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( )

..

, 1999

519.1




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(. ..)
.. ()

web- " " (http://intsys.msu.ru)


-
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- vnosov@intsys.msu.ru


......................................................................................................... 2
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I. .................................................. 1
1. . . .......................................................................... 1
1. ..................................................................................................... 1
2. ................................................................................................. 3
3. . ........................................................................................ 5
........................................................................................................ 6
2. ........................................................... 9
. ............................................................................. 9
. ..................................................................................................... 17
3. .................................................................................. 18
1. . ................................................................................................. 18
2. . ...................................................................... 19
3. . ..................................................... 21
. ..................................................................................................... 22
4. .......................................... 24
1. . ................................................................... 24
2. ....................................................................... 26
3. ................................................................ 27
. ..................................................................................................... 30
5. . ............................................................... 32
. ..................................................................................................... 37
6. ................................................. 38
II. ......................................................... 43
1. -. ............................................................... 43
2. ......................................................... 51
3. .................................... 56
4. . .................................................................................. 64
5. . ........... 68
......................................................................................................... 74
III. ............................................... 76
1. . .......................................................... 76
2. . .......................................................................................... 81
3. .................................................................................. 85
4. ......................................................................................... 89
5. . ......................................................................................................... 91
6. ........................................................................................ 99
7. ...................................................................................... 103
8. . .......................................................................................... 105
. ...................................................................................................... 111
...................................................................................................... 112


, 2- ,
" ".
, , , , , ,
.

. , ,
. , .
.
.
  .
.

I. .
1. . .
1. .

. . (), , . , x A : x A, x
. :
) , .
a1, , an = { a1, , an }.
) , .
= {x P(x)}, x, , P(x).
P(x) - , .
) , .. .
) , .. ,
x x.
B,
B. ( B). B
, B B. ( = B).
B( - U B ) ,
, B, ..
A U B = {x x A x B}
A1, , An:
A1 U

U A n = {x x Ai i 1, n }

B (: I B ) ,
, B, ..

I B = {x x A x B}

A1, , An:
A1

I K I A n = {x x Ai i 1, n }

B (: \B) , , B, ..
A\B = {x x A x B}
- , (: A CEA) , , , ..
A = {x x E x A}
, , .
: P Q
P Q. P Q Q P, P Q, P , Q. x P(x) x P(x), x, , P(x) x P(x).
(: B()) , ..
B(A) = {x x A}
() B(: B) (x1,x2), x1 , x2 B. (x1,x2), ( x1 , x 2 ) :
(x1,x2) = ( x1 , x 2 ) x1 = x1 , x2 = x 2 .
A1, , An:
A1 An { (x1, , xn) x1 A1, , xn An }
(x1, , xn) = ( x1 , , x n ) xi = x1 , i 1, n
A1 = = An = A , A1 An An.

2. .
B .

y B, , F B(: F: B). , F
B. y x (: y = F(x)), x - y. F: B , B, ..
F - (x1 x2 F(x1) F(x2), x1, x2 A)
F: B , B
, ..
F - ( y B, x A F(x) = y)
F: B ,
. N = {1, 2, } - Nn = {1, 2, , n} n . Nn. , n n- (: A = n).
F1 : 1 B1 F2: 2 B2 , A1 = A2,
B1 = B2 F1(x) = F2(x), x A. = B, F: B , F
. A = n, , n.
n-, = {x1, , xn },
F: B
x2
xn
...
x
F= 1

F(x1 ) F(x 2 ) ... F(x n )


- n F - .

1. :
1) F -
2) F -
3) F - .
3

F :
x2
xn
...
x
F: 1
, = {x1, , xn}
F(x1 ) F(x 2 ) ... F(x n )
l0 - , F, l1 - , 1
, l2 - , 2 ..
:
l0 + l1 + + ln = n

a)

l1 + 2l2 + + nln = n

) , )
F.
F , l2 = = ln = 0 ) ) l0 + l1 = n,
l1 = n. l0 = 0 F - . 1) 2) 3).
F - . l0 = 0. ) ).
l2 + 2l3 + + (n-1)ln = 0
li 0, l2 = l3 = = ln = 0 , , l1 = n,
, F , .. 3) 1).
F: B, F 1 A (
\A1). , , .
2. - , F - ( ,
) B(). AF - F
K = {x x AF x F(x)}
(.. K - , F F). K F, .. F(x) K,
x AF.
, b AF, , F(b) = K. b K,
b K. , b K, K = F(b) b , K,
b K - . b K, K = F(b).
b , , K, K - . , K F.
4

3. .
E B(E).
B(E) , - B(E). B(E) , , - E. , :
1. A = A
2 . AI B = BI A

3 . AU B = BU A

4 . (AI B)I C = AI ( BI C)

5 .(AU B)U C = AU ( BU C)

6 . AI ( BU C) = (AI B)U (AI C)

7 . AU ( BI C) = (AU B)I (AU C)


8 . AI B = AU B

9 . AU B = AI B
10 . AI A = A

11. AU A = A

12. AI E = A
13. AU = A
14. AU A = E
15. AI A =
, B:
A = B A B B A.
7.
x U (BI C) . x , x B I C . x ,
x A U B x U C , , x (AU B)I (AU C) . x B I C ,
5

X B x C, x A U B x A U C . , x (A U B)I (AU C) .
,
A U ( BI C) (AU B)I (AU C)

()

x (A U B)I (AU C) . x A U B x U C . x A,
x A U ( BI C) . x A , x B x C. ,
x B I C , , x A U ( BI C)
,
(A U B)I (AU C) AU ( BI C)

()

() () 7.
1 - 15 .
:
1. .
2. , ,
.
3.
.
4. ,
.
,
( , .).
.

