunnel was concentrated in two work areas, at the
South and the North portals. The tunnel nearly 11 km long, had equally long drives from the two sides 6130
m and 4245 m from south and north, respectively. Although the North drive appeared to be shorter but it
was planned to have only one working face and hence was equal in terms of time as the south drive which

Dream in Motion (Tendering) 121

was tackled from two faces. Also as the two portals were physically divided by the Pir-Panjal range, they
faced distinctly different weather and climatic conditions. Based on these considerations it was decided to
divide the North and the South drives into two different contracts. It was also perceived that two contractors
working on same tunnel would bring a sense of competition between them that would ultimately benefit
the project.
5.4.2 For the tender documents to be self-contained and detailed enough to handle almost all the possible
situations, special attention was give to the preparation of:i) The Special Conditions of Contract
ii) The Technical Specifications for all operate able items
iii) The Detailed Itemized BOQ
iv) The various Design Stage Reports e.g~

The Geological & Geotechnical Interpretative Reports,


The Investigation Test Reports,


The Health & Safety consideration during Construction and


The Bore logs etc.

v) Details of Various Q.A Checks during Construction

5.4.3 Some of the important conditions of tender document for the main tunnel are reproduced below.

5.4.4 Special Conditions of Contract

a) General description of site & climatic conditions

The Pir-Panjal Railway Tunnel connects the Bichlari Valley at the south end with the Kashmir Valley in the
north. The alignment crosses the National Highway (NH-1A) at three locations. The proposed locations of
the south and north portals of this are near the Banihal and Quazigund towns, respectively.

ii) The regional geology and tectonic framework of the area indicates that the region is susceptible to
earthquakes. The area falls in seismic zone-V of the Indian standard seismic zoning map of the country.
iii) The J&K State climatically is distinctly divided in three parts namely the Jammu region, the valley region
and the Leh-Ladakh region. The climate in the project area for most of the year is somewhat temperate.
During the winter season the minimum temperature drops to below zero and the snow falls on the high
mountains surrounding the valley.
b) Tunneling from the Access Tunnel

The site of access tunnel shall be handed over to the contractor within 8 weeks after the issue of acceptance

Approximately 85 m length of the Access Tunnel connecting to the Main Tunnel alignment along with
construction of the junction is included in the scope of contract

The Access Tunnel may alternatively be handed over with 250 m of balance length not later than 8 weeks
after the issue of acceptance letter. In that case the overall completion period will be extended by 6 weeks
due to additional work involved. However it was clarified that no other claim for delay ( idling etc) would be
entertained. Payment will be as per BOQ items and accepted rates.

Concurrently another contract for the same tunnel will be in operation on the North side. The two main
faces are scheduled to meet at chainage 158+730. The exact location of the junction point of the two
contracts and the execution of last headings before breakthrough may undergo a slight variation for which

122 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

the decision of the Engineer will be final and binding. Payment will be governed by the BOQ and the accepted
rates and nothing extra will be payable.

5.4.5 Rainfall
The rain fall in the project area is affected by western disturbances from December to May. While the rainfall in the
valley could be around the year, March is generally the wettest month and November the driest. The CONTRACTOR
is advised to satisfy himself by his actual inspection of the site and also ascertain for himself the climatic and
weather records from the state Government and/or Indian Meteorological Department before submitting the tender.

5.4.6 Organisation
i) The contractor shall submit to the Engineer, not later than 21 days of the award of contract, the organization
chart showing key positions, and CVs of their incumbents together with their brief job descriptions. The
Engineer shall issue notice of No-objection or otherwise, to the appointments of these key positions
within one week. IRCON shall have the right to reject, at any time, and ask for replacements to incumbents,
in the event of their lack of requisite competence.
ii) The following positions shall be the key positions for the entire period of NATM excavation and support:

Project Manager/ Team Leader; nominated as the contractors representative.


Construction Leader /Engineer/Manager (incharge of tunneling execution)


Tunnel Foremen ( 2 for each face )


Safety Manager


Quality Assurance and Quality Control Engineer.

iii) The tunneling staff appointed at site shall have adequate experience with proven capability.
iv) Construction Leader /Engineer/Manager (incharge of tunneling execution) must be at least a graduate
Engineer with 20 years of experience with proven track record for tunneling .
v) Tunneling Foreman (Expatriate) has to effectively lead the tunnel site crew in a particular shift. Accordingly,
it is mandatory that he has a proven track record of NATM tunneling of at least 20 years, with varied
position experience such as miner/ Nozzleman, Pit boss and machine operator. He must have executed at
least 25 km of NATM tunnels as Tunnel Foreman, responsible for all the activities at a face.
vi) Tunnel nozzle men shall to possess adequate experience and will be qualified by the contractor based on
the shotcreting of test panels prepared as per IS code and Austrian guidelines (Shotcrete 1998). The testing
procedure shall be witnessed by the Engineer whose No-objection will be required before deployment
of nozzlemen at work. The contractor will maintain at least 3 qualified nozzlemen for each work face.
vii) No objection by Engineer to the Contractors organization, shall not absolve the contractor of his
responsibility in any way, under the contract.

5.4.7 Land
Land needed for labour camps, site offices and workshop/laboratory etc. at work site shall be arranged by
CONTRACTOR/s at his/their own cost. Railway land to the extent available and can be spared, may also be given to
the CONTRACTOR for this purpose, however, the contractor shall have no claim on this account.
Land for dumping of excavated material from open excavation as well as the underground excavation shall be
arranged by IRCON/Railway. However, where directed by IRCON, in case of any delay in acquisition of land, the
contractor shall arrange at his own cost for progress of work and the cost at actual shall be reimbursed to him on

Dream in Motion (Tendering) 123

production of proof of payment to land owner witnessed by representative of the engineer incharge of IRCON.

5.4.8 Water Supply

Water for drinking and for the works is scarce in the project area. The CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for making
reliable arrangements for suitable water supply at his own cost for his men and construction purpose.

5.4.9 Power Supply

All electric supply that may require at the site of works for whatever purpose shall have to be arranged by the
CONTRACTOR, making his own arrangements for power supply/installation of diesel generating sets, etc., as required
for the work, at his own cost. His quoted rates shall include the cost of providing all such arrangements as required
for the works and for the offices / accommodations, etc.

5.4.10 Ventilation of Underground Works

(a) General
i) The CONTRACTOR shall design, install and operate ventilation system for the Underground Works and
provide an underground atmosphere monitoring system.
ii) The CONTRACTOR shall check and record concentrations of noxious or other harmful gases and dust
throughout the works at every shift. Allowable concentrations shall be as stated in the applicable laws/
standards for underground construction. All items of inspection records and automatic record data of
instruments shall be included in a daily working report and shall be maintained for the duration of the
iii) All parts of the Works shall be maintained in a state which will not be injurious to the health of the
personnel. The air in underground works shall contain no less than 20 % oxygen (by volume) and shall
not contain concentration of gases, vapours or dust greater than is safe for the health or workmen,
having regard to the effects of time, temperature, humidity and the combined effects of contaminants.
iv) The ventilating system shall be kept in operation also after break-through in tunnels in order to maintain
the fresh air- volume requirements stated hereinafter.
v) Intermediate fans attached to the main duct line shall be provided as required to ensure satisfactory
removal of contaminated air. All ventilation ducts shall be maintained in an airtight condition.
vi) Ventilation ducts shall be firmly fixed to the vaults in such position that a minimum clearance of 20 cm
remains between the duct and the extremities of vehicular traffic employed in the Underground Works.
vii) The CONTRACTOR shall ensure the required quantity or fresh air at the heading face. The check of the
air-tightness or joints and control of the air ducts for leaks shall be performed periodically. Any deficiency
discovered or reported by the ENGINEER shall be immediately repaired by the CONTRACTOR.
viii) If the volume and quality of fresh air at the heading face is less than that specified, then the whole duct
system shall be pressure and volume tested in portions not exceeding 500 metres. Measuring stations
shall be located not closer than 10 times the duct diameter from any fan or other flow disturbance
within the duct.
ix) No work shall be permitted to be carried out unless the ventilation is provided to the satisfaction of the
(b) Operational requirements
i) The ventilation system used may be either an exhaust or forced fresh air system or a combination of

124 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

ii) Exhaust ventilation: Blasting fumes shall be extracted as close as possible to the excavation face. Exhaust
air and blasting fumes shall be discharged sufficiently away from the portal areas in such a way that they
will not be re-used in any other working place or re-circulated in the fresh air supply system.
iii) Forced fresh air ventilation: With this system of ventilation the CONTRACTOR shall ensure that the
following aspects are enforced:
a. All labour shall evacuate the heading face area to a safe place before blasting and re-enter the
heading face area only after blasting fumes have been completely removed from the working area
by ventilation.
b. Blasting fumes shall be discharged from the underground works into a filter system or diverted
adequately to ensure that concentrations of noxious or other harmful gases or dust are kept to the
minimum limit as stated in the applicable laws/standards or the limits specified in the contract if
c. All equipment and ventilation duct shall be maintained in sound working order at all times. Any
damage to ventilation duct shall be repaired within 12 hours of the damage.
d. During excavation by hand or machines without use of explosives the ventilation system shall provide
the fresh air quantity requirements listed below in Clause 2.12.3 at all times in the underground
e. For effective control of air pollution caused by machinery exhaust, the CONTRACTOR shall select
machinery and vehicles in good condition and maintain them in good condition.
f. Do not permit gasoline-operated equipment anywhere underground.
g. All diesel engines used in the underground works shall be provided with means, which shall be
maintained in efficient order, of cooling exhaust gases and reducing the concentration of toxic
gases to acceptable levels, filtering particulates and preventing emission of flames or sparks.
h. Ventilation ducting shall be of non-combustible material
iv) The ventilating system shall be of such efficiency that the average air velocity in the largest excavated
profile is not less than 0.3 metre per second. In case the presence of methane gas is detected or suspected,
this value shall be increased to 0.5 metre per second.
v) The quantity of air supplied for ventilation shall not be less than 4.25 cubic meters of free air per minute
per person in tunnels. Each diesel kilowatt (kW) of power applied for plant and equipment underground
shall require a minimum of 3.5 cubic meters per minute of air supply. These fresh air volumes shall be
cumulative and the CONTRACTOR shall allow, in his design calculations, for the maximum number of
persons and diesel powered equipment deployed in the Underground Works at any one time. Any
estimated losses, e.g. due to the leaks in the ducts, shall be added to the figures stated above.
vi) The following are maximum allowable concentrations of some common hazardous gases:


10 ppm (8h)



2 ppm



50 ppm



25 ppm



5000 ppm

Silica dust concentration..10 mg/m3

Dream in Motion (Tendering) 125

vii) Instruments to register the concentration of common noxious gases (CO, NO, CO2), flammable gases,
dust and oxygen, etc. shall always be available on the site in good working order, condition and in sufficient
numbers. These shall be supplied, maintained and used throughout the duration of the underground
viii) Where any concentration of methane is found to be present, precautions against flames, sparks and
overheating shall be enforced including prohibition of burning, welding and of smoking. If concentrations
cannot be kept consistently below 0.25 % in the general body of the air, explosion protection of equipment
shall be provided.
ix) When a methane concentration of 1.25 % is present, all persons other than those essential for safety
shall be withdrawn from all parts of the tunnel. The use of explosives and locomotives shall be prohibited
and all electrical equipment not intrinsically safe shall be disconnected.
All persons shall be withdrawn if the methane content exceeds 2%.

5.4.11 Air Cooling in Underground Works

i) The CONTRACTOR shall make suitable arrangements for cooling of air so as to maintain the temperature
in the underground construction sites below 30 degrees Centigrade.
ii) The temperature shall be jointly measured by the CONTRACTOR and the ENGINEER at weekly intervals.
Temperature measurements shall be taken during normal working conditions with the specified degree
of ventilation and with the air cooling system turned off.
iii) The maintenance of construction progress and control of temperature shall be entirely the responsibility
of the CONTRACTOR. No claim or extension of time for the completion of Works shall be allowed on the
basis of high / low temperatures experienced in the course of the work for any reason, whatsoever.

5.4.12. Control of Dust, Silica and Noxious Gases in Underground works

The CONTRACTOR shall install and operate equipment for the monitoring and control of dust, silica and noxious
gases in Underground Works as described hereinunder.
a) Dust and Silica
i) To reduce the amount of dust, only wet drilling will be allowed and during mucking, muck piles shall be
kept constantly damp by sprinkling with water. The use of high pressure water jets for this purpose will
not be permitted.
ii) The CONTRACTOR shall measure and monitor the concentration of fine dust and content of silicon dioxide
(SiO2) in all dust producing underground operations by a method to be approved by the ENGINEER.
iii) Air Samples for this purpose shall be taken within 10 days of commencing underground excavation, at 30
days intervals thereafter and within 20 days following major changes in tunnel excavation operation, or
whenever required by the ENGINEER. Samples shall be taken from actual working areas. The sampling
and testing shall be performed by a qualified person or laboratory to be proposed by the CONTRACTOR
and approved by the ENGINEER. A copy of the test results shall be submitted to the ENGINEER within 2
weeks of the sampling date.
iv) The concentration of fine dust (diameter less than 0.005 mm) may not, in general exceed the value of
8.0 mg/cum of air and in relation to the silicon dioxide content in the rock this value is lowered as

126 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Content of SiO2 in fine dust
in percent by weight.

Concentration of fine dust in

milligrams per cum of air.

1 -15%

8.0 mg/cum


6.0 mg/cum


4.0 mg/cum


2.0 mg/cum


1.5 mg/cum


1.3 mg/cum

v) Should the concentration of the fine dust exceed the limits stated above, the CONTRACTOR shall undertake
such necessary measures and install such additional equipment which will ensure that the dust
concentrations are within the specified safe hygienic limits.
b)Noxious Gases
i) Use of internal combustion engines, other than approved mobile diesel powered equipment will not be
permitted in underground construction Sites.
ii) The CONTRACTOR shall provide and maintain equipment for measuring and monitoring the content of
noxious gases and oxygen at each heading face through out the duration of excavation works. Tests for
determining concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, methane, other
inflammable gases, and oxygen shall be made before and after each blasting and at the beginning of
each shift by qualified personnel. A record of reading shall be maintained and be made available to the
ENGINEER as and when asked for.
iii) Gas concentrations in underground Sites may not exceed the following limits:

(Fifty ppm) of carbon monoxide.


(Five thousand ppm) of carbon dioxide.


(Five ppm) of nitrogen dioxide.


(Ten ppm) of hydrogen sulphide.


(One thousand ppm) of methane.


milligrams per litre of nitrous oxide.

iv) Concentrations of other inflammable gases shall not exceed 40% of the lower explosive limit at the
heading face and 20% of the lower explosive limit elsewhere in the tunnel.
v) If concentrations of noxious gases or other inflammable gases exceed the permissible limits set forth
above, all operations shall be interrupted immediately and personnel shall be removed to a safe area. All
sources of ignition shall be extinguished or removed. All equipment with the exception of ventilation
equipment, shall be shut down.
vi) The required measures will be mutually determined and agreed to by the ENGINEER and the
CONTRACTOR. In case of need, the CONTRACTOR shall engage the services of an independent consultant
experienced in gaseous tunneling. Re-entry and resuming of the Work shall be prohibited until the
ENGINEER has authorised re-entry.

5.4.13 Service Roads

The site of the South portal is close to the National Highway, NH-1A. The service road to approach the South portal
of the tunnel would be required to be constructed by the CONTRACTOR at his own cost, taking off at a suitable

Dream in Motion (Tendering) 127

location in the vicinity. Land required for construction of such service/access roads also shall have to be arranged by
CONTRACTOR at his own cost.
Access Road to the portal of the Access Tunnel near Tathar Village will be made available to the Contractor, which
shall be maintained by him at his cost during the Construction activities.

5.4.14 Working Camps

The CONTRACTOR/s, desirably, have their labour camps, site offices and workshops/laboratory in one area keeping
the security in view. They also have to establish their labour camps with proper facilities and should keep them in a
neat and hygienic condition. For female laborers, crches for their children must be organised. The CONTRACTOR/
s shall also provide office accommodation for IRCON and Northern Railway officials in the so established camps free
of any charges. After completion of the work, the camps, etc., put up on Railway land shall be removed by the
CONTRACTOR/s and the land handed back free of any encumbrance.
The project is located in terrorist infested area. Northern Railway/IRCON shall co-ordinate with security agencies
for security wherever required. The CONTRACTOR/s and their staff/ labour, however, shall have to exercise prudence
in this regard.

5.4.15 Completion Period

The completion period is, as mentioned in General Information , from the date of issue of Letter of Acceptance.
Special Note on overall Completion
The drive from the Access Tunnel towards North (chainage 155.350) is considered critical to overall completion , as
such that it should not lost sight of.

5.4.16 Delay and Extension of Contract Period


The time allowed for execution and completion of the works or part of the works as specified in the contract
shall be strictly followed and the time shall be essence of the contract on the part of the Contractor.

ii) As soon as it becomes apparent to the Contractor, that the work and / or portions thereof (required to be
completed earlier), cannot be completed within the period(s) stipulated in the contract as per key dates or
the extended periods granted, he shall forthwith inform the Engineer and advise him of the reasons for the
delay, as also the extra time required to complete the works and / or portions of work, together with
justification therefor. In all such cases, whether the delay is attributable to the Contractor or not, the
Contractor shall be bound to apply for extension well within the period of completion/extended period of
completion of the whole works and / or portions thereof.
a) Extension due to Modifications
If any modifications are ordered by the Engineer or site conditions actually encountered are such, that in the
opinion of the Engineer the magnitude of the work has increased materially, then such extension of the stipulated
date of completion may be granted, as shall appear to the Engineer to be reasonable.
b) Delays not due to Employer/Contractor

If the completion of the whole works (or part thereof which as per the contract is required to be completed
earlier), is likely to be delayed on account of:

Any force majeure event referred to in tender document.

Delay on the part of other Contractors engaged directly by the Client/Employer, on whose Progress the
performance of the Contractor necessarily depends or

128 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Any relevant order of court or

Any other event or occurrence which, according to the Engineer is not due to the Contractors failure or
fault, and is beyond his control;

ii) The Engineer may grant such extensions of the completion period as in his opinion is reasonable.
c) Delays due to Employer/Engineer
In the event of any failure or delay by the Employer/Engineer in fulfilling his obligations under the contract, then
such failure or delay, shall in no way affect or vitiate the contract or alter the character thereof; or entitle the
Contractor to damages or compensation thereof but in any such case, the Engineer shall grant such extension or
extensions of time to complete the work, as in his opinion is / are reasonable.
d) Delays due to Contractor and Liquidated Damages
If the delay in the completion of the whole works or a part of the works, beyond stipulated completion period as
per key dates , is due to the Contractors failure or fault, and the Engineer feels that the remaining works or the
portion of works can be completed by the Contractor in a reasonable and acceptable short time, then, the Engineer
may allow the Contractor extension or further extension of time, for completion, as he may decide, subject to the

Without prejudice to any other right or remedy available to the Engineer, recover by way of liquidated
damages and not as penalty, a sum as mentioned below:

For intermediate key dates:Equivalent to one tenth of a quarter of one percent (0.025%) of the contract value of the works, for each
week or part of a week in completion of the particular stage of the work.
This LD shall be imposed concurrently on individual intermediate periods for different stages of work
and aggregated.

For Final key dates linked to overall completion of the work:Equivalent to quarter of one percent (0.25%) of the contract value of the works, for each week or part of
a week of the overall Work.

ii) The total amount of liquidated damages in respect of the Works in all stages shall, however, not exceed 5%
of the contract value.

Liquidated damages recovered at Intermediate Key Dates shall be refunded to the Contractor if subsequent
Key Dates are achieved without any effect on the programme of the Contractor provided further that
there is no accepted claim by the Contractor on this account.

The liquidated damages are recovered by the Employer from the Contractor for delay and not as penalty.

The Employer may, without prejudice to any other method of recovery, deduct the amount of such
damages from any monies due, or to become due, to the Contractor. In the event of an extension of time
being granted, the amount due under this Sub-Clause shall be recalculated accordingly, and any overpayment refunded.

The payment or deduction of such damages shall not relieve the Contractor from his obligations to
complete the Works, or from any other of his duties, obligations or responsibilities under the Contract.

The Contractor shall use and continue to use his best endeavours to avoid or reduce further delay to the
Works, or any relevant Stages.

At any time after the Employer has become entitled to liquidate damages, the Employers Representative
may give notice to the Contractor, requiring the Contractor to complete the Works within a specified

Dream in Motion (Tendering) 129

reasonable time. Such action shall not prejudice the Employers entitlements to recovery of liquidated
damages, under this Sub-Clause and to terminate;

The recovery of such damages shall not relieve the Contractor from his obligation to complete the work
or from any other obligation and liability under the contract.

e) Engineers Decision on Compensation Payable being Final

The decision of the Engineer as to the compensation, if any, payable by the Contractor under this clause shall be
final and binding.
f) Time to Continue to be Treated as the Essence of Contract in spite of Extension of Time.
It is an agreed term of the contract that notwithstanding grant of extension of time under any of the sub-clauses
mentioned herein, time shall continue to be treated as the essence of contract on the part of the contractor.

5.4.17 NATM (New Austrian Tunnelling Method)

All tunnel construction shall be carried out in accordance with the principles of the New Austrian Tunneling Method
(NATM), using a cyclic sequence of excavation with subsequent installation of a primary support (outer lining)
followed by the delayed installation of a secondary support (inner lining).
The outer lining consists of shotcrete, generally reinforced by wire mesh, steel lattice girders and rock bolts (dowels)
as shown on the drawings or as instructed by the DDC. This will provide the immediate support and stability to the
excavation. The inner lining, which is either shotcrete or cast-in-place concrete, shall provide the long term support
and durability to the tunnel.
5.4.18 Photo Records of construction work

The CONTRACTOR is required to take and supply to the ENGINEER coloured photographs on construction
activities. The digital photographs shall be taken by him of all the construction activities pertaining to the
work, at regular intervals as directed by the ENGINEER. All photos shall be provided to the Engineer in
digital form. Three sets 5" X 3" prints of each snap shall be supplied. The CONTRACTOR shall be required to
supply as directed by the ENGINEER, coloured prints of 30 photographs blown upto 36" X 24" size. The soft
copy of all the photographs shall also be supplied to the ENGINEER.

ii) The CONTRACTOR shall keep the record of the construction activities at the site(s)by a colour video film Umatic (3/6") and DVD/VCD. This has a script which shall be approved by IRCON, together with appropriate
background music and special effects. IRCON shall be supplied the master copy of the U-matic film, the CD
and one additional copy of the VHS film and CD of the documentary.
ii) IRCON shall have full ownership and copyright of all the photographs, Videos, and CDs and the CONTRACTOR
shall indemnify IRCON against any claim of any sort on these.
5.4.19 Submission of As Constructed Drawings

On completion of the works, the CONTRACTOR shall arrange to furnish to IRCON three (3) BOUND SETS OF
ALL As constructed drawings for every component of the work, together with the specifications and
other documents adopted in the execution of the work, all at his own cost. The drawings, specifications and
other documents submitted by the CONTRACTOR shall be verified and approved by the ENGINEER. The
CONTRACTOR shall supply such further copies of the As constructed drawings, specifications, and other
documents as the ENGINEER may require for the use of Employer. The completion Certificate for his Works,
shall not be issued by the ENGINEER in the event of the CONTRACTORs failure to furnish the aforesaid.

5.4.20 Supply of Explosives by Contractor


The contractors will make their own arrangements for the procurement and storage of explosives and
detonators needed for the tunneling works at suitably located primary magazines. The contractors may

130 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

draw their requirements of explosives from primary magazines and arrange to transport and store them in
convenient quantities at the tunnel site in their own regular or portable magazines under their own license.
The contractor shall maintain day-to-day record of consumption of explosives and detonators jointly with
ii) For the storage and use of the explosives, the contractor shall get the necessary clearance/license from the
authorities concerned and shall employ persons with competency certificates for this purpose.
iii) In case of exigency if IRCON arranges the supply of explosives from their magazine near Banihal or any
other location depending on availability, the CONTRACTOR/s shall arrange their own explosive vans at their
own cost for safe transfer of explosives from IRCONs Magazine or from other source to the sites of work.
The CONTRACTOR shall be fully responsible for the safe transport and storage at the site at his/their own
cost by keeping approved portable magazines for which suitable license shall be arranged by CONTRACTOR
from concerned authorities.
iv) The cost of explosives and other material issued were recovered by the engineer at the actual cost of
explosives plus 15% overheads and contingencies from the contractors dues.

5.4.21 Laboratory Testing


The CONTRACTOR will be required to establish a field laboratory at his own cost at work site to carry out all
requisite tests at his own cost. The laboratory shall be equipped with necessary equipment to carry out
various tests such as sieve analysis, compression test on concrete cubes, slump test, workability test, etc.,
and all required tests on aggregates, cement, water, concrete and steel, for ensuring the required quality
standards conforming to codal provisions and specifications. All the pressure gauges, machines, equipment
and other measuring and testing equipment of laboratory shall be got checked/calibrated regularly as
directed by the ENGINEER and necessary certificates furnished to him.

ii) All tests required as per relevant IS Codes/specifications on cement and steel shall be got done from
authorized Technical Institutions/Test Houses as approved and directed by the ENGINEER. For other materials
such as sand, aggregates, concrete, etc., tests shall be carried out by the CONTRACTOR in his field laboratory
as per relevant specifications.

5.4.22 Scope of Construction Work


The scope of work for the construction of main tunnel section comprise of the following:
a) Excavation in all kinds of soil/rock including disposal of muck as per approved drawings.
b) Slope stabilization and slope protection at the Portal approach as per approved drawings or as per site
requirement. This also included temporary slope stabilization and slope protection.
c) Construction of the Main Tunnel including excavation and disposal of muck, support installation, concrete
or shotcrete inner lining and other concrete works and all other ancillary works as per approved drawings.
d) Construction of the final portal structures including backfilling as per approved drawings.
e) Excavating and disposal of all type of soils/rocks and conglomerate, etc., from open excavation, etc.
f) All permanent and temporary works, which may necessary for the efficient execution and completion of
g) Any other incidental/ancillary works connected with the above as directed by the ENGINEER.

5.4.23 Quantity Variation


CONTRACTOR shall be not entitled for any compensation for any decrease in quantity executed and will be

Dream in Motion (Tendering) 131

paid for reduced quantity of work only-at the accepted rates.
ii) For increase in quantities, the accepted variation in an individual item in the BOQ shall be up to 25% of the
quantity originally contracted, except for the items as specified below for the Underground Works. The
CONTRACTOR shall be bound to carry out the work at the agreed rates, terms and conditions and shall not
be entitled to any claim or any compensation what-so-ever up to the limit of 25% increase in quantity of an
individual item of works.
a) In case of open / underground excavation, the variation limit of 25% shall apply to the gross quantity of
excavation and variation in the quantities of individual rock class shall not subject to this limitation. The
Classification of rock decided by engineer-in charge shall be final.
b) In case of shotcrete application in the tunnel, the variation limit of 25% shall be to the gross quantity of
shotcrete and variation in the quantities of individual thicknesses of shotcrete shall not subject to this
c) In case of rock bolt installation in the tunnel and at slopes, the variation limit of 25% shall be to the gross
quantity of rock bolts and variation in the quantities of individual types and lengths shall not subject to
this limitation. This regulation shall also apply for forepoling elements.
d) For the inner (secondary) tunnel lining (concrete/shotcrete) works, no limit shall be applicable.
e) For any kind of dewatering, including pumping of water, and other effects of water inflows into the
tunnel and grouting, no variation limit shall apply and the works shall be carried out by the CONTRACTOR
on agreed rates, terms and conditions irrespective of any variation.
iii) For increase in a quantity by more than 25%, the reduction in rates of the item shall be decided as per
clause 39 of GCC of Northern Railway.

5.4.24 Non-Itemized works

Any items that may necessary for the completion of work but does not appear in the Schedule of Items, Rates and
Quantities attached with tenders, the same shall be executed at the negotiated rate agreed upon and/or at the rate
will be fixed by analysis of actual inputs required of all types including labour, material and machinery before
commencement of such works. No item of work that may require non-schedule rates will be executed unless ordered
by the Engineer. Such items may also be got executed through any other agency at the discretion of Engineer. The
rates for non itemised works shall be dealt as per clause 39 of GCC of Northern Railway.

5.4.25 Tender Drawings

The information contained in the tender drawings shall be indicative and for general guidance only. The contractor
shall execute the works as per the approved construction drawings and specifications or as approved by DDC and
the Engineer in charge.

5.4.26 Scope of Specifications


The Specifications define materials, methods and workmanship required for the Construction Works of the
Pir-Panjal Railway Tunnel.

ii) The Specifications cover surface excavation, portal slope stabilization measures as well as the underground
construction works.
iii) For the underground excavation works, the Specifications have been prepared for the New Austrian Tunneling
Method (NATM).

132 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

iv) The Specifications define the requirements for the main items for the Construction Works. For any item,
which is not covered by the Specifications, a Standard shall be applied as agreed between the ENGINEER
v) Works under the Specifications include construction of all underground structures, including furnishing
and servicing of all plant, labour, equipment, and all other consumables and incidentals required for the
execution and completion of the underground works as specified. All works at the tunnel entrance including
support of portal slope and lateral slopes and any protective safety measures.
vi) Following works shall be excluded from the Specifications:
a) Works related to the construction and installation of the electrical and mechanical facilities, except civil
works associated with the underground works as specified.

5.4.27 Functional Requirements


The work is required to be completed in a period as mentioned in General Information. The contractor shall
be required to make good progress consistently to meet the specified key Dates
NATM Tunneling
(each face)

Average weekly progress in

all kinds of strata; 25 m

Average monthly progress in

all kinds of strata;100 m

NATM Tunneling
(each face)

Peak weekly progress in good

strata > 35 m

Peak monthly progress in

good strata> 140m

Tunnel overt lining

(each face)

Overall Average weekly progress;

60m/ week

Overall Average monthly

progress 245 m

ii) In addition to special conditions and specifications, the minimum functional requirements to meet the
schedule are:a) Lining work has to commence before completion of NATM excavation and progress concurrently. Proper
logistics for enabling these activities like properly designed from-work permitting movement across site,
invert bridge etc., will be required.
b) Properly designed transportation logistics (which may be desirably rail based and /or conveyor based)
for heavy requirements of muck removal, feeding of lattice girders, shotcrete, concrete and other
construction material at the NATM and lining locations.
c) Movements of heavy excavation equipment, road headers, boomers, shotcrete robots etc., as a part of
overall logistics.
d) Deployment of at least one ROADHEADER of adequate capability is considered essential.
e) The proposed selection of Equipment, like road headers, tunneling excavators, loaders, etc., shall meet
the required high performance rates. Proven machine types and models with rock cutting/handling
capacity as per the tunnel cross section and drive lengths only shall be deployed.
f) Considering the requirement of fast progress and short cycle time, special tunneling excavators e.g Liebherr
Make series 900 or other equivalent make, are considered essential. These shall be equipped with quickchange devices for fast switch over of various attachments i.e ripping bucket, normal bucket, rock breaker
and working platform etc.
g) Niches at appropriate locations shall be provided for reversing of vehicles, passing places, etc.
h) All electrical and mechanical back up systems of the machines, including the slow and fast consumable
spares and wear parts to be procured/ installed alongwith training of personnel in each field. The services

Dream in Motion (Tendering) 133

like air and water shall be installed in a professional manner and to be of adequate capacity and quantity
to sustain the field requirements.

5.4.28 Protection of Environment

Following clauses related to Protection of environment were provided in the tender document:i)

The contractor shall take all reasonable steps to protect the environment on and off the site and to avoid
damage or nuisance to persons or to property of the public or others resulting from pollution, noise or
other causes arising as a consequence of his methods of operation.

ii) During continuance of the contract, the contractor and his sub-contractors shall abide at all times by all
existing enactments on environmental protection and rules made there under, regulations, notifications
and bye-laws of the State and Central Government, or local authorities and any other law, bye-law, regulations
that may be passed or notifications that may be issued in this respect in future by the State or Central
Government or the local authority.
iii) The contractor shall implement the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) measures, enhancement
measures and measures as directed by ENGINEER and Detailed Design Consultants (DDC) from time to
time. Some of these measures as part of EMP are summarised in Table-1. The contractor shall submit a
report on compliance as per the monitoring Plan given in Table-2.The contractor should submit these reports
to the DDC. The DDC will review, advise and approve these environmental clearance reports (ECRs) submitted
by the contractor. Salient features of some of the major laws that are applicable are given below.
a) The Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
This provides for the prevention and control of water pollution and the maintaining and restoring the wholesomeness
of water. Pollution means such contamination of water or such alteration of the physical, chemical or biological
properties of water or such discharge of any sewage or trade effluent or of any other liquid, gaseous or solid
substance into water(whether directly or indirectly) as may or is like to, create a nuisance or render such water
harmful or injurious to public health or safety, or to domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural or other legitimate
uses, or to the life and health of animals and plants or of aquatic organisms.
b) The Air (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
This provides for the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution. Air Pollution means the presence in the
atmosphere of any air pollutant which means any solid, liquid or gaseous substance (including noise) present in
the atmosphere in such concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to human beings or other living creatures
or plants or properties or environment.
c) The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
This provides for the protection and improvement of environment and for matters connected therewith, and the
prevention of hazards to human beings, other living creatures, plants and property. Environment includes water,
air and land and the inter-relationship, which exists among and between water, air and land, and human beings,
other living creatures, plants, microorganisms and property.
d) The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991
This provides for public liability insurance for the purpose of providing immediate relief to the persons affected by
accident occurring while handling hazardous substances and for matters connected herewith or incidental thereto.
Hazardous substance means any substance or preparation, which is, defined as hazardous substance under the
Environment (Protection) Act,1986, and exceeding such quantity as may be specified by notification by the Central
government. Key Environmental legislation in India are reported in Table-3.

