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. .


, ,

-
2001

519.6(075)
22.19
E78
. .
78 . , , : . /.
., 2001. 30 c.

,
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, .

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. . . . .

, 2001
. . , 2001
2


( )
: ( , ) ( ).
.
: , . .,
, , .
.

, . ,
.

1.
1.1. .

( ) , , ,
0 1.
, (1) (0) , ,
.
.

:
x1
x2
x3
xn

...

F(x1, x2, ..., xn)

x1 xn , F { 0, 1}. .
n = 1, x
0 1, F(x)
. , ,
.

, ,
(. 1).
4

F1 = const 0, F2 = x, x,
F4 = const 1, F3 x,
x x x, x.
n = 2
16
(. 2).

F1

F2

F3

F4

2
x 1 x 2 F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15
0


F0 F15 , , 0 1 ,
, . F3 = x1 F5 = x2 , ,
x1 x2. F12 = x1 F10 = x2 ,
, x1 x2. .
, .
F1 x1 x2, : F1 = x1 & x2 =
= x1 x2 = x1 x2 = x1 x2. , , , , ,
.
F7 x1 x2, : F7 = x1 x2 =
= x1 + x2. .
, , + .
. , F14 = F 1
( ), F8 = F7 ( ), F14
F8 ,
.
5

F9 F6 .
() F9 = x1 x2.
2, . . F6 = F9 = x1 x2 = x1 x2 .
F13 F11 , , F13 = x1 x2 F11 = x2 x1 ( : F13 x1 x2; F11 x2 x1).
, , :
A, B. .
F2 F4 . 2 , F13 F11 .
1.2.
3

x1

x2

x3

. 28 = 256.

.
(. 3).
1,
1, 0 .
,
,

.

1.3. n .

n 2n .
n
22 .
,
, :
6


n, n ; , ,
, 1, ,
0;
.
,

(1)
F = x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1x2 x3 x1 x2 x3.
(1)
(), ,
, . . n;
, .

, ().
:
n, n ;
, ,
,
4
0, , x2 x3
F
F
x1
1;
0
0
0
1
0
.
0
0
1
0
1
, , F, 0
1
0
1
0

(. 4).
0
1
1
1
0

1
0
0
0
1
3,
1
0
1
1
0
, . . 1
1
0
1
0
.
1
1
1
1
0
:
7

F = (x1 x2 x3 ) ( x1 x2 x3).
(2)
(2) ,
.
1.4.
, , .
:
: x xy = x; x(x y) = x;
: xy x y = x;
: xz y z xy = xz y z;
x x y = x y.
, .
:
(3)
F = x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3.
x1x2x3 ,
Y Y = Y, Y . , 1- 4-
, 2- 5-, 3- 6-,
(4)
F = x2 x3 x1 x3 x1 x2.
(4) , ,
.
,
, , 11.
, , :
) x1 x2 = x1 x2 ;
(5)
) x1 x2 = x1 x2 .
,
. . 4 , F, . . F .
,
, 3, :
8

(6)
F = x1 x2 x3 x1 x2 x3 .
(6)
,
F = (x1 x2 x3 ) ( x1 x2 x3) .
F.
1.5.
( )

, . ,
, , , .
: , .
x2
1

x3

x1
1



F = x2 x3 x1 x3 x1 x2.
F ,

B
A
1

D
C

1
9

1 ,
. 0.
4, .

F = AC B C D .
,
(. . , ). ,
:
A B C D A B C D = AC D .
.
.
5
,
0000
0000
. 0001
0001
.
0010
0011
0011
0010
, , 0100
0110
2-m m 0101
0111
. 0110
0101

0111
0100
.
. 5 1000
1100
().
1001
1101
, 1010
1111
. ,
1011
1110
,
1100
1010
.
1101
1011
, 1110
1001
,
,
1111
1000
10

.
.
. ,
:
D
C
B
A
1
1

1
1

F
E


F = AC E F A E F G A B C E F .
.
1. , ( ,
).
2.
:
) abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd = ;
) abc ab c abd bde =
.

1.6.

( : 0 1), ( 11

) . , , .
.
, ,
0 1 ; , . , ,
1, 0.
. , . , ,
.
:
B
A
1

,
1, 0. , 26 = 64 .
, :
F = AC B D .
.
:

12

)
c

D
C

1
1
1

1
1

)
c

1
1

1.7.
,
, F(x1, x2, , xn) = P(x1, x2, , xn),
, x1, x2, , xn .
:
(AB BC) BD = ( B AC D) .