1. A1, , An , B -

E.
:

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

) ( U A i )I B = U (A i I B)
) ( I A i )U B = I (A i U B)
n

c)

U Ai

i =1

i =1

d)

I Ai

I Ai
n

i =1

U Ai
i =1

2. B
A B = (AI B)U ( AI B)
:
a) A B = B A
b) (A B) C = A (B C)
c) A = A
d) A A =
e) AI ( B C) = (AI B) (AI C)
f) A = B A B =
3. :
a) (AU B) C = (A C)U ( B C)
b) (AI B) C = (A C)I ( B C)
c) (AI B) (CI D) = (A C)I ( B D)
4.
{0, 1} .
5. F: X Y, A X, B X
:
a) A B F(A) F(B)
b) F(AU B) = F(A)U F( B)
c) F(AI B) F(A)I F( B)
.
d) F(AI B) = F(A)I F( B) B ,
F - .
7

2. .
.
.
1. . A B - F: A B, A = B
2. . A1, , An - ,
,
A1 U ...U A n = A1 +...+ A n
3. . A1, , An - ,
A1 ... A n = A1 ... A n .
, .
1. n- m-. A = {a1, , an }
B = {b1, , bm}. F: A B n
(F(a1), , F(an)) B.
, . ,
F: A B
B B(n ). , F: A B
B

= mn

A B, ,

(1 + B )

= (1 + m)n

2. n- m-. F: A B n B (F(a1), , F(an)), F(ai) F(aj) i j. F(a1)


B , F(a1) F(a2) B - 1
.. , F: A B
9

B ( B 1) ( B A + 1) = m(m 1) (m n + 1)
. n- n! = n(n-1) 21.
3. k- n-. = {a1, , an} B A B = k , 0 k n. n
k

- , B1, , B n - k- .
k

Bi k! ( Bi )
1
F: Nk A, F:
a i1

2
a i2

k
, Nk = {1, 2, , k},
a i k

n
Bi = { a i1 ,..., a i k } . , k- k
n
* k! . , k
Bi F: Nk A,
F: Nk A . ,
n
k

F: Nk A * k!, ..
n
n(n-1) (n-k+1) = * k!
k

n n( n 1) ( n k + 1)
n!
=
=
k!
k !( n k)!
k

(*)

n
0

0! = 1 = 1.
n
k

n
k

, = 0 k > n. fn,k =
n
k

. .
(*), .
(*) n + k. n + k = 1 . n, k (*) n , k , , n + k < n + k.
10

a A, A = n . k-
:
1. , a
2. , a.
n 1
,
k 1

1.

n 1
( n 1)!

=
k 1 ( k 1)!( n k) !
n 1
2.

k
n 1
( n 1)!

=
k ( k !)( n k 1)!
, k- ( )
n 1

+
k + 1

n 1
( n 1)!
( n 1)!
( n 1)!
1
1
+
=
+ =

k ( k 1)!( n k)! k !( n k 1)! ( k 1)!( n k 1)! n k k

n
n!
=
k !( n k )! k
.. (*) n + k.
4. n-. - n
B(A) - . B( A) . {0,1}
B(A) F: A {0,1}.
A1 A FA1 : A {0,1},
1, a A1
FA1 (a) =
0, a A1
, A1 A2, FA1 FA2 F: A {0,1}
A1 A , A1 = {a a A F(a) = 1}. , , , 2n F: A {0,1}. ,
B( A) = 2 n .
.
11

n
n n
k =0 = 2
k

5. . , . -
. (A,r)
r: A N0 = {0, 1, }, .
(A,r) a A r(a) .
1. m n-.
= {a1, , an}. m r: A N0
r(a1) + r(a2) + + r(an) = m
r 0, 1
r = (0 r (a1 ) 10 r (a 2 ) 1 10 r (a n ) ) ,
0 r ( a i ) 0, r(ai) . r m + n - 1 m
n - 1 . , r1 : A N0, r2 : A N0 r1, r2 . , 0, 1 m + n -1,
n - 1 r: A N0 a A r(a) = m,
r(a1) , r(a2)
.. , r: A N0 0, 1 m+ n -1, n 1 . , , (n-1)- (m+n-1)-, , ,
m + n 1

n 1

(A,r) m n , .. , r(a) > 0 a A,


m 1

n 1

.
. x11 x 2 2 x n n m K[x1, , xn]
12

m + n 1

n 1

2. m. (A,r), = {a1, , an} r: A N0 , a A r(a) = m. (A,r) F: {1, , m} A, ,


F 1 (a) = r(a), a A.
, F
r(ai) {1, , m}, ai . ,

m m r(a1 ) m r(a1 ) r(a n 1 )


m!