134 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

TABLE 1: Environmental Management Plan During Construction

Environmental issue

Mitigation Measure

Site Clearance

All vegetation required to be cleared should be disposed at designated sites of Municipal


Generation of dust due to

construction activities

All vehicles delivering material to the site shall be covered to avoid material
spillage.Construction site should be watered adequately and periodically to minimize fugitive
dust generation so that SPM standards are not exceeded.All possible and practical measures
to control dust emission during drilling operations shall be employed.Idling of delivery trucks
or other equipment should not be permitted unnecessarily during periods of unloading or
when they are not in active use.

Emissions from construction


Concrete batching plant be located at or near the project site so that there is no/minimum
requirement of delivery trucks. Exhaust emissions from all construction equipments shall
adhere to vehicle emission norms laid out by Central Pollution Control Board(CPCB)

Escaping of dust from Storage All earthwork and construction material should be stored in such a manner so that generation
of dust will be minimized
Generation of Noise due to
construction activities

Welding machines operating on electricity and gas should be used during construction

Noise from construction equip- The siting of construction yard should be done leaving at least 100m distance from any
ment required to be used
residential areas. This will allow the noise to attenuate.Noise emitting equipment to be used,
shall adhere to emission norms as laid out by CPCB.Special acoustic enclosures(by way of
noise shields, which can, be either brick masonry structure or any other physical barrier)
should be provided for individual noise generating construction equipment such as Cement
Concrete Mixers, Generators, Dumpers / Trucks, Bulldozers, Excavators. Damaged silencers
to be promptly replaced by the contractor.Operation hours for noise generating equipments
such as pile driving, drilling and other construction activities, etc. shall be according to
prevailing local laws and pre-approved by IRCON.Drilling operation should be done
intermittently wherever possible.Construction activities involving noise-making equipment
should be avoided during night-time, especially in the residential areas.
Exposure to loud noise

Earplugs/ear mufflers should be provided to workers exposed to loud noise (As per Factory
Act requirements)

Impact on drains

Earth, stone or any other construction material should be properly stored away from drains
so as not to block the flow of drainage system.Construction material containing fine particles
should be stored in an enclosure such that sediment laden water does not drain into nearby
water body especially near the south portal.

Siltation of water Body

Siltation of soil into river near the alignment shall be prevented as far as possible by adapting
soil erosion control measures such as turfing/pitching/stepping etc. on the slopes.

Waste collection, recycling and Construction waste includes waste arising from tunnel excavation, land excavation, site
disposal during construction formation, civil / building construction, roadwork, renovation or demolition activities and
mixed site clearance materials.The excavated material collected should directly be kept in
the dumpers used for transportation. These dumpers carrying soil should not spill during
transportation to the receiving point and they should be covered. The soil/earth construction
spoils will be dumped at designated sites.
Soil Erosion

Top soil cover should be removed and kept aside to be later used to cover the fillings.Soil
disposal site/ construction site should be compacted and re vegetated.During filling operations
both the edges should be protected by pitching /rip-raping/retaining wall as per the

Dream in Motion (Tendering) 135

requirement..Adequate measures should be taken to control soil erosion and
sedimentation.Government of India, Ministry of Railways guidelines for earthwork in Railway
projects should be strictly followed.As soon as construction work is over the surplus earth
should be utilised to fill up low lying area. Loose earth should not be allowed to pile up near
Contamination by aqueous
waste and sewage etc.

No lubricants, oils, solvents or paint products should be allowed to discharge into water
courses, either by direct discharge, or as contaminants carried in surface water runoff from
the construction site.All aqueous wastes and site runoff should comply with the CPCB
standards.Domestic sewage generated from any additional site toilets and washing facilities
provided for construction workers should be collected separately and disposed off or
appropriately treated to comply with statutory requirements.

Sourcing quarry materials

Quarry and borrow material such as sand, aggregates etc. should be collected only from the
licenced quarries. According to the licence conditions, the quarry sites should have an
approved quarry site management and closure plan including an Environmental
Managemental Plan(EMP).

Providing Labour Camps

and facilities

The contractor shall abide by the contract conditions and directions of DDC/ENGINEER with
respect to sitting of labour camps, if provided.Labour camps should be provided with proper
water supply sanitation, medical and educational facilities and labour welfare issues,
etc.Labour force in the labour camps should be provided with LPG cylinders to avoid
encroachment on forest area during construction phase.

Occupational health and safety The contractor is required to comply with all the precautions as required for the safety of
workmen as per the International Labour Organization (ILO) convention No. 62, as far as
those are applicable to the contract.
Provision of safety accessories/ The contractor shall supply all necessary safety appliances such as safety goggles, helmets,
appliances to each worker
safety belts, ear plugs, masks etc. to the workers and staff.
Safety precautions

Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent danger from electrical equipment.All

machines/equipment used shall confirm to the relevant Indian standards(IS) codes and shall
be regularly inspected by the DDC.

Availability of first aid kit at

construction site

A readily available first aid unit including an adequate supply of sterilized dressing material
and appliances shall be provided as per the requirements under the Factory Act. Depending
upon the number, the health facilities shall be arranged as WHO norms.

Workers and Commuters

health and Hygiene

All anti-malarial measures as prescribed by the DDC shall be compiled with, including filling
up of borrow pits.Railway works manual should be strictly followed.

Debris Disposal

Good disposal practices as recommended in DPR shall be followed. Temporary disposal of

demolition debris, felled trees or stockyard beyond the project corridor must be avoided.The
top soil from the stockpile shall be used to cover disturbed areas and also for re-development
of borrow areas, landscaping and roadside plantation.

136 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

TABLE 2: Environmental Monitoring Plan During Construction






Air Quality



1.Charil Village near

Banihal for south portal
2. Matigund near
Qazigund for north

Twice a week, four

8 hourly samples
weeks in a season and for 24 hrs/day (3
3 seasons in a year
samples in a day)
(summer, winter, post



1.Charil Village near

Banihal for south portal
2. Matigund near Qazigund
for north portal

Twice a week, four

One 8 hourly
weeks in a season and sample/day (1
3 seasons in a year
sample in a day)
(summer, winter, post


1. Charil Village near
Once in a year
Banihal for south portal
standards 2. Matigund near Qazigund
for north portal
1.5 m away from the

Noise Quality

Water Quality
PH, Dissolved Oxygen, MoEF
Bisleri river
(Surface water) Bio-chemical Oxygen Standards
Demand, Total Dissolved Solids, Total
Suspended Solids, Oil
and Grease, Chlorides,
Sulphates, Fluorides,
Total Iron, Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphates
and Coliform count


On hourly basis in
order to have an
assessment of the
Day and Night time
noise levels once in
a season in the
study area.

Once every following

season; summer,
winter and postmonsoon.

1 grab sample for

surface water

TABLE 3: Key Environmental Legislations in India


Scope and Objective

Key Areas

Operational Agencies/
Key Players

Water (Prevention and

Control of Pollution Act,

To provide for the prevention and

control of water pollution and
enhancing the quality of water

Controls sewage and

Central and State Pollution
industrial effluent discharges Control Boards

Air (Prevention and Control To provide for the prevention

of Pollution Act (1981)
and control of air pollution

Controls emissions of air


Central and State Pollution

Control Boards

Forest Conservation Act,


To halt Indias rapid deforestation

and resulting Environmental

Restriction on dereservation
and using forest for nonforest purpose

Central government

Wildlife Protection Act,


To protect wildlife

Creates protected areas

(national parks/sanctuaries)
categories of wildlife which
are protected

Wildlife advisory boards;

Central Zoo Authorities

Dream in Motion (Tendering) 137

Environment Protection

To provide for the protection and

improvement of Environment

An umbrella legislation;
supplements pollution laws

Central government nodal

agency MoEF; can delegate
powers to state department of Environment

5.4.29 Protection of Trees

The contractor must organize his work in such a way that the ecology of the area is not affected. The instructions
issued in this regard will have to be carefully followed.
The section passes through forestland. The contractor or his workers are prohibited to cut trees. Cutting of trees as
required under the items of works indicated in the tender schedules may be carried out strictly as directed by the
Engineer-in-charge of the work. Unauthorized felling of trees will result in legal action for which contractor shall be

5.4.30 Safety Procedures

Importance of safety was also considered in tender and it had been mentioned that the contractor shall:i) Comply with all applicable safety regulations,
ii) Take care for the safety of all persons entitled to be on the Site,
iii) Use reasonable efforts to keep the Site and Works clear of unnecessary obstruction so as to avoid danger
to these persons,
iv) Provide fencing, lighting, guarding and watching of the Works until completion and taking over , and
v) Provide any Temporary Works (including roadways, footways, guards and fences) which may be necessary,
because of the execution of the Works, for the use and protection of the public and of owners and
occupiers of adjacent land.
vi) The contractor shall supply all necessary safety appliances such as safety goggles, helmets, safety belts,
ear plugs, masks etc. to the workers, staff and also for consultants, employer, visiting officers/guests etc.

5.4.31 Insurance Clause

Before commencing of works, it shall be obligatory for the Contractor to obtain, at his own cost, insurance cover in
the joint name of the Contractor and Employer from reputed companies under the following requirements:
i) Contractor All risk policy (CAR) for the works as per arrangement.
ii) Liability for death of or injury to any person or loss of or damage to any property (other than the work)
arising out the performance of the Contract.
iii) Construction Plant, Machinery and Equipment brought to site by the Contractor.
iv) Any other insurance cover as may be required by the law of the land.
v) The Contractor shall provide evidence to the Employer/Engineer before commencement of work at site
that the insurances required under the contract have been affected and shall within 60 days of the
commencement date; provide the insurance policies to the Employer/Engineer. The Contractor shall,
whenever, called upon, produce to the Engineer or his representative the evidence of payment of
premiums paid by him to ensure that the policies indeed continue to be in force.
vi) The Contractor shall also obtain any additional insurance cover as per the requirements of the Contract.
vii) The Employer/Engineer shall not be liable for or in respect of any damages or compensation payable to
any workman or other person in the employment of the Contractor or his sub-contractor or petty

138 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

contractor. The Contractor shall indemnify and keep indemnified the Employer/Engineer against all such
damages and compensation for which the Contractor is liable.
viii) The Policies of the Contractor shall remain in force through out the period of execution of the works and
till the expiry of the defect liability period except for any specific insurance covers necessary for shorter
ix) If the Contractor fails to effect or keep in force or provide adequate cover as acceptable to the Engineer
in the insurance policies mentioned above, then in such cases, the Engineer may effect and keep in force
any such insurance or further insurance on behalf of the Contractor. The recovery shall be made at the
rate of 1.5 times the premium/premiums paid by the Engineer in this regard from the payment due to
the Contractor or from the Contractors Performance Security. However, the Contractor shall not be
absolved from his responsibility and/or liability in this regard.

5.4.32 Submittals
For proper control on special condition of contract it has been mentioned that within 21 days from the date or issue
of the Letter of Acceptance, the CONTRACTOR shall submit to the ENGINEER, updated layout plans showing, to an
adequate scale, the locations and arrangement of all Temporary Works and facilities. These plans shall be consistent
with the plans submitted by the CONTRACTOR with his bid as well as with any amendments and additions
subsequently agreed to by the ENGINEER and the CONTRACTOR, and shall include:
i) Camps for CONTRACTORs employees.
ii) Offices, parking areas, warehouses, storage areas and medical-care services.
iii) Water supply, sewerage, sewage treatment and disposal, power supply and illumination, telephone
services (radio and cable).
iv) Temporary road works, including public road diversions.
v) Equipment pools and mechanical workshops.
vi) Dumping areas, borrow, quarry and stockpile areas with development plans.
vii) Concrete and material processing plants, including cement storage.
viii) Field Laboratory
ix) Underground Ventilation System
x) Drawings and Specification for the establishment of any infirmary first aid stations, clinics and ambulances.
xi) Detailed layout drawings for electrical installations and distribution systems, on the Site, showing voltages,
outlets and routing of power lines.
xii) Detailed design and drawings including manufacturers drawings for concrete and materials processing
plants in accordance with the requirements of the pertinent chapter of these specifications.
xiii) Details of the drilling and grouting equipment in accordance with the requirements set out in the relevant
chapter of these specifications.
xiv) Details of the underground ventilation system, which shall include all calculations of fresh air supply
volume, type of ventilation scheme, duct diameters, materials and equipment and position of ventilators
and dust arresters. Description of the working cycle including number of persons employed, number
and capacity of diesel powered equipment working at one time at each heading face shall also be included.
xv) CONTRACTORs Safety Plan


Bringing The Dream To Reality


6.1 Construction of Pir Panjal Tunnel

The construction of Udhampur Srinagar Baramulla Broad Gauge Rail Link is being undertaken by the Indian
Railways in order to establish an all weather means of transportation and to connect the State of J&K by rail with
the rest of the country. The construction of a part of the project has been entrusted to M/s IRCON International
Ltd., a PSU under the Ministry of Railways of the Govt. of India.
IRCON has been working on the construction of the railway track from Dharam to Quazigund (57Km) in the project.
The railway alignment from Dharam to Quazigund traverses an almost inaccessible mountain terrain of the PirPanjal ranges, which have thick forests and deep gorges. The scope of work on Dharam-Quazigund section is of
survey and detailed design, followed by construction between Km 97 to 154 (57 Km).
IRCON had sub-contracted the work of construction of Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel having length 10.960 Km between
Banihal and Quazigund station to M/s Hindustan Construction Co. Ltd. The Detailed Design and Construction
Supervision Consultancy Contract for this tunnel had been awarded to a Joint Venture of M/s Geo-consult ZT GmbH
of Austria and M/s Rites of India.

6.2 Construction Materials and their quality aspects


Different types of construction materials used in the construction of the Pir Panjal Tunnel are:i) Aggregate
ii) Water
iii) Cement
iv) Admixture and Accelerator
ii) Steel for Reinforcement
iii) Structural Steel

Besides these materials, following support elements were used:

i) Wire Mesh
ii) Lattice girder

140 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

iii) Shotcrete
iv) Rock Bolts
v) Fore poles

6.2.2 Standards and Specifications

Aggregate and Water
IS: 456-2000
IS: 383-1970 (Reaffirmed)
IS: 2386 (Part-IV) 1963 (Reaffirmed)
IS: 516-1959 (Reaffirmed)
IS: 269-1989
IS: 1489-1991
IS: 8112-1989
IS: 12269-1987
IS: 12330-1988
IS: 455-1989
Steel for Reinforcement
IS: 432 (Part I) -1982 (Reaffirmed)
IS: 2062-1992
IS: 1786-1985 (Reaffirmed)
Structural Steel
IS: 2062-1992
IS: 808-1989
IS: 8500-1991
IS: 800-1984 (Reaffirmed)
Steel for Pipes
IS: 6286-1971 (Reaffirmed)
IS: 3589-1991
IS: 1536-1989 (Reaffirmed)
IS: 6631-1972 (Reaffirmed)

6.3 Detail of Construction Materials

6.3.1 Aggregate
i) General
a) Use of aggregate (coarse and fine) containing more than codally permitted amount of zeolites, secondary
minerals and such other components which cause alkali reactivity of the aggregate and consequent reduction
in durability of the concrete was prohibited.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 141

b) The Constructing Agency had made own arrangements for aggregate crushing plants for crushing of aggregate
from stones extracted from approved quarries or obtained after excavation from underground or other
c) The quality of all aggregate used in the works after washing, classifying, screening, rescreening, crushing
and blending met the required specifications.
d) The aggregate were sampled and tested in accordance with the Indian Standards.

ii) Coarse Aggregate

a) The term coarse aggregate applied to pieces of natural or crushed rock ranging in sizes from 4.75 mm to
150 mm.
b) The aggregate used were clean, hard, strong and durable pieces of stone, angular or rounded in shape
obtained naturally or by crushing from suitable stones. Coarse aggregate used should contain less than
15% elongated or flat pieces. An elongated piece was defined as a piece of stone that had a maximum
length of more than 5 times its maximum width. A flat piece was defined as that in which its maximum
width or length is more than 5 times its maximum thickness.
c) Coarse aggregate delivered to the batching plant were ensured to have uniform and stable moisture content.
d) The coarse aggregate were free from objectionable materials such as wood or other deleterious substances.
The sum of the percentages of all deleterious substances in any size was restricted to less than 3 percent by
weight. Coarse aggregate having a specific gravity less than 2.60 were not used.
e) Only those aggregate were used which were resistant to deleterious, chemical or physical changes such as
cracking, swelling, softening, leaching or chemical alterations after its incorporation in concrete.

When subjected to sodium sulphate soundness test, only those coarse aggregate that did not suffer more
than 12 percent loss of weight after five cycles, were used.

g) The aggregate were crushed in approved type of stone crushers and different sizes of the coarse aggregate
separated into nominal sizes by screening over vibrating screens as under were used.
Designation of size
20 mm down aggregate
40 mm down aggregate
80 mm down aggregate
150 mm down aggregate

Nominal size range

4.75 mm to 20 mm
20 mm to 40 mm
40 mm to 80 mm
80 mm to 150 mm

h) The gradation of the coarse aggregate for the various maximum sizes of aggregate as set out in the relevant
Standards were followed strictly.

The percentage by weight of all the significant under-sizes was less than 5 percent when tested on the
designated test screens having openings 5 to 6 times the normal minimum size of the material. No oversized material that would be retained on the designated test screens having openings 6 to 7 times the
normal sizes of the material was permitted.

iii) Fine Aggregate (Sand)

a) General
Sand (fine aggregate) used in concrete work was either natural river sand or manufactured sand crushed
from rock/stones or mixture of the two in specified proportions. The sand comprised of hard, clean and
gritty particles of stone and of free from injurious amount of clay, soft and flaky particles, vegetable or
organic matter, loam, mica and other deleterious substances, not containing any salts was used.

142 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

b) The fine aggregate conformed to IS:383-1970 (Reaffirmed 1990). Varying amount of moisture in fine
aggregate contributes to lack of uniformity in concrete consistency. The fine aggregate of uniform and
stable moisture content or Dry sand was used. Sand stockpiles were always protected from rain.
c) The percentage of deleterious substances in the fine aggregate has conformed to relevant Standards and
did not contain more than 0.10 percent by weight of deleterious (reactive) ferrous sulphides.
d) Fine aggregate having a specific gravity of less than 2.60 were not used. The sand used was the one when
subjected to a soundness test with a solution of sodium sulphate, after 5 cycles of tests, did not suffer a loss
of weight in excess of 10 percent.
e) The sand used was well graded and when tested by standard sieves, conformed to the prescribed gradation.

The sand, as delivered to the batching plant, had a fineness modulus of 2.6 to 3. The grading of fine aggregate
has been so controlled that the fineness modulus of at least 9 out of 10 samples of fine aggregate delivered
to the batching plant did not vary by more than 0.20 from the average of 10 samples tested.

g) Natural Sand:

Natural sand was used obtained from approved sources only. No sand affected by salty water was ever
used for construction work. The sand was screened and thoroughly washed.

Natural sand used for project was free from laterite and other softer grains.

The presence of mica in the fine aggregate considerably reduces the compressive strength of concrete.
Therefore, the mica content was always investigated and suitable allowances were made against any
possible reduction in strength of concrete and mortar.

The contents of any organic matter were limited to permissible values as per relevant Standards.

h) Manufactured Sand

Whenever natural sand conforming to the required specifications was not available, recourse was taken
to manufacture sand of desired quality by crushing the stones. The stone used conformed in all respects
to the stone/coarse aggregate specified earlier.

For improving workability of pumpable concrete mixes, an optimised combination of natural and
manufactured sand was used.

iv) Storage of Aggregate

a) At least one months requirement of all grades of aggregate was ensured at all times.
b) Adequate drainage of stockpiles of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate was ensured.
c) The stockpiling of the processed aggregate and drawings there from were so arranged that the variation in
the free moisture in the aggregate drawn during any one shift of working did not exceed 1 percent.
d) The coarse aggregate, as far as possible, were stored in shade or were covered and arrangement was made
for sprinkling of water to ensure the right temperature of wet concrete.
e) Care was taken in screening and stocking of the coarse aggregate so as to avoid intermixture of different
sizes and inclusion of any foreign materials.

The stockpiles were always built up in gently sloping piles.

g) Trucks and bulldozers were always kept off the piles to prevent breakage and effect the cleanliness of
h) Always a hard base was provided to prevent contamination of the stockpile from underlain materials.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 143


Overlapping of different sized materials was prevented by suitable separators or by ample distance between
storage piles.


Arrangements were made to store natural and manufactured sand as also the coarse aggregate in a way
that they remained protected from being contaminated with dust, organic matter or other deleterious

6.3.2 Water

Water was available from natural sources within the Project area. However, it could be scarce during certain
periods of a year. A fully reliable water supply for construction purposes was installed and maintained by
the working agency

ii) Additionally, adequate water storage was ensured by the working agency at the batching and mixing plants
and at work Sites so that various operations of works never suffered due to any temporary breakdown in
the main supply system.
iii) The water samples from the intended sources were regularly tested for suitability.
iv) Only clean water, free from all deleterious matter, vegetable or organic matter, injurious amount of oils,
acids, sugar, salt and alkaline substances in solution or in suspension and conforming to relevant Standards
was used for washing of aggregate, mixing mortar, concrete or grout . The maximum allowable contents of
sulphates (SO4) was 250 parts per million (ppm) and those of chlorides (Cl) was 200 mg per litre for plain
concrete works and 100 mg per litre for reinforced concrete works. Turbidity was within 2000 ppm (or 0.2
percent by weight).
v) Water used for curing was clean and free from contamination of acids or alkalis or other matter.
vi) Average 28 days compressive strength of at least three 15 cm concrete cubes prepared with the same
water as was actually used, was never less than 90 percent of the average strength of three similar concrete
cubes prepared with distilled water. The cubes were prepared, cured and tested in accordance with the

6.3.3 Cement

The working agency procured the cement of the specified quality only from the approved cement sources/
plants. For this purpose at least two sources/plants out of those intimated by the working agency for
approval, were kept available so that one was a standby in the event of any eventualities.

ii) Cement used for various works was of different types, viz. Ordinary Portland Cement, Portland Pozzolana
Cement, Portland Slag Cement and Sulphate Resistant Cement and each conformed to the relevant Standards.
iii) The working agency delivered with each supply of 100 MT of cement a certificate from the manufacturers/
suppliers by which the cement is guaranteed to comply with the requirement of the specifications.
iv) If ever any aggregate from the quarries identified to have alkali reactive tendency were brought the cement
used there had to have alkali contents (i.e. Na2O and K2O expressed in equivalent weight of Na2O) NOT
exceeding 0.6 percent by weight of cement.
v) The cement was always sampled and tested for strength and physical properties and chemical analysis
carried out as set out in relevant Standards. Thus, its quality was ensured.

vi) Transportation
a) Cement was delivered at Site in bulk/bags in bulk containers/trucks.

144 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

b) All bulk containers/carriers had to be clean and dry prior to filling/loading with cement and equipped with
weather proof closures on all openings.

vii) Storage

Sufficient storage facilities were provided at the batching plant to enable each new shipment of cement to
be stored separately from the cement stored from earlier shipments.

b) Cement was always stored above ground, adequately protected against rain, sun and moisture. Bulk storage
bins and silos would always be emptied complete and cleaned of all cement accumulation after every 3
c) Arrangement was made such that the stock of approved cement was adequate to meet the programme of
work at all times, the programme will allowing time for testing and approval of each shipment before such
cement was incorporated in the works.
d) Cement was used in the order in which it was received at Site. Cement of different brands, if received on
Site, was not combined in the same mix and structure.
e) Handling and storage facilities were kept such that no cement was stored for more than 120 days before

6.3.4 Admixtures

Admixtures for the improvement of performance and workability of concrete, were used.

ii) Technical criteria, approved documentation, test reports and test certificates conforming to Indian standards,
were compulsory.
iii) Admixtures would be stored under the conditions specified and recommended by the manufacturers.
iv) The manufacturers safety instructions were always observed.
v) Plasticizers and super plasticizers were used to achieve pumpable concrete with minimum water content.
These were checked regularly for setting time, water reduction and development of strength as compared
with that of the base concrete. Their compatibility with cements, latent hydraulic binders and accelerators
were verified by observation in the field suitability tests. The effects and optimum dosages of plasticizers
and super plasticizers has been determined by the field suitability tests to achieve the shotcrete/concrete
properties required as per Specification.
vi) Accelerators
a) Accelerators were used to produce a fast set and to get sufficient early strength. Accelerating admixtures
have to be compatible with the cement used. The compatibility was tested in the laboratory by the
manufacturer and verified by the working agency in field.
b) The dosage to be used were determined by field suitability tests to produce early and final strength of
shotcrete/concrete as per specifications.
c) Only alkali-free accelerators were used. The alkali content would need to be kept less than 1% mass
(Na2O-equivalent, EN 480-12).
d) An addition to the dosage rate determined by the field suitability tests, it was not to exceed 2% of the
cement content of the mix by weight. The dosage of accelerator had to be kept to the minimum required
for spraying in situ shotcrete.
e) Automatic devices were used to add the accelerator.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 145

vii) Hydration Control Admixtures
a) Hydration Control Admixtures are added to the concrete to delay cement hydration to maintain workability
and extend the open time between mixing to application.
b) To reactivate and neutralise the hydration control effect, a suitable accelerator (activator) is needed to
be added during spraying. The activator has to be compatible with the hydration control admixture
following the manufacturers recommendation.
c) The effects and optimum dosages of hydration control admixtures were determined by the field suitability
tests to achieve the required open time and workability and the shotcrete properties as required as per
viii) Internal curing admixtures could be added to the basic mix of the shotcrete to reduce loss of water, shrinkage
and cracks and improve the strength and the bond to the substrate and between layers. These can replace
the use of external curing agents or other types of curing. The effect was determined by field suitability
ix) Use of Fly Ash, Blast Furnace Slag, Silica Fume.
a) Additives, such as fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and silica fume for the improvement of
performance, workability etc., of concrete, could be added, The performance of the shotcrete mix with
additives was determined by field suitability tests.
b) Additives were stored under the conditions specified and recommended by the manufacturers.

6.3.5 Steel for Reinforcement


Steel reinforcement, conforming to the relevant Indian Standards specified in the Drawings, was procured
by the contractor.

ii) Steel used was free from loose mill scale and rust, oil, grease, dirt, paint and any other deleterious matter.
iii) Transportation and Storage

No damage to reinforcement steel during its transportation as well as storage was ensured.

Reinforcement steel was always stored off the ground in separate groups according to size and length.
Reinforcement steel, cut and bent and marked with bar numbers, as shown in the Drawings, were always
tied with weather proof tags and stored in a manner as would make them readily accessible for availability
and inspection.

6.3.6 Structural Steel


All structural steel used conformed to the relevant Indian Standards specified in the Drawings and was of
new/unused stock, clean and straight, free from rust or scale and without any kinks, bends or other
objectionable defects.

ii) The material used in splices conformed to the Specifications of the material being spliced.

6.3.7 Natm Support Elements

i) Wire Mesh (Welded Wire Fabrics)

Steel wire were of grade Fe 500, conforming to IS 1786. The mesh was 15cm x 15cm x 6mm and was
delivered to the site in flat mats or was pre-bent to the specified shape, as was required.

146 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

b) Installation
The steel wire mesh was installed such that it followed as closely as was possible the irregularities of the
excavated surface or the previous layers of shotcrete which ever was the case had to be firmly fixed to
prevent vibration and change of position during shotcreting. The meshes were installed in the longest
practical lengths. The mesh overlap of the steel wire meshes applied in the shotcrete lining was at least
twice the pitch distance in circumferential and one pitch distance in longitudinal direction.
c) Roof Ties for wire mesh

Reinforcing bars of grade Fe 415, conforming to IS 1786.

Roof ties were attached securely to the rock and in front of the previously placed wire mesh. The positions
of the roof ties corresponded with the lines of the rock bolts that were to be installed and such that the
latter would pass through the section of the roof tie.

Beside this, reinforcing steel bars were required as additional reinforcement in the shotcrete lining in heavily stressed
areas, depending on the local ground conditions.
These Reinforcing steel bars were of grade Fe 500, conforming to IS 1786, contained no flash welds and were not
water quenched and rest tempered. These would be attached securely to the previously placed shotcrete layer or
wire mesh. Overlaps were arranged as shown in the relevant drawings.

6.3.8 Lattice Girders

i) General Requirements
a) The structural steel for the lattice girders, required and used as supports in underground excavations,
conformed to IS: 2062 1992 and Steel IS: 1786 1985 (Reaffirmed 2000), and ASTM A36/A36M (Standard
Specification for Carbon Structural Steel) and welding conformed to American Welding Society AWS D1.4 Structural Welding Code - Reinforcing Steel.
b) Lattice Girders were effective as primary supports immediately after excavation and subsequently as
reinforcement and load distributing members for the shotcrete lining. These are fabricated to meet the
geometrical requirements for the excavation geometries for each rock class. During handling and shipping
lattice girders, care was taken to prevent bending, scraping or overstressing the members. Any of their
projecting parts, that were likely to be bent or damaged during handling, were blocked with wood or other
suitable material. Pieces that some times got bent or damaged were replaced unless repair was possible.

ii) Shop Drawings:

Shop Drawings for the fabrication of the lattice girders showed Complete fabrication details, Installation procedures
and layouts. Details of joints, connections, spacers and geometry, etc.

iii) Design of Lattice Girders

a) Lattice girders are three dimensional, lightweight steel frames, fabricated out of round or corrugated steel
bars, in compliance with the required excavation geometry of the tunnel.
b) These consist of three primary bars, connected by stiffening elements designed so as to conveniently facilitate
the penetration of shortcrete into and behind the lattice girder, thereby minimizing the creation of projection
shadows. They also provide good quality bonding between the steel and shotcrete, forming a composite
structure in the sense of a continuous reinforced shotcrete lining.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 147

c) Atleast 5% of the total moment of inertia provided by the stiffening elements. This percentage is calculated
as an average value along repeatable lengths of the lattice girder.
d) To ensure stability against buckling, the maximum spacing between stiffening elements was limited to less
than three times the cross sectional height of the girder.
e) Materials

Each of the primary bars of a lattice girder segment has been composed of one single piece of Fe 500

The connection elements at the ends of the lattice girder segments was of angled structural steel having
a yield strength of 250 MPa (or more), or of welded flat steel ensuring similar strength characteristics.

iv) Fabrication of Lattice Girders:

a) Geometry
Lattice Girders for tunnel construction were so designed and fabricated as to meet and allow for the tolerable
clearances and inaccuracies incumbent in the excavation work in tunnel construction.
b) Welding of Lattice Girders
i) Testing of materials and workmanship was meticulously carried out in accordance with AWS D1.4.
where the contractors performance was found inadequate, an approved agency was brought in to execute
the work.
ii) For Welding, the manual metal-arc welding process was employed. The manufacturer was responsible
for ensuring that the capacity of the welding plant and ancillary equipment was adequate for the welding
procedure to be used and for maintaining all welding plant and ancillary equipment in good working
iii) Covered electrodes, complying with German Standard DIN 1913, were used. The Electrodes were selected
in keeping with the particular application (welding position, joint design, etc.). Electrodes were stored in
their original containers in a dry and even heated places, adequately protected from the effects of the
weather, all in accord with the manufacturers specification.
iv) Surfaces to be welded were ensured to be dry. Fusion faces and the surrounding surfaces were made
free from heavy scale, moisture, oil, paint and any other substance which could affect the quality of the
weld. Slag was removed from each run of weld metal before a further run was superimposed. Only the
most favourable welding position for each case was chosen.
v) For cutting of the steel profiles the manual flame cutting process and sawing were employed.
vi) Further preparation of joint and fusion faces was accomplished by grinding.
vii) Joints to be welded were so detailed in the drawings that they were easily accessible and visible to the
viii) Slag was always removed from all welds in order to allow visual inspection.
ix) Welding operations were supervised by a suitably trained supervisor who had the particular production
experience. The welding supervisor was responsible for the following:

employment of the welders and skilled operators and for the supervision of their work

selection, use and storage of suitable welding filler metals and auxiliary materials

selection and use of satisfactory welding apparatus, welding plant and welding fixtures

visual and dimensional checking of the weld seams as described under (n) below.