.
B

B
A

1
1
1
1

AB

1
1
1
1

ABBC

1
1
1
1

B
A

1 1
1 1

BC

B
A

1 1
1 1

BD

1 1
1 1
1 1
1

D
C

ABBCBD
13

B
A

D
C

, .
.
:
;
) X Y Z X P (YZ / XZP) =
) ( A B AC D) ( B C AC D) =
;
) M(ABC, ACD, BDAC) =
.
M(X, Y, Z) X,
Y, Z, .
1.8.
{f1,
f2, , fn} ,
() .
,
.
, ,
( ),
1) {&, , ) .
1) , &, ,
. , 1) &,
: AB = ( A B) ( : A B ). 1) ,
: X Y = ( X Y) = X Y .
14

, () :
2) {&, };
3) {, }.
,

(&) 2 () 1. , 1)
: A = A 1; A B = ( A B) = (A 1)(B 1) 1 =
= AB A B 1 1 = AB A B.
()
:
4) {&, , 1 }.
,
5) {, , 1} .
, M(X, Y, Z) =
= XY XZ YZ. , Z,
1, M(X, Y, 1) = XY X Y = X Y , Z
0, M(X, Y, 0) = XY.
:
6) {M, , 1};
7) {M, , 0}.
,
( : {M, , 1, 0}), , 1 0 , ,
( ), ,
.
, , , ( ):
8) {/};
9) {}.
8) (XY) = XY . : X = (XX). XY = ( (XY) =
= X Y = X Y X Y . : X Y =
= ( XY) = X Y = X X Y Y .
15

9) (X Y) = X Y .
: (X X). : X Y = ( (X Y)). :
XY = ( X Y).
. , :
F = A B A CD B D.

F = A B AC D B D

F = A B A C D B D
.
(
):

) ABC BD
= AC ACD
) XZ ZY ZP =

1.9.

( ). .
1. , .
5- (x1, x2, x3,
x4, x5).
0, 0
1, 1, 4 5. ( ).
.

16

x3

x2

x1

x5
x4

:
F = x2 x3 x4 x5 = x2 x3 x4 x5 = x2 x3 x4 x5 .
.
, . .
2. ,
.
.
x4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

x3
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

x2
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

x1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

y4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

y3
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

y2
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0

y1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
17

, y4 (y4 = x4), .
y1
x4
x3

y1 = x1 x2 x1 x2 = x1 x2 .
x2
x1

y2
x4

x3

1
1

y2 = x2 x3 x2 x3 = x2 x3 .
x2
x1

y3
x4

x3

y3 = x3 x4 x3 x4 = x3 x4.
x2
x1

1.10.


.
18


&

- ()
&

- ()
1

( 2)

.
, . 1.9.

19

2.

2.1.
A(a1, a2, , an)
B(b1, b2, , bn). ai, bi {0, 1}, i = 1, 2, 3, , n.
B A, bi , ai ai. F
N = 2n 1. , n = 3 N = 5; n = 4 N = 7; n = 5 N = 9.
F.
2.2.

, , e .
e , 1.
. F, , , . F 2n 1.
, , , .
F, :
1
. ., . ., . . : . / . ., 1985. 144 .

20

a1 a2 an
b1
a1 a2 an
b2
a1 a2 an
b3

bn
a1 a2 an+1
0,
, , ,
, 0 1.
. A (101), B (011). F
(ai 2 , ai 1, ai , ai + 1, ai + 2).
(, , )

ai 2

ai 1

ai

ai

+1

ai

+2

0
1
1

32 . 3 . 29
229 .
ai 2
ai 1

ai

ai + 2
ai + 1

: F = ai + 2 . , F A,
B.
21

A B, n, n , 2(2n-1) n . .
. Ai Aj n ,
. , A =
1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 B = 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 , .
.
1. Ai, i = 1, 2, 3, , k , , ,
F, Ai , . . B = F(Ai),
i = 1, 2, 3, , k.
1. A1 = 1011; A2 = 1001; A3 = 0110; B = 0111.
1 F, , , a b c d e g h F

1 0 1 1 0
.
1 0 1 1
1
. F , 1 0 1 1
1

1 0 1 1
1

1 0 0 1 0

F=ace g.
, 1
Ai (i = 1, 2, 3)
1
.
1 0 0
2. Ai Bi 0
1
, Ai ,
F, 1
Ai 1
Bi.
2. F, -

1 0 0 1
1 0 0 1
1 0 0 1
0 1
0 1 1
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 0