=
r(a n )
r(a1 ) r(a 2 )
r(a1 ) ! r(a n ) !

6. .
.
.
n
k

n k

n
k

n 1
n 1
+
-
k
k 1

n
k

n n 1

-
k k 1

1. =

2. =
3. =

n m
m k

n n k
-
k m k

4. =

.
r
0

r + 1
r + n r + n + 1
++
=

1
n n

5. +

n. n = 1 . n.
n + 1
r r + 1
r + n r + n + 1 r + n + 1 r + n + 1 r + n + 2
+
++
+
+
=

=
0 1
n n +1 n n +1 n +1
0
m

1
m

n
m

n + 1

m + 1

6. + + + =


13

n n n + 1

+ =

m + 1 m m + 1
n 1 n 1 n

+
=

m + 1 m m + 1

0 0 1

+ =

m + 1 m m + 1

, .
n
n
max = n
0 k n k
2

7.


n

k

k 1

n k +1
k

n
n
, 1 k 1 k > .
2
2

8. p - .
p
k

) 0(mod p) 1 k p - 1
p 1
k
( 1) (mod p) 0 k p - 1
k

p
p!
, k! (p - k)! p, k k !( p k)!

(p - 1)!. ).
p 1
( p 1)!
. ,
=
k k !( p 1 k )!

p 1 p 2
p k


1(mod p) , ) k 1. k = 0
k
1
2
) .
9. x - , n - .

14

n
(1 + x)n = nk =0 xk
k
x = 1 , x = -1,
9.

n
n
nk =0 = 2
k

9.

k n
nk =0 ( 1) = 0
k


(1 + x)n(1 + x)m = (1 + x)n+m (n, m - )
xk , 0 k n+m
:
n m n + m
10. ik=0

=
i k i k
4, 9, 9
n n n n 1
n n p
n
11. +
+L+
= 2p
0 p 1 p 1
p 0
p
n n n n 1
n n p
11.
+ L + ( 1) p
=0
0 p 1 p 1
p 0
12.

( 1)
ni =1
i

i 1

1
1
n
= 1 + +L+
2
n
i


n
(1 - x)n = ni =0 ( 1) i x i
i
i = 0 x.
-

(1 x) n 1
n
= in=1 ( 1) i x i 1
i
(1 x) 1


n
i

- [1 + (1 - x) + (1 - x)2 + + (1 - x)n-1] = in=1 ( 1) i x i 1


x
(1 - x) +

(1 x) 2
(1 x) n
( 1) i n i
+L+
+ C = in=1
x
i i
2
n

x = 0, :
15

C = - [1 +

1
1
+L+ ]
2
n

x = 1 .

16

.

n
i =0 i
n

2n
n

1. =
1 n
1
(2 n +1 1)
=
k
+
+
n
k
1
1

k =0
n

2.
n

3. ( 1) k
k =0

1 n
1
=
k + 1 k n + 1

n
n n n
n
2
4. 1 - + +L = 2 cos
4
2 4 6
n
n n n n
n
2
5. + +L = 2 sin
4
1 3 5 7

17

3. .
1. .
A1 L A n .

A1 L A n n- A1, An. ,
a1, an R, (a1, an) R.

. R A1 A 2 A1
A2. (a1,a2) R a1Ra2 .
Ai = A, i 1, n , , n- .
.
R A1 A 2 - , 1R
2R A1 A2 :
n1R = {a1 (a 1 , a 2 ) R a2 A2 }
n2R = {a2 (a 1 , a 2 ) R a1 A1 }
n1R = A1 , , R . n2R = A2, , R . .
R - .
n- a1, a2, an. R
DR = (rij), i, j 1, n ,
rij =

1, aiRaj
0, .
DR

R. R a1, an , ai aj , aiRaj .
R.
, . R A1 A 2 F: A1 A2,

18

a1Ra2 a 1 Ra2 a1 = a 1 .
, (a1,a2) R F.

2. .
, . , . R1 R2
(: R1 I R2 ) ,
, ..
a1 ( R1 I R2 )a2 a1R1a2 a1R2a2
R1 R2 (: R1 U R2 ) , , ..
a1 ( R1 U R2 )a2 a1R1a2 a1R2a2
, R1 R2, R1 R2 .
R R , :
a1 R a2 (a1a2) R. . R - , R-1 :
a1R-1a2 a2Ra1.
R1, R2 - , R1 R2 :
a1(R1 R2)a2 b A

a 1 R1 b bR2a2.