148 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

x) Welding had to pass the acceptance test as described under (xiii) below.
xi) Prior to commencement of any type of welding connection by a welders, three nos. of identical joints
would be fabricated by that welder under conditions of the regular manufacturing process for inspection.
These joints would then be checked and ensured for acceptance.
xii) Routine inspection of welding used to be carried out by spot checking of not less than 10 per cent of the
welded joints in compliance with (n) below.
xiii) Acceptance test and routine inspection used to be made in accordance with the criteria described below.
Visible defects exceeding the limits mentioned below would be rectified and replaced adequately.

Acceptable Limits:
Undersize welds

0.1 (10 %)


Permitted to a limited extent

Visible pores

some, 10% by area

Visible slag inclusion

permitted to a limited extent not continuous

Open end craters

slight depressions permitted

Lack of fusion

permitted, but no large and no continuous areas


Individual minor local cracks permitted

Excessive asymmetry of welds

side ratio <1.0 : 0.6

v) Installation of Lattice Girders

a) These would be installed to conform the excavated shape.
b) The lattice girders would be secured using spacers as well as temporary wood blocking, mortar sacks and
other appropriate means to maintain position during shotcreting.
c) Butt plates would be provided at the steel girder segments and expansion unit in invert, as required, ensuring
tight connection of all elements such that the static efficiency of the cross section was maintained.
d) Lattice girders had to be well embedded in shotcrete in order to ensure contact between rock and lattice
girder by a solid shotcrete packing having a minimum cover of 20 mm to steel.
e) The lattice girders would be erected perpendicular to the tunnel axis.

6.3.9 Shotcrete for Primary Lining

i) General
a) Shotcrete for the purpose of this work was only a wet mix shotcrete unless it was directed otherwise by the
concerned authority.
b) Shotcrete is concrete which is conveyed to the place of installation in a closed hose or tube, applied and
compacted by jetting onto a surface at high velocity from a nozzle to produce a dense homogeneous mass.
c) Dry shotcrete method: In this, the mixture of cement and aggregate, weight or volume batched, thoroughly
mixed dry, and fed into a purpose-made machine where the mixture is pressurised, metered into a dry air
stream, and conveyed through hoses or pipes to the nozzle before which water as a spray is introduced to
hydrate the mix which is then projected (shot) without interruption into place.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 149

d) Wet shotcrete method: In this, the mixture of cement and aggregate, weigh batched and mixed with water
at site or in mixer trucks prior to being conveyed through a pipeline to a nozzle where air is pressure
injected and the wet mix in then projected (shot) without interruption into place.

Nozzle is an attachment at the end of the hose from which material is jetted.

Rebound material is material having passed through the nozzle which does not conform to the definition
of shotcrete.

The requirement of the early strength development of shotcrete from the time of spraying till 24 hours
after spraying, is specified in the standard specifications.

Final strength of shotcrete is the strength at age 28 days from spraying.

Reference Shotcrete is made of the same mix as actual shotcrete, but without the Accelerator. Reference
Shotcrete was sprayed into panels by means of the same shotcrete equipment as samples, cured and
tested in the same conditions as the actual shotcrete.

Accelerator is an admixture used to accelerate setting for early strength development of the shotcrete.

ii) Standards
Shotcrete materials, production methods, application and testing, and admixtures used, conformed to the following
Indian Standards and where not covered by these standards, to the equivalent International Standards. In case of
conflict between the following standards and specifications, the latter took precedence.
a) Indian Standards:

IS: 456 2000, Plain and Reinforced Concrete.

IS: 269 1989, Specification for 33 grade Ordinary Portland Cement.

IS: 1489 Part 1: 1991, Specification for Portland Pozzolana Cement Part 1, Flyash based.

IS: 1489 Part 2: 1991, Specification for Portland-Pozzolana Cement Part 2 ,calcined clay based.

IS: 383 1970, Specification for Coarse and Fine Aggregate from natural sources, for concrete.

IS: 516 -1959, Method of test for strength of concrete.

IS: 9012 1978 (Reaffirmed 1987), Recommended Practice for Shotcreting.

IS: 2645 2003, Integral Waterproofing Compounds for Cement Mortar and Concrete - Specification

IS: 9103 1999, Concrete Admixtures Specification.

IS: 12269 1987, Specification for 53 grade Ordinary Portland Cement.

IS: 8112 1989, Specification for 43 grade Ordinary Portland Cement.

b) Austrian Standard:

Austrian Guideline for Shotcrete, sterreichischer Betonverein (BV), Oct. 1998

c) European Standards:

European Specification for Sprayed Concrete, EFNARC 1996

EN 480-12

d) American Standards for Testing Materials:

ASTM C150 - Standard Specification for Portland Cement

ASTM C33 - Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregate

150 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

ASTM A820 - Standard Specification for Steel Fibers for Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

ASTM C 1018-89 Standard test method for flexural toughness and first crack strength for fibre reinforced

e) American Association of State Highway and Transposition Officials (AASHTO):

AASHTO T26 - Standard Method of Test for Quality of Water to be used in Concrete.

f) British Standards:

BS 5328 Methods for specifying concrete, including ready-mixed concrete


iii) Materials
a) Cement

Cement used for shotcrete conformed to IS 456 : 2000.

Specific Fineness of the cement used, after Blaine, was between 4,000 and 5,000 cm2/g and this achieved
sufficient early strength of the shotcrete.

The maximum temperature of the cement in the mixing plant silos was limited to 70C and was limited
to 60C at the time of mixing. Cement was fresh and was stored in a dry area / silo.

b) Aggregate

All Fine and Coarse Aggregate used were supplied from approved sources, which were not allowed to be
changed without permission in writing. These Aggregate conformed to the requirements of IS 456 :

The aggregate were ensured to be clean, strong and durable, and suitably graded and did not contain
detrimental amounts of dust, mud, clay and any organic impurities.

The content of Chloride ion was limited to 0.35% by mass of cement.

The maximum size of the Aggregate was limited to 12 mm for wet process and 16 mm for dry process.
The proportion of aggregate larger than 8mm size was limited to 15% for the wet process in order to
minimise rebound.

The grain size distribution was as shown in Table 6.1(given below).

Frozen aggregate were never used. Minimum temperature of the Aggregate was never less than 5C.
The amount of fine particles under 0.1mm was limited to 8%.
Standard Sieve

Sieve Size [mm]

Passing in %




Table 6.1: Grain size distribution of Aggregate for wet-mix shotcrete

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 151

c) Admixtures
These have already been covered in the earlier part of the chapter.
d) Water
Water shall comply in all respect with IS 456 : 2000.
e) Use of Fly Ash, Blast Furnace Slag, Silica Fume.
These have already been covered in the earlier part of the chapter
f) Mix Design

The mix for shotcrete was designed by field suitability tests to meet the requirements of the Specification.
The following factors were taken into consideration:

The Gradation limits of the Aggregate.

Cement content

Water-cement ratio

Plasticizer /Super plasticizer: type and dosage, where used.

Hydration control admixture: type and dosage, where used.

Internal curing admixtures, where used.

Accelerating admixtures, where used.

Early and Final strength.

Strength vis--vis that of the reference shotcrete.


Temperature of the mix

Target slump and slump retention of the mix for optimum placement and performance.

Cement Content

For the dry shotcrete process the quantity of cement was not less than 350 kg/m dry mix.

For the wet shotcrete process the minimum cement content was 400 kg/m.

Variation from the above cement contents for special, where needed, was cases agreed to at the site
between the concerned authority and the working agency.

Requirements of shotcrete

Early Strength
The early strength of shotcrete conformed to the early strength class J2 according to Fig. 6.1. For
explanations regarding the use of Early Strength Classes J1, J2 and J3 see Austrian Guideline for Shotcrete.

152 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 6.1: Early Strength Requirement for Shotcrete

The measurement of early strength was carried out done by using the penetration needle, Hilti Shotbolt
system (or equivalent) according to the Austrian Guideline for Shotcrete, March 1999. Cores stronger
than 10 N/mm2 were used for testing of shotcrete.

Continued Strength Development

The 72 hours strength of the shotcrete was at least 12.5 N/mm.

The strength of the shotcrete at 7 days has been at least 70 % of the specified 28 day strength.

Final Strength

The final strength of shotcrete conformed to the values specified in the specifications. In addition, the
long term strength was also determined at a sample age of 6 months. Any slight decrease of the long
term strength compared to the 28 days strength would lead to further investigations and possible
adjustments in the mix design.

A factor of 0.85 between the Field Suitability tests and the Quality Control tests was assumed to allow
for effects of in-situ installation conditions.

GRADE (acc. to IS 456 : 2000)

Characteristic compressive cube1) strength at 28 days
(determined by Field Suitability Tests2)) [N/mm2]

In-situ strength requirements (determined by Quality Control Tests ) [N / mm ]







Table 6.2 : Shotcrete compressive strength

1) Cylinder specimen with a diameter of 100mm and a length of 100mm was considered equivalent to a 150
mm cube.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 153

2) Specified strength was based on statistical minimum strength (5% fractal). (Data based on the average of
tests shall exceed the specified strength by 5 N/mm2.)

Batching, Mixing and Transportation

Truck mixers used for the transportation of shotcrete underground were fitted with approved exhaust

Dry Shotcrete Process

(a) Cement and Aggregate weigh batched in proportions as designed. At the time of batching all aggregate
were dry or drained sufficiently to result in a stable moisture content, which not more than 7 % by
weight. The water content had then to be adjusted.
(b) Mixing of cement and aggregate was performed mechanically with a pan type mixer. Shotcrete was
placed only if it could be completed within a period of 90 minutes from the time of mixing unless a
hydration control admixture was used and the latter was suitable to inhibit setting and retain consistence
for the time span required in placing the shotcrete. The hydration control admixture had to be approved
by the concerned authority.
(c) The mixing time was in accordance with BS 5328.
(d) A system of delivery notes were maintained to record the date, the time of mixing, mix design number,
quantity, delivery point, time of delivery and completion of placing. The delivery notes were available to
the concerned authority for inspection.
(e) For the dry process, powder or liquid type accelerating admixtures were added to the dry-mix. The
powder type accelerator was proportioned and added just before the dry mix entered the shotcrete
machine through a mechanical device (dispenser). Periodic calibration checks performed in accordance
with the manufacturers recommendation. Liquid type accelerator was delivered by a special dosage
pump and added to the dry-mix at or near the nozzle. Dosage pump and the hoses to the nozzle were
always kept in good order.
(f) Dry-Mix delivered to the shotcrete machine had a temperature of at least 5C but never more than 32C.
(g) During hot weather the water content of the aggregate for the dry process was kept above 4% in order
to avoid cement loss at the rotor of the shotcrete machine.
(h) During transportation, the dry mix was effectively protected against the influence of weather.

Wet Shotcrete Process

(a) Only liquid type of accelerator was used in the wet process; and it would be added at or near the nozzle.
The delivery from the accelerator pump was controlled to be proportional to the output of the shotcrete
pump. Accelerator pump calibration was periodically checked in accordance with the manufacturers
recommendations. The nozzle had to be such as to ensure a homogeneous mixture of the accelerator
with the wet-mix.
(b) Shotcrete would be placed only if it could be completed within a period of 120 minutes from the time of
mixing unless a hydration control admixture was added and the latter was suitable to inhibit setting and
retain consistence for the time span required. At high ambient temperatures ( above 32C) hydration
control admixtures were used to ensure concrete afforded sufficient open time.
(c) Temperature of concrete delivered to the shotcrete machine had to be between 15C and 32C.
(d) A system of delivery notes was maintained to record the date, the time of mixing, mix design number,
quantity, delivery point, time of delivery and completion of placing. The delivery notes were available to
the concerned authority for inspection.

154 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Placing of Shotcrete

Rock or previously applied shotcrete surface to be shotcreted was carefully cleaned of all loose material,
scale and other contaminations, sometimes using compressed air and a water jet.

The optimum distance between nozzle and surface of application would be 1.0 to 1.5 m. The nozzle
would be positioned at right angle to the surface of application.

If the design thickness had to be applied in more than one layer, then the previous layer had to develop
sufficient strength to support the additional layer(s).

Lattice girders, roof ties, wire mesh and other reinforcement had to be embedded in shotcrete as shown
on the drawings.

If more than one layer of reinforcement was used, the second layer would not be positioned before the
first one was embedded and covered with shotcrete.

In sound rock the shotcrete followed the rock surface with proper rounding of notches and corners. At
projections of sound and hard rock edges, the actual shotcrete thickness could be locally reduced to two
thirds of the specified thickness-but this applied only to rock with ultimate compressive strength greater
than 30 N/mm2.

Rebound material would be removed immediately after finishing each shotcrete application. In particular
at horizontal shotcrete connections (owing to separate excavation sequences) and at all construction
joints the rebound material was removed even using pneumatic hammers, prior to further application
of shotcrete.

Under no circumstances would the rebound material be worked back into the construction.

Measures to establish the thickness of shotcrete were in place. These included visual guides installed
prior to shotcreting, holes drilled after completion of shotcreting or a full control by laser scanning.

Where deemed necessary curing of the shotcrete was performed by water spraying or other appropriate
measures subject to the approval according to standards and specification

Any major ground water seepages would be drained off prior to spraying shotcrete or after application
of a first sealing layer.

Nozzle men were trained in the correct application of shotcrete.

The static compressed air capacity measured at the shotcrete pump was according to the manufacturers
recommendations and generally as per EFNARC guidelines G 8.3.2 for wet process and G8.3.3 for dry

Full personal protection equipment to protect the nozzle man from eye and skin contact and inhalation
of shotcrete and admixtures fumes was provided. The Admixture manufacturers suggested precautions
and actions in case of accidental contact were provided for and adhered to.

Testing of Shotcrete

Field Suitability Tests used to be carried out to determine Early and Final Strengths in order to also
establish a suitable range of accelerator dosage for shotcrete applied in the field.

For each type of accelerating admixture and mix design a trial mix was sprayed into test panels (3 nos.
per trial mix) under site conditions. At least 3 different dosages of the accelerating admixture would be
tested, following the recommendation of the accelerator manufacturer. The range of accelerator dosage
would conform to the recommendations by the accelerator manufacturer.

The ambient temperature for each test was always kept same as per actual conditions in the tunnel.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 155

The compressive strength development up to 1.2 N/mm was also determined indirectly by a
Penetrometer using a plunger of 3 mm diameter according to the Austrian Guideline for Shotcrete,

The compressive strength development in the range between 1 and 16 N/mm may be determined
using the HILTI shot bolt method (or equivalent) according to the Austrian Guideline for Shotcrete, Clause

The compressive strength above 10 N/mm was determined by crushing of cylindrical shotcrete specimens.
After spraying shotcrete, the test panels were covered and not moved for 18 hours after spraying. Cores
for strength testing was obtained from the panels aged 18 and 24 hours after spraying. The cores for
determination of Final Strength would be stored in water until 3 days before testing. The specimens
were 100mm dia and cut to a height of 100mm.

The average value of five test results had to exceed the strength requirements for Field Suitability Tests
specified in Indian Standards by 5 N/mm.

It was required in the field that a shotcrete thickness of at least 150 mm could be applied within 5
minutes in any direction.

Quality Control Tests

To ensure the specified quality of shotcrete in the structure, following quality control tests were performed:

a) Aggregate
During construction, the aggregate gradation was tested every 14 days and complied with the Standards
and Specifications.
b) In-situ Early and Final Compressive Strength

One test would be made for every 100m to 300m of shotcrete applied, measured in theoretical
quantities. The Early Strength would be determined for up to 30 minutes. 12 cores would be drilled per
test from the tunnel wall. Four cores would be tested at 1 day, four at 3 days and four more at 7 days.

For every 500m of shotcrete applied, measured in theoretical quantities, the in-situ Final Strength of
shotcrete would be tested. The specimens would be prepared by means of core drilling at random locations
from the lining, 1 to 2 days before testing. The specimen was 100mm dia and cut to a length of 100mm.
The average 28 days strength of 4 cores was required to exceed the strength specified in the Standards
for quality control tests by 5 N/mm2.

c) Shotcrete thickness testing

The basic test to determine the thickness consisted of 4 nos. holes drilled on a 1m x 1m pattern. The
average thickness of shotcrete in each of the 4 holes has to be not less than the specified design thickness.
If not, remedial measures and/or further drill testing was done.
d) Slump Testing
The slump was tested for at the pump in order to confirm that the delivered mix was within 25mm of the
target slump.
e) Additional Tests
Additional tests were carried out for permeability. One set of cores would be taken from the top heading
and/or bench and/or invert, away from the construction joints, in order to give information on the
permeability of the shotcrete. Another set of cores would be taken from the top heading-bench joint and/
or the bench-invert joint in order to give information of the permeability at construction joints.

156 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Compressive Strength Failures

Failure of 1, 3 or 7 day compressive strength tests

i) Immediate examination of tunnel lining in suspect area

ii) Immediate examination of elements concerned in making, transporting and placing of shotcrete
iii) Assess the results of the geotechnical monitoring program
iv) Prepare to take further tests, including in-situ cores
v) Take further compression tests as soon as possible
vi) If needed measures for strengthening of the area was done on priority basis

Failure of Final Strength tests

vii) Further cores has been taken from the tunnel lining in the vicinity of the failed specimen to establish the
area of non-conformance
viii) Assess the results of the geotechnical monitoring program
ix) If needed measures for strengthening of the area was done on priority basis.

6.3.10 Rock Bolts

i) General

Rock bolts are installed either locally or in a systematic pattern in the roof, side walls, and in the invert of
the tunnel. Rock bolts are part of the primary support system with the purpose of activating the composite
action between the surrounding rock and the shotcrete.


Rock bolts have been installed according to the lengths and rock bolt patterns shown on the drawings for
each relevant standard support system unless the DDC had determined otherwise.

ii) References
a) Indian Standards:
IS: 1786 1985 (Reaffirmed 2000), Specification for high strength deformed steel bars and wires for concrete
b) American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM):
ASTM A36/A36M - Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel
ASTM C150 - Standard Specification for Portland Cement
ASTM C494 - Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete
ISRM - Doc.2, Part 1 Suggested Method for Rockbolt Testing.

iii) Definitions
a) SN-Bolts are made of deformed steel bars and fully bonded with the surrounding rock by cement mortar.
The hole is filled with grout before insertion of the bolt. The abbreviation SN descends from the mine
Store Norfors in Sweden where it had been applied first.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 157

Fig. 6.2: SN Bolt

b) Selfdrilling bolts are a combined system of rock bolt and drill rod. During drilling, the bolt is used as the drill
rod fixed with a drill bit. Rod and bit remain in the hole as a rock bolt, which is grouted through the flushing
hole. In case of collapsing boreholes, this system still enables the installation of rock bolts. Special provisions
also allow the grouting to be carried out simultaneously with the drilling operation to achieve a better
grouting effect.

Fig. 6.3: Self Drilling (SD) Rockbolts

c) Swellex- rockbolts (friction anchored rock bolts) are mechanically folded steel tubes. High water pressure
inflates the tube and adapts its shape to the irregularities of the borehole.

158 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 6.4 : Swellex-rockbolt

iv) Materials
a) SN-Bolts

SN-Bolts shall consist of rebars with a minimum diameter of 25 mm and steel grade Fe 415.

The yield loads of the bolts also applied to its thread, nut, anchor plate and coupling, if any.

Rock bolts were of deformed reinforcing steel with a corrugated surface, with One end fitted with a
suitable thread to receive the anchor plate and fixing nut.

Anchor plates were 200 x 200 mm and 12 mm thick, unless instructed otherwise by the DDC based on
support necessities.

Washers and nuts should allow secure transfer of anchor force to the anchor plate.

b) Selfdrilling Bolts

Self-drilling bolts installed in tunnels has a minimum yield load of 200 KN.

Self-drilling bolts installed at slopes had a minimum yield load of 230 KN.

Self-drilling bolts for pipe roofing had a minimum yield load of 1200 KN.

The yield load also applied to their threads, nuts, anchor plates and couplings.

The steel rods had a corrugated surface.

c) Swellex-type Rockbolts


Swellex-type Rockbolts for local or systematic rock bolt patterns had a minimum yield load of 150 KN.

Bolt face plates were such as allowed transfer of the anchor force at the head of the rock bolt to the
shotcrete, steel girder or rock surface, whichever the case.

For inflation of bolts, equipment recommended by the manufacturer of the bolts was used.

Cement - Mortar Grout

The cement mortar grout consisted of sand, cement and water or neat cement and water.

Ordinary Portland cement was used.

Sand for grouting purpose had to be clean mineral sand, uniform in quality and from an approved source.

Water was clean, free from any oil, acid, salt and any alkaline, organic and other deleterious substances.

Additives for the improvement of workability were used.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 159

The cement mortar grout was mechanically mixed to uniform consistency.

The cement mortar grout strength ( corresponded) to concrete grade M20 of IS 456: 2000.

e) Execution

Boreholes of required diameter were drilled to the depths as required by the lengths of rock bolts specified
for the respective rock class. The bore diameter was always 10 mm larger than the diameter of the rock
bolts/couplings installed.

Prior to the installation of the rock bolt, the bore hole would be cleaned of all drill cutting, sludge and
debris by air and water jet, then filled with cement mortar by inserting the grout hose to the full depth
of the hole and withdrawing as the grout was pumped in. The nozzle was kept buried in the grout as the
was withdrawn thereby removing the air. The bolt was then pushed into the hole.

The nut of the grouted rock bolt was tightened not later than 12 hours after installation to achieve a
force at the anchor plate of approx. 20 KN. This force was applied by a calibrated torque wrench.

In case of confined working space and/or great length of rock bolts, their coupling was permitted. The
number of coupled parts was kept to a minimum. However, the load capacity of such coupled rock bolts
had to be same as that of the standard integral rock bolt. Special attention was paid to the grouting
procedure in order to ensure full grout embedment of the bolt.

In case of coupled rock bolts, partly collapsed boreholes, or major water flow from the borehole, grouting
was done after installation of the bolt (post-grouting). The hole is then grouted by a special attachment
which allowed the mouth of the borehole to be sealed during grouting. Air was displaced from the hole
via a tube which was attached to the full length of the rock bolt as it was installed. Grout was then
pumped in and the hole was completely grouted when grout was seen to escape from the end of the

Selfdrilling Bolts

Selfdrilling bolts was used in ground conditions where the effective installation of other types of rock
bolts was doubtful.

These bolts would be placed by drilling the rod into the ground without withdrawing the rod.

Such bolts were grouted through the flushing hole immediately after completion of the drilling operation
or simultaneously during the drilling, as required.

The grout mix, grouting pressure and quantities of ingredients in the grout were as specified by the

Swellex-type Rockbolts

Boreholes for these rockbolts would be drilled to the required depths, and cleaned of all drill cuttings,
sludge and debris.

These rock bolts were installed not later than two hours after drilling of the borehole.

Installation / inflation of the bolts was as per the manufacturers recommendations. Specific inflation
plant was used. The rock bolt would be drained after inflation.

Grout Mortar
a) Prior to acceptance tests of rock bolts, tests with available cements and sands were carried out to
determine an appropriate mix design to achieve the specified strength with appropriate workability

160 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

using the grouting equipment to be used.
b) Additives, where used to improve workability, where added and the strength development was ensured
by appropriate tests described.
c) The grout mortar was tested on 5x5x5 cm cubes. The cubes were cured in water.
d) Five cubes were tested prepared for each compressive strength test. The accepted strength was the
average of the three remaining after elimination of the highest and the lowest ones.
e) During construction, cube samples were taken weekly at 5 bolts drivage from the grout at the nozzle.
Pull Out Tests on Rock Bolts
a) Pull-out tests were performed as per ISRM Doc.2, Part 1 Suggested Method for Rockbolt Testing.
b) Proof Tests

A detailed test program was set up on the basis of above mentioned document and approved by the
DDC prior to all testing work.

Any specific deviations from the ISRM suggested method were first approved by the DDC.
For each type of rock bolt, the submitted information comprised of:

type of bolt.

testing equipment.

location and installation record.

applied testing load and record of deformation.

interpretation of results and suggested action for failed pull-out tests.

Proof tests were carried out for all types of bolts used for this project prior to the commencement of
tunnelling to ascertain the effect and the service capacity of the bolts in the field.

The tests were performed in geological ground conditions as expected during tunnel drivage. The location
of the bolts to be tested was selected by the DDC.

A minimum of five bolts of each type were tested.

The testing equipment, as specified in the above mentioned ISRM document, was used to record bolt
elongation, movement of the bolts and tension forces.

c) Testing during Tunnel Driving

The DDC would select rock bolt for testing of production bolts. For each type of rock bolts five bolts were
selected from the first 100 bolts placed in the tunnel. From the remaining bolts five per 500 bolts were
selected for testing. The testing force was 80% of the bolts yield load.

Bolts which failed the tests or which got pulled out were replaced.

For each failure, the DDC required further bolts in the vicinity to be tested.

v) Installation Records
Comprehensive records about details of the installation of rock bolts during drivage, such as grout consistency,
drilling depth, length and type of rock bolts, deviations from the theoretical position, type and time of grouting,
time of tightening, special observations, etc., were kept for each round by the working agency and countersigned
by the DDC personnel. Copies of these records were submitted to the IRCON.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 161

6.3.11 Forepoling
i) General
Forepoling is a pre-excavation support element required for tunnel excavation works. Forepoling was applied in
rock and soil conditions, that tended to produce overbreaks, collapses or material inflows immediately following
excavation. Forepoling was applied locally or systematically as circumstances required for the safety of the works.
All forepolings has to be fully embedded in the mortar.

ii) Material
a) Stable Boreholes:

Steel pipe a minimum outer diameter 40 mm, wall thickness not less than 4 mm.

Dowels (spiles) consisting of deformed high yield steel bars grade Fe 415, minimum diameter 32 mm,
were used instead of steel pipes, when approved by the DDC.

b) Unstable Boreholes:

Self-drilling bolts were used as forepoling elements where stability of the predrilled boreholes could not
be achieved, because of encountered ground conditions. Grouting was carried out simultaneously with
drilling to achieve a better grouting effect along the bolt.

iii) Installation
a) Forepoling was resorted to where instructed by the DDC.
b) Forepoling elements would be inserted at 300 to 500 mm centres into the predrilled holes at the face or
drilled into the face (using self-drilling bolts) from the face of the drivage towards the unexcavated ground,
as would be shown on the Drawings.
c) The length of forepoling elements would be according to the drawings but at least 1.50 meter longer than
the applied length of round.
d) Forepoling required the installation of lattice girders.
e) Grouting of forepoling pipes and dowels with cement mortar, either before or after the insertion of the
pipes, would be determined by the DDC.

Forepoling would be properly supported by the lattice girders and the shotcrete above the lattice girder.
Therefore, shotcreting of the gap between lattice girder and rock in the portions of forepoling has to be
completed after the installation of forepoling.

g) Spacing between consecutive forepoling pipes or bars around the crown of the excavation profile had to
comply with the distance specified on the drawings, but suiting the prevailing geological condition of the
tunnel face.

iv) Pipe Roof

A pipe roof is a special type of long forepoling system (typically 9 15 mlong). The forepoling elements consist of
steel pipes with a minimum outer diameter of 76 mm and a minimum yield load of 1200 KN. The pipes were
grouted with cement mortar.

162 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

6.4 Waterproofing and permanent groundwater drainage

6.4.1 Waterproofing and Protective Felt
i) General
This covers the waterproofing for all underground structures by means of a continuous waterproofing membrane
installed to the outside of the final (inner) concrete lining. It does not include provisions for other elements such as
water stops in concrete, sealing of joints etc.

ii) Description
a) The purpose of the membrane waterproofing to underground struc-tures is to prevent leakage of
groundwater into the tunnel and to protect the final concrete lining against deleterious chemical influ-ences.
Waterproofing has been applied to crown and sidewalls above footing /invert-arch level. The waterproofing
membrane has been located between primary shotcrete lining and the final (inner) concrete lining. No
membrane waterproofing has been pro-vided for tunnel inverts.
b) The waterproofing system consists of two layers: the first a protective felt fastened to the shotcrete surface;
the second is the actual waterproofing membrane properly fixed by special means as recommended by the
c) While the sealing function is performed by the membrane, the layer of felt is required to protect the
waterproofing membrane against damage from contact with the shotcrete surface. It also prevents
interlocking between the concrete lining and shotcrete in case of differential movements of (primary)
shotcrete lining and the (final) concrete lining, and to provide a drainage layer allowing to drain off
groundwater into the longitudinal and lateral drainage pipes. This precents a build-up of hydrostatic pressure
on the tunnel lining.

iii) Materials
a) Protective Felt
The protective felt is a continuous filament, non-woven, poly-propylene, geo-textile, of uniform thickness
and surface tex-ture meeting the requirements listed below.
Unit weight
Thickness at 0.02 bar
Thickness at 2.0 bar
Tensile strength
Extension at break
Extension at 30% of tensile strength
Permeability in plane
at 0.02 bar
at 2.00 bar
Resistance against acid and alkaline
solutions, pH 2-13
Resistance to Punching
* Test according to Franzius Institute, Hannover, BRD

Specified Value


500g/m2 min

DIN 53854

3,9 mm min
1,9 mm min
1000 N/5cm min
70 % min
20 % min

DIN 53855/3
DIN 53855/3
DIN 53857/2
DIN 53857/2
DIN 53857/2

5x10-1 cm/s min

5x10-2 cm/s min
Loss of strength 10% max.

SN 640 550DIN 53857/2

2000 N

DIN 54307

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 163

b) Waterproofing Membrane
The waterproofing membrane is made up of one of the following mate-rials, or similar, meeting, the
requirements listed below. The membrane had been supplied in a single layer.
(Ethylene-Copolymer Bitumen) (ECB) Waterproofing Membrane:Property

Specified Value



2.0 mm min

DIN 53370

10 N/mm2 min

DIN 53455

500% min

DIN 53455

2.5 N/mm2 min*

DIN 53454

150 N/mm min

DIN 53363

waterproof at 10 bar
for 10 hours

DIN 16726

7.2 N/mm2 min

DIN 16726

Dimensional stability after accelerating ageing

+/- 2% max

DIN 16726

Material characteristics during and after storage at 80o C:

- General appearance
- Dimensional stability, long. and transverse
- Variation of tensile strength, long. and transverse
- Variation of elongation at failure, long. and transverse
- Folding at a temperature of -20 degrees C

no blisters
no fissures

DIN 16726

1% max

DIN 53495

no fissures

DIN 16726

100N/50 mm

DIN 16726

no perforation at
750 mm height of fall

DIN 50014

Tensile strength
Elongation at failure
Compressive strength at 20% strain
Tear propagation strength
Resistance under water pressure
Strength of welded seam

Water absorption
Behaviour after storage in acid and/or alkaline solutions:
- Variation of tensile strength, long. and transverse
- Variation of elongation at failure, long. and transverse
- Folding at a temperature of -20 degrees C
Shear strength of splice with bitumen
Behaviour during perforation test
* Cubic specimen with edge length of 10 mm.

164 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Poly-Vinyl-Chloride (PVC) Waterproofing Membrane

Specified Value



2.0 mm min

DIN 53370

15 N/mm2 min

DIN 53455

250% min

DIN 53455

2.5 N/mm2 min*

DIN 53454

100 N/mm min

DIN 53363

Tensile strength
Elongation at failure
Compressive strength at 20% strain
Tear propagation strength
Resistance under water pressure
Strength of welded seam
Dimensional stability after accelerating ageing
Material characteristics during and after storage at 80o C:
- General appearance
- Dimensional stability, long. and transverse
- Variation of tensile strength, long. and transverse
- Variation of elongation at failure, long. and transverse
- Folding at a temperature of -20 degrees C
Water absorption
Behaviour after storage in acid and/or alkaline solutions:
- Variation of tensile strength, long. and transverse
- Variation of elongation at failure, long. and transverse
- Folding at a temperature of -20 degrees C
Shear strength of splice with bitumen
Behaviour during perforation test

waterproof at 10 bar
for 10 hours
DIN 16726
13.5 N/mm2 min

DIN 16726

+/- 2% max

DIN 16726
DIN 16726

no blisters
no fissures
1% max

DIN 53495
DIN 16726

no fissures
100N/50 mm

DIN 16726

no perforation at 750 mm
height of fall
DIN 50014

* Cubic specimen with edge length of 10 mm.

c) Accessories
Fixing material, flashing, reinforcement for expansion joints, sealing flanges and preparation of corners and
intersections had been made as re-commended by the manufacturer of the membrane.

iv) Execution
a) Surface Preparation:
All surfaces to which waterproofing was to be applied were made suffi-ciently clean, smooth and free from
deleterious materials and projec-tions. The following were ensured prior to the installation of waterproofing:

For fixing the protective felt and the waterproofing membrane, a minimum shotcrete cover of 50 mm to
rock was provided.

Irregularities of the shotcrete lining surface were eliminated by means of additional shotcrete. The ratio

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 165

of the diameter to depth of irregularities no less than 5:1. Roundings at rock bolts (where applicable),
etc., generally had a min. radius of 0.30 m.

Transitions and intersections of tunnel profiles has been rounded off with a minimum radius of 500 mm.