:
A1 = 1011 B1 = 0110,
A2 = 0111 B2 = 1001,
A3 = 0101 B3 = 1110.
22

F, , .
. F ,

F = d e g h bc be .
2
Bi Ai.
3.
F, :
A1 = 1011 B1 = 1011,
A2 = 0110 B2 = 1101,
A3 = 1001 B3 = 1001.
B1 = A1, B3 = A3, B2 A2.
F.
. ,
F = a b c bc de.
3. Ai, i = 1, 2, 3, , k
, , F, A1
Ai , . . A2 = F(A1), A3 = F(A2), ,
Ak = F (Ak 1) A1 = F(Ak).
4.
F, : A1 A2 A3 A1,
A1 = 1101, A2 = 0110, A3 = 1001.
.
,
,
.

b c d

e g h F

1 0 1 1 0
1 0 1 1
1 0 1 1

1
1

1 0 1 1

0 1 1 1 1
0 1 1 1
0 1 1 1

0
0

0 1 1 1

0 1 0 1 1
0 1 0 1
0 1 0 1

1
1

0 1 0 1

b c d

e g h F

1 0 1 1 1
1 0 1 1
1 0 1 1
1 0 1 1

0
1
1

0 1 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 0

1
0
1

1 0 0 1 1
1 0 0 1
1 0 0 1
1 0 0 1

0
0
1
23

b c d

e g h F

1 1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 0 1

1
1
0

0 1 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 0

0
0
1

1 0 0 1 1
1 0 0 1
1 0 0 1
1 0 0 1

1
0
1


.

F = a b g bc eh.
n, , n.
n
q (. . q ).
, 1, q 1
n 1 ,
,
, , q .

S (n, q) = P(n q, q 1) = C qn11 .


n q C qn ,
, , q/n. , ,
n = 20, q = 10 S(20, 10) = 92378.
2.3.
A (1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1)
F = ai & ai 3 ai + 2 ai + 5 . F A, B (1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0).
, B A,
23 (. 6.).
,
, , , A 1, ,
A 0,
F.
F , A B, 12 , N = 223 12
24

25

0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1

. , 2N . , F .
2.4.

F
,
.
1. F. 1, K1 = F(A1) = A2,
. F K 2 =
= F(A2) = F(F(A1)) . . 1 RSA , , 101010101010101,
. A1
.
DES ( 3).
2. . , 1, 1 = F(A1),
, 1 1, F, , , 2 F / (A2)
F(A2) ().
3. .
, , , ( 2).
4. .
. ,
, ( F) , .
5. F , , , , , , , .
F ,
26

. , , ( 2, 3).
F, F(X) = B X (x1, x2, , xn)
(b1, b2, , bn).
F ,
B1, B2, B3, X1, X2, X3,,
. , F, , B1 = F(X1),
B2 = F(X2), B3 = F(X3)
F 6-
(b1, b2, , b6) F = ai 2 ai + 4 ai 4 ai +3 .
X :
x1 = b1 b2 b3 b4 b6,
x2 = b4,
x3 = b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6,
x4 = b4 b6,
x5 = b1 b4 b6,
x6 = b1 b2 b4 b6.
10- F = ai ai -6 ai +5 .
X
:
x1 = b1 b6,
x2 = b1 b2 b6 b7,
x3 = b1 b2 b3 b6 b7 b8,
x4 = b1 b2 b3 b4 b6 b7 b8 b9,
x5 = b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7 b8 b9 b10,
x6 = b6 1,
x7 = b1 b6 b7 1,
x8 = b1 b2 b6 b7 b8 1,
x9 = b1 b2 b3 b6 b7 b8 b9 b10 1,
x10 = b1 b2 b3 b4 b6 b7 b8 b9 b10 1.
Bi,
, B 1 = 1011100011; B 2 = 1111111111; B 3 = 0111100011;
27

B4 = 0000000000; B5 = 1011011100; B6 = 0110001011 ; X i


: X1 = 1100010000;
X2 = 0000000000; X3 = 0100011000; X4 = 0000011111; X5 = 0110000101;
X6 = 0010110110.
F = ai ai 6 ai +5 Xi Bi.
, Bi Xi ,
F.

.
, .
,
. , : ,
1011.
. ,

, .
,
, .
, .

.

28


.............................................................................................
1. .........
1.1. .
..........................................................................
1.2. .............................................
1.3. n . .....................
1.4. .............
1.5.
( ) ...................................................
1.6. ......
1.7. ......................................
1.8. ...............
1.9. ...........................
1.10.
........................................................
2.
...........................................................
2.1. ......................................................................
2.2.
..................................................................
2.3. ............
2.4.
.....................
..........................................................................................

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, ,

. .
. .
020341 07.05.97. 27.04.01. 25.05.01
6084 1/16. . 3. . . . . 1,7. . .-. 1,8.
. -. . 1,9. 100 .
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190000, -, . . , 67