R R :

a1 R a2 (z0 = a1, z1, , zn-1, zn = a2) An+1 | z0Rz1, , zn-1Rzn

, a1 R a2 n | a1Rna2

, R = RU R2 U R3 U L
, .
0, 1, () (v) {0, 1} :
19

. 0

v 0

0 0

0 0

1 0

1 1

, . R1 R2 = {a1, , an}
D R1 = (ri1j ) D R2 = (ri2j ) , i, j 1, n . R1 I R2
DR = (cij), cij = rij1 rij2 , i, j 1, n .
R1 U R2 DR = (dij), dij = rij1 rij2 , i, j 1, n
R1 DR = (fij), fij = rij1 , i, j 1, n

rij1

0, rij1 = 1
=
1
1, rij = 0

R11 D TR1 - D R1 .
R1 R2 DR = (gij),
gij = ri11 r12j ri12 r22j L rin1 rnj2 , i , j 1, n.
, ai(R1R2)aj . ak, , aiR1ak akR2aj. ,
1
1
= 1, rkj2 = 1. . rik
rkj2 = 1 gij = 1. , gij = 1. rik

gij 1. rit1 rtj2 = 1 .


rit1 = 1 rtj2 = 1. D R1 = (ri1j ) D R2 = (rij2 ) aiR1at atR2aj.
ai(RiR2)aj DR = (gij) R1 R2.

R DR :
D =
R

DR DR2 DR3 L

20

3. .
, , - , .
.

(R )
1

1. :

( )

a1 R 1

a2

2. :

= R.

a2 R1 a1

a 1 R a2

( R1 R2 ) R3= R1 ( R2 R3 )

a1( R1 R2 ) R3a2 , z A, , a1( R1 R2 )z, zR3a2


a1( R1 R2 ) w A , a1R1w wR2z . wR2z
zR3a2 w( R2 R3 )a2, a1R1w w( R2 R3 )a2 a1R1( R2 R3 )a2. ,
a1R1( R2 R3 ) R3a2, w A, , a1R1w w( R2 R3 )a2 .
w( R2 R3 )a2 z A, , wR2z zR3a2. , a1R1w
wR2z a1( R1 R2 )z, zR3a2,
a1( R1 R2 ) R3a2.

3. : (R1R2)-1 = R 21 R11
a1 (R1R2)-1a2 , a2 (R1R2)a1. , z A, , a2R1z
zR2a1. , a1 R 21 z z R11 a2 , a1( R 21 R11 ) a2. ,
a1( R 21 R11 ) a2, z A, , a1 R 21 z z R11 a2, a2R1z
zR2a1. a2 (R1R2)a1 , , a1 (R1R2)-1a2 .
4. :
) ( R1 U R2 ) R3 = ( R1 R3 )U ( R2 R3 )
) R3 ( R1 U R2 ) = ( R3 R1)U ( R3 R2 )
). a1( R1 U R2 ) R3a2, z A, ,
a1( R1 U R2 ) z zR3a2. a1( R1 U R2 ) z , a1R1z , a1R2z.
a1R1R3a2, a1R2R3a2 , , a1( R1 R3 U R2 R3 ) a2 . ,
a1( R1 R3 U R2 R3 ) a2, a1R1R3a2, a1R2R3a2. z A, , a1R1z zR3a2. a1R1z a1( R1 U R2 ) z
21

a1( R1 U R2 ) R3a2. w A , a1R2w wR3a2 .


a1R2w a1( R1 U R2 ) w a1( R1 U R2 ) R3a2, ).
) .
:
) ( R1 I R2 ) R3 ( R1 R3 )I ( R2 R3 )
d) R3 ( R1 I R2 ) R3 R1 I R3 R2
. ,
.
:
6. ( R1 U R2 ) 1 = R11 U R21
7. ( R1 I R2 ) 1 = R11 I R21
8. R1 R2 R11 R 21
9. R1 R2 R1R R2R RR1 RR2,

10. R1 R2 R1 R 2

11. R = R

.
1. , R1 = ( R) 1 R.
2. , R1 R2,
. R11 R 21

. R1 R 2
3. - n . .

22

23

4. .
1. .
R , aRa, a A. ,
.
R , a1,a2 A
a1Ra2 a2Ra1 . R DR = (rij) , .. rij = rji , i, j 1, n .
R , a1,a2,a3 A a1Ra2
a2Ra3 a1Ra3. R
, R. , a1 a2, a2 a3,
a1 a3. R , , . . R - .
, a A (: R[a]),
, R a, ..
R[a] = {x x A xRa}
1. R
, .
, ,
. z R[a1] z R[a2]. zRa1 zRa2. R a1Rz, R a1Rz, zRa2 a1Ra2.
, a1 R[a2]. a2 R[a1]. ,
R[a1] R[a2], xRa1, a1Ra2 xRa2 R[a2] R[a1].
, R[a1] = R[a2]. , , . R
a R[a], a A, a
.
24

R - , R.
. Z. n Rn Z. xRny x - y n (:
x y(mod n)). , Rn .
[a] a + kn, k Z. , [0], [1], , [n - 1] - . ,
a a = nq + r, 0 r < n a [r].
Rn n. [a] n.
- . , X = (Xi),
i S, S - , Xi A , :
1.

U Xi = A
iS

2. Xi I X j = i j, i, j S.
.
2. X = (Xi), i S - . R -
, :
a1Ra2 i S a1, a2 Xi
R .
, R - , a
Xi . R . R. a1Ra2 a2Ra3. , ,
i1, i2 S , a1, a2 X i1 a2, a3 X i2 . a2 X i1 a2 X i2 i1 = i2 , a1, a3 X i1 , a1Ra3, R.
,
. :
1. R - , R-1 - .
2. R1, R2 - , R1 I R2 - .
, , 25

.