Protruding steel bars, wires, spacers, pipes, etc., cut off unless these were treated to additional shotcrete

Exposed steel parts such as rock bolts, if not intended to remain ac-cessible, were covered with shotcrete.

All shotcrete surfaces finally smoothened with fine-graded shotcrete (rounded aggregate, grain size upto
4 mm) applied in a 20 mm layer thickness.

Fig. 6.5: Limits on Surface Irregularities of Shotcrete

b) Application
i) General
Prior to installation of the waterproofing, all surfaces to which it had to be applied, were inspected and
approved by the DDC.
The installation followed written instructions of the manufacturer. Generally the procedures were as

166 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

ii) Preparations
Special preparations were required for waterproofing at tunnel intersec-tions and at projections passing
through the membrane. These were carried out according to the manufacturers recommendation.
iii) Fixing of Felt:
The protective felt was attached to the shotcrete surface using suitable fixings specified by the
manufacturer. Depending on the location, 2 to 4 nos. fixing elements were used per square meter. The
felt was laid with sufficient slack to avoid overstretch during concreting. Adjacent sec-tions of felt were
overlapped by 100 mm and joined together by point weldings. Along the tunnel side wall bottoms the
felt would extend sufficiently to cover the lateral drainages.
iv) Fixing of Waterproofing Membrane:
The waterproofing membrane was installed so as to cover the felt and was attached to the felt fixings by
thermal (heat) welding. No perfora-tion of the membrane was allowed for installation purposes. The
wa-terproofing membrane was laid with the signal layer towards the inside and with sufficient slack to
prevent overstretching during concreting. Adja-cent sheets of waterproofing were joined together by a
double weld. Along the bottom of the tunnel side walls the membrane extended sufficiently to cover the
lateral drainages.

Fig. 6.6 : Double weld in membrane

v) Seam Test with Compressed Air

For seams between adjacent sheets of waterproofing membrane the testing for tightness was carried
out by pumping compressed air into the test channel which was formed by the double welded joint.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 167

Initial test pressure was kept at 2 bar for a test period of 5 minutes or 1.5 bar for a test period of 10
minutes. The joint was considered waterproof if the loss of air pressure in both cases was not more than
vi) Protective Measures:
Every care was taken not to damage the waterproofing membrane during or after installation. Any
damages were repaired and tested before the casting of the final (inner) concrete lining.
c) Permanent Groundwater Drainage
i) General
This covers the installation of the permanent groundwater drainage system in the tunnel and the
requirements for the permanent groundwater drainage system inside the tunnel.
The drained groundwater flows from the highpoint of the tunnel alignment to the two portals (gradients
1% and 0.5%).
The permanent groundwater drainage of the tunnel consists of a main collector pipe along the entire
length of tunnel and lateral (perforated) drainage pipes with transverse pipes connecting to the main
collector pipe every 50 m along tunnel sections.
Drainage gutters are located along the tunnel length at the bottom of each tunnel side-wall for collecting
groundwater that might enter through the tunnel lining. The water is diverted into the main collector
pipe by transverse connection pipes placed every 50 m. A perforated pipe is installed at the bottom of
the tunnel for invert drainage. At the intersections of the main collector pipe and the transverse connection
pipes (i.e. every 50 m), maintenance manholes have been installed. Manholes have also been be installed
for the maintenance of the invert drainage. Cleaning cess pipes have been installed at every 25 m for the
maintenance of the lateral drainage pipes.
ii) Materials
The lateral drainage pipes consist of 200 mm dia circumferentially slotted, hard-PVC pipes. In their upper
portions the pipes are slotted. Slot width is limited to 1.0mm and the total slot area (for water in-take) is
approximately 100 cm2 per metre length of pipe. The main collector pipe is a 560 mm dia. HDPE pipe.
The transverse and the cleaning access pipes are 150mm dia connection hard-PVC pipes.
The invert drainage pipe is 150mm. Dia circumferentially slotted, HDPE pipe. In their lower portion the
pipes are slotted. Slot width is limited to 1.00mm and the total slot is nearly 100 cm2 per metre length of
pipes. No fines concrete has been used for embedment of the lateral drainage pipes and compacted
gravel has been used for embedment of invert drainage pipes. No-fines porous concrete comprised of
Ordinary Portland Cement and 40mm single-sized aggregate to IS : 383. The ratio of aggregate to cement
was 8:1 by volume or 10:1 by mass.
Maintenance manholes as well as the drainage gutters are in concrete grade M30 to IS 456: 2000.

168 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 6.7: Slotted pipe

6.5 Drives (Mining and Lining)


Following early works carried out which facilitated the construction of the Tunnel:
i) Construction of 772m long ADIT (Acess Drive Inside Tunnel) located at KM 155.350.
ii) Construction of 12m dia and 56m deep Shaft, located at KM 162.950 of USBRL project
iii) Construction of 36.50 m long Cross passage, located at KM 162.950 of USBRL project.
iv) Soft Ground Tunneling from Km 163.560 to 162.950.
The above early works were executed through two separate packages.


Construction of Main PIR PANJAL TUNNEL

This was divided into two packages viz:
i) Construction of the Tunnel from Km.152+600 to Km. 158+730.
ii) Construction of the Tunnel from the North Portal (Km 162.950) to Km. 158+730.
The work was executed utilising 4 work faces:
a) Drive from South Portal(MTS)
b) Drive from Adit towards South(MTS1)
c) Drive from Adit towards North (MTS2)
d) Drive from Shaft cross passage towards South (MTXS)

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 169


Layout of the Tunnel T-80: This is indicated in Fig 6.8.

Fig. 6.8: Layout of the Tunnel

6.5.4 Structure Details


Figure 6.2 illustrates the tunnel section. The excavated profile was 10.077m high and 10.265m wide. The
tunnel structure was divided into three parts
a) Heading,
b) Benching, and
c) Invert.

ii) The Heading was 7.321m high and forms the upper part of the tunnel profile. The Benching and the Invert
form the lower part and was 2.757m high. It is a modified horse shoe shaped tunnel and has an upper
circumferential radius of 4.970m in the crown periphery. The initial supports comprised of shotcrete, lattice
girder and wire mesh along with rock bolts. The final support is of 300mm 450mm PCC/RCC lining as per
Rock class encountered. All tunnel construction had been carried out in accordance with the principles of
the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) using a cyclic sequence of excavation with subsequent
installation of a primary support (outer shotcrete lining) followed by the delayed installation of a secondary
lining (inner concrete lining).

170 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 6.9: A Typical Excavation Section of Pirpanjal Tunnel

6.5.5 Construction Approach


Himalayan geology is rather complex and as it changes frequently and is laiden with surprises. Folds, Thrust
and Faults are common in the area. The strata comprises of Fluvioglacial deposits, Limestone , Quartzite ,
Slate and Tuff, Volcanic Traps, and alternate bands of Shale, Sandstone and Limestone. The geology in the
tunnel consists of rocks with unconfined compressive strength of 60MPa to 140 MPa with considerable
amount of embedded water. We had to deal with varying geology, soft ground conditions and high
overburden. The tunnel was divided geologically into eight rock classifications, and the Primary support as
well as Permanent support system had to be designed according to rock classification.

ii) The previous experience of using TBM in the Himalayas at some of the Hydel projects was not encouraging.
The complexity of the geology and limited geotechnical information under high overburden of upto about
1200m did not warrant the use of TBM. The widely accepted sequential excavation method and support
technique of the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) appeared optional for this tunnel. The role of
Construction Consultant and the Designer during construction was very important for safe, timely and
economical completion of the Tunnel.

6.6 The Access Tunnel

An Access tunnel with the excavated cross sectional area of 46 to 52m in the modified horseshoe shape was
constructed by the drill and blast method. This Access Tunnel meets the main tunnel at CH 155+350 i.e. 2.75km
from the south portal. To compensate for the altitude difference, the Access Tunnel has a downward gradient of
about 10%. Construction of Access Tunnel was carried out with heading and benching format with some patches of
full-face excavation.
Length of Access Tunnel
Chainage of Access Tunnel at Main Tunnel
Finished Height
Finished Width (at bottom)
Final Lining Thickness (PCC)

772 M
Km 155+350
6.500 M
150 mm
9.072 %

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 171

6.7 Shaft and Cross Passage


Access Shaft and the Cross Passage connecting it to the Main Tunnel:
Geological setting of Pir Panjal tunnel shows that 610 m length from North portal side of tunnel consisted
of soil matrix and indicates existence of poor geology as already explained in previous chapters.

ii) It was anticipated that soft ground tunnelling for the stretch of about 610m from North portal would take
time owing to the following reasons:
a) Small round length of excavation
b) Construction of temporary invert and then dismantling before construction of Benching part.
c) Provision of huge nos of bolts including face bolt and forepoling at smaller interval.
d) Sector Excavation and sealing shortcrete in each part
e) Provision of long drain holes and probe hole
iii) In view of what has been explained above, an Access shaft was planned on east side of the alignment at this
location so that hard rock tunneling can be progressed independent of soft ground tunneling from the
North portal in order to adhere to the target stipulated time, since this would give this one more construction
iv) To connect this shaft with the tunnel a 36m long Cross Passage ( again a tunnel) with a cross sectional area
of 87.4m2 of modified horseshoe shape was constructed.

Fig. 6.10: Plan View Main Tunnel North Portal to Access Shaft

172 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

v) Technique of construction:
a) Access shaft was constructed by top-down method and the of cross passage was constructed using soft
ground tunneling technique in the two top heading with temporary invert, one benching and then
permanent invert format.
b) The 12mm dia Circular shaft was excavated from top to down at intervals of one meter and strengthened
with shortcrete, wiremesh, rock anchor and two reinforced concrete rings before proceeding to the next
meter of depth.

Fig. 6.11: Access Shaft Intersection Cross Passage/Main Tunnel Plan & Section

vi) Dimensional parameters

Depth of Shaft
Chainage of Shaft
Excavated Diameter
Finished Diameter
Top elevation of access shaft
Bottom elevation of access shaft
Cross Passage length
Cross Passage Excavated sectional Area
Cross Passage Finished sectional Area

55.376 M
Km 162+950
12.0 M
11.0 M
36 M
102 m2
87.6 m2

vii) Construction Methodology:

a) The Access Shaft was excavated near chainage 162.950km with a cross passage for a length of about
36.0 m which enable the shaft to be connected to the main tunnel.
b) The area was leveled at RL 1810.00m and then the gantry foundation and gantry erection works was
carried out (Gantry capacity of 12.5 tone with a span of 15m) for hoisting the excavated muck, construction
material and equipments required for execution of work.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 173

c) After erection of gantry, excavation of shaft was taken up in segments and for a depth of about 1 m at a
time. A separate pipe arrangement had been made for supply of concrete and air.

Fig. 6.12: Inside View of Acess Shaft Showing Muck Removal Using Winch,
Supply of Concrete and Ventilation Arrangement

d) Construction sequences followed for access shafts are as under:

Excavation of 1 meter segment

Sealing shortcrete of 50 to 100mm for immediate primary support

Fixing of first layer wiremesh

Shortcreting of 500 mm thick (1st layer)

Fixing of second layer wiremesh

Shortcreting of 500 mm thick (2nd layer)

e) Beside this Rock bolting ( SN / SDR) had been done as per requirement.
f) After this, reinforcement for shaft ring beam was fixed & concreted. Shaft ring beam is of circular shape
with 11.0m inner dia, 1.0m width & 2.0m deep. The first ring was at 2.80m from ground level of the shaft
and second ring was 40.80m from the ground level of the shaft.

174 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

g) Procedure was continued and at approximately 2.0 below the cross passage top level, pipe roofing with
76mm outer dia self drilling rock bolts, (fy>=1200kN) had been done and continued further i.e. shaft
h) This is to mention here that due to heavy ingress of water at RL 1846.50 a cavity was formed and same
had been restored by providing drain holes along with additional support i.e. wiremesh, shotcrete & self
drilling rock bolts including grouting of loose strata.

Fig. 6.13: Excavation and Support Start-up Situation Main Tunnel and Access Shaft

i) At this stage heading excavation of cross passage was started in format of the top heading, bench, &
invert. Construction Sequences at cross passage and access shaft junction were as given below:

Installation/pipe roofing of 76mm dia self drilling rock bolts with grouting along the profile(perimeter
of cross passage and access shaft junction)

Sealing Shotcrete at the face.

Excavation of Heading portion with round length of 0.8mto 1 meter.

Erection of Rib /Lattice Girder.

Provision of two layer wiremesh followed by 2 layer shortcrete with overall 300 mm thick shortcrete.

Construction of temporary invert to close the ring.

Repetition of steps mentioned above.

Benching and permanent invert also constructed to complete the ring.

j) From the next round instead of Pipe roofing ,fore poling was done with SDR .
k) Bottom most shaft excavation, approximately 5.0m depth was done after completing the cross passage

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 175

l) The cross passage is a sort of horse shoe shape tunnel with excavated height of 11.348m and excavated
width of 9.386m.
m) Details of Support System :
The details of support system and various other details are as given below:

300 mm thick

Sealing (face) shotcrete

50-100mm thick locally with wiremesh where reqd.


Two layers, One layer on outer side & other on inner side of shotcrete

Round (pull) in m

Heading=0.8 1.0, Benching = 1.6 2.0, invert = 3.2 4.0

Forepolling of L=3.0m

L=3.0m @ 0.3 to 0.5 m c/c, 35.0 nos.

Rock bolts, SN / self drilling

L=4.0m one no. each on sides bottom, longitudinally @ 0.8 to 1.0m c/c, 2 nos. in
one lineL=6.0m, Peripherally @ 2.0m c/c, Longitudinally @ 0.8 to 1.0m c/c, 6
nos. in one lineL=9m, face bolts, 6 nos. (where reqd.)

Lattice girders 70x18x26

@0.8 1.0m c/c, Top heading + bench

Deformation tolerance


Construction tolerance


viii) Plant and Machinery used:

The following equipments were deployed for the excavation and support system of Shaft and the cross

Overhead gantry (capacity 12.5 tons)

ROC 203 track drill
Hydraulic excavator EX110 or equivalent
Wet shotcrete machine
1 cyd mixer with weigh batching arrangements
Steel Skips for mucking (capacity 5 cum)

1 no.
1 no.
1 no.
1 no.
1 no.
3 nos.

6.8 Construction of Cavern at junction of Access Tunnel and Main Tunnel


An enlarged tunnel had to be constructed at the junction of main tunnel and access tunnel to accommodate
the size of main tunnel and to permit the movement of equipment. This Access Tunnel is perpendicular to
the main tunnel, with a diameter of around 10.60m and cross sectional area of 87.70m. The height of the
enlarged tunnel is 11.30m and it is 9.30m wide in its modified horse shoe shape. The section was big
enough to accommodate around 8.50m dia main tunnel with an excavation area of 56.70m. Length of this
enlarged section was around 19m with an additional transition zone of around 5m length. It was decided to
carry out excavation in heading benching format with permanent invert. This section has a down ward
gradient of only 2%. Transition zone starts from tunnel meter 760 and the enlarged tunnel section of access
tunnel starts from tunnel meter 765.

ii) The geology predicted during the design stage indicated bands of relatively weak shale and compact jointed
quartzite and heterogeneous excavation conditions. Quartzite was expected to be very abrasive. Joints
were found to be well developed which brought water inflow. Water inflow in the range of 3000 litres/min
was predicted. Overburden at the junction is around 210.00m. Support class III and support class IV were
predicted during the design stage in this section.

176 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

iii) During actual excavation, black shale started from tunnel meter 757.50m. The strata was hard, un-weathered
and highly fractured with water inflow of around 3000 lit/min as predicted. The water inflow increased by
additional 4000 lit/min. This section of tunnel had thick fault gauge (thickness nearby 20cm). The highly
fractured weak black shale and large water inflow lead to rapid wash out of the material from the weak
zone of the face.

6.9 Soft ground Tunneling at the North and South Ends


On the basis of initial investigation, 640 m of tunneling was defined as soft ground tunneling. Tunneling at
north end was expected to be in fluvioglacial material and at South end excavation was expected in clayey
silt and silt- gravel intercalation material. On either side, relatively low overburden prevailed and moist
condition or minor water flow in the gravel layer was predicted. Nallah was flowing over the tunnel at
220m and 442m from North and South ends, respectively.

ii) In the stretches of soft ground tunneling, support design used was that of rock class VII and VIII with 2
layers of wire mesh and shortcrete of 300mm thickness and the temporary invert was installed as a quick
ring closer. In addition, rock bolts were also used. In every round of excavation, M.S. pipes or SDR fore poles
were inserted to increase the working time below the excavated section.
iii) Nallah at North end flows over the tunnel for nearby 30m of the alignment. The minimum soil cover in the
nallah stretch is 13 m. The substrata under nallah section consists of boulders and pebbles with silty sandy
matrix. These boulder layers were very stiff with moisture content ranging between 25 to 40%. In the South
drive the nallah flows over the tunnel almost perpendicular to the alignment with a minimum cover of 22
m. The moisture content in the nallah section was around 25 to 30 %, and the excavation under nallah at
the South end was performed in boulder layer. Moisture content of every face was monitored to know any
change in the hydrological situation. Long drain holes were drilled for ensuring effective drainage. Modified
excavation plan was developed for working under nallah section. This included long drain holes, pipe roofing
and sector excavation. In this section of the tunnel 3 probe holes were drilled one in the crown and one on
either side of the face.

6.10 Portal development

6.10.1 General
The Tunnel alignment is straight with North and South Portals located near the Highway for convenient access. An
Adit ( a 772 m long tunnel) was planned to increase the number of faces for work. This meets main tunnel at 2750
m from South Portal and its own portal is easily accessible from the National highway. Gradient in the Adit was kept
10% downward. In addition to reducing the length of critical drives, the Adit Tunnel would be used to facilitate
ventilation and as a possible emergency passage.
Since a 610 m length on the side of the North portal consisted of soil matrix, a 12m diameter Access Shaft was
planned at this location so that hard rock tunneling could be progressed independent of soft ground tunneling from
the North.

6.10.2 Location of Portals

Following portals were developed to facilitate the construction of Pir-Panjal Tunnel:

Portal for the Adit (Developed in March-2005)

Portal for the North end of Pir Panjal Tunnel (Developed in July-2005)
Portal for the South end of Pir Panjal Tunnel (Developed in March-2006)

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 177

6.10.3 Procedure for Portal development

Before developing a Portal, slopes around the portal area were stabilized with one or two layers of wire mesh
alongwith 100 to 150 mm shotcrete. Weep holes were provided all along the slopes as per drawings with rock bolts
of desired strength as support elements ( grouted in accordance with the design criteria). All portals of this PirPanjal Tunnel were developed in soft ground with low overburden. Pir-Panjal tunnel portals in north and south had
a cover of around 10 to 16m. This was considered sufficient to start the tunnel. Since tunneling from both ends had
to be done under soft ground conditions, both portals were constructed under pipe roof.
At the commencement of the tunneling work a false portal was developed by installing and grouting 76 mm SDR
bolts ( self drilling rock bolts) along the profile at the North and South ends of Pir Panjal Tunnel and at the ADIT
location. The 76 mm SDR rested on the ribs erected for the Canopy for portal development which was further
reinforced by subsequent shotcrete and wire mesh.
The procedure of portal development can be summarized as follows:

Installation of SDR bolts (Self drilling rock bolts) along the eye of Tunnel.

Pipe roofing by 76mm dia SDR bolts grouting along the profile

Sealing Shotcrete at the face of portal.

Excavation of Heading portion with round length of 0.8m to 1 meter.

Erection of Rib for canopy formation.

Provision of two layer wire mesh with 300 mm thick shortcrete.

Construction of temporary invert to close the ring.

Repetition of above steps.

Benching and permanent invert constructed to complete the ring.

For the initial three rounds conventional Rib were used. Thereafter, lattice girders were used as NATM
support elements .

Fig. 6.14 : Pipe Roofing for Portal Development

178 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 6.15: Installation of the 76mm Pipe Roof during Portal Development Works

Fig. 6.16: Construction of Canopy for Start of Portal Excavation

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 179


Construction Methodology of Main Tunnel

6.11.1 This tunnel, as already explained, was constructed on the principle of NATM - based on the cycle sequence
of excavation with subsequent installation of primary support followed by the delayed installation of secondary
Based on the geological requirement, following 3 excavation methods were adopted in Pir Panjal Tunnel.

Excavation by Tunnel Excavator


Excavation by Road header


Excavation by Drill & Blast method

a) Excavation by Tunnel Excavator

This method was adopted in soft ground tunneling such as rock class VII & VIII. In this method tunnel face was
excavated using a tunnel excavator SAMBOO STE 280. It has a rotating boom arrangement which makes it very
convenient to use in restrained excavation in sectors. This equipment was very useful for successful completion of
tunneling in soft ground of first 650m. The Mucking was carried out with the help of side tilting wheel Luigong and
20T Wagnor dumpers of make Atlas Copco. loader of make

Fig. 6.17: Tunnel Excavator

180 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

b) Excavation by Road header

The road header was used in north portal of the Pir panjal Tunnel where the usage of road header is effective and
the unconfined compressive strength of rock is less than 100 Mpa. The road header is equipped with a transversal
cutting head (Picks) mounted on the end of a boom for excavation which is raised, lowered and slewed from side to
side by hydraulic rams. The consumption of picks may vary from 0.025 to 0.3 per cum based on the varying UCS of
rocks. The muck herein is accumulated in the apron in the equipment from where the same is loaded to the dumpers
via the conveyor installed therein. The maximum & effective usage of road header is not much possible in Pir panjal
Tunnel as the UCS of rocks is mostly higher than 100 Mpa which causes the reduction of road header performance
and increase in consumption of Picks. The overall utilization of Road header in Pir Panjal Tunnel was approximately
9% of total Excavation. Please also refer Appendix.

Fig. 6.18: Road Header

c) Excavation by Drill & Blast

In hard rock strata where both of the above excavation method were not much effective hence the drill & blast
method was adopted to expedite the excavation. The blast holes were drilled in the face as per the drill pattern with
a 2-boom hydraulic jumbo (L2C & L2D). Then the explosives are loaded in the drilled holes and blast was taken for
breaking the face rock. The explosives used in Pir Panjal tunnel was power gel, Long delay detonators (LDD), Non
electric detonators (NED), D-cord, 40 & 32 mm dia explosives for effective blasting.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 181

Fig. 6.19: Drilling Pattern

The NED wasvery useful in this project. The advantage of NED is safe working & the loading of NED can be done
parallel to other activities.
The length of excavation by different method of excavation is as given below:S.N

Method of

Length of
excavation (m)

Road Header


Drill ballast


Including 585 meter of early works-soft ground tunneling,
however part of main tunnel

i) Drilling:
Equipment used theBoomer (see Photo 6.1)
A Hydraulic Drilling Boomer was required for drilling. In a Boomer the operator moves the booms, feeds and drills.
The number of holes to be drilled varied with the rock class indicated below:

182 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Rock class

Number of holes

Number of charged holes

I & II









V & VI

78 (Heading only)


Diameter of drilled holes: 45 mm

Fig. 6.20: Drilling by Boomer

ii) Face Charging with Explosives:

The drilled holes were cleaned and then the explosives (power gel and non-electric detonators) would be charged
as per the established pattern (checking by a suitable Ohm meter). Stemming of holes would be done by using
manually made clay capsules of suitable diameter and length. The charges in the holes would then be blasted in
proper sequence, centre outward, one after the other (as per the Blasting Pattern). Blasting would be initiated by
an electronic detonator. After the blast rock dust and gases would be sucked out via the main tunnel while fresh air
would be delivered via a ventilation duct on the tunnel ceiling.
Explosive type: Super Power8 (Dia. 40 mm)
Inclination of holes: 34 degree in the cut holes to 12 degree in contour holes

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 183

Type of detonators: Long delay detonators varying from 200 ms to 600 ms
Length of explosive stick: 400mm
Powder factor: 1.23 kg/cum to 0.71 kg/cum varying from rock class I to VI

Fig. 6.21: Face Charging with explosives

iii) De-fuming, Mucking and Hauling:


Side Tilting Wheel Loader


Back-hoe, (for Bottom Cleaning)

After allocating sufficient time for de-fuming the tunnel, the excavated muck would be removed and disposed of
using side tilting wheel loader and dump trucks. The bottom cleaning or the left over mucking when needed
would be done using the back-hoe (excavator).

184 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 6.22: Mucking

iv) Scaling and Cleaning:

Equipment :
Tunnel Excavator with Breaker
Scaling refers to removing all the loose materials (e.g. loose rock) from the roof and walls of the drive.

d) Primary Support
i) Wiremesh:
Wiremesh stabilizes applied shotcrete and improve the mechanical properties of the shotcrete.
Wire mesh used was Grade: Fe 500, 150x150x6 mm

ii) Lattice Girder:

Helps in distribution of the load and acts as support member for forepoling.
Lattice Girder : 25x16x16x10 mm (Fe 500 )
Total Depth: 134 mm
Clear depth : 95mm

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 185

Fig. 6. 23: Typical Detail of Lattice Girder Section

Fig. 6.24: Wiremesh and Lattice Girder Erection

186 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

iii) Shotcrete:
Equipment used

Shotcreting machine with Robotic arm

Transit Mixers

Sealing shotcrete was applied at the excavated face immediately after the excavation to stabilize the face
after the mucking was over. Thereafter, Lattice girder was erected and wire mesh fixed to the excavated
tunnel profile. Then designated mix of shotcrete was sprayed to the thickness mentioned in the design as
per conditions of rock class. The thickness of shotcrete varied as per rock class from 50mm to 300 mm.

Fig. 6.25: Shotcreting by CIFA

Mix design of shotcrete:

Max Size of aggregate
W/C ratio
Admixture (BASF-SP1)
C.A (10 mm)
Accelerator (BASF SA160)

Design mix M25

10 mm
475 Kg/ m3
175 Kg/ m3
1.9% = 9.025 Kg/ m3
615 Kg/ m3
1012 Kg/m3
9% = 42.75 kg
15025 mm

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 187

iv) Rock bolts:

These are the main supporting elements apart from the surrounding rock itself. They strengthen the rock mass by
increasing shear strength.

Equipment Used:

- Boomer
- Grout Pump
- Swellex Pumps for Swellex rock bolt

Types of Rock bolts used:

- SN Bolts: SN bolts are inserted into a stable pre-drilled hole filled with stiff mortar. These are rebar steel
Grade Fe 415, 25 mm dia. Anchor plates 200x200x12mm.
- SD Bolts: They are used in collapsing strata and have a drill bit. These are 32mm dia hollow bars. They
are simultaneously grouted.
- Swellex Bolts: They are inflatable steel tubes with anchor plates and can be inflated with help of swellex
pump at water pressure 250 bars or more. Diameter of bolt after swelling : 41 mm
Rock Bolt Type

Length of rock bolt used

4m, 6 m and 9m
4 m, 6m and 9 m

Fig. 6.26: Rockbolting by Boomer

Minimum Yield Load

200 KN
200 KN
150 KN

188 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

v) Grouting:

Equipment Used:
Mai Pump and Haney pump
Grout for rock bolts was neat cement - water mixture (w/c ratio 0.4 by weight) Compressive strength of
Grout: 20 MPa. Grouting pressure: 5-6 bars.

vi) Fore poling

Equipment Used: Boomer
Fore poling is a support measure installed along the tunnel longitudinal direction prior to excavation. This shorten
the free span of the unsupported excavation surface. Fore poling is only a support aid for the excavation and is
redundant after installation of the initial support. The forepoles comprised of M.S. Pipe, SDA and Rebar depending
upon the rock encountered.

Fig. 6.27: Forepoling by Boomer

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 189

6.11.2 Year wise Progress

The detail of year-wise progress of tunnel excavation achieved is as under:
S N. Year

Main tunneling
from south
towards North




Main tunneling
Main tunneling
Main tunneling
from Adit Junction from Adit Junction from Cross
towards South
towards North
passage junction
towards South



1 From period of 2005 to 2006 early works has been completed, which consist of ADIT
(772 meter length), Shaft (56 meter deep), Cross passage (36.5 meter long) and 585 meter
Soft Ground Tunneling

585 meter Soft

Ground Tunneling
through (Part of
Main Tunnel from
North Portal to
Cross passage)







In year 2006 work

has been executed
from two face/
front only







Work has been

executed from four


















Work has been

executed from two
fronts, Since work
from mts has been
completed in
month of January 2010 itself





Work has been

executed from two
fronts, in adverse
geological condition under high
over burden







Total length in
meter from
each face


Note:-Progress in meter


10960 585 of soft ground

tunneling is part of
Main Tunnel.

190 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

6.11.3 Monitoring is an essential requirement of NATM working and requires meticulous assessment of the tunnel
stability, performance of the support installed, adjustment of the support and of the sequence of excavation. An
extensive monitoring program was put in place for the construction of this tunnel. (please refer Appendix).
6.11.4 The control of tunnel alignment and excavated profile are also the important activities of any tunnel project.
For detail of these activities please refer appendix.

6.12 Permanent Lining

6.12.1 Installation of concrete lining (secondary) was carried out when no deformation in the area under question.
The lining work was commenced separately in parallel to other activities. The lining of main tunnel was carried out
in three stages to a length of 12.5m (called 1 Block) leaving construction joints behind which were sealed by water

Fig. 6.28: Lined Tunnel Profile

The stages involved in tunnel lining were as under:1.

Casting of Invert portion


Casting of kicker portion


Fixing of water Proofing Membrane.


Casting of Overt Lining.

6.12.2 Casting of RCC invert Lining:

The Invert lining was carried out in rock class V, VII & VIII, the first 640m came under rock class VII & VIII therefore
the invert Excavation was carried out between Ch 152+600 to 153+240. The lining of permanent Invert would affect
other works due to restriction of vehicular movement. In order to tackle the above problem and to carry out the
Invert lining parallel to other main works the cantilever Invert Bridge was introduced. The Invert Bridge was used
first time in India for Tunneling works. Due to Introduction of Invert Bridge the Lining work carried out simultaneously
without affecting Excavation works. The Invert Bridge arrangement for Invert lining is shown below.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 191

Fig. 6.29: Invert Bridge Arrangement for Invert Lining

The invert bridge was of 25m length. One end of the bridge rests on the casted invert block and the other end of the
bridge is placed on the cleaned invert surface. The bridge provides space underneath for reinforcement binding
and concrete casting work. It also enables vehicular movement over the invert block under construction.

Fig. 6.30: Invert Bridge positioned

192 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 6.31: Casted Invert

6.12.3 Casting of Kicker

The Kicker casting work is similar as the invert casting work and is taken up in subsequence to the invert casting. As
the kickers are placed on both the sides of the tunnel, the same do not affect any traffic movement. Therefore
other works could be executed smoothly in parallel.

Fig. 6.32: Kicker concreting section

6.12.4 Installation of waterproofing membrane and geotextile

It was required to achieve a semi-dry tunnel since water inflow could not be tolerated owing to the presence of
electrical systems. At worst, some localized wet patch or local dripping of water could be accepted. To achieve such
semi-dry tunnel, water proofing membranes along with protective geotextiles were used between the inner and
the outer linings. A layer of smoothening shotcrete of 20mm thickness is laid over the previously installed primary
inner shotcrete lining. The same is intended to cover all the protruding rock bolts and any shotcrete undulations
present in the primary inner lining layer to make it suitable for the installation of the geotextile and the water
proofing membrane.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 193

Fig. 6.33 (a): Geotextile Fixing

Fig. 6.33 (b): PVC Water Proofing Membrane

194 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

6.12.5 Overt Lining: Reinforcement Binding & shuttering:

The overt lining is of 2 types RCC & PCC Lining. In rock Class VII & VIII the RC Lining was done and the remaining rock
classes the PCC lining of 300 to 450 mm thick was done. In RCC Lining the reinforcement bars of dia 10mm & 16mm
were used for preparing the mesh for the overt structure. A separate gantry jumbo is used to manually placing,
binding and aligning the steel mesh in the overt. The mesh of 10mm and 16mm steels are further reinforced by
pantex lattice Girders placed at equal interval of 1m c/c. Thereafter, the Cifa gantry shutter is shifted from the
previous block to the block to be casted. The gantry shutters are specifically manufactured to fulfill the requirement
and consists of collapsible shutters. The shutters are required to be re-aligned as per the alignment required after
placing it into newly reinforced block. The gantry is a hydraulic formwork and is operable from a single control unit.
It rests on rails which are required to be shifted with progress. The gantry is also equipped with windows at various
positions for easy concrete conveyance. The grade of concrete used in both RCC & PCC lining was M30 which is
batched from the batching plant as per the mixed design and is transported via transit mixer to the concrete pump.
The concrete pump is used for pouring the concrete from the miller to the gantry pipe network. The gantry formwork
comes with form vibrators and they are operated from the central control of the gantry.