3. R1 U R2 R1 R2
,
R1R2 = R1 U R2
, ,
.
4. R1R2 R1 R2 ,
R1R2 = R2R1.

2. .
R ,
.
.
(: (,R)).
. H - , B1(H) - H. R B1(H)
xRy xI y , x, y B1(H)
R , .
. H1, H2 - . M(H1,H2) F : H1 H2. M(H1,H2) R
F1RF2 h H F1(h) = F2(h)
R ,
. . , T1, T2 - , :

26

T1 U T2 , T1 I T2 , T11 , T1
, , .
5. , T1T2 T1, T2
, , :
T1T2 = T2T1

3. .
R ,
: aRb, bRa a = b. R , , .
R .
.
1. B(A) - . B() .
2. Em = {0, 1, , m} - . E nm = E m L E m (n ) E nm , , :
(x1, , xn) (y1, , yn) xi yi, i 1, n
Em, xi, yi Em, i 1, n .
, .
m = 1 n- , (: En ),
n 0, 1.
= (1, , n) ( - ) . , B() n- A = {a1, , an}
n- En :

X B(A) X = (1, , n)
i =

1, ai X
0, .

27

B(A), En , . a, b
(, ) , b a a b,
- .
( - ), .
, . . .
* (.. ). * (: ) :
1. , ,
.
2. s1 = a11a12 a1m s2 = a21a22 a2n
s1 s2 :
1. s1 = paiq1, s2 = pajq2 ai aj . p, q1, q2 - ( ), ai, aj A.
2. s2 = s1p , p - .
, .

.
. (, ) , , . . ,
10 < 1088 10 1088, 20 < 1088 1088 20.
, ,
, . 0020
1088. .
.
, R1, R2 - ,
R11 , R1 I R2 .
, , .

28

6. R1 U R2 ,
R1 R2 U R2 R1 R1 U R2
4. , . - n .
2

1. 2 n .
2. 2 n
3. 2
4. 2

2n

n ( n +1)

n ( n 1)

1
2

1
2

.
.

R.

7. pn - n-
n- .
pn+1 =

i =0 i p i , p0 = 1
n

a A, A = n + 1. a
i , i = 0, 1, , n. i
n
. n - i i
pn-i - .
,
pn+1 =

i =0 i p n i
n

i =0 i p i ,
n

.
pn.
n

pn

15

52

203

877

4140

21147

pn . pnk - k n- .
29

8. pnk
pnk = pn-1,k-1 + k pn-1,k
p00 = 1, p10 = 0
= {a1, , an} . k
. 1 , an [an] = {an}, . 2
k. , 1 pn-1,k-1 k - 1 (n - 1)- \ {an }. ,
2 k pn-1,k , \ {an} k k k k
an . , \{an} k
k k 2 an .
, .
pnk 2- .
, pnk
k

15

25

10

31

90

65

15

63

301

350

140

21

127

966

1701

1050

266

28

.
1. , n 2n-1 - 1 2.
3 n 1 + 1
+ 2 n 1
2. , n
2
3.

30

3. , En (
n), n + 2 , .
4. , x En, k (0 k n),
2k + 2n-k - 1 .
5. E5 , .

31

5. .
1. 1.
, .
Nn = {1, 2, , n} . F Nn

2
n
L
1
F:

F(1), F(2), L F( n)
F. E
Nn :
E(i) = i,

i Nn.

. . , . G, :
2
L
n
1
G:

G(1), G(2), L G( n)

1
2
L
n

FG =

F(G(1)), F(G(2)), L F(G( n))


,

1 2 3 4
F=
,G=
3 1, 4 2

1 2 3 4

,
1 3 4 2

1 2 3 4

3 4 2 1

FG =

, E EF = FE = F c F.
, , , FG GF
, .. F, G, H
F(GH) = (FG)H
.

32

F
F-1 , F-1F = F F-1 = E
F,
2
n
L
1
F=

F(1), F(2), L F( n)

F(1) F(2) L F( n)
F-1 =

2
L
n
1
, .. F(1), F(2), , F(n) 1 .
, Nn
, .
Nn Nn S(Nn). , S(Nn),
S(Nn), n!
2.
. P - Nn.
a1 Nn P(a1) .
P(a1) = a, , a1 1, (a1) .
P(a1) a1,
a1, a2, a3, , a2 = P(a1), a3 = P(a2) ..
Nn , . at+1 - , .. at+1 = ak , k t+1 at+1 = a1. , , at+1 = ai i 2, P(ai-1) = ai , P(at) = ai
P ai-1 = at, , at+1 - . a1, a2, , at . t (a1, , at). P :
- a1 Nn , a1.
Nn , . , Nn
.

33

. ,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

7 1 3 8 6 5 9 2 4

P=


(1 7 9 4 8 2) (3) (5 6 )
, .
.
, . n ki
i, i 1, n , (k1, k2, , kn) -

1k1 2 k2 K n k n . ,
1k1 + 2k2 + + nkn = n
, n

(n - 1)!

,
(1, i2, , in), i2, , in -

{2, , n}.

i2, , in (n - 1)!, - .
, n

[1

k1

2 k2 K n k n
1k1

k1 ! 2

k2

n!
k 2 !L n k n k n !

P :
(a11 a12 a1t1 ) (a21 a22 a 2t2 ) (as1 as2 a sts )
P-1 :
( a sts as2 as1) ( a 2t2 a22 a21) ( a 1t1 a12 a11)
.
3. F
F, F2, F3,
oLoF
Fk = F
123
k

34

k, l (k > l ),
Fk = F l
F lk = E, k - l > 0.
, F p, , Fp = E.
F.
.
.

z z , , .
z1, z2 - , ,

z1 z2 = z2 z1
F F = z1 z2 zt ,
k
k k
F = z1 z 2 z t
k

k
, F = E z i = E i 1, t .
k

zi , F k , zi , i 1, t .
4. S (Nn) -
Nn = {1, 2, , n}. , g1, , gk S (Nn)
g1, , gk S (Nn), F x1, , xt, xi { g1, , gk, g 11 , L , g k1 } .
, S (Nn) = g1, , gk . ,
k1 = n - 2, k2 = 1, k3 = = kn = 0 , .
2 i, j, (i,j) ( 1
).
,
(a1, , at) = (a1, at) (a1, a3)(a1, a2)
,
- ,
35

. .

) (1, 2), (2, 3), , (n - 1, n)
) (1, 2), (1, 3), , (1, n)
) (1, 2), (1, 2, , n)
:
(i, j) = (1, i)(1, j)(1, i)
(i, j) = (i, 1) (1, 2) (j - 1, j)(j - 1, j - 2) (2, 1)(i, 1)
(1, 2, , n)j (1, 2)(1, 2)(1, 2, , n)-j = (j + 1, j + 2)
, ), ), )
S(Nn) .
5. n,
:
A1 = (a11, , a 1k1 ) (a21, , a 2k2 ) (at1, , a tkt )
A2 = (b11, , b1k1 ) (b21, , b 2k2 ) (bt1, , b tkt )
F :
a11L a1k1 a 21L a 2 k2 L a t1L a tk t

F=
b11L b1k1 b 21L b 2 k2 L b t1L b tk t
,
F-1A2F = A1

()

A1, A2 , F, (), .
, . ,
.
, ,
, - .
, ,
.
, z = (a11, , a1p) - p, F F-1zF = (F-1(a11), , F-1(a1p)) - p. ,
z1 zt - ,
36

F-1z1 ztF = F-1z1F F-1z2F F-1ztF .


, .
(), A1, A2
F, . ,
, A1, A2 .
, A1, A2 ,

[1

k1

2 k2 K n k n , 1k1 k1 ! 2 k2 k 2 ! K n k n k n ! .

.
1. n, 2.
2. X-1AX = B,
1 2 3 4 5
A =
,B=
3 4 1 2 5

1 2 3 4 5

4 2 5 1 3

3. S(N3) .

37

6. .
1. , . = {1, 2, , n}.
. , () .
.
1. : . : .
2. : .
3. S. S
S , S,
, . , .
n, , A = {1, 2, , n - 1}, , n.
, .
, ,
, , .
.
/ .
n = 1, , {1}.
n - 1 Ln-1 .
L n1 - Ln-1, . n

Ln = Ln-1 , L n1 {n},
L n1 {n} , L n1 n.
:

L2 = , {1}, {1, 2}, {2}


L3 = , {1}, {1, 2}, {2}, {2, 3}, {1, 2, 3}, {1, 3}, {3}.

n, ,
Ln-1 {n - 1}. Ln Ln-1 . Ln-1 {n - 1, n}, Ln-1
38

{n}, .
Ln-1 , Ln {n}. Ln-1 2n-1 ,
Ln
22n-1 = 2n .
, r- n-
= {1, 2, , n} . r-
a1 < a2 < < ar.
: a1 = 1, a2 = 2, , ar = r.
r- a1, a2, , ar . ai, ,
ai + 1 . ai (
a1 = n - r + 1, , ar = n ), .
ai , a1 ,K , a r ,
a1 = a1 ,K , a i 1 = a i 1,a r = a i + 1, a i +1 = a i + 2,K , a r = a i + r i .
n = 4, r = 2

ai

1,2

1,3

1,4

2,3

2,4

3,4

n, r- n-.
2. n-
n- = {1, 2, , n}. (n).
n = 1 (1) (1). n - 1 (n - 1) 1, 2, , n - 1. (n) .
(n - 1)- b1, , bn-1 1, 2, , n - 1 n 1, 2, , n :
( b1 ,K , bn1 ,1) ,

b i = b i + 1, i = 1, n 1

( b1,K , bn1 ,2) ,

b i = b i bi = 1
39

b i = b i + 2

bi 2.

( b1( n) ,K , b nn1 ,n) ,

b (i n ) = b i , i = 1, n 1

, s 1, n b1(s) ,K , b(ns)1 1, 2, , s - 1, s + 1, , n.
n! n-
= {1, 2, , n} , . -
. , .
k , ,
.
.
-

1 2 ... n


1. , .
2. m
3. m ,

m.
4. k, k > m .
5. 1.
n = 3.