Fig. 6.34: Shifting of Gantry for RCC Lining

6.12.6 Mix Design of concrete for the Permanent Lining:

The detail is as under:
Max Size of coarse aggregate

20 mm

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 195

W/C ratio by wt.
Cement (OPC)
Admixture (BASF-SP1) by wt. of cement
C.A (20 mm down to 10mm)
C.A (10 mm down)
Slump at delivery point

375 Kg/ m3
157.5 Kg/ m3
1.9% = 7.125Kg/ m3
670 Kg/ m3
367Kg/ m3
830 Kg/m3
15025 mm

6.13 Year wise Progress of Lining work:

The detail of year wise progress of tunnel lining achieved is as under:MTS
S N. Year

Main tunneling
from south
towards North
Gantry no.1

Main tunneling
from south
towards North
Gantry no.2











6 2011


Total length in
meter from each
Note :-Progress in meter


Main tunneling
from Adit Junction
towards North
Gantry no.3

Main tunneling
from north
portal towards





Assembly of first
gantry at north
portal on dated



Assembly of first
gantry at SOUTH
portal on dated




Assembly of 2nd
gantry at south
portal at block no
101 on dated
10.07.2008 and 3 rd
gantry in MTS-2 at
block no.225 on
dated 23.08.2009




Progress with FOUR









10908.5 585 of soft ground

tunneling is part of
Main Tunnel

1337.5 Progress with three

gantry, gantry of
mts is dissembled
and again assembled at block no 498

196 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

6.14 Problems faced during construction

6.14.1 Underground works are almost always prone to unforeseen problems. Geological and Geotechnical
Investigations can only provide some indications but the gravity of a problem can only be understood once it is
encountered. In our tunnel several problems were encountered during excavation - some could be predicted in
advance and others were faced during construction. Due to the flexibility in design and availability of designer at
site, impact of these problems on the project was reduced.

i) Low Overburden
a) During the excavation of soft ground near either end of the tunnel low overburden was encountered. This
dwarf cover was the result of the nallahs flowing over the tunnel alignment. The nallahs were perennial in
nature and were situated at tunnel meter 220 and 442 near the North and South ends, respectively. The
low overburdens and the nallahs flowing over the tunnel, necessitated a separate excavation plan.
b) The north nallah flowed along the tunnel alignment about 30m. The minimum overburden in the stretch
was about 13m. The nallah was diverted away from the tunnel before taking up excavation. The ground
under the nallah was expected to be fully saturated that could affect the excavation work. The tunnel
crown consisted of layers of silty Clay (dark brown) and Clay Silt (Blackish grey) while the rest of the face
consisted of boulders in silty sand matrix. This clay silty soil (fluvial-glacial deposit) had low permeability
and overlain the boulder layer. It had stiffened over the years owing to subjection to ice load. Tunnel faces
under the nallah consisted of boulder and pebbles with silty sand matrix which was very stiff and had a
moisture content of between 25 to 40%. The rather Low moisture content in this zone was because the
silty soil overlaid the boulder layer. No big problem were faced during the excavation as the nallah was
diverted well in advance and the strata had low permeability.
c) The South, nallah was almost perpendicular to the alignment with an overburden of about 22m. The moisture
content under the nallah portion was about 25 30%. Excavation under the nallah was through boulder
layer. Moisture content at face was monitored for hydrological reasons. As this nallah was not diverted, so
drain holes were drilled before the excavation. Drain holes were drilled through the silty clay layers and
these were found nearly impermeable. Hence little percolation was observed while excavating the tunnel

ii) Village Problem

a) Cherial village is situated between tunnel meters 370 and 750 (from South Portal) along the alignment of
this tunnel. The rock /Soil cover ranges from 24m to 48m. Rock was encountered in the tunnel under the
village at about tunnel meter 550. Houses in the village are mostly of bricks and clay with wooden girders.
The foundations of these houses are shallow and already showed some cracks even before the tunnel
excavation commenced.
b) To avoid any mishap, excavation under the village had to be carried out with extra care. Ground movement
had to be monitored very closely as differential settlement could heavily damage the village houses above.
During excavation in the soft ground portion under the village, big boulders 1m size and above, were
encountered. These boulders were ripped instead of breaking by blasting. This reduced the vibration slowly
and hence no damage to the village houses. In the transition zone between soft ground and rock, large
quantities of water inflow were observed through the probe holes drilled in that location. The inflow of
water was more then 100 l/s. To avoid any cavity formation and settlement, pipe roofing was carried out.
The pipe roofing formed umbrella over the tunnel crown, which avoided the settlement.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 197

Fig. 6.35: Alignment under village

c) At around tunnel meter 560 hard rock was encountered, hence blasting it out was the only choice left. At
this location strength of the rock was around 70 to 100 Mpa. To reduce the vibration and possible damage
to the village houses overhead, sector by sector blasting was carried out. This also reduced the chances of
differential settlement in these houses. A vibration monitoring team was also engaged to monitor the
vibration on the ground and this helped in the blast design. A trigger level of 2 10 mm/sec was set as was
specified for sensitive buildings and historic structures by the Director General of Mines and Safety (DGMS)
India. The blasting was carried out only in the day time after the school timing and other important village
activities. Drilling pattern adopted was Burn Cut as it is believed to be best in the given conditions and
generates less vibration. Number of holes per blast were reduced to 35 and charge per hole was limited to
maximum of 3kg. Vibration monitoring result reflected that vibration was in the range of 2.5 mm/sec in
almost all cases.
d) These precautions proved useful, since no major problem arose during the excavation under the village.

iii) Difficult Geological conditions

Various unforeseen conditions can arise in underground work and mishaps can occur during tunnelling as indeed
some did occur during construction of Pir Panjal tunnel also.

a) Adverse condition in the Access Tunnel at tunnel meter 22:At tunnel meter 22 in the Access Tunnel, a cavity developed. At this location the excavation was in soft ground. Silty
clay mixed with traces of sand was encountered. The work face was wet due to local dripping and seeping since a
water channel was flowing across the alignment. With only about 10m cover overhead, soil from the crown was
released in to the tunnel and this created the cavity.

198 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

A steel rib was erected and a pipe roof installed before taking up excavation. Then this cavity was backfilled with
concrete. To consolidate the area in order to reduce the water dripping into tunnel, soil area around the tunnel was
grouted and fortified with SDR 32mm diameter rock bolts. Conformity cores were taken from the face to ensure
that the grouting was adequate. Once the localised zone was adequately consolidated, re-mining was started in
heading and benching format.

Fig. 6.36: Re-mining in Progress After Repairing of Cavity

b) Adverse condition at the junction of the Access Tunnel and Main Tunnel:
Near the junction of the Access Tunnel and the Main Tunnel at tunnel meter 765, a cavity developed due to sudden
ingress of large quantity of embedded water in the weak zone. The shape of the cavity was somewhat semicircular
and the depth of the cavity varied from 2.5m to 6.5m. The length of the collapse was about 7m. The material
released from the cavity was highly fractured black Shale with fault gouge and some volcanic tuff. Due to the
downward gradient and high water ingress from the face, a lot of water pooled together with the heap of crushed

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 199

Fig. 6.37: Access Tunnel Collapsed near its junction with the Main Tunnel

Fig. 6.38: Pooled Water in the Tunnel

200 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

As a first step, the tunnel section near the face was back - filled with hard rock up to one meter below the crown.
This was done to support the face and to prevent further wash of the material. After dewatering, the back fill
material was covered with 300mm thick shotcrete fortified with two layers of wire mesh. Drain holes were drilled in
the loose muck and around the face to release the hydrostatic pressure built up behind the shotcrete lining. Some
probes were erected on the loose muck to support the backfill material. Pipes were drilled in the cavity and the
cavity backfilled with concrete. Additional SDR bolts were drilled - in and around the cavity portion for grouting.
After this treatment of the cavity, pipe roofing with 76mm SDR bolts was drilled-in. This created an umbrella above
the tunnel and 6 SDR bolts, each 9m long, were drilled in the face to consolidate the loose muck. Excavation was
started with a smaller round length of 0.5m till the original face appeared. After that excavation was carried out
with a round length of 1m. Once the rock condition improved normal excavation sequence started.

c) Significant water ingress in MTS-2 main tunnel south from Access towards north) at Tunnel meter 316
(CH 155+666)
At tunnel meter 316 in MTS-2 lithology in the tunnel was Quartzite. Water was flowing from the face but it was not
more then 20 l/sec. During the face drilling a significant water ingress was observed (150 l/sec). The water ingress
was so high that tunnel filled up with water up to its junction with the Access tunnel. Work stopped for nearby 70
days during this period, however, benching was done and long drain holes and pipe roofing were drilled from the

d) Rock fall at tunnel meter 316 in MTS-2 (Main Tunnel South from access tunnel towards north)
Loose rock fall occurred at tunnel meter 316 in MTS-2 as the highly fractured material at the fault gauge under a
water inflow of about 10 l/sec fell apart. Over loading of the fore-pole and the Lattice Girder by the crusted material
created a cavity.

Fig. 6.39 : MTS2, TM 316.5, Damaged Lattice Girders

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 201

Pipe roof of 76mm diameter SDR bolts was installed around the cavity and grouted. Then the cavity was filled with
concrete using lagging sheet and pipes. More rock bolts (SDR) were then installed on the face and the wall. Thereafter,
re-mining followed by excavation of the face.

e) Rock fall at tunnel meter 746 in MTS-1 (Main Tunnel South from access tunnel towards South)
At tunnel meter 746, the weak structural zone triggered a large rock fall in MTS-1. The material was low cohesion
highly fractured shale. The trigger commenced from the crown. The fallen loose material got trapped between
layers of hard rock. Excavation was commenced only after backfilling the cavity and fore poling 32mm dia SDR.

Fig. 6.40: Rock Fall in MTS-1 at Tunnel Meter 746

f) Poor geology in MTX-S (Main Tunnel from North towards South) (TM 2545.0)
Very week rock (highly to completely weathered) was encountered at tunnel meter 2545 in MTX-S. The rock mass
was highly fractured. Lithology of the area was quartzite with bands of Shale. Water condition at the location was
damp to wet with localised dripping. This rather poor strata existed for about 22m and this had been observed
during the probe hole drilling also. Due to this advance information, no major problem was faced in the excavation
since the support system was changed in time.

g) Rock Burst in MTS2

A sudden rock-cracking sound was heard in MTS-2 after tunnel meter 2700 (CH- 158+050). The Rock Burst was
sudden and the failure of rock mass was violent as is generally observed in the sudden fracture of a highly stressed
brittle rock mass. This happens due to the rapid release of accumulated energy in a highly stressed brittle rock
mass. In moderately fractured rock, the high over burden pressure leads to rock burst.
The situation was dealt with by reducting the round-length to 1.2m forepolling using 32mm dia SDR and installing
extra rock bolts of adequate length for arresting the deformation.

202 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 6.41: Crack Develop after Excavation in the Face (Rock Bursting) TM 2781.50

h) Significant water ingress in MTX-S (TM - 2311.8; CH 159+838.2)

At tunnel meter 2311.8 in MTX-S, a huge water inflow (>60 l/Sec) from the face was observed. The right side of the
tunnel face was dry but water was found flowing from the left side. A band of shale was also found present between
the faces. To control the situation, four drain holes were drilled in the right wall at an angle of about 35 to the
horizontal and water from the face was diverted. Normal excavation was resumed thereafter.

Fig. 6.42: Water Flowing from the Face on 23-04-2010 (TM - 3111.8)

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 203

Fig. 6.43: Water Flowing from the Face on 23-04-2010 (TM - 3111.8)

6.15 Anticipated Rock Class v/s Actually Encountered

Based on geological and geotechnical investigation a GIR (Geotechnical Interpretive report) was prepared and
incorporated in the tender document, but the encountered geology was very much different to what was anticipated.
The table below showing the comparison of length of anticipated rock class as given in tender document and length
of different rock class encountered during construction. This only proves, what has been stated in previous chapters,
that Himalayas has varying geology which is difficult to predict.

Rock Class

Anticipated length (m)

Length encountered (m)


















204 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

6.16 Second Stage Concreting

6.16.1 Second stage concreting in the tunnel is for providing a 3m wide motor able path by means of a 150mm
reinforced slab. Further provision of Medium Voltage, Low Voltage and drainage utilities have been made in this
second stage concrete.

6.16.2 Technical Parmeters

i) Width of motor able path: 3000 mm
ii) Reinforced concrete slab:2740 x 150 mm (260 mm side drain)
iii) Grade of concrete: M30 A20
iv) Thickness of PCC :600 mm
v) Grade of PCC: M15 A10
vi) Low Voltage ducts: 5x4 (total 20 no)
vii) Diameter of LV Ducts :90 mm
viii) Medium Voltage Ducts: 2x3 (total 6 nos.)
ix) Diameter of MV Ducts: 160 mm
x) Main Drain Pipe: 560mm diameter,30 mm thick HDPE pipe
xi) Center of Main Drain pipe: 1.074 m below rail level.

6.16.3 Construction

The second stage concrete work involved:

a) Removal of loose material
b) Excavation of Main Collector Trench (as per seepage condition) for placing:

the 560 mm dia HDPE pipe

c) Embedding the Main Collector pipe in concrete

d) Positioning of the Medium Voltage Cable Ducts (Hard PVC Pipes).
e) Positioning of the Low Voltage Cable Ducts (Hard PVC Pipes)
f) Embedding the Low Voltage and Medium Voltage Cable Duct Portions in concrete.
g) Placing the Fill Concrete
ii) The Activity Sequence:
Following sequence was followed (as parallel activities) in successive 50m stretches:
a) Loose muck excavation and main collector trench excavation carried out by chipping down to the required
depth (using hydraulic rock breaker)
b) Excavated Material removed, the bottom cleaned.
c) The lateral drains and lateral inlets inspected and tested against any blockages.
d) The excavation levels checked and Lean concrete placed, as required.
Bottom lean concrete for 560mm dia main Collector Drain pipe placed to a level accuracy of 10mm.
e) Placing 560mm dia Pipe (after completion of Welding / Joining).

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 205

f) Providing and fixing side shutters and pouring concrete upto the top of Pipe.
g) Placing reinforcement for LV cable duct and MV cable Duct.
h) Casting bottom slab for LV and MV Cable Pits.
i) Placing LV and MV cable Pipes and fixed with supports.
j) Providing and fixing of outer side Shutter for 2nd stage concrete
k) Casting of walls for LV and MV Cable pits.
l) Casting of 2nd stage Concrete.

Fig. 6.44: Butt Weld in HDPE Pipe

6.16.4 Traffic Arrangement

A smooth traffic management played a vital role during the second stage concreting (just as it did during the
construction of the tunnel and the allied works). For continuous movement of traffic in side the tunnel during the
execution of this work, two blocks were left at about every 500m to maintain the regular traffic flow.

6.16.5 Dewatering Arrangements

Permanent dewatering arrangement had been made at the ADIT junction for draining off the water to outside the
tunnel. Temporary pits were also provided beyond the adit junction at about 500m centres towards the north
portal. These assisted the drainage effort. The pits were later filled back as and when the purpose was achieved.

6.17 Ballast-less Track (BLT)

6.17.1 General

Earlier ballast has been an integral part of railway track for many years. It has many advantages. It is an
economical medium providing an elastic support to the sleepers and absorbs major part of the noise created
by passing wheels. The ballast material generally is locally available, but ballasted track calls for frequent

206 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

maintenance attention, and periodical screening and recoupment. It also causes dust pollution. Hence,
railway authorities all over the world have been researching and developing a more permanent track base,
in the form of ballast less track (BLT) for their high speed lines and urban transit lines. Though more expensive,
BLT will ultimately be most cost effective on the basis of whole-life-cycle-cost.
ii) Now-a-days Rail traffic is reaching out toward new horizons on ballast-less track systems. The arguments
are indeed convincing: long life cycles, high speed, ride comfort, and great load-carrying capability. Practically
maintenance free, ballast less track systems ensure almost 100% service over many years.
iii) Success of Ballast-less Track Technology:
This is primarily based on the following:
a) Stability , Precision and Riding Comfort:
Ballast-less track assures a permanently stable track position. Its performance is characterized by top
quality, functionality, and safety. Millimeter-exact adjustment of the track system during assembly on
the construction site is the prerequisite for great riding comfort in the train, and for reduction of loads
and forces experienced by the rolling stock.
b) Long life Cycle and Practically no Maintenance
With its service life of at least 60 years - with little or no requirement for service or maintenance
ballast-less track offers great service and unmatched cost effectiveness in high-speed operations.
c) Flexibility and End-to-End Effectiveness in Application
With its comparatively very low structural height, and with the possibility of achieving optimal required
track position, this track technology offers highly attractive and beneficial solutions as end-to-end systems
technology for main-track and turnout sections, for application on a uniform basis on embankments,
bridges, and in tunnels.
iv) Some main advantages of a Ballast-less tracks.


No frequent maintenance for geometry

Relatively higher construction cost but lower life cycle cost.
Excellent riding comfort even at speed greater than 250 kmph.
Unlike in ballasted tracks over time where the track tends to float both in longitudinal and lateral
directions as a result of non linear, irreversible behavior of the materials, this is not the case in ballastless tracks
High lateral resistance of tracks which allows future increase in speeds in combination with tilting coach
Relatively low noise and vibration nuisance.
High impermeability.
Lesser dead weight.
Depth of ballast-less track is relatively low as compared to ballasted track, which reduces tunnel
construction cost.
The track can be accessible to road vehicles.
Less environment pollution.
Highly suitable for present and future scenario due to reduced maintenance requirement.
Easy and economical maintainability - ease of replacing parts with minimum dislocation to traffic.
Electrical insulation for facilitating track circuiting control.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 207


Fig. 6.45 (a) and (b): Typical Ballast-less track

Fig. 6.46: A view of Ballast-less Track in Tunnel

208 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

6.17.2 Need for Ballast-less Track


The three basic requisites of laying a good railway track are economy, safety and comfort. Comfort includes
not only the riding comfort to the passengers, but also causing least disturbance to the inhabitants around,
i.e, environmental non-degradation. Traditional tracks on wooden and metal sleepers with good ballast
cushion and shoulders satisfied all these requirements in the normal traffic conditions prevailing till a few
decades back. However, these required constant attention to packing, lining and level adjustments. Increased
traffic density and increased speeds on railways became necessary to suit growing economics and
competitions. For these, the conventional tracks were found lacking. What was required was:
a) Better load distribution, requiring increased ballast cushion;
b) Stable track with minimum joints leading to development of CWR and concrete sleepers;
c) Reducing the frequent and higher level of attention to track to control costs, and
d) Reducing time available for track maintenance operations, considering the frequency of running trains.

ii) To achieve these with the objective of running freight trains with higher axle loads and the passenger trains
running at high speeds there is the choice to go either for a ballasted track or a ballast-less track. Each has
its own advantages and disadvantages.

6.17.3 A Preface to the Ballast-less Track in Pir Panjal Tunnel


The track in Pir Panjal Tunnel is of ballast-less type on Rheda 2000 system using RHEDA - 2000 Semi Precast Bi-Block concrete sleepers and Vossloh 300-1 U Fastenings. In this system the Rheda Sleepers are
embedded in the RCC concrete bed and the rails are held with sleepers by Vossloh fastenings.

Fig. 6.47: Ballast-less Track in Pir Panjal Tunnel

ii) One of the most important implementations of RHEDA 2000 has been between Frankfurt and Cologne in
Germany with trains running at speeds of up to 300 kmph.
iii) Indian Railways is still undertaking trial runs with these sleepers, as such implementation of RHEDA sleepers
on Indian Railways has not been widespread so far.
iv) Discussed here are the details of broad gauge ballast-less Track on Rheda-2000 system including the transition
portion on either side at Quazigund and Banihal end.

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 209

v) Structural Details:
a) The structure of ballast-less track consists of semi pre-cast bi-block Rheda-2000 sleepers manufactured
using M-55 Concrete with the lower part of lattice girders projecting outside the concrete body of the
sleeper. For rail fixing, dowels which are part of Vossloh fittings are embedded in the sleepers at the time
of casting the sleepers. Rheda sleepers in the track is 600mm centre to centre. These sleepers are
embedded in an R.C. layer of 243 mm thickness. This layer is called Track Concrete Layer (TCL).
b) The TCL has near its bottom a layer of 16 mm dia rebar in longitudinal direction and 16 mm dia in
transverse direction. Near its top are having 16 mm dia bars longitudinally and transversely. The derailing block(s) have 12 mm dia bars at 600 mm centre in the form of stirrups, projecting from the TCL.
The de-railing block(s) are cast in central 1176 mm width and are 230 mm thick in M-25 Concrete. These
have 12 mm dia bar at top longitudinally and transversely and also on either side of each rail of the track.
This is to facilitate the movement of rubber tyre vehicle (in case of emergency) with a gap of 250mm
inner side and 180mm on outer side of rail.

Fig. 6.48: Cross Section Detail

vi) Materials Used:

a) Sleepers
There are semi pre-cast twin block Rheda-2000 of M-55 grade concrete. These sleepers were manufactured
in the casting yard of M/s Patil rail infrastructure Pvt Ltd set up near Manwal Railway Station.
b) Reinforcement
Reinforcement bars of Fe-500 grade or as specified in drawings and conforming to IS 1786 2008 have
been used.
c) Concrete
The cushioning layer between the tunnel invert/drainage concrete and the TCL has been provided M-20
concrete, TCL concrete is M-35, De-railing Block(s) concrete is M-25. Automatic weight batching was
adopted and all concrete was transported by Transit Mixture as Ready mixed concrete (RMC) and pumped
or poured as found appropriate. Pumped concrete had a slump of 100 to 150 mm and the directly
poured concrete had a slump of 90-100mm.
d) Fastening
The Vossloh Fastening System 300 1 U has been used. The fastenings comprises of the following per

210 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Elastic Plate Zwp 104 NT

2 No

Steel Base Plate Grp

2 No

Rail pad

2 No

Angled guide plate Wfp 15 U

4 No

Sleeper Screw Ss with U1s

4 No

Plastic Dowels Embedded in Sleepers

4 No

Fig. 6.49: Rail Fastening System Vossloh 300-1 U

vii) Construction in the Transition Zone

Between the ballast-less track in the tunnel and the conventional (i.e ballasted) track on embankment,
there is a transition zone at each end of tunnel. The main purpose of the transition is gradual change in
stiffness as Ballast-less track and ballasted track has different stiffness, a sudden change in stiffness may
cause discomfort to the train passengers and extra load on the fastening.

Fig. 6.50: Transition in Pir Panjal Tunnel

Bringing The Dream To Reality (Construction) 211

viii) Track Tolerances
Measurement of all the track parameters were taken in the unloaded condition of the track. The various
tolerances are as under :
S. No.




Gauge(with reference to 1673mm, measured 14 mm below rail top)



Sleeper to sleeper, variation of gauge



Cross level on straight and curved track



Super elevation on curved track(20 m chord with half overlapping)



Vertical alignment over a 20m chord



Lateral alignment over a 20 m chord on straight track



Twist on 3.6 m base



Variation in horizontal alignment, vertical alignment, versines, cross level/cant, twist and gauge should not exhibit
a cyclic pattern.


Spacing +/-

5 mm

Sleeper/perpendicular to rail line (out of square) +/-

2 mm

212 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel


Breathing Life into The Tunnel (Ventilation)

7.1 Need of Ventilation System

7.1.1 Ventilation systems in tunnels play a vital role for the safety and the operability of tunnels. Particularly for
long railroad tunnels with Diesel traction, a ventilation system is required to provide a sufficient quantity of fresh
air in the tunnel. In case of a fire in the tunnel, the ventilation system mitigate the impact of tunnel fire and help to
facilitate the escape and the rescue operations in the vicinity of the fire.

7.1.2 Therefore, it is imperative that the ventilation system adopted for the tunnel should be capable of providing
a good respirable atmosphere and visibility inside the tunnel. Hence the tunnel ventilation system has to respond
to the following major criteria:
i) Dilution of vehicular exhausts in the tunnel to an acceptable level for the users.
ii) Removal of particulate matter which causes poor visibility inside the tunnel.
iii) Removal of smoke in case of fire so as to provide safe escape to the passengers.

7.1.3 Ventilation Systems


Natural Ventilation system: The movement of air is controlled by atmospheric conditions and by the piston
effect created by moving traffic pushing the stale air through the tunnel. This is almost ineffective in case of
Long tunnels
Heavy traffic
Bidirectional traffic
Inadequate piston effect due to
o Less pressure differences between the two portals
o Less Vehicle to full cross sectional area ratio
These situations need a mechanical ventilation system.

ii) Mechanical Ventilation System:

Commonly, three different ventilation systems are employed for tunnel ventilation. The general functionality
of each system and its implications are briefly outlined in the following paras.

Breathing Life into The Tunnel (Ventilation) 213

a) Longitudinal Ventilation
The longitudinal ventilation system is based on the principle of air that is set in motion along the tunnel axis by a
forced momentum. This momentum in usually created by jet fans mounted inside the tunnel. The concept implies
that the required amount of fresh air can be provided by a longitudinal flow with clean air entering the tunnel
through one portal and the polluted air leaving the tunnel on the other portal. The velocity of the airflow throughout
the tunnel is (aside from effects due to e.g. fire or temperature changes) constant.
Major advantages of this ventilation system are the relatively low costs. Jet Fans can be mounted directly in the
main tunnel; there is no additional lining and no ventilation shaft required. Also expensive elements like exhaust
dampers, axial fans and corresponding controls are not required. Another advantage of longitudinal ventilation
systems is its fast reactivity. Jet fans can usually be turned without delay and are effective immediately for that
A major disadvantage of this system is the fact that the tunnel cannot be divided into aerodynamic segments. Thus
the fresh air is getting gradually contaminated on the way through the tunnel. With a pure longitudinal concept, it
is not possible to exchange or dilute the air inside the tunnel.

Fig. 7.1 : Principle of Longitudinal Ventilation System

b) Transversal Ventilation
This concept requires two independent air ducts that are aerodynamically separated from the main tunnel and
each other. One duct collects the exhaust air along the ventilation segment and is typically located in the tunnel
ceiling. Commonly there are exhaust-dampers located in periodic distances (order of magnitude 100 200m) that
can be controlled independently. That way the location of the air extraction from the main tunnel can be controlled.
The second air duct distributes the fresh air evenly throughout the tunnel. The second air duct is sometimes also
located in the tunnel ceiling for practical reasons, however, this duct can also be located underneath the floor-level.
The length of a ventilation segment is restricted to typically 2,5km per segment for practical reasons with standard
axial fans.
The major advantage of this system is its ability to remove polluted air and smoke from the main tunnel. In addition,
fresh air can be brought into the tunnel simultaneously. Thus the contamination in the tunnel due to smoke (fire
case) or due to emissions (regular operation) can usually be restricted to a rather small area.
The major disadvantage of this system are certainly the high installation costs. In addition each air duct requires a
significant portion of the tunnels cross section and each duct needs to be aerodynamically separated from the main
tunnel and each other. In order to move a given volume of air per unit time in or out of the tunnel, the flow
velocities in the air ducts need to be significantly higher than in the main tunnel.

214 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Therefore the aerodynamic losses in the air ducts are significantly higher than for a comparable flow in a longitudinal
ventilation system. These disadvantages will result in higher operational costs as higher aerodynamic losses have to
be compensated by larger and more powerful fans.
Considering the train frequency of the Project Pir Panjal and the future perspective of electric traction, the transversal
ventilation was ruled out of further considerations, since particularly with electric traction the required amount of
fresh air can be facilitated by the piston effect of the trains. In order to avoid the stranded costs for the fresh air
duct, this concept was not considered any longer.

Fig. 7.2: Principle of Transversal Ventilation System

c) Semi-Transversal Ventilation
This concept resembles a combination of the above mentioned concepts. The semi transversal ventilation employs
just one air duct that can be used either for exhaust air or for fresh air. The usage for exhaust air would also require
exhaust dampers in order to control the location of air extraction.
Depending on the mode of operation, the fresh air will be drawn into the tunnel trough the portals. The exhaust air
would be drawn into the air duct through the required exhaust dampers and pushed out through a ventilation stack
by the axial fans. This mode is typically used for operation in cases of fire.
During regular operation, when the aim is to bring fresh air into the tunnel, the direction of the air flow could also
be reversed. The major advantage of this ventilation concept is its versatility, however, the main tunnel and the
tunnel portals are always part of the aerodynamic system. This yields limitations to the amounts of fresh air that
can be brought particularly into the inner sections of the tunnel.
In principle, semi-transversal or transversal systems would require not only a significantly larger cross-section of
the tunnel (order of magnitude ~ 12m2 per duct), but would also require ventilation stations every 2,5 km (with air
ducts of the stated size). This is the maximum distance that air can be moved in tunnel ducts at a reasonable rate
under regular conditions with standard 1-stage axial machines. Longer ducts would overburden typical 1-stage
axial machines, in addition, the design of the tunnel ceiling will have to consider substantial pressure differences
(3500 Pa to 4000 Pa for 2,5km, up to 6000 Pa for longer ducts) that need to be supported by the structure. Smaller
ducts will yield even higher air velocities, which will further deteriorate the aerodynamic conditions in the tunnel at
larger duct lengths.
Aside from aerodynamic aspects, another problem arises due to cracks that occur in the concrete lining over time.
However, cracks in the concrete lining between tunnel and air duct will inevitably yield a certain leakage rate of air
along the tunnel axis that will mitigate the effectiveness of the ventilation system. The total amount of leakage
volumes can easily add up to 30%-50% of the rated volume. In order to prevent leakages, the ducts and the dampers
have to be properly monitored annually and resealed approximately every 10 years.

Breathing Life into The Tunnel (Ventilation) 215

Due to the simpler construction, these cracks will not pose problems for longitudinal ventilations systems as there
are no aerodynamic barriers that have to be set up by sealed walls. Depending on the specific situation, also other
combinations of the above mentioned ventilation systems can be employed. Considering the train frequency of the
Project Pir Panjal and the future perspective of electric traction, also the semi transversal ventilation was ruled out
of further considerations, since particularly with electric traction the required amount of fresh air can be facilitated
by the piston effect of the trains.

Fig. 7.3: Principle of Semi Transversal Ventilation System

7.2 Design Basics/Fundamentals

7.2.1 Ventilation systems in tunnels play a vital role for the safety and the operability of tunnels. Particularly for
long railroad tunnels with Diesel traction, a ventilation system is required to provide sufficient quantity of fresh air
in the tunnel. In case of a fire in the tunnel, the ventilation system shall be designed to mitigate the impact of a
tunnel fire and help to facilitate the escape and the rescue operations in the vicinity of the fire.
7.2.2 However, the design of all the relevant tunnel safety equipment, particularly the tunnel ventilation
equipment, can only be accomplished based on certain design principles and chosen boundary conditions such as
operating strategies, rescue procedures, etc.
7.2.3 Table 7.1 and 7.2 provide a summary of the various system provided in Pir Panjal tunnel. The term UIC
corresponds to the UIC 779-9R.

Table 7.1: Outline of the Electromechanical System Adopted

216 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Table 7.2: Description of some of the Key Systems adopted

7.3 Boundary Conditions for Ventilation Design against Emissions and Fire
Described below are the boundary conditions adopted for the Pir Panjal Tunnel for its ventilation design. Due to the
lack of measured real-life data at the tunnel portals, the ambient conditions were estimated based on standard
atmospheric conditions and delivered meteorological data of the India Meteorological Department. This approach
is commonly used when measured data are not available.

7.3.1 Geometric Data and Tunnel Dimensions

Fig.7.4 displays the different geometric sections of the tunnel (length, slope, elevations and directions).

Fig. 7.4

Breathing Life into The Tunnel (Ventilation) 217


cross sectional area


main tunnel:

10960 m

48.9 m2

1.0; 0.8 0.33 %

access tunnel:

775 m

38.3 m2

9.71 %


access shaft:

56 m

95.0 m

Tables 7.3 and 7.4 below indicate the specific design parameters of the main tunnel, the access tunnel and the
access shaft.
South to North


cross sectional


South to North













Table 7.3: Geometric Sections Main Tunnel


cross sectional
area m

diameter m

gradient to
main tunnel

distance South
to North m






Table 7.4: Geometric Sections Access Tunnel

Fig.7.5 shows the distance from a portal to its adjacent railway station. Owing to only a single track between Banihal
and Qazigund, only unidirectional Rail Traffic is possible between the two. This fact also was considered in calculating
the minimum waiting time, should a heavy freight train (5000t with two consecutive Diesel locomotives) be driving
uphill from south to north.