123
132

312
321
231

40

213

41

n. n, n + 1. ( n = 1

). , 1 2 ... n n + 1 , n + 1 , ,

n +1 1 ... n . n+1 ,
n+1 n + 1, n, , 1. n,
1, 2, ,n.
n + 1, n + 1 ,

n + 1 . a1 a2 an n + 1 , n+1
,
1, 2, n, n + 1 . ,
n + 1 1, 2, , n. 1, 2, , n, n +1 n + 1 , .
(n + 1)n! = (n + 1)!.

42

II.
1. -.
, X N . t
P1, ... , Pt, , X
. N(Pi) - X, Pi .
{ Pi1 , K , Pi r } N( Pi1 , K , Pi r ) - X, Pi1 , K , Pi r ( ).
1. N(0) X, ,
N(0) = S0 - S1 + S2 - +(-1)tSt

(1)

S0 = N
Sk =

N( Pi1 ,K , Pik ),

k 1, t

1i1 <...<i k t

(1) -.
a X,
S0 (1).
a X Pj S0
S1 =

i=1 N(Pi ) , S0 1 , S1 - 1

1 + (-1) = 0. a X, r Pi1 , K , Pi r (r 1), r


r
S0 1, S1 - ,
1
1
r
r
r
S2 , , Sk
2
2
k
r
(-1)k , k r. , a (1)
k

r r
r
r
1 - + - + (-1)k + + (-1)r , = (1 - 1)r = 0
1 2
k
r
, (1) 1 , 43

, 0 , ,
(1) N(0) .
(1) .
2. N(r) X, r
,
t
r + 1
s r + s
t-r
N(r) = Sr -
Sr+1 + + (-1)
Sr+s+ + (-1) St (2)
r
r
r
(2) a X, r , 1 .
a X k , r < k t.
r k r + 1 k
k k
Sr, Sr+1, , Sk , ,

, K , .
r r r r + 1
r k
a X
r k r + 1 k r + 2 k
k-r k k

- + (-1)

+

r r r r + 1 r r + 2
r k

(3)

b c c c a
=

a b a b a
(3).
k k r k k r k k r
k-r k k r


+
- + (-1)

r 0 r 1 r 2
r k r

k k r k r k r
k r k r

= 0
L+ ( 1)
+


k r
r 0 1 2
, (2) , r 1 ,
X 0 .
-
. , a A w(a),
F.
{ Pi1 , K , Pi r } W( Pi1 , K , Pi r ) X,
Pi1 ,K , Pi r ( ).

44

W( Pi1 ,K , Pir ) , W(0) - a X. E(r) -

W(r) =

1i1 <...<i r t

X, r .
3.
r + 1
r + 2
t-r t
E(r) = W(r) -
W(r + 1) +
W(r + 2) - + (-1) W(t) (4)
r
r
r
(2) .
-.
1. X1, , Xn - X. T

X1 U ... U X n = in=1 X i

1i< j n

X i I X j +L+ ( 1) n 1 X1 I ... I X n

(5)

x X1 U ... U X n . , x Pi,
i 1, n , x Xi . X(0) - X1 U ... U X n ,
Pi, i 1, n . -
N(0) = X1 U ... U X n - in=1 X i +

1i< j n

X i I X j +L+ ( 1) n X1 I ... I X n

N(0) = 0, (5).
2. X, Y - , X= n, Y= m. Wnm
f : X Y (n m) .
m
m
m
Wnm = mn - ( m 1) n + ( m 2) n L+ ( 1) n ( m m) n
1
2
m

(6)

f : X Y m P1, , Pm : f : X Y Pi, f yi Y, Y = {y1, , ym}. , f : X Y,


P1, , Pm,
. , :
N = mn - f : X Y
N(Pi) = (m - 1)n

N( Pi1 , K , Pi k ) = (m - k)n
- (6).
45

3. X , Y - , X= k, Y= m. n f(x1, , xn) , xi X Y.
xi ,
f(x1, , xi-1, x, xi+1, , xn) = f(x1, , xi-1, x, xi+1, , xn) , xi, x, x X (6)
N0 f, f : Xn Y, . n P1, , Pn , Pi , xi , i 1, n . ,
N = mk

N(Pi) = m k

n1

N(Pi, Pj) = m k

n2

........
N( Pi1 , K , Pi t ) = m k

nt

........
-
n n
n1
n2
n n
n
n
+ mk
- + (-1)n m k
N0 = m k - m k
1
2
n

(6)

4. n- X = {x1, , xn}. 1, 2
X , : x X 1(x) = 2(x).
1, 2 . Qn
n- X
Qn = (n!)2 (1 -

1 1
1
+ L+ ( 1) n )
1! 2 !
n!

(7)

1, n! ,
Dn 2, 1. ,
Dn = n! (1 -

1 1
1
+ L+ ( 1) n )
1! 2 !
n!

(8)

, P1, , Pn {} X, Pi, i 1, n , (xi) = 1(xi). .