Fig. 7.5: Distances to the adjacent Railway Stations

7.3.2 Aerodynamic and Meteorological Data


The relevant meteorological conditions in Quazigund and Banihal are based on a data set over a period of
19 years obtained from India Meteorological Department. Table 7.5 and 7.6 shows the different
aerodynamic and meteorological data for calculating the different pressure losses. The mean annual value
of the measured temperature of the delivered meteorological data is about 10 C. Because of the fact that

218 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

there are also months where temperature value of max. -9.7 C can be reached, it was appropriate to
consider a safety buffer, accordingly air temperature was adopted as mentioned in the table 7.5 & 7.6.
Main Tunnel
portal loss value in


friction coefficient (wall)


wind velocity at portals


air temperature (standard)


air pressure (standard)



air density (standard)



portal loss value out

Table 7.5: Aerodynamic and Meteorological Data Main Tunnel

Access Tunnel
portal loss value in


friction coefficient (wall)


wind velocity at portals


air temperature (standard)


air pressure (standard)



air density (standard)



portal loss value out

Table 7.6: Aerodynamic and Meteorological Data Access Tunnel

Note: The air temperature, pressure and density are based on the average elevation above sea level between the tunnel

It has to be mentioned that the presented mean values of the wind velocity was 4m/s at Quazigund end. However,
the layout of the ventilation system was designed to handle higher wind velocity for a safe operation. The 30
minutes mean average value was derived as 8m/Sec and was taken into account in the design.
Concerning the friction coefficient, the chosen value was based on the civil design that incorporates concrete lining
throughout the tunnel with a smooth surface and a relatively low number of niches (because these occur at every
500m). This number correlates to a surface roughness of approximately 3mm according to Prandtl-Colebrook and
is therefore conservative enough to ensure a safe ventilation design.

7.3.3 Thermodynamic Data


The geothermal input data depends mainly on the magnitude of the overlaying rock mass and the actual
geological conditions. The initial rock temperatures prevailing prior to tunnel excavation will influence the
future temperature development inside the tunnel. Following assumptions were made for the initial rock

mean temperature at the surface:

16 C

maximum temperature on the rock:


geothermal gradient:

2 C/100 m depth

Breathing Life into The Tunnel (Ventilation) 219

ii) The thermal conductivity (l) was assumed as 1.9W/mK (literature values for natural stones vary from 1.5 to
3.5W/mK) for the similar geological conditions, and the specific heat capacity of the rock (cr) as 0.8kJ/kgK.
The density of the rock mass was taken as 2400kg/m3.
iii) According to the geological prognosis the proposed tunnel alignment pierces through different geological
layers. Nevertheless, the geothermal input data, to calculate the initial wall temperatures of the tunnel, are
not very sensitive.

7.3.4 Wind Effect and Natural Buoyancy Effect

Tables 7.7, 7.8, 7.9 and 7.10 indicate the relevant input data (wind and buoyancy forces) which were used to design
the tunnel ventilation system in case of a fire.
air density (standard)



wind velocity




Table 7.7: Wind Effect




air density (T=50C)









air density (standard)


Table 7.8: Natural Buoyancy Main Tunnel

air density (standard)



air density (T=4C)









Table 7.9: Natural Buoyancy Effect - Access Tunnel

air density (standard)
fire load per locomotive
total fire load








air density (T=80C)









efficiency combustion

Table 7.10 : Fire Buoyancy Effect Main Tunnel

220 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

7.3.5 Train Data

i) Specific Train Data
Table 7.11 indicates the relevant train data (including aerodynamic parameters, the expected number of trains per day and the
in average speed).

Passenger train

Freight train





train mass
traction power per locomotive
cross sectional area locomotive
cw value locomotive
No. of locomotives per train
cross sectional area carriage
cw value carriage
No. of carriages per train
speed (average)
train frequency

Table 7.11: Specific Train Data

ii) Specific Emission Data

Substantial research was conducted in order to collect a reasonable emissions data. Thus a comparison between
measured emissions data of common locomotives used in India and the emissions data provided in international
standards was carried out. The worst case scenario (as signed green in Table 7.12) was chosen for further calculations.
The calculation of emissions as well as the aerodynamic values for the ventilation design have been based on these



US EPA (line haul

locomotive, Tier-0)

measured emission data
























Table 7.12: Specific Basic Emission Data of Diesel Locomotives

Thus it can be concluded, that the chosen emissions data are unlikely to be exceeded in real life. Furthermore it was
assumed that the air outside the tunnel has a CO concentration of 1.0 ppm and a light extinction coefficient of
0.0002 m-1. The conversion factor (according to PIARC) between particulate emission in g and the turbidity effect is
given by 1g/m3 = 4.7 m2/m3.

iii) Emission Design Limits Threshold Levels

a) There is no stringent emission limitation for railway tunnels. Neither UIC nor any other code suggests
precise limits, as such limits are subject to our own operational principles. In road tunnels however, such
allowable emission concentrations are defined by PIARC and also in various national codes and have to be

Breathing Life into The Tunnel (Ventilation) 221

monitored accordingly. If emission concentrations exceed the stated limits, the tunnel has to be closed for
regular operation until the emissions reach acceptable levels again.
b) Table 7.13 indicates pollutant threshold levels permitted by the Indian Railways on the basis of limitations
on workers exposure. Its last column shows the proposed threshold levels for the ventilation design of Pir
Panjal tunnel. While the exposure levels can be taken as a reference, factors such as physical strain on
passengers do not apply in the case of the train passage through the tunnel, and therefore the limits here
could potentially be higher.

8 Hours Exposure

15 Min. Exposure

Design Limit Pir Panjal Tunnel

Sum: NOx
Particulates (PM)

50 ppm
25 ppm
4 ppm
29 ppm
5000 ppm
5 ppm
Not defined

400 ppm
35 ppm
5 ppm
40 ppm
18000 ppm
5 ppm
Not defined
50C for a train passing, max. 65C

50 ppm
90% of NOx
10% of NOx
25 ppm
Not defined
Not defined
< 0,012m^-1 (extinction coefficient)

Table 7.13: Threshold Levels

The actual ratio of NO/NO2 is estimated for a diesel engine running at high load conditions. It has to be mentioned,
that at low load operation, the ratio NO/NO2 can drop since high combustion temperatures typically promote the
formation of NO rather than NO2 during combustion. In the specific case of the Pir Panjal tunnel, engines emissions
can be critical only when the train moves uphill so that the engines will operate at high load conditions.
When the train is moving downhill, the ratio NO/NO2 will shift towards NO2, nevertheless the overall emission
concentration will be substantially lower since less locomotive power is required and the threshold levels will not
be exceeded in downhill run. Levels of gaseous sulphate will largely depend on the sulphur content of the fuel.
Since these levels in diesel are subject to strict regulations, it can be expected that diesel fuel will eventually be
sulphur free and no sulphates will be emitted. If a certain specified limit is reached, the tunnel ventilation system
will be activated automatically to achieve the determined values.

7.3.6 Design Fire Load

i) Size of Fire Load
a) Given the large variety of goods that in the event of a major fire in the Tunnel could potentially be lost, it is
economically not possible to design a ventilation system that would be capable of controlling all fire cases.
For instance a typical 30 MW fire will generate approximately 80-100m3/sec of smoke. This fire load will be
generated by approximately 1000 L of Diesel fuel burning in about 20 minutes.
Thus a design fire load has to be assessed and the ventilation system has to be capable of controlling the
spread of smoke at the chosen fire load.
b) Several investigations were carried out by Deutsche Bahn AG and they suggested the following typical
numbers for fire loads of trains:

Diesel Loco Peak 20 MW

Electric Loco Peak 12 MW
Passenger train Peak 25 MW
Freight train Peak 8-52 MW (depending on load)

222 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

c) Assuming that a typical freight train will be hauled by two consecutive Diesel locos, the assumption was
made that if these two locos be on fire that will constitute a potential fire load of 40 MW. Thus the fire load
of 40 MW was chosen as the fire load for ventilation design of Pir Panjal tunnel.
d) The critical point is obviously the definition of potential fire loads of freight trains. While state of the art
train furniture of passenger trains does not burn by itself anymore, the potential fire load of freight trains
will be constituted by operational regulations of the operator. In addition, it has to be kept in mind that the
fire load evolves to its peak over a certain time. Thus if the train personnel are trained in fire fighting,
measures could be taken by them to avoid a large scale fire in the tunnel at least to some extent. Fire
fighting equipment (quench-water line, hydrants, and fire extinguishers) will have to be available in the
e) Fig7.6 and 7.7 show typical heat release curves of 30 and 100MW fires. These curves are based on the
Ruhnehanmar Fire tests by Mott Mc Donald. From several tests it was learnt that regardless of the maximum
fire size, the increase of heat-release to its peak typically takes approximately 10 minutes for a standard
fire. Obviously hazardous goods can reach their peak much faster, but such goods are typically subject to
special safety measures in the operating strategy.

Fig. 7.6: Fire Load Curve 30 MW

Fig. 7.7: Fire Load Curve 100 MW

Breathing Life into The Tunnel (Ventilation) 223


These fire curves were also considered in the structural safety and civil engineering design to ensure that
the structure can withstand the high temperatures for a certain specified period of time.

g) If a fire load exceeds the design fire load in the case of longitudinal ventilation system, the smoke will also
spread into both sides of the tunnel - back layering will propel the smoke.

7.3.7 Aerodynamic Aspects

The ventilation operation distinguishes between following two mode of operations:

i) Normal operation
A high longitudinal air velocity is created in the tunnel and fresh air cleans the emissions from the tunnel. As
explained earlier, a passing train will create a natural flow in the tunnel by its so called piston effect and this will
strengthen the installed ventilation capacity.

ii) Emergency operation

The installed ventilation system will be able to cope with the 40 MW Fire by generating a longitudinal air velocity
lower than for normal operation and typically will not be significantly higher than the critical velocity. The critical
velocity is the required air velocity in the tunnel to prevent back layering of the smoke for a safe rescue of train
passengers. Thus the ventilation system will maintain the corresponding minimum air flow and provide smoke free
escape routes.

7.3.8 Operational Aspects


The main sources of gaseous emissions will be the Diesel powered locomotives and the air-conditioning
units as they pass through the tunnel. The actual amount of emissions will largely depend on the speed and
the load of the trains passing through the tunnel. The contribution of the AC units will not be significant
compared to the locomotive emissions.

ii) The investigated worst case conditions during normal operation are covered by a train with a mass of 5000
tons moving uphill, driven by two consecutive diesel locomotives and the next train passing the tunnel in
the opposite direction. This means that after threshold values are reached the ventilation system has to
clean the emissions in the tunnel. However, the suggested on-site air quality monitoring will indicate to the
operator whether the air quality in the tunnel will be adequate enough for the passage of the next train
right away or whether the air in the tunnel will need to be cleaned before the next train can be allowed to
enter the tunnel.

7.4 Layout of Ventilation System

7.4.1 General Aspects
a) In general, longitudinal ventilation systems with jet fans are commonly used in railway tunnels since the
longitudinal airflow due to the piston effect is itself a significant help in these tunnels. Thus any ventilation
system will sometimes have to cope with significant air-velocities in the tunnel. In addition, in tunnels with
electric traction the tunnel ventilation will not have to handle locomotive emissions but will only need to
be designed to cope with the fire hazard.
b) The Pir Panjal tunnel will have only diesel traction till electrification is done, which may take few years. In
order to obtain the optimum ventilation design, several different ventilation concepts (alternatives) were
investigated on the following lines:

224 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Ventilation design for normal operation

Cope with emissions
Reduced waiting time between two trains coming in opposite directions and adopt the worst case
scenario (with two consecutive diesel locomotives)

Ventilation design for emergency operation (fire case)

Cope with a 40MW fire load

Each case was based on Operational Safety and robustness of the system.
c) The investigations predominantly strove to reduce the waiting time between two trains passing through
the tunnel, and the ventilation system had also to be capable of controlling a 40MW fire. The worse case
was design for.
d) The 40MW fire load was assumed for the final ventilation design, which requires the use 15 jet fans. The
security buffer in the number of jet fans was provided by considering lower installation factors and reduced
thrust of the jet fans due to hot smoke.
e) The ventilation system capacity had to be strengthened in order to increase the train frequency (5000t
uphill train, with two consecutive diesel locomotives) for the given layout. Accordingly the final ventilation
system comprises 25 jet fans in the main tunnel and 3 jet fans in the access tunnel and the axial fans
positioned in the airlocks in the Access Tunnel.

7.4.2 Calculation Approaches and Tools


To calculate the different ventilation aspects like pressure losses, buoyancy effects, wind pressure and
other relevant dimensioning utilities like jet fans, etc., the commonly used 1D-calculation approach was
adopted. Hence, various relevant issues of Fluid dynamics, Thermo Dynamics, Mechanical Engineering
(fans), and Fire Design were investigated.


A 1D-CFD-program was used to get a second opinion on the results for re-confirmation to ensure a safe
design of the tunnel ventilation. The software used, was developed by the Centre dEtudes des Tunnels
(French Agency for Tunnels) and is titled CAMATT

7.4.3 Normal Operation Design

As already pointed out, for normal operation 25 jet fans are available to clean the tube if the emission limits are
exceeded (e.g. a 5000t train with two consecutive diesel locomotives is moving uphill from south to north).
Considering aerodynamic aspects like piston effect of the train, portal wind pressure, wall friction, etc. (see the
Boundary Conditions stated earlier), a certain longitudinal air velocity can be reached using 25 jet fans. If a 5000t
train is moving downhill, the threshold levels of emissions are not exceeded by one train passing and the tube
therefore does not have to be cleaned of all the emissions after this one train pass. During normal operation,
permanent monitoring of the air quality in the tunnel is paramount importance.
The 1D calculations in Table 7.14 indicate the different input and output data for calculating the requirement of jet
air velocity
train velocity
length 1



velocity of air in tunnel

velocity of train
length of positive train piston effect (as long as the train is in the tunnel)

Breathing Life into The Tunnel (Ventilation) 225


prequired, l1
pjet fan
length 2
prequired, l2
pjet fan
a ges
total Pel



wind portal pressure losses

friction losses
natural buoyancy
piston effect of train (due to security only a small value was considered)
total pressure loss, length 1 (piston effect is active)
pressure of one jet fan (reduced thrust)
required number of jet fans, length 1
length of tunnel without train piston effect
wind portal pressure losses
friction losses
natural buoyancy
piston effect of train
total pressure loss, length 2 (piston effect is not active)
pressure of one jet fan (reduced thrust)
required number of jet fans, length 2
total number of required jet fans
power demand
total power demand

Table 7.14: Calculation (Normal Operation) Main Tunnel

7.4.4 Emergency Operation (Fire Case) - Design

i) As mentioned earlier, in case of the 40MW fire the ventilation system has to be able to create a longitudinal air
velocity of at least 2.82m/s to prevent back layering of the smoke and to ensure a safe evacuation of the train
passengers. It is critical to detect the fire immediately and commence the emergency procedures immediately
The ID calculation shown in Table 7.15 indicate the different input and output data for calculating the requirement
of jet fans.
fire load
air velocity
p required
p jet fan
a reserve
a total
total Pel



velocity of air in tunnel

wind portal pressure losses
friction losses
natural buoyancy
fire buoyancy
piston effect (train 0km/h)
total required pressure
pressure of one jet fan (reduced thrust due to smoke)
required number of operating jet fans
required number of non operating jet fans (reserve, jet fans near fire location)
total required installed jet fans
power demand
total power demand

Table 7.15 : Required Jet Fans (Fire case) - Main Tunnel

226 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

7.5 Smoke Behaviour

7.5.1 Smoke Back layering

For the optimization of a ventilation system, the possibility of a tunnel fire at different locations in the
tunnel has to be taken into account. For the longitudinal ventilation, the main rule is to keep the flow of
smoke and hot gases in the direction of the segment ahead of the train. A constant air-flow should be
maintained just to blow the smoke and hot gases away from tunnel users towards the tunnel portal. To
prevent feeding the fire with oxygen and to keep the hot gases as long as possible on the tunnel ceiling, the
speed of air should not exceed about 2.5 m/s. On the other hand the so called critical velocity to prevent
back layering is in the reach of 2 m/s to 3.5 m/s - depending on the fire load, the gradient of the tunnel and
the tunnel height.

For Pir Panjal Tunnel the critical velocity for a 40MW fire is 2.82m/s (see Table 7.16). With 15 proposed Jet
Fans (fire case design) it is possible to reach a longitudinal velocity of 3m/s under the chosen assumptions.

In a tunnel fire the smoke and other combustion products fill up the tunnel rapidly. If no ventilation is
provided and the gradient is low or zero, an almost even distribution is observed on both sides.

Table 7.16 indicates the calculation of the critical velocity (vc) for the selected longitudinal ventilation
system of Pir Panjal tunnel.











temperature near fire





cross section area

tunnel height
acceleration of gravity
critical Froude number










fire load
density of incoming air
temperature of incoming air
specific heat capacity
critical air velocity

Table 7.16: Critical velocity

7.5.2 Stratification of the Smoke

Due to the density differences, the smoke will typically move to the ceiling and leave the cooler tunnel air
underneath. Thus initially a stratified layer of smoke will be developed that will last until the smoke cools
off and the buoyancy will not be effective any longer. Depending on the surrounding conditions, this
stratification will last for a distance of 500m to 800m for a 30 - 40 MW fire.

This stratification should allow train passengers to escape the fire scene underneath the smoke in a layer of
almost clean air. The fire load of typical passenger trains is comparable to that of a burning car.

In tunnels with longitudinal ventilation, the smoke will eventually cool down and fill the entire cross section.

Breathing Life into The Tunnel (Ventilation) 227

Assuming that the air velocity is more than the critical velocity, one side of the tunnel (ahead of the train)
will be filled with smoke while the other side of the tunnel can be maintained smoke free.

Photo 7.1: Stratified Smoke Layer (Longitudinal Ventilation)

7.6 Waiting Time

i) In case of an uphill driving 5000t train driven by two consecutive diesel locomotives the tunnel has to be cleaned
of the emissions by fresh air before the next train (downhill south bound) is allowed to enter the tunnel. This is
the critical scenario as far as the waiting at Qazigund is concerned. Therefore the following approach was considered.

a) Waiting Time for Southbound Trains

The model to calculate the waiting time (see Fig 7.8 and Table 7.17) was set up as follows:

a = time to cover distance from south portal to north portal of the tunnel (in minutes)
b = time to cover distance from north portal to the railway station (Quazigund) (in minutes)
c = time necessary to clean the tunnel (in minutes) with the tunnel ventilation system
e = waiting time (potential) at the railway station (in minutes)
Model: e = c a b (minutes)

Fig. 7.8 : Waiting Time Southbound Trains

228 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

b) Waiting Time Results:

In case of a southbound train 25 jet fans operate in north direction and generate a medium air velocity up to ~
5.7m/s. The air velocity will be higher for the period of time when the piston effect of the uphill driving train
supports the airflow in the tunnel.
25 jet fans - southbound trains
velocity air
velocity of train
waiting time at Quazigund station


Table 7.17: Calculated Waiting Time

Because of the fact that in driving direction South threshold values are not reached there is no calculated waiting
time for northbound trains because of cleaning the tunnel from emissions. So the emissions inside the tunnel just
have to be monitored. If several consecutive trains pass the tunnel, emission levels may still be exceeded. In that
case, the ventilation system will have to clean the tunnel again.

7.7 Specifications of Machinery

The following machines are the basis for the ventilation layout design. The indicated power consumption el. denotes
the electrical power demand of the engine of the fan considering the sea level (change in density).

a) Jet Fans - main tunnel

outer diameter
nominal thrust
effektive thrust (normal operation)
inst. Factor (normal operation)
effektive thrust fire case operation)
inst. Factor (fire case operation)
power consumption (el.)







b) Jet Fans - access tunnel

outer diameter
nominal thrust
effective thrust (normal operation)
inst. Factor (normal operation)
effective thrust fire case operation)
inst. Factor (fire case operation)
power consumption (el.)
number of fans

c) Small axial fans - access tunnel, air lock

outer diameter
pressure rise
volume flow
power consumption (el.)
number of fans

Breathing Life into The Tunnel (Ventilation) 229

7.8 Summary of the Final Longitudinal Ventilation System


A short summary of the finally selected ventilation system is as follows:


Ventilation equipment: 25 jet fans in the main tunnel,


Ventilation Equipment for Access Tunnel (no intermediate ceiling): 3 jet fans of size same as in the main

iii) 2 Small axial fans for air locks in the Adit (the Access Tunnel)
iv) Conditions for Normal Operation:
a) 5000t train driven by 2 consecutive diesel locomotives (worst case for normal operation), uphill direction.
b) Train velocity 40km/h during normal operation.
c) Aim: Reduce time to clean the tunnel (ventilation time), reduce waiting time at the railway stations
v) Conditions for Emergency Operation (fire case)
a) Fire load of 40MW worst case scenario
b) train stops at the section with steepest slope, heading downhill (maximum buoyancy effect)
c) Aim: Handling a fire load of 40 MW, to achieve required critical velocity.

Fig. 7.9 : Layout Air lock System

230 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel


Livening The Tunnel

(Electrical & Mechanical Systems)

8.1 General
This Chapter explains about the electrical and mechanical systems provided for operation, maintenance, surveillance
and safety in the Pir Panjal Tunnel.

8.2 Compliance with the UIC 779-9 R provisions

The UIC 779-9R has been generally referenced for the design of electrical and mechanical systems, Table 8.1 shows
compliance with its various provisions significant for the electro-mechanical installations in the tunnel.
Table of UIC Codex



Speed Monitoring

The train velocity will be monitored.



Radio System

Tunnel Radio System provided so that people in the tunnel may communicate
with the Control Centre or the Equipment Room Buildings with e.g. mobile
radio devices.



Access Control

Access control at the tunnel portals and access portals with video monitoring
by the Control Centre.



Fire, Smoke and

Gas Detection

Fire/Smoke detectors installed in the main tunnel as linear fire detectors and
in electrical rooms as optical smoke detectors.


CO, O2 and SO2 detectors in the main tunnel tube.The information of fire
will be transferred automatically to the Control Centre


Fire Extinguishing

Main Tunnel: a fire-main along the tunnel length, with hydrants every
125m, provided; additionally, Fire Extinguishers provided at the
Maintenance Niches and Cabinets.



Smoke Extraction

A Tunnel Ventilation System installed with 25 jet fans in main tunnel.

The Access Tunnel also equipped with jet fans.
The Air Locks at the Access tunnel equipped with axial fans to guarantee
smoke free accesses even by opening the doors.


232 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel




Escape Routes

Emergency Tunnel


The fugitives may walk on the 3 m wide motorable path.

Escape route orientation signs provided every 50 m at both tunnel walls,

which indicate the distances to the Accesses.

HPS lamps in a span of about 80 m (always switched ON).

Fluorescent lamps in a span of about 6 m, 2 m above the motorable path.
They will be switched ON automatically or by remote control by the operator
in the Control Centre if there is an emergency. Also they may be switched ON
directly at every Maintenance Niche. Parts of the FL lamps are supplied by the
UPS. [The illumination at the surface of the motorable path is higher than that
suggested in the UIC, because the lighting also will be used for maintenance].



All lamps power supplied by fire resistant cabling (E90/FE180).

The stations of emergency telephones are indicated by emergency telephone

They are installed at the Maintenance Niches (where they are protected against
mechanical impact and heat).

The hands-free speaking system is directly accessible from the main tunnel.

A direct connection to Control Centre guaranteed immediately upon pressing a

push button.

The emergency telephones are placed every 250 m and additionally at the portals
and in the accesses


Earthing Device

No overhead line is provided. However, earthing system for all the equipments
have been provided


Rescue areas

In the rescue areas (in front of Access Tunnel, Access Shaft) loudspeakers,
cameras, lighting, etc. provided.

Cameras and Hydrants, etc. are provided in the rescue areas at the tunnel portals.

Electrical Supply for

Distances between the outlets is about 250 m

Rescue Services

The compatibility with rescue services and maintenance has been ensured.

The Maintenance Points are located in the niches on one side of the tunnel.

Protected against mechanical impact and heat





Radio Installation

Channel with common frequency provided.



Reliability of

The UPS is construed for 120 min. The emergency lighting, communication


Electrical Installation


Control System

systems, etc. supplied by UPS.

The cabling is laid beneath the motorable path and in the cable tray in a height
of about 3.5 m above the motorable and is protected from the influences of
derailment and construction work

As far as possible non-flammable materials have been used (in cabling, loudspeakers, cameras).

Ventilation-, lighting-, communication-, radio-, power supply-systems, etc.,

controlled by telecontrol system.

CCTV Monitoring system provided.

Automatic switching scenarios provided for different incidents (e.g. fire, etc.).

The tunnel is monitored (24 X 7) from the Control Centre.


Livening The Tunnel (Electrical & Mechanical Systems) 233


Alternating current
Closed-circuit television
Direct current
Extra-high voltage
Indian standards
Low voltage
Low smoke and fume
Medium voltage
Medium voltage substation
Diesel Generator
Terre Neutre Separe (Separate neutral and grounding conductor). The PE and N are separate conductors
that are connected together only near the power source. .
Normal Electrical Power from the network
Uninterrupted power supply
Service building
Institution of Electrical Engineers
IP30 Protection Class
Functionality of 30 minutes
FE180 Insulation integrity of 180 minutes
FRLS: Flame Retardant Low Smoke.
LSZH: Low Smoke Zero Halogen (not flame retardant)

8.3 A Short Description of the System

8.3.1 One power transformer station is situated near each portal. These power transformer stations are needed
to provide the full electrical power for the tunnel. Additionally two portal substations at the Service Buildings and
five MVS-Niches (tunnel substations) are provided to supply power for certain items, viz. ventilation equipment,
Maintenance Niches and other safety equipment. The safety equipment was provided by five contractors, and it is
divided into:

i) 11 kV System
Including transformers, 11 kV cables, 11 kV switchgears, etc.

ii) Electro-mechanical Installations:

a) Tunnel Ventilation System, Air Monitoring System.
b) Including 433/250 V power supply, emergency power supply, earthing and potential equalization, Tunnel
Lighting System, Tunnel Fittings, and Ventilation Control, Fire detection system, Building Installation and
Furniture, Room Ventilation and Air Conditioning, etc.
c) SCADA System.

234 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

iii) Telecommunication Equipment

Including Emergency Call System, Closed Circuit Television System, Tunnel Radio System and Public Address System,
8.3.2 The Service Building and the MVS-Niches are connected with two 11 kV-cables (redundant). The power
supply is guaranteed through the power transformer stations, where 33 kV outside power supply is stepped down
with feeders and transformers to 11 kV. Normally the power supply of the Maintenance Niches and the electromechanical installations is divided onto the two 11 kV-cables. But in case of emergency, each (sub) station in the
tunnel shall be able to supply the whole tunnel.
8.3.3 For the emergency power supply, diesel generators (DGs) and UPS have been installed. The DGs are situated
in the Service Buildings at the portals and will supply the whole tunnel in case of a breakdown of the main power
8.3.4 The UPS is provided at both Service Buildings and at the five MVS-Niches. In case of a breakdown of the
main power supply, the UPS will provide an uninterrupted power supply for lighting, telephone, CCTV, detection
systems and other safety equipment (excluding the ventilation) for at least 2 hours.
8.3.5 MVS-Niches will provide electrical supply for rescue and maintenance services, tunnel and emergency
lighting, safety equipment, control units and ventilation.
8.3.6 Maintenance Niches, situated at about 250 m intervals, house the provisions for electrical supply for rescue
and maintenance services, tunnel and emergency lighting and for safety equipment like emergency call telephones.
8.3.7 The control cables, low voltage cables and 11 kV cables are laid inside concrete encased cable conduits
underneath the motorable path. Twenty PVC conduits with an outer diameter of 90 mm are reserved for the control
and low voltage cables. Connection to the Maintenance Niches is provided via a cable distribution pit. In addition at
every 125 m cable pulling pits have been installed.
8.3.8 Six PVC conduits (outer diameter of 160 mm) are provided for the 11 kV cables for which distribution pits
are provided in front of the MVS-Niches, cable pulling pits have been installed at every 250m.
8.3.9 The Service Buildings and the MVS-Niches are equipped with control units for communication and data
exchange via optical fibre cables. The data is collected, analyzed and controlled at the Service Buildings at the
portals. Furthermore, the data is transmitted to the main control centre at Banihal station, where it will be analyzed
and operated (for example: turn the lights on or a fire is detected). The Control Centre at Banihal monitors the
tunnel 24 7.


Electrical and Mechanical Installations:

Following Electrical and Mechanical installations are provided for operational, maintenance, surveillance and safety

8.4.1 Power Transformer Station:


Power Distribution Department (PDD), J&K Govt. supplies 33 KV at the Service Buildings at the south and
north portals which is transformed to 11 kV. A load of 11 kV is carried inside the portal substations (Service
Buildings) and inside the tunnel substations (MVS-Niches) with redundant cabling. The two supplies are
providing the required redundancy as both are able to take entire tunnel load independently. Under normal
conditions each power transformer station is supplying for half of the tunnel installations. In case of failure
of supply at one of the portals, the other shall supply the required power. In the event of failure of both the
supplies, DG power shall be available at respective portals.

Livening The Tunnel (Electrical & Mechanical Systems) 235

ii) Power demand:
A summary of the power supply requirement, based on the installations inside the tunnel, is presented


Control Centre (Banihal Station)

Service Building South
MVS Niche 1
MVS Niche 2
MVS Niche 3
MVS Niche 4
MVS niche 5
Service Building North

20 kVA
102 kVA
370 kVA
375 kVA
393 kVA
393 kVA
381 kVA
76 kVA
2090 kVA

8.4.2 Protective Measures

Beginning at the transformers, a five-conductor system (TN-S system) has been designed.
The protective conductors are incorporated in power cables up to a cable dimension of 5 x 16 mm within a common
cover. For larger conductor areas, four conductor-cables and separate protective conductor are laid. While conductor
areas are over 150 mm, single conductor cables have been used.

8.4.3 Substations
i) High Voltage Substations (from 11 kV 50 Hz to 433 V 50 Hz AC) are provided at Service Buildings (portal
substations) as well as at 5 MVS-Niches (tunnel substations) inside the tunnel.
ii) Each substation has a high voltage room and two transformer rooms. Two transformers in each substation
guarantee power supply also in case of a failure or during maintenance works. Each transformer will be
able to supply all systems of the substation.
iii) The transformers at north and south portals are oil type natural cooled with OFF Load Tap Changers. The
transformers for inside substations are epoxy resin cast dry type transformers. The voltage supply from
the 33 kV level is guaranteed to be stable, with a variation of not more than 5 %.
iv) The power supply from the portal substations to the tunnel substations is brought in via two 11 kV
cables which are installed in conduits (concrete encased PVC ducts) underneath the motorable path
along and inside the tunnel. The transmission of the 11 kV voltage begins at one of the portal substations
(Service Building South/North), proceeds then through the tunnel substation (MVS-Niches) and ends at
the other portal substation (Service Building North / South).
v) The expected series capacitance in the individual cores of the 11 kV-cable is about 0.309 F/km.
vi) For the case of one Power Building to supply the whole tunnel from one side (worst case scenario), the
capacitance in the high voltage system has been calculated and the capacitance has been kept as low as

8.4.4 Uninterrupted Power Supply

i) The UPS basically consists of a DC charger, batteries, inverted rectifier, NET bypass as well as the serving
and announcing appliances. The system generates three-phase-current with neutral conductor. The
batteries NiCd maintenance free batteries.

236 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

ii) The supply concept for the UPS network uses a five conductor system (TN-S System).
UPS supplies the following systems:

Tunnel emergency lighting

Escape signs

Emergency telephone system

Fire detection system

Telephone system

CCTV system

Tunnel radio system

Public address system

Spare (approx. 10 %).

iii) The UPS is provided at both portal substations and at the 5 MVS-Niches. The rated capacity of the UPS
for is 2 hours duration. At each location a battery room is designed. The UPS is installed in standard
panels. Batteries are set up on ladders. Operating status and measured values are shown on a display
board. For maintenance purposes a manually switched bypass has been provided.

8.4.5 Diesel Generators

A 100 % power backup, using DG sets, has been provided. The generators are going to supply the whole tunnel
from both portals. A pair of generators is placed at the south portal and another pair at the north portal. Each
Genset has 1500 kVA generation power. In case of main power failure generator sets provide power for the whole
tunnel. The produced power will be transmitted to the Service Buildings and through the 11 kV cables to the MVSNiches. Each pair of DG Sets shall provide full power supply. The generator produces a voltage of about 433 V, which
will be stepped up to 11 kV by means of a 433 V / 11 kV transformers.

8.4.6 Capacitor for Power Factor Correction

For each jet fan a power factor correction capacitor has been provided inside distribution cabinet the at appropriate
MVS-Niche. The power factor has to be corrected to 0.92 inductive or better. Thus the starting current inrush will
also be reduced. For sensitive electronic equipment filter circuits and blocking elements are provided in the Service
Buildings and Control Centre.

8.4.7 Power Distribution

Power is distributed from 433 V panels where NET and UPS-power are provided in separate panels. These panels
are situated inside the Service Buildings, in the substations inside the tunnel (MVS niches) and along the tunnel in
distances of 250 m at the locations of the Maintenance Niches. Panels are made of coated steel sheets.

8.4.8 Means of Protection

The IP 43 is used for the panels in the Service Buildings and in electrical rooms inside MVS Niches. The IP 54 is used
for panels inside the tunnel in the Maintenance Niches. Cable outlets are of IP 54 through screw joints.

8.4.9 Cables
All cables entering the open space of the tunnel are Low Smoke Zero Halogen (LSZH). All low voltage cabling inside
the tunnel is Flame Retardant Low Smoke (FRLS) E90/FE180.

Livening The Tunnel (Electrical & Mechanical Systems) 237

Wiring has not been allowed. Each electrical circuit has a separate cable. Only cables with the same voltage have
been installed within one conduit/duct.
The cables normally have been laid beneath the motorable path. From the nearest cable pit to the consumers in the
tunnel, the cabling has been laid in the cable tray, mounted on the tunnel wall next to the motorable path.

8.4.10 Cables laid in the Ground

i) Outside the tunnel, all cables buried directly in the ground are laid at a depth of at least 0.8 m from the
ground surface to the top of the cable. Cables have not been laid directly in the ground for fear of
presence of any corrosive agent. All cables have been laid on and are covered with salt-free sand or
selected soil. All cables have been protected by a continuous layer of pre-cast concrete elements, warning
tapes or purpose made synthetic catalogue item cable covers.
All cable covers bear on both sides the inscription DANGER - ELECTRIC CABLES.
ii) Cables in raised floors, trays and ducts:
Cables in the raised floor or in cable trays have been installed in separate compartments for energy and
control cables. Cables have been bundled in each compartment and appended on the ground or cable
The control cables to the control room at Banihal Station has been carried across the Bichlari river bridge
using cable trays with conduits (2 DN50).
iv) Conduits
20 conduits with an outer diameter of 90 mm for low voltage and control cabling have been provided
under the motorable path. The 20 conduits are specially meant for the power supply for the ventilation,
safety equipment (cameras, detectors, etc.), maintenance Niches and the control cables for the safety
equipment. In the worst case, 2 conduits are needed for the ventilation power cabling, approx. 7 conduits
are needed for the maintenance Niche NET and UPS cabling, nearly 4 conduits are needed for the control
cabling, 5 conduits are needed for tunnel mobile communication system and 2 ducts are spare.
Six conduits with an outer diameter of 160 mm for 11 kV cabling have also provided under the motorable
path (Fig 8.2).

Fig. 8.1

238 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 8.2

8.4.11 Grounding System Earthing for Electrical Installations

All electrical panels and conducting equipment inside the tunnel have been earthed (i.e. connected with earth).
Therefore 4 40 mm galvanized-iron earthing conductors are situated on both sides of the tunnel inside the
foundation beams along the whole tunnel. Two earthing conductors are connected with a cross earthing at every
250 m (Fig 8.3, 8.4).

Fig. 8.3

Livening The Tunnel (Electrical & Mechanical Systems) 239

Fig. 8.4

Inside buildings and niches earthing flags have been provided.

The fire-main and the fire-hydrants are connected with the grounding system using earthing bells installed inside
each maintenance niche.
Separate earthing system for the Service Building has been installed. Earthing of the Control Centre has been
connected to the earthing system of Banihal Station building.

8.4.12 Lighting System

i) The lighting system consists basically of:
- Building lighting in the Service Buildings and in the MVS-Niches
- Tunnel lighting
- Emergency lighting for the main tunnel, the Access Shaft and the Access Tunnel
- Escape route signing
ii) Building Lighting
For Service Buildings the lighting systems have been provided according to local standards. Conventional
interior lighting has been provided in Service Buildings, MVS-Niches, and in the Control Centre.
iii) Tunnel Lighting
a) Normal Lighting has been provided inside the tunnel for service and maintenance works. The tunnel
lighting is partitioned in individual sections. During abnormal conditions (e.g. fire alarm) the light will
switch ON automatically. Therefore fluorescent lamps of 28 Watts (T5) have been installed on the tunnel
wall next to the motorable path in regular distances of 6 m at a height of 2.0 m from lower edge. Each

240 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

second luminaire is supplied by standard power, the other ones by UPS. In normal conditions the FL are
in turned OFF mode.
b) An average luminance of 20 lux is reached at the motorable path. A minimum of 5 lux lighting has been
provided. The cabling for the tunnel fluorescent lamps is E90/FE180 type.
c) Furthermore HPS (high pressure sodium) lamps of 150 W have been installed at nearly 80 meters centers
above the fluorescent lamps at a height of 5,75 m. The HPS lamps are continuously ON and are supplied
by UPS. The cabling for the HPS Lamps are fire resistant E90/FE180 type.
d) HPS Lamps have also been installed in Truck Turning Niches and these are continuously ON.
e) The degree of protection of the housing is IP 65.
The Tunnel lighting is additionally controlled by switches at the Maintenance Niches.
iv) Emergency Lighting
The emergency lighting provides the light when the main power supply breaks down. Therefore each second
lamp of the Tunnel lighting system has been supplied from UPS.
In case of evacuation of passengers, the Emergency lighting allows safe walking on the motorable path
throughout the tunnel. During abnormal conditions (e.g. fire alarm) the lights will switch ON automatically.
Tunnel lighting can be controlled by switches at the portal zones inside the tunnel, at the entrees of the
access tunnel, at Service Buildings and from Control Centre.

8.4.13 Escape Signs

LED signs with additional LED flashing arrows, which shows the fugitives the escape direction, have been installed
(Fig 8.5). The signs are situated every 50 m on both tunnel walls, approx. 1 m above the motorable path.

Fig. 8.5

8.4.14 Maintenance Niches

In Maintenance Niches, cabinets housing the electrical supply for rescue and maintenance services, are provided
on the side of the motorable path. The distance between Maintenance Niches is 250 m. The socket outlets are

Livening The Tunnel (Electrical & Mechanical Systems) 241

compatible with the rescue and maintenance equipment. Power sockets (one 250 V 16 A socket on UPS and two
433 V 16 A Sockets on NET) have also been provided for emergency and maintenance purposes. Each Maintenance
Niche also contains an emergency call telephone, service telephone and fire extinguishers (Fig 8.6)

Fig. 8.6

8.4.15 Tunnel Ventilation System


This unidirectional railway tunnel has been equipped with a mechanical longitudinal ventilation system
(consisting of jet fans) in the main tube.
The Access Tunnel, perpendicular to the main tunnel (about 2750 m from the South Portal) is also equipped
with a longitudinal ventilation system and an air lock system (consisting of axial fans) for keeping the rescue
passages free of smoke in case of fire.

ii) For normal operation, the Tunnel Ventilation System of the main tunnel is controlled by air quality
measurement system (for CO, dust particles and CO2). In case of a fire (emergency case) the Fire Detection
System will detect the location of the fire and automatically the different fire programs of the Tunnel
Ventilation System will be triggered into action. These fire programs are implemented in the tunnel
monitoring and controlling system (SCADA).
So, in case of fire, the different jet fans of the tunnel will get activated, creating the required longitudinal air velocity,
which will prevent back layering of smoke. This is monitored by longitudinal velocity measurement sensors. It is
necessary to know the prevailing air velocity in order to boost smoke outside the tunnel tube in the driving direction
so as to protect the escaping people. Also the ventilation systems of the Access Tunnel will also get activated so that
the axial fans of the air lock systems create an over pressure, for creating an air velocity through the open access
door, to provide the escapees smoke-free escape routes.

8.4.16 Closed Circuit Television System (CCTV)


UIC Codex does not give any information about a CCTV system. The designer recommended to provide a
CCTV system. It allows the tunnel control operator surveillance of the situation and the conditions inside
the tunnel. During emergency situations he is able to inform and alert people via the Public Address System.
The CCTV cameras are installed alternately on the two tunnel walls at an interval of about 125 m. This
allows viewing over the whole tunnel length including Maintenance Niches and Emergency Call Sites.

242 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Furthermore one camera is placed at each Portal to detect pedestrians and vehicles which enter the tunnel.
ii) At the access tunnel entrance a dome camera has been placed to assit through its a pan / tilt / zoom

8.4.17 Emergency Call and Service Telephone System

Emergency Call and Service Telephones along the tunnel provide reliable instant connection with the Service Buildings
and Control Centre. This will also used for operation and maintenance. Emergency hands-free speaking units and
service telephones are placed at each Maintenance Niche. Emergency Call units and Service Telephones throughout
the main tunnel are indicated by illuminated signs with emergency symbol visible in both directions. The whole
emergency telephone systems and these signs are fed by UPS.
Each emergency call causes an audible and visible alarm in the Service Buildings and Control Centre. The fugitive
will be calmed down with a stored message till the operator answers. The location of the emergency call will be
displayed. The operator may switch between different calls. The service telephones will also be used for operating
and maintenance uses.

8.4.18 Tunnel Radio System

i) A Tunnel Radio System which guarantees a complete radioing capability in the whole tunnel (including in
the Accesses) has been installed.
ii) The Signals of the Tunnel Radio System are transmitted from the LF-connecting network to the control
iii) Operation stations are provided in the Control Centre and in the Equipment Room Buildings. The Tunnel
Radio System has also been integrated in the telecontrol system.
The tunnel radio system provides an uninterruptable radio communication with the headquarters and the
operation centres for all vehicles and handheld devices of the tunnel operation personnel, emergency staff
and the trains passing through the tunnel.
iv) The communication with all channels in the tunnel is independent and simultaneous.
The radio signals of the free field areas are tuned to the free field antennas and are transferred to the radio
central unit at the Equipment Room Building South.
The tunnel antenna system is a wide-band system; with frequencies between 68 MHz and 470 MHz. The
channels may have any frequencies within this frequency band.
The antennae in the free field area are situated on columns and are directional antennae directed to the
respective bases and relay-stations.

8.4.19 Tunnel Mobile Communication System

The Tunnel Mobile Communication System has also been provided in the Pir Panjal Tunnel

8.4.20 Public Address System

Public Address System has been provided to inform / warn maintenance and service staff and to give instruction to
people in abnormal conditions (e.g. for evacuating from a train). Therefore loudspeakers are installed every 50 m
and at the locations of the Maintenance Niches and in the portals areas. Operator terminals are located in the
Service Buildings at the portals and in the Control Centre.

Livening The Tunnel (Electrical & Mechanical Systems) 243

8.4.21 Fire Detection System

A linear fire detection system along the tunnel has been installed. A separate fire detection system for buildings and
electrical rooms has also provided.
The fire detection system consists of push-buttons and automatic fire detectors, arranged in rooms, and a linear
fire detection system in the tunnel. The indicated fire alarms will be transmitted to the Service Buildings and to the
Control Centre. The linear fire alarm detection system is mounted at the tunnel ceiling.
The entire fire detection system consists of following main components:

Linear fire detection system (fibre based heat sensor cable).

Fire alarm push button.

Automatic smoke detectors

Control and indication equipment

Operator panel for fire department.

Every evaluated fire alarm causes.

CCTV camera of the affected section connected to monitor

Switch on the Tunnel lighting to the highest stage

Transfer of the alarm to the Control Centre

Start of the appropriate ventilation fire program and switch on of the fire fighting water pumps.

8.4.22 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Detector

CO detection is necessary for the control of the ventilation system (for normal operation). The detector is placed in
each ventilation section throughout the tunnel. The measuring principle shall be a negative gas filter correlation.

8.4.23 Dust Particle Detector

Dust particle detection is necessary for the control of the ventilation system (for normal operation). The detector is
placed in each ventilation section throughout the tunnel. The measuring principle shall be light transmission.

8.4.24 Airflow Measurement

Airflow measurement is necessary for the control of the ventilation system (for normal operation). Airflow
measurement will measure the airspeed inside the tunnel and the direction of airflow continuously.

8.4.25 CO2 Measurement

CO2 measurement is necessary for the control of the ventilation system (for normal operation).

8.4.26 Train Velocity Measurement

Train Velocity measurement is necessary for the control of the ventilation system (for normal operation).

244 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 8.7: Tunnel Cross Section With Various Equipment

8.4.27 Fire Fighting System

A permanently filled and pressurized fire-main has been installed as a continuous pipe along the tunnel. Fire hydrant
with hose is provided at every 125 m along the tunnel.

8.4.28 Fire Extinguishers

At each MVS-Niche two 9 kg dry powder fire extinguishers are placed. In the Service Buildings also 9 kg dry powder
fire extinguishers are placed.
Additionally CO2-fire extinguishers are placed beneath each 11 kV room (Dry powder fire extinguishers are only
allowed for voltages below 1000V).

8.4.29 Water Tank Capacities

A water tank of 100 m3 capacity is installed - one near each end, for separate and independent water supply from
the north and south. Its elevator location shall be such as to ensure 6 bar pressure in the fire main all along the
tunnel length. With regard to the pressure requirement, one tank is also installed near the adit. Water supply to the
main water pipe is brought from the adit so as to reduce the length of the surface pipe connection to the water
tanks. Furthermore one water tank of 100 m3 capacity is placed at each portal with water pumps, to provide a water
supply in case of failures

8.4.30 Tunnel Control and Instrumentation System

It is guaranteed by the Tunnel control system that all systems are functioning as desired during Normal and Emergency
operation procedures and also the manual override is available to handle any other emergency that may arise.

8.4.31 Buildings
Two storey Service Buildings are provided at both portal areas. Each of them consists of one Power Building and
one Equipment Room Building.

Livening The Tunnel (Electrical & Mechanical Systems) 245

a) Power Buildings (Portal Substations)

Following rooms are provided in a Power Building near each Portal of the main Tunnel:

11 kV feeder room
Transformer rooms 11 kV to 433 V
Generator Room
Electrical workshop
Garage for service and rescue vehicles

b) Equipment Room Buildings (Portal Substations)

Following rooms are provided in an Equipment Room Building near each Portal of the main Tunnel:

Panel Room
Control Panel Room
Control Room
Rest Room

8.4.32 MVS-Niches (Tunnel Substations)

Each of these has:

11 kV room
Transformer room (11 kV to 433 V)
Panel room
Control room
Battery room

8.4.33 Control Centre

A Control Centre is placed at the north end (towards tunnel portal) of the Banihal station building, which is about 2
km from the south portal.
The Control Centre allows monitoring the tunnel conditions, and overseeing and controlling all the tunnel services.
The operation of tunnel is fully automatic. Monitoring and controlling may be manually carried out at the Control
Centre by one person.
The main control unit (Service Buildings) contain a hot-standby twin computer system of state-of-art design suitable
for real-time process and control applications. Which one computer operates, the other shall be on hot standby.
The latest type of data storage system has been established in the control room. Tunnel information system has a
100% backup server.
For critical situations in the tunnel, 14 CCTV and 4 alarm screens support the tunnel operator. Therefore CCTV
pictures or graphic pictures of the tunnel situation can be switched on to the screens.

246 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel


Safety (Operational Concepts)

9.1 Safety Concept

9.1.1 The Safety Concept for the rescue of the train passengers in case of a fire on a train in the tunnel may be
briefly summarised as follows:
i) When a fire is detected in a train passing through a tunnel, the train should continue to the portal
(whenever possible) and stop only outside the tunnel for evacuation of passengers and fire fighting.
ii) The travelling time of a train along the entire length of the Pir Panjal Tunnel varies between 16o5 minutes
(at 40 km/h) and 6o6 minutes (at 100 km/h). The time that elapses until a fire is detected in a passenger
train (i.e. until the fire alarm is released) is usually assumed as around 3 minutes. After detection of the
fire in the train, the possible use of the emergency breaks by passengers (panic reaction) should be
prevented in order to ensure that the train can leave the tunnel as quickly as possible. For instance, in
Germany, the passenger trains are equipped in such a way that they are able to run for over 15 minutes
while under a major fire, at a velocity of 80 km/h in order to avoid stopping in the tunnel while the train
is still on fire.
iii) In case a train on fire cannot continue its movement any further and will come to a halt inside the
tunnel, the ventilation system has to provide a smoke-free tunnel section between the train and one
tunnel exit (a portal or an access tunnel) for escape / rescue of passengers.
iv) Where the distance between the incident and the exit exceeds about 1000 m (which will require an
individual to walk for about 10 22 minutes), a rescue vehicle will be provided for the evacuation of
v) Access for fire fighters will be from the portals only. Fire fighters will enter the tunnel only after all
passengers have left the tunnel and will use the same smoke-free tunnel section that was used by the
passengers to evacuate.

9.2 Main Scenarios And Required Measures


Passenger Train Travelling from Banihal to Qazigund (i.e. from south to north)
i) For all diesel-driven trains travelling from Banihal to Qazigund, the installed ventilation system will,
together with the natural air flow (chimney effect in the tunnel due to the difference in elevation
between the south and the north portals and piston effect of the train) provide an air flow from the

Safety (Operational Concepts) 247

south portal towards the north portal during regular tunnel operation. For trains with electric traction,
the installed jet fans will not be required for regular operation.
ii) In case a train on fire comes to a halt in the tunnel, the direction of the air flow will be maintained. The
velocity of the air flow will be adjusted by the jet fans to approx. 2.5 m/s. Thereby a stratified layer of
smoke in the tunnel crown will be created in the direction of the air flow over a length of 500 800 m.
Even in case the fire occurs in the rear section of the train, this will allow passengers to get off the train
and pass the location of the fire along the escape route free of smoke and dangerous gases.
iii) The individual walking speed of passengers along a smoke-free tunnel varies between 0.75 and 1.60 m/
s, depending on the age of the person.
iv) Where the distance to a tunnel exit is too long for self-rescue, passengers will be directed (via loudspeakers)
to a defined area of evacuation. This could be a section of the motorable path between two adjacent
truck turning niches (the spacing of these niches is nearly 500 m). The areas of evacuation have been
marked with numbers along the tunnel side wall. For safety reasons, the chosen area of evacuation is
located at least 500 m from the rear end of the train. The ventilation system will provide fresh air to the
area of evacuation and prevent smoke and heat from moving into that tunnel section. The area of
evacuation will function as a waiting area for the passengers and as a platform for boarding the rescue
v) Scenario A1
A passenger train on fire comes to a halt along the 1000 m long tunnel section between the south portal
(km 152+600) and km 153+600.
a) Ventilation continues to provide an air flow in the direction towards the north portal; the velocity of the
air flow will be adjusted by the jet fans to approx. 2.5 m/s.
b) Passengers leave the train and walk along the motorable path towards the south portal (self-rescue).
c) Fire fighters enter the tunnel through the south portal after all passengers have left the tunnel.

Fig. 9.1: Scenario A1

(schematic layout, not to scale)

248 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

vi) Scenario A2
A passenger train on fire comes to a halt along the 1750 m long tunnel section between km 153+600 and
the access tunnel (km 155+350).
a) Ventilation continues to provide an air flow in the direction towards the north portal; the velocity of the
air flow will be adjusted by the jet fans to approx. 2.5 m/s.
b) Passengers leave the train and walk along the motorable path in southerly direction to a defined area of
evacuation from where they are picked up by a rescue vehicle arriving from the south portal.
c) Fire fighters enter the tunnel through the south portal after completion of passenger evacuation

Fig. 9.2: Scenario A2

(schematic layout, not to scale)

vii) Scenario A3
A passenger train on fire comes to a halt along the 1000 m long tunnel section between the access
tunnel (km 155+350) and km 156+350.
a) Ventilation continues to provide an air flow in direction towards the north portal; the velocity of the air
flow will be adjusted by the jet fans to approx. 2.5 m/s.
b) Passengers leave the train, walk along the motorable path in southerly direction to the access tunnel
(adit) and leave the tunnel through the access tunnel (self-rescue).
c) Fire fighters enter through the south portal after all passengers have left the tunnel.

Safety (Operational Concepts) 249

Fig. 9.3: Scenario A3

(schematic layout, not to scale)

viii) Scenario A4
A passenger train on fire comes to a halt along the 6600 m long tunnel section between km 156+350 and
the access shaft (km 162+950).
a) Ventilation continues to provide an air flow in direction towards the north portal; the velocity of the air
flow will be adjusted by the jet fans to approx. 2.5 m/s.
b) Passengers leave the train, walk along the motorable path in southerly direction to a defined area of
evacuation from where they are picked up by a rescue vehicle arriving from the south portal
The total time required for all passengers to leave a train can be assumed as 5 minutes. For passing a 516
m long train, an additional period between 6 and 12 minutes would be required until all passengers have
left the section of the train and another 10 20 minutes of walking until all passengers have reached the
relatively safe area of evacuation, resulting in a total time of between 21 and 37 minutes.
It will take (at least) 15 minutes after receiving the alarm for the rescue vehicle to be ready for leaving
from the station in Banihal (around 1.6 km from the south portal). With an average travelling speed of
50 km/h for the rescue vehicle, it will take between 7 and 15 minutes (depending on the location of the
fire) until the rescue vehicle will reach the defined area of evacuation. The total time span for the rescue
vehicle to reach the area of evacuation is therefore of a similar order as for the passengers.
c) Fire fighters enter through the south portal after completion of passenger evacuation

250 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. 9.4: Scenario A4

(schematic layout, not to scale)

ix) Scenario A5
A passenger train on fire comes to a halt along the 610 m long tunnel section between the access shaft
km 162+950 and the north portal (km 163+560).
a) Ventilation will be reversed to provide an air flow in direction towards the South portal; the velocity of
the air flow will be adjusted by the jet fans to approx. 2.5 m/s.
b) Passengers leave the train, walk along the motorable path towards the North portal and leave the tunnel
through the North portal (self rescue). Access shaft has been closed as such can not be utilised for rescue
c) Fire fighters enter through the North portal after all the passengers have left the tunnel.

Fig. 9.5: Scenario A5

(schematic layout, not to scale)

Safety (Operational Concepts) 251


Passenger Train Travelling From Qazigund to Banihal (i.e. from north to south)
i) For all diesel-driven trains travelling from Qazigund to Banihal, the ventilation system will (together with
the piston effect of the train but against the chimney effect in the tunnel) provide an air flow from
the north portal towards the south portal during regular tunnel operation. For trains with electric traction,
the installed jet fans will not be required for regular operation.
ii) In case a train on fire comes to a halt in the northern part of the tunnel, the direction of the air flow will
be maintained, the velocity of the air flow will be adjusted by the jet fans to approx. 2.5 m/s. However,
when the fire occurs along the southern part of the tunnel, the air flow will be reversed to northern
direction as quickly as possible (velocity approx. 2.5 m/s).
iii) While the reversal of the jet fans requires a few minutes during which period some smoke will initially
expand in southern direction (from the location of the fire), the reversal of the air flow is still considered
safer than blowing in fresh air from the far off north portal (a long distance) against the natural chimney
effect in the tunnel (risk of backlayering of smoke).
iv) Scenario B1
A passenger train on fire comes to a halt along the 610 m long tunnel section between the north portal
(km 163+560) and the access shaft km 162+950.
a) Ventilation continues to provide an air flow in the direction towards the south portal; the velocity of the
air flow will be adjusted by the jet fans to approx. 2.5 m/s.
b) Passengers leave the train, walk along the motorable path towards the north portal.
c) Fire fighters enter through the north portal after all passengers have left the tunnel.

Fig. 9.6: Scenario B1

(schematic layout, not to scale)

252 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

v) Scenario B2
A passenger train on fire comes to a halt along the 1000 m long tunnel section between the access shaft
(km 162+950) and km 161+950.
a) Ventilation continues to provide an air flow in direction towards the south portal; the velocity of the air
flow will be adjusted by the jet fans to approx. 2.5 m/s.
b) Passengers leave the train, walk along the motorable path in northern direction and leave the tunnel
through the North portal(self rescue). Access shaft has been closed as such can not be utilised for rescue
c) Fire fighters enter through the north portal after all passengers have left the tunnel.

Fig. 9.7: Scenario B2

(schematic layout, not to scale)

vi) Scenario B3
A passenger train on fire comes to a halt along the 2800 m long tunnel section between km 161+950 and
km 159+150.
a) Ventilation continues to provide an air flow in direction towards the south portal; the velocity of the air
flow will be adjusted by the jet fans to approx. 2.5 m/s.
b) Passengers leave the train, walk along the motorable path in northern direction to the announced area
of evacuation from where they are picked up by a rescue vehicle arriving from the north portal.
c) Fire fighters enter through the north portal after completion of passenger evacuation.

Safety (Operational Concepts) 253

Fig. 9.8: Scenario B3

(schematic layout, not to scale)

vii) Scenario B4
A passenger train on fire comes to a halt along the 2800 m long tunnel section between km 159+150 and
km 156+350.
a) Direction of air flow will be reversed to provide an air flow of approx. 2.5 m/s in direction towards the
north portal.
b) Passengers leave the train, walk along the motorable path in southern direction to the announced area
of evacuation from where they are picked up by a rescue vehicle arriving from the south portal.
c) Fire fighters enter through the south portal after completion of passenger evacuation.

Fig. 9.9: Scenario B4

(schematic layout, not to scale)

254 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

viii) Scenario B5
A passenger train on fire comes to a halt along the 1000 m long tunnel section between km 156+350 and
the access tunnel (km 155+350).
a) Direction of air flow will be reversed to provide an air flow of approx. 2.5 m/s in direction towards the
north portal.
b) Passengers leave the train, walk along the motorable path in southern direction to the access tunnel
(adit) and leave the tunnel through the access tunnel.
c) Fire fighters enter through the south portal after all passengers have left the tunnel.

Fig. 9.10: Scenario B5

(schematic layout, not to scale)

ix) Scenario B6
A passenger train on fire comes to a halt along the 1750 m long tunnel section between the access
tunnel (km 155+350) and km 153+600.
a) Direction of air flow will be reversed to provide an air flow of approx. 2.5 m/s in direction towards the
north portal.
In case ventilation would not be reversed, the access tunnel (instead of the south portal) could be used
along a certain tunnel section as the nearest emergency exit for self-rescue of passengers. However, due
to the potential risk of backlayering of smoke in northern direction for this case (tunnel gradient 1%
upwards in direction to the north portal), the reversal of the air flow in direction of the natural air flow
(from south to north) is considered the better solution.
b) Passengers leave the train, walk along the motorable path in southern direction to the announced area
of evacuation from where they are picked up by a rescue vehicle arriving from the south portal.
c) Fire fighters enter through the south portal after completion of passenger evacuation.

Safety (Operational Concepts) 255

Fig. 9.11: Scenario B6

(schematic layout, not to scale)

x) Scenario B7
A passenger train on fire comes to a halt along the 1000 m long tunnel section between km 153+600 and
the south portal (km 152+600).
a) Direction of air flow will be reversed to provide an air flow of approx. 2.5 m/s in direction towards the
north portal.
b) Passengers leave the train and walk along the motorable path towards the south portal.
c) Fire fighters enter the tunnel through the south portal after all passengers have left the tunnel.

Fig. 9.12: Scenario B7

(schematic layout, not to scale)

256 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel



Through The Eyes of a Camera

Through The Eyes of a Camera 257

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Through The Eyes of a Camera 259

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Through The Eyes of a Camera 261

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Through The Eyes of a Camera 263

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Through The Eyes of a Camera 265

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Through The Eyes of a Camera 267

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Lining Activities

Through The Eyes of a Camera 269

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Through The Eyes of a Camera 271

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Through The Eyes of a Camera 273

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Through The Eyes of a Camera 275

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Through The Eyes of a Camera 277

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Through The Eyes of a Camera 279

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2nd Stage Concreting

Through The Eyes of a Camera 281

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Through The Eyes of a Camera 283

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Ballastless Track Laying

Through The Eyes of a Camera 285

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Through The Eyes of a Camera 287

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Major Machinery Used

Through The Eyes of a Camera 289

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Through The Eyes of a Camera 291

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Through The Eyes of a Camera 293

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Through The Eyes of a Camera 295

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Quality Control

Through The Eyes of a Camera 297

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Through The Eyes of a Camera 299

300 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel


Geodetic Survey

1. Geodetic Survey for Tunnel Alignment

Surveying is the technique, profession, and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or threedimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them.
Surveying is also defined as the science and art of making all essential measurements to determine the relative
position of points and/or physical and cultural details above, on, or beneath the surface of the Earth, and to represent
them in a usable form, or to establish the position of points and/or details.
To accomplish their objective, surveyors use elements of mathematics (geometry and trigonometry), physics and

1.2 Control Networks for the Construction of the Tunnel

A survey control network for the tunnel project was examined carefully. Consideration was to encompass a wider
picture of the control networks from the initial surface control network right through to the post-breakthrough
network adjustment. Field procedures used when undertaking underground surveys was also detailed, including
the use of Gyro-mat.

Fig. A-1 : Line diagram of PIR PANJAL TUNNEL

302 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

1.3 Survey equipment & accuracy specifications

Following equipments were used for this particular survey:
TOTAL STATION: Specification are listed below:
TCRA1201+ R300 or TCRA1201+R1000 with ATR
hor./vert. angle:01"/03 mgon accuracy
hor./vert. angle:0.1"/0.3 mgon least count
of the tunnel.

1mm + 2ppm accuracy.

Following equipments/accessories were used for network survey to control the alignment

(a) Tripod

(b) Tribarch

(e) Mini prisms with screwed adaptor

(c) Prism Carrier

(f) TCRA1201+R1000

(d) Circular Prism

(d) TCRA1201+R300

Fig. A-2: Survey equipments and accessories

1.4 Surface Control Network

i) The surface network is not as crucial as the underground network. Nevertheless, the accuracy of the surface
control network has to be of sufficiently accurate so that the tunnelling work has a dependable start point. The
surface network had been formed over the area encompassing the entire project area starting from the south
portal at Banihal to the north portal at Qazigund (Gulab Bagh). The surface control network was established by a
combination of satellite (the Global Positioning System GPS) and the terrestrial network observations - by running
a closed traverse from the south portal to the north portal and back. Again the surface network was rechecked with
Global Positioning System by the Survey of India before commencing the Tunnelling work.
For this tunnel project a primary control network was established around the portal areas. Secondary networks
were added near the tunnel portals and the shaft (Fig. A-3 & A-4).

Appendices 303

Fig. A-3 : The primary network at the North Portal

Fig. A-4 : The primary network at the South Portal and at the Adit Portal

304 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

ii) For surface control network for the Tunnel the pillar were formed by excavating natural ground approx. 1.2m x
1.2m x 1.2m deep. A 500mm x 500mm x 1200mm size RCC pillar constructed with a brass pillar plate with a bolt
screwed at the top to allow for forced-centering (Fig. A-5).

Fig. A-5 : Survey pillars at North Portal

iii) Ground pillars were also constructed with angle irons inserted at the middle, point marking over the angle iron
with brass. These pillars were used as reference pillars for terrestrial and GPS survey (Fig. A-6).

Fig. A-6 : Ground pillars used for control reference points

Appendices 305

1.5 Transfer of Control Points to the Tunnel

i) Transfer of control points to the underground tunnel can be a considerable source of error and may effect
the alignment of the tunnel before excavation even begins. Typically control is transferred in three different
ways. The ideal situation is where transfer can take place through tunnel portals. Survey control can be
extended directly through the portal into the tunnel.
ii) The second transfer situation is where the main tunnel drive is linked to the surface by access tunnels i.e.
adits. The transfer of control through an adit is identical to the first situation above, though the alignment
and dimensions of the adit may make the transfer of control to the main drive prone to errors.
iii) The third situation is the transfer of control down through an access shaft. The depth of shafts can be many
many of metres. In our case, transfer of coordinates was undertaken by plumbing wires, 2-3mm in diameter
from the removable brackets placed on the top of the 56m deep shaft, down to the bottom of the shaft,
the oscillations of plumbing wires are damped by immersing it in a vessel containing oil of high viscosity.
Horizontal/azimuth control can be made by placing the Theodolite/Total Station at bottom of shaft and the
correct alignment of main tunnel established/checked.
iv) For out Tunnel, construction was commenced from four locations, viz: North Portal and the Shaft on north
side and South Portal and the Adit portal (the 783m long Access Tunnel) from the south side.
v) As discussed earlier a complete and precise surface network was established around each portal and the
location of portal and start of tunnel alignment fixed. For further transfer of control/reference point to the
underground tunnel, additional survey pillars were established near each portal area.
vi) By using the reference pillars near portals the profile of tunnel were marked and the sequence was repeated.
The reference points were shifted from out side to inside for the control of the tunnel profile. 3D monitoring
also used for primary control of excavation profiles and for fixing of lattice girder/ribs etc.
vii) Control points were transferred to tunnel through south portal, north portal and access tunnel portal by
method of net survey as designed by the Consultants survey engineer.
viii) Through the shaft, control points were transferred by the above explained procedure. To achieve this, four
steel brackets were fixed at the top of the shaft with an arrangement to fix targets over it and also to plumb
down the string/wire. A net measurement was made to fix the position of brackets using control pillars
outside the portal area and the further control pillars/points inside the project area. 2 mm dia wires were
plumbed down from the brackets with half Kg. steel plumb bobs. Total Station and targets were fixed over
the bracket installed on the wall of cross passage and main tunnel. The bearing/azimuth was transferred by
observing the wires by Total Station transferred to the main tunnel network through fixed brackets/temporary
station/ground points and additional points (the 3D monitoring points on shotcrete surface or spigots on
final lining surface).
ix) Underground control:
a) It is essential to design the underground control network so as to control the alignment of the tunnel
and the guides to the break through points within the specified tolerances.
b) A typical underground control network may be a long open ended traverse. In this form the traverse
consists of zigzag observations between the control stations fixed on either side of tunnel wall. The
control stations may be brackets, temporary stations or ground points. Also, a closed traverse may be
run inside the tunnel by taking observation of control station points, going forward on one side and
coming back on other side of tunnel, and closing with known control points or reference pillars (Fig.A-7).
Care had to be taken during the observations that the line of sight was not too close to the tunnel work
as this could increase the effect of lateral reflections. To strengthen the network, additional observations
were included between the stations. Gyro-mat observations were also made at regular intervals to help
in the network survey in adjusting the network measurement.

306 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

c) For the network survey, brackets were fixed on the tunnel walls and used as stations (primary control
points). Where provision of brackets was not possible temporary station was made by using tripods.
Sometimes the tripods were also used over the established ground points, wherever this was possible.

Fig. A-7 : Typical sketch showing different mode of observation

x) Network measurements were made inside the tunnel by the following techniques:a) Stable fixed points/control stations inside the tunnel, shown in Fig. A-8 as A, B, C, etc., and well
fixed additional points, P, were the basis to meet required quality measurements. Stable fix points
were realized using brackets. These brackets were installed alternating on the sides inside the tunnel.
Installations of pillars as ground points were avoided because of less availability of space and construction
cost. Tripods were used as fixed points/control stations where fixing of brackets was not possible on the
heading portions and where final lining was already completed.

Appendices 307

A,B,C,D Control stations/Fix-points

P Additional points

Fig. A-8 : Layout for survey network inside the tube.

b) Additional points were fixed at nearly 50m spacings in such a way that the fixed points/control stations
always fell midway between two points. Mini-prisms (Fig. A-9) were used as targets for these points.

Fig. A-9 : Arrangement of screwed dowel pins mounted

with mini-prisms in final lining area.

Fig. A-10 : 3D monitoring sections mounted

with standard prisms, used as additional points
to stabilize net survey in shotcrete area

308 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

c) In shotcreted area the 3D monitoring sections (fixed with mini-prisms) sometimes were fixed with standard
circular prisms (Fig. A-10) and used as additional points to stabilise the net. The portion of tunnel where
final lining was completed, special arrangements were made to fix the target. First a brass dowel pin was
inserted into concrete surface and an adaptor with screw at its end was tightened and then a mini-prism
or standard prism was fixed with the adaptor.
d) Control surveys were executed 1000 meter beyond the portal with a subsequent 2000 meter interval
starting from portal to the face. Some times intermediate control surveys were carried out to extend the
net to the face and establish fixed points by connecting stable points with a sufficient overlap. The
measurements for Network Survey were carried out by the Total Station using ATR options.
e) The calculations in a network survey were carried out by a combined least squares adjustment by a
software named EUPALINUS.
f) Tunnelling work was carried out from access tunnel portal to main tunnel and shaft and for main tunnel
through two drives from south portal (MTS) and north portal(MTN). After completion of access tunnel
one drive was opened towards south portal (MTS 1) and another towards north portal (MTS 2).Only net
survey, by using Total Station was done to control the alignment of access tunnel + MTS1 and MTS (from
south portal towards access tunnel junction) for a length less than 2000 m and for this Gyro-mat survey
was avoided. But for control of alignment of MTS2 and MTXS drive network survey was carried out. To
recheck the alignment, Gyro-mat observations were carried out by a third party (Geodata, Austria) in
addition to that by IRCON and the contractor. First the Gyro-mat observation was carried out after
tunnelling 2200 m from access tunnel junction (MTS2 drive) and 2500 m from north portal (MTN + MTXS
drive). This was followed by network survey (from out side to the excavation face) and the final one
nearby 650 m before breakthrough.
g) A survey team from Geodata performed independent
survey to check the outside base network by using six
double frequency GPS receivers in the 2nd week of Oct.,
2009. The measurements were done using 2 reference
stations (S-PP2 at south portal and N-RCT at north portal)
with baselines to all other network fixed points. After
checking outside fixed points the network was extended
to underground up-to face from both north and south
side through south portal, access portal, Shaft and north
portal. The Gyro-mat DMT 3000 was calibrated on the
reference line N-PS N-RCT with 7 measurement rounds.
The tunnel azimuth was measured in 3 rounds with 3 sets
in two faces inside MTXS drive at north side only. A
horizontal adjustment to coordinates of reference points
(Points fixed on final lining and 3D monitoring points used
as additional measurement) were carried out using
trigonometric measurement from network survey, Gyro
azimuth and GPS observations.
h) Based on the revised coordinates of fixed points and
additional reference points fixed on the tunnel wall,
further control of alignment was done by IRCON. A
gyroscope measurement in north and south tunnel was
operated in the 2nd week of March, 2011 to check the
correct direction of the tunnel by Geodata, 650 m before
the final breakthrough.

Fig. A-11: Showing drive directions and

breakthrough points of Tunnel

Appendices 309
i) The Gyro-mat DMT 3000 was calibrated on the reference line N-PS N-RCT with 10 measurement rounds
at North side. The tunnel azimuth from N-N to N-S was measured in 10 rounds with 3 sets in two faces
inside MTXS tunnel drive at North side.
j) The Gyro-mat DMT 3000 was calibrated on the reference line S-CL1 S-AS with 10 measurement rounds
at South. The tunnel azimuth from S-S to S-N was measured in 10 rounds with 3 sets in two faces inside
MTS2 tunnel drive at South side.
k) A horizontal adjustment to coordinates of reference points (Points fixed on final lining and 3D monitoring
points used as additional measurement) were carried out using trigonometric measurement from network
survey done by IRCON and the Gyro azimuth obtained from Gyro measurement for north and south
side. From net survey the vertical adjustment was also made.
xi) Setting out the Tunnel Axis and Profile Control:
a) Setting out of tunnel axis was performed using conventional lasers, two at SPL level and at crown. Tunnel
chainages were indicated on the sidewalls on a regular basis to ensure proper use of conventional laser
systems. The checking of placement of lattice girder or ribs was done immediately after installation and
before shotcreting.
b) Profile control was done on regular basis. Profile of inner lining(on shotcrete surface) and final lining
were taken at regular intervals Profile control measurements were carried out by reflector-less mode by
Total Stations with TMS profiler. Radial errors of control points did not exceed 1 cm.

Fig. A-12 : Profile control by TMS profiler

c) The every day survey tasks like the setting out works, profile control, etc., were undertaken by utilising
the additional reference points fixed on tunnel wall and setting up the Total Station by resection, or free
station by using at least 3 prism targets.

310 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel


The Role of The Roadheader

1. Historical Aspect
Roadheader were first developed for mechanical excavation of coal in the early 1950s. Today, their application
areas have expanded beyond coal mining as a result of continual performance improvements brought out by new
technological and design developments. The major improvements achieved in the last 50 years consist of steadily
increased cutter head power, improved design of boom, muck pick up and loading system, more efficient cutter
head design, metallurgical developments in cutting bits, advances in hydraulic and electrical systems, and more
widespread use of automation and remote control features. All these have led to drastic enhancements in machine
cutting capabilities, system availability and the service life of this awesome equipment.
Machine weights have correspondingly increased up to 120 T, providing more stable and stiffer (less vibration and
less maintenance) platforms from which higher thrust forces can be generated for attacking harder rock formations.
The cutter head power has increased significantly, approaching 500 kW to allow for higher torque capacities. Modern
machines have the ability to cut cross-sections over 100 m2 from a stationary point. Computer aided cutter head
lacing design has developed to a stage where it enables the design of optimal bit layout to achieve the maximum
efficiency in the rock and geological conditions encountered. The cutting bits have evolved from simple chisel to
robust conical bits. The muck collection and transport systems have also undergone major improvements, increasing
attainable production rates. The loading apron can now be manufactured as an extendable piece providing for
more mobility and flexibility. The machines can be equipped with rock bolting and automatic dust suppression
equipment to enhance the safety of personnel working at the heading. They can also be fitted with laser-guided
alignment control systems, computer profile controlling and remote control systems allowing for reduced operator
sensitivity coupled with increased efficiency and productivity.

2. Use of The Road Header in Tunneling Work

Roadheaders offer a unique capability and flexibility for the excavation of soft to medium strength rock formations,
and therefore, are widely used in underground mining and tunnelling operations. A critical issue in successful
Roadheader application is the ability to develop accurate and reliable estimates of machine production capacity
and the associated bit costs.
Roadheaders are the most widely used underground partial-face excavation machines in soft to medium strength
rocks, particularly in sedimentary rocks. They are used in soft rock mining industry particularly in coal and industrial
minerals. In civil construction, they find extensive use for excavation of tunnels (railway, roadway, sewer, diversion

Appendices 311
tunnels, etc.) in soft ground conditions, as well as for enlargement and rehabilitation of various underground
structures. Their ability to excavate almost any profile opening also makes them very attractive to those mining and
civil construction projects where various opening sizes and shapes/profiles need to be constructed.
In addition to their high mobility and versatility and because of higher cutting power density due to a smaller
cutting drum, they offer the capability to excavate rocks harder and more abrasive than what their counterparts,
such as the continuous miners and the borers, are capable of.


3. Selection of Roadheader Over Tbm For Pir Panjal Tunnel

Nowadays if we compare Tunnelling work by a Roadheader vs. TBM; the latter will be the first choice in view of the
possible earlier completion of a long tunnel and considering the cost effecting criteria. But following factors are
against tunneling by the TBM and hence we selected the Drill & Ballast method along with Roadheader as the
appropriate option for mining for the mighty Pir Panjal Tunnel:
a) The rock strata changes quite frequently and creates enormous problems in construction.
b) High Squeezing is anticipated in the middle of the tunnel which has a very High Overburden (about 1100 m)
c) Heavy Water Flow in Lime Stone Zone with High overburden.

312 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

d) TBM is likely to get Trapped by Ground Movement behind the Face, and then cannot be withdrawn midway
to change over to other alternative methods.
Accordingly, Roadheader was also considered as an option for excavation besides the Drill and Blast method.

4. Limintation on The Use Of Roadheader

The use of Roadheader in India for tunnel excavation is increasing but using it on large scale is still not being
accepted by the Indian contractors. There are various reasons for this, which may include:
a) Difficulty in rock cutting with same bits in the changing rock strata.
b) Unstable ground in poor rock strata.
c) Production of more dust.
d) Costly spare parts and non availability of imported spares, longer lead time for import and shortage of
skilled operators.
Detailed statistical analysis showed that net rate of advance of the Roadheader was directly influenced by the
rock compressive strength, rock mass quality and water inflow.


Appendices 313

5. Use of Roadheader in Pirpanjal Tunnel

Due to the limitations indicated above, the use of Roadheader in Pir Panjal Tunnel was limited to the few locations.
Thereafter, in place of Roadheader, hydraulic rock excavator in soft rock, combined with controlled blasting in
medium/highly fractured rock was used for excavation.


Rock Class























































Advance by


314 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel


Instrumentation & Monitoring

of Tunnel - Section

1. General
Systematic and frequent monitoring, observations and interpertations are important components of the NATM. As
Pir Panjal Railway tunnel had been constructed by following NATM philosophy, as such the programme for
monotoring, observation and interpertation was designed for Pir Panjal Tunnel. The main function of the programme
was to determine whether the observed System Behaviour lies within the expected limits and to validate the
appropriatenes of the excavation and support measures.

2. Monitoring Sections and Monitoring Devices

The various monitoring devices had been installed in monitoring sections of Pir Panjal Tunnel. Monitoring sections
had been subdivided according to the instrumentation installed. For Pir Panjal Tunnel project, the following type of
instrumented sections were applied:
Monitoring Section Type

Monitoring Devices Surface

Monitoring Devices Underground

Standard (Type A)

Precise Leveling (only for Open

Excavations near Portal)

Absolute Displacement Monitoring

Appendices 315
Main (Type B)

Extensometers (only in soft ground

sections with shallow overburden)

For Tunnel drives:

Absolute Displacement Monitoring,
Extensometers, Pressure Cells, Shotcrete
Strain Meters
For Shaft
Absolute displacement monitoring and
shotcrete strain meters

Table 1: Definition of Monitoring Sections

Standard Monitoring Sections (Type A) consisted only of targets for absolute displacement monitoring underground.
They had been installed at regular intervals in the tunnels (approximately every 10-15 meters). For the excavations
near portals surface markers at suitable distances had been installed and precise leveling carried out.
In Main Monitoring Sections (Type B) additionally the monitoring devices given in the table above had been
installed. These sections allowed additionally an assessment of the loading of primary support and of ground
movements outside the excavation for design verification purposes. These sections had been installed at
approximately 150m to 300m distance.

2.1 Precision Leveling

Precision Leveling had been performed at the surface for control of slopes near portal. All settlement points had
been so installed as to allow for reliable zero readings without any influence of construction activities.
For a good and reliable reading data it was guaranteed that the settlement pins were properly connected to the
ground and their movement was not restricted or hindered by application of any structural elements to the location.
All precise leveling points were sufficiently protected against any damage due to traffic, vehicles, etc.

316 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

2.2 3D Absolute Displacement Monitoring

Monitoring of absolute displacements has improved rapidly with improvements in electronic surveying instruments
and computer software. With absolute displacement monitoring it was possible to determine 3D-coordinates of
defined targets (reflectors) fixed to the tunnel wall. This information had been used to track the target movements
in space and allowed a realistic assessment of the deformation behavior of the tunnel.
It is obvious that the layout of monitoring stations respectively their spacing between each other depended on the
geological conditions.
In general, the following scheme had been applied:

No. of Targets in Cross Section

Longitudinal Spacing
Good Ground Condi.

Poor Ground Condi.


Access Tunnel and Cross Passage

7 (5 in top heading, 2 at bench)

10 - 20 m

Cross Passage of Shaft

7 (5 in top heading, 2 at bench)

as shown on drawings

Main Tunnel

7 (5 in top heading, 2 at bench)

10 - 20 m


Table 2: Installation Scheme of Targets for 3D Absolute Displacement Monitoring

Additional targets and displacement monitoring sections (type A) were used in special areas such as intersections,
niches and headwalls. The installation of these sections were decided by the Geotechnical Engineer on site during
execution of the works.

2.3 Extensometers
Extensometers were used for determination of ground movements outside of the excavated structure. They allowed
an assessment of the development of strains in the surrounding ground and stabilization of movements around an
Extensometers were multiple rod type with anchors connected to the ground by grouting at predefined positions.
Extensometers installed were sufficiently protected against any damages by construction or equipment.

Fig. C-1: Installation of Extensometers

Appendices 317

2.4 Shotcrete Strain Measurements

Shotcrete strain meters were used for determination of the stress development in the shotcrete lining by measuring
strains. They were always installed in pairs to allow a determination of sectional forces such as normal thrust and
bending moments.
Based on the measured strains, stresses in the shotcrete lining was calculated by utilization of a nonlinear material
law. As several input parameters were required for this material law long term creep tests on young shotcrete was
planned, allowing a determination of the required material parameters. Nevertheless same could never be carried
Shotcrete strain meters used were temperature compensated to compensate for temperature increase of the
shotcrete during the hardening process.

Fig. C-2 : Shotcrete Strain Meter

Fig. C-3 : Strain Meter Readings

318 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

2.5 Pressure Cells

2.5.1 Radial Pressure Cells
With radial pressure cells, the development of ground pressure acting on the primary support structure (shotcrete
lining) was measured. To get reliable results the following requirements were predefined:

Large size pressure cells were used, as a larger area of the cell gives more reliable results (larger area of

Possibility of Regrouting was ensured; caused by thermal effects a shrinkage gap develops between the cell
and the shotcrete lining, which has to be closed to provide accurate cell readings.

Therefore pressure cells used were of size 300 x 300 mm and regroutable. Readings were taken by remote controlled
electrical transducers.

2.5.2 Tangential Pressure Cells

Tangential Pressure cells were used for determination of the shotcrete lining stress. They had been installed in
areas of special interest such as intersections. They had the dimension of 100 x 200 mm. Readings were taken by
remote controlled electrical transducers.

Fig. C-4: Pressure Cells

Appendices 319

Fig. C-5 : Pressure Cells Readings

320 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

2.6 Rock Bolt Axial Force Meter Measuring Anchor

Measuring Anchors were used to determine the load development along the anchor. This provided information
how load increases from the anchor tip to the anchorplate. Measuring anchors had been installed together with
rock bolt load cell and extensometers only at few location.

2.7 Rock Bolt Load Cell (Center hole type)

The load cell had been installed at the anchor plate of rock bolt. It gave information on the maximum anchor load
and the degree of utilization of the anchor.

3. Procedure of 3-D Deformation Monitoring in context of PPRT

The 3-D deformation measurements provide very important data about the stability of the rock mass. Based on the
results of 3D monitoring, geologists and designers can take decision for changes in excavation sequence and support
The primary deformations start a couple of meters behind the face inside the rock mass. The Surveyor obviously is
unable to take any measurements behind the face and can observe only those secondary deformations which
occur after the excavation in front of the face.

3.1 Method of 3-D Monitoring

The deformations faded away 30m to 40m after benching. Since it
is needed to show the full i.e. the Total settlement (not just the
additional deformations) of the rock mass, the required front end
of survey is approx. 70m to 80m before the benching face (towards
the portal) on fully equipped measuring sections (40m of
deformations + 15m of benching advance per day x 2 days of
showing full settlement).
The minimum required survey section lengths can be different and
will depend on the rock class and the encountered rock mass
behaviour and the cross section of the tunnel. Due to these reasons
a close co-operation between the geologist, the designer and the
surveyor is recommended.

The Surveyor has to provide the basic data for the work of
other team members,

Based on 3-D monitoring data, important decisions for

changes in excavation sequence and support measures are

3-D diagrams based on survey data - should be checked for any

predictable and therefore preventable risk.
It is also important to measure the former monitoring sections on
an open schedule until the movements stop. This schedule should
be agreed between the geologist, the designer and the surveyor,
(See Fig. C-6).

Fig. C-6: Arrangement for 3-D Monitoring

Appendices 321

3.2 Equipments used for 3-D Monitoring

3.2.1 Total Station
For 3-D Monitoring of the survey work in Pir Panjal Tunnel, 5 Leica Total Stations TCRA 1201 + R300 model were
used (provided by IRCON).
Instrument accuracy: standard deviation for angle measurement Hz, V (ISO 17123-3) better than +/- 0.3 mgon and
for distance measurement better than +/- 0.5mm.
All instruments were sent regularly, at the manufacturers recommended intervals, for maintenance/calibration
and are certified by an authorized dealer.
Measuring data (horizontal and vertical angle, distance) are fed in blocks to Compact Flash data storage card

Photo: C-1

3.2.2 Bi reflex Target

A modular reflector system was used for measurement. The targets are mounted in a robust fork and can be rotated
around in two axes, with reflective foil on both sides for taking measurements from both sides. The measurement
range under average atmospheric conditions is from 12m up to 140m.

Photo: C-2

322 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

3.2.3 Breaking Points

Breaking points are made up of plastic and have one end threaded to fix with convergence bolts and have an
arrangement to hold the targets at other end. These specially developed adapters serve as predetermined breaking
points and prevent reading errors due to mechanical impact. Adapters and targets are replaceable without loss of
system accuracy.

Photo: C-3

3.2.4 Convergence Bolt

This bolt is of galvanised steel with stainless steel threaded stud pipe, having length 250mm with protective cap.

Photo: C-4

Photo: C-5: Showing the typical overview of fixing of Convergence

bolt/Monitoring bolt in with Breaking point and Bi reflex target.

Appendices 323

Fig. C-7: Typical overview of fixing of convergence bolt/monitoring bolt in the tunnel surface.

3.3 Measurement of 3-D monitoring points

Normally the of 3-D monitoring commence from the points/sections where there is no deformation so that these
points can be taken as reference points/sections for monitoring towards drive direction.

Fig. C-8 : Typical overview of monitoring section inside Tunnel.

324 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig.C- 9: Method of measurement inside tunnel.

Appendices 325

3.4 3-D Monitoring in Pir Panjal Tunnel

More Than 1000 Monitoring Sections with approximately 5870 3-D-Monitoring Points were installed inside the
Access Tunnel, in the Shaft and its Cross Passage and in the Main Tunnel. 3-D monitoring started in April, 2005 at
the Access Tunnel and continued till end of June, 2012 in Main Tunnel. Each 3-D monitoring section consisted of 7
monitoring points (5 at heading and 2 at benching). The frequency of measurement for 3-D monitoring was daily,
weekly and monthly or as required by designer and geo-tech engineer. Also, on the surface area near each portal,
monitoring sections were installed and settlement measured by a level using digital level DNA 03.

Fig. C-10: Convergence diagram

Fig. C-11 : typical monitoring section at Tunnel Portal.

326 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig.C-12: 3-D Monitoring Sections

Fig.C-13: Monitoring Targets fixed in Tunnel T-80

3.4.1 Computation from monitoring survey data

The survey data received from site were used in various computations by the deformation monitoring Engineer and
the necessary diagrams were developed using Eupalinos software.
a) This software included following features:

Free stationing of the total station and calculation of standard deviation in all three coordinate directions.

Appendices 327

Automatic target identification and recognition of new zero readings.

Calculation of 3-D-coordinates and displacements of any desired point and its radial distance to the
theoretical profile.

Correction of errors based on physical effects.

Transformation of coordinates after control measurements.

Measurement results could be tabulated and presented in graphs.

b) Reports and graphical outputs (diagrams) generated through software included following features:

Development of displacements with time, directly associated with driving activities.

Plot of displacement vectors within the cross section. 3-D Displacement vector orientations.

Excavation program related evaluation and presentation of displacements (Influence lines showing the
influence of daily excavation on displacements of measuring points).

Assessment of displacements prior to zero measurement.

Development of differences in displacement with time (e.g. roof settlement minus settlement of top
heading footing).

Calculation stresses and safety factors or degree of utilisation for the shotcrete lining based on optical
displacement monitoring, and time dependent shotcrete strength.

3.4.2 Output diagrams

i) Deformation Diagram:- The diagram shows three dimensional i.e. vertical settlement, horizontal and
longitudinal displacement of each monitoring point of a monitoring section with respect to the tunnel
axis. (Fig. C-14)

Fig. C-14: Convergence diagram

328 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

ii) Convergence Diagram: The diagram shows convergence between two opposite monitoring points of a
monitoring section with respect to the tunnel axis. (Fig.C-15)

Fig.C-15: Deformation diagram

iii) Displacement Diagram: The diagram shows total horizontal and vertical displacement of monitoring
point of a monitoring sections with respect to the tunnel axis. (Fig. C-16)

Appendices 329

Fig.C-16: Displacement diagram

4. Evaluation and Interpretation of Monitoring Results In Pir Panjal Tunnel

Upon completion of daily monitoring activities and preprocessing of monitoring raw data a preliminary evaluation
of the monitoring results by a plausibility check was performed. Only after the results had been found reasonable
and eventual errors had been excluded and corrected, an update of the database was carried out. Plausibility
checking was performed by the monitoring contractor together with the DDC Instrumentation /Survey Engineer.
When the database had been updated with the actual monitoring results, Data were provided to DDCs Geotechnical
Engineer for evaluation and interpretation. To guarantee a quick decision with regard to support requirements and
working procedures the database was updated with the daily measurements each afternoon as directed by the
Geotechnical Engineer.
If the monitoring results were outside of the range of expected behavior the DDC had to take immediately required
decisions and notify the ENGINEER.

330 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. C-17: Data and Information Flow for Monitoring Results

Appendices 331

Fig. C-18: Input Parameters for Evaluation and Interpretation of Monitoring Results

5. Methods of Data Evaluation and Interpretation

According to their geo-mechanical relevance, the main monitoring parameters for tunneling are as follows:

Geo-mechanic Relevance

Trend of Time HistoriesTime Displacement Diagram

Useful for assessment of time dependent components of displacement

and stabilization of construction steps

Distribution of Displacement Vectors

in Cross Section

Reflects the effects of geological structures sub parallel to the tunnel


Influence Lines (General)

Reflects the geo-mechanical conditions of the ground along the tunnel

and the effect of individual excavation steps on the already excavated

Trend Lines

Useful for determination of changes in ground conditions and as indicator

for critical developments

Development of longitudinal Displacements

close to the excavation face

Indicates changes in ground stiffness ahead of the face

Trend of advancing displacements due to

bench excavation

Reflects the influence on individual bench excavation steps on the already

excavated tunnel sections

Development of differential settlements between

crown and top heading footings

Reflects the bearing behavior of the primary lining and the quality of the
primary lining foundations

Table 3: Parameters and their Geo-mechanical Relevance of 3D-Monitoring Results

5.1. Time Displacement Diagrams, Magnitude of Displacements

Time-Displacement diagrams show the development of the displacement of one point versus time. Timedisplacement diagrams can be generated for all three components of the displacement vector (vertical, horizontal
and longitudinal displacement). Construction phases (top heading, bench, and invert) are usually shown on the
same diagram to allow for an easy correlation between displacement behavior and construction activities.

332 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

Fig. C-19: Schematic Time- Displacement Diagram (Settlement for Crown Point)

When a constant face advance rate is assumed, the displacement rate over time has to decrease continuously. Any
acceleration indicates a destabilization, unless construction activities in the vicinity of the monitored tunnel section
such as bench or invert excavation are ongoing. Usually after each excavation step a tendency towards stabilization
must occur.
It is essential to consider that the displacements monitored in the tunnel are only a part of the total amount of
displacements occurring. Fig. C-20 shows a principle sketch of the total vertical displacements and the measurable
amount of displacements in the tunnel. A certain amount of pre-deformation occurs already ahead of the face.
When the excavation has reached the chainage of the monitoring section, an additional part of the total displacements
cannot be measured due to the time required between excavation, installation of the monitoring section and the
following zero reading of the section. Therefore it is essential that installation and zero reading of monitoring sections
are performed as fast as possible without any unnecessary delays.
In this respect, all zero readings in the tunnels shall be taken latest 6 hours after excavation of the relevant monitoring

Fig. C-20: Schematic Representation of Pre-Displacements and Monitored Displacements in Tunneling

Appendices 333

5.2. Distribution of Displacements in Vector Diagrams

Displacement Vector plots allow the representation of the cross sectional displacements and their development
with time.

Fig. C-21: Vector Diagram Influence of Stratification

Displacement vector plots allow the detection of weak zones and / or faults outside the excavation area. They
provide additional information about the rock mass structure and deformation phenomena close to the tunnel. In
general, the displacement vector orientation in cross section reflects the influence of geological structures on the
deformation behavior sub-parallel to the tunnel.

5.3. Lines of Influence

Lines of Influence are produced by connecting displacement values of a number of monitoring points along the
tunnel axis at the same time, similar to a deflection curve. Normally, a number of lines for a specified time span
are shown on one plot. In addition, construction phases (top heading, bench, invert) are shown to allow for an
immediate correlation between measured displacements and construction activities.

Fig. C-22: Development of Lines of Influence when Excavation approaches a weak zone

The lines of influence in the simplified diagram above show the settlement of the crown resulting from top heading
excavation. The uniform shape of lines corresponding to excavation steps 1 to 7 reflect a homogeneous ground
mass with uniform behavior. As the excavation approaches the fault (9), in excavation step 8 already a significant

334 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

deviation of the previously uniform behavior can be observed, extending also significantly behind the face. During
tunneling through the fault a further increase in settlements is measured.

5.4. Trend Lines

Trend lines are generated by connecting settlement values of individual lines of influence at a predefined distance
behind the face. They give a good overview of the displacement development along the tunnel and are quite useful
for extrapolation of the displacement behavior ahead of the excavation face.
Trend lines which show increasing displacement can indicate critical situations and must be considered as a serious
warning signal.

Fig. C-23: Development of Trend Line when Excavation approaches a weak zone

5.5. Differential Settlements

This displacement option is used to show the difference in displacements between two monitoring points belonging
to the same monitoring section.
Usually the difference in settlements is displayed between

Crown and sidewall (Scrown Ssidewall)P% S

S for both side walls shall be observed.
And for horizontal displacements between

Left and right sidewall (Hleft Hright)

The values of (Scrown Ssidewall) and (Hleft Hright) can provide valuable information foundation condition of the

6. Control Limits
Comparison of monitoring data with control limits will give a first indication for the identification of potential areas
which are close to or exceeding design limits.
For the judgment of rock mass behavior and performance of the primary support, control limits are established in
terms of primary lining displacements, displacement velocities, shotcrete strains, settlements etc.

Appendices 335

6.1 Types of Control Limits

Under expected construction conditions the monitored displacements and other monitored data will be below the
established threshold values, called control limits, which define certain design limitations.
The control limits are established by the following trigger levels.

6.1.1 Alert Level

The alert level relates to threshold values representing the assessed behavior (predicted values), on accidence of
which, certain routines will be started to impose an increased attention and surveillance to these specific areas.
The alert values indicate that the specific area is approaching a level where additional actions and / or contingency
measures may be necessary. The need for adjustment of excavation and support procedures and / or monitoring
shall be considered.

6.1.2 Alarm Level

The Alarm level relates to threshold values, on accidence of which the element of work may be approaching a
critical state. The Geotechnical Engineer shall convene for judgment of the specific case and the overall support
and rock mass performance. Implementation of additional support and / or contingency measures to avoid the
accidence of the Action Level shall be considered.

6.1.3 Action Level

This level relates to threshold values on accidence of which the element of work is considered to be outside the
expected range of assessed behavior and may be close to its ultimate limit capacity.
The overall performance shall be rechecked together with a related risk assessment. A design review shall be
performed together with an assessment of the need for additional support. Additional support and / or contingency
measures to guarantee the safety of the works shall be implemented.
For the case of identification of an unacceptable safety risk, the works shall be stopped and remedial measures
shall be implemented immediately.

6.2 Defined Monitoring Parameters

Control limits shall be defined from the Geotechnical Engineer for the following monitoring parameters:

Displacement velocities derived from 3D absolute displacement monitoring

Differential Settlements

Shotcrete strains derived from strain measurements with shotcrete strain meters in the shotcrete lining

Informations derived from other monitoring results such as extensometers, ground pressure cells etc. are used to
confirm and supplement monitoring data and trends derived from the instruments above and to judge the overall
performance and safety of the construction in case of accidence of control limits.
The definition of control limits shall be considered as flexible and adjustable, which means control limits shall be
updated regularly, if necessary. The control limits shall be adjusted on basis of experience gained during construction,
if required.

6.2.1 Displacement Velocity

Displacement velocities are calculated from the measured 3D optical displacements and are an important indicator
for stability development. Usually, time intervals between observation points tn are taken as one day. However, if

336 Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel

the elimination of scatter effects related to monitoring inaccuracies is required, larger time intervals may occasionally
be applied.
It is assumed that progress in the top heading will be 2 3 m per day.
Continuing or increasing displacement velocity indicates that the rock mass is not stable and may be indicative for
progressive destabilization.
However, immediately after excavation an increase of displacement velocities is an expected phenomenon caused
by stress redistribution. After installation of the primary support, these displacement velocities must decrease and
stabilize after the excavation face has advanced further and the stress redistribution is completed.

Fig. C-24: Definition of Control Limits for Displacement Velocities

As a guideline, the control limits related to measured displacement velocities are defined as follows:
Control Limit

Displacement Velocity


n = 0.8 n-1


n = 1.0 n-1


n = 1.1 n-1

Table 4: Control Limits for Displacement Velocities

6.2.2 Differential Settlements Top Heading Crown Top Heading Footing

Differential Settlements between the top heading crown and the top heading footing shall be monitored to identify
potential instabilities at the shotcrete lining footing:
Differential Settlement: s = Scrown Sfooting
Control Limit

Differential Settlement


+ 5 mm


+ 1 mm


3 mm

Table 5: Control Limits for Differential Settlements Top Heading Crown Top Heading Footing

Appendices 337

6.2.3 Trend Lines

Control Limits for trend lines are defined in terms of



Increase in displacement
Advance corresponding face advance
Control Limit

Limiting Value [mm/mm]




5 x 10-3



Table 6: Control Limits for Trend Lines

6.2.4 Shotcrete Lining Strains

Control Limit

strain in [%]







Table 7: Control Limits for Strains in Shotcrete Lining

3-D deformation monitoring is an indispensible part of the NATM tunnelling method therefore it is necessary to
have site personnel with experience in surveying and geotechnical engineering. The personnel must have substantial
understanding of possible rock mass behaviour, to provide reliable 3-D monitoring survey results for the geotechnical

STANDING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT : Er. V.K. Singh, Er. P.C. Pradhan, Er. Ashutosh Rawat, Er. T. Sarkar,
Er. Sujit Kumar, Aos. Sunil Kumar, Er. R.K. Pandey, Er. Dhirendra Singh, Er. Santosh Thakur and Er. Imtiyaz

SITTING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: Er. J.P. Soni, Er. K.Ravi Shankar, Er. Vinod Kumar, Er. Sandesh Shrivastava,
Er. Santanu Chakraborty, Er. M.S. Rao & Er. Sajjan Singh.



M/s HCC Pir Panjal tunnel Project Team Center Mr. Sharanappa Yalal, Project Manager, Next to PM (Clockwise direction) Mr. Mainuddin Khan,
Construction Head PPVA, Next to PM (anticlockwise direction) Mr. Deepak Saini, Construction Head PPVB and all other members of project team.



General Manager

Chief Administrative Officer

Chief Engineer

Chief Electrical Engineer


Dy. CE/C/NR, Banihal

XEN/C/NR, Banihal


SSE/W/NR, Banihal