2 ,
P1, , Pn.
N = n!, N(Pi) = (n - 1)!, , N( Pi1 , K , Pi k ) = (n - k)! . 46

-, (8), , (7).
k, 0 k n. 1, 2 X k-, k x X,
1(x) = 2(x).
, (2), , Qnk
k- n-
Qnk =

( n !) 2
1 1
1
n k
1 + L+ ( 1)

k ! 1! 2 !
( n k ) !

(9)

, . n- X = {x1, , xn} m- Y =
= {y1, , ym} . f, g : X Y , x X, , f(x) = g(x). f, g . Mmn n- X m-
Y
Mmn = mn (m - 1)n

(10)

k, 0 k n. f, g : X Y
k-, k x X, , f(x) = g(x).
Nmn k- n- X m- Y
n
Nmn = (m 1) n k m n
k

(11)

5. n- X = {x1, , xn}
. .
t n a = (a1, a2, , at) X t. a a
: a(x1) = a1 . a(x1), , a(xk) , a(xk+1) = al ,
l - , , al a(x1), al a(x2), , al a(xk).
- , .. a
a. a = (x1, x1, , x1) .

47

, a
x1, , xn .
Rnt a = (a1, , at) X = {x1, , xn} , X (t n)
n
n
n
Rnt = nt - ( n 1) t + ( n 2) t L+ ( 1) n ( n n) t
1
2
n

(12)

a = (a1, , at)
: Y X, Y = {1, 2, , t} (a1, , at) ((1), (2), , (t)), , (a1, , at), X = {x1, , xn},
: Y X. (6).
6. X = {x1, , xn}. Un X, ,
(xi) xi (xi) xi+1, i 1, n 1, (xn) xn (xn) x1. , Un , :
x1 x 2

x1 x 2

... x n

... x n

x1 x 2 ... x n

x 2 x 3 ... x1

4. Un (n > 1)
Un = n! -

2 n 2 n 2
2 n 2 n 1
n 2 n n

( n 1)!+

( n 2)! K+ ( 1)
0!
n n
2n 2 2
2n 1 1

.
1. X (xi, xi+1) ( i 1, n 1).
f(n, k) X k
n k + 1
f(n, k) =

(14)

Y X n a1, ... , an , ai = 1 xi Y . k . . n - k , k
. n - k +1 , k. , (14).

48

2. X (xi, xi+1), ( i 1, n 1),


(x1, xn) . g(n, k) X k
g(n, k) =

n n k

nk k

(15)

Y X : ,
x1 , , x1 . , x1 , x2 xn .
, (k - 1)- (n - 3)-
X = {x3, ... , xn-1}, , n 3 (k 1) + 1 n k 1

=
. kk 1

k 1
(n - 1)- X = {x2, x3, , xn}, n 1 k + 1 n k
, , ,
=
. k

k
, k-
n k 1 n k
n n k
g(n, k) =
+
=


k 1 k n k k
4. n!
X = {x1, , xn} 2n P1, ... , Pn, , P1, ... , Pn, i 1, n Pi , (xi) = xi , Pi , (xi) = xi+1 i 1, n 1,
i = n Pn , (xn) = x1.

P1, P1, P2, P2, ... , Pn, Pn

(16)

k- Vk , , k-.
(n - k)!, k 0 . - 2n
(16) k- . , (16), Pn P1 . k- -

49

2n 2n k

. - 2n k k

(13).

50

2.
, n , . , u0, u1, un, C k,
un = F(un-1, , un-k),

n k

(1)

u0, u1, uk-1, un, n k . ,


un = a1 un-1 + + ak un-k,

n k

(2)

a1, , ak - C.
.
. ,
1, 2, , n, 1- .
1 2 . n-
.
un - . , u2 = 1, u3 = 2 . ,
n : , 1 , 2
. , un-1 , un-2 . ,
un = un-1 + un-2

(3)

u1 = 1, u2 = 1.
un . . (2) C
P(x) = xk - a1xk-1 - - ak

(4)

P(x) (2). , k- k .
- P(x).
1. u0, u1, un, , un = cn, c -
C, (2).
51

un, n = 0, 1, (2),
cn - a1 cn-1 - a2 cn-2 - - ak cn-k = cn-k (k - a1 k-1 - - ak) 0.
2. un, vn, n = 0, 1, (2). rn, n = 0, 1, , rn = un+ vn , n , , - C.
.
3. 1, , k - (.. ) P(x) (2).

un = c 1n1 + c 2 n2 +K+ c k nk ,

(5)

c1, , ck - C.
, un, n = 0, 1,
(2). , (5)
, vn, n = 0, 1, ,
(2), c1, , ck, , un = vn , n . , v0 = u0, v1 = u1, , vk-1 = uk-1 .
u0 = c 1 + c 2 + + c k = v 0
u1 = c 1 1 + c 2 2 + + c k k = v 1

(6)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
uk-1 = c1k11 + c2k21 +K+ c k kk1 = vk-1
, v0, v1, , vk-1
c1, c2, , ck .
(7, . 118).

det

1
1

1
2

L
L

1
k

.
.
k 1
k 1
k 1
1
2
L k

= ( i j ) 0
i< j

1, , k . . (3).

P(x) = x2 - x -1
1 =

1+ 5
1 5
, 2 =
,
2
2
52

1 + 5
1 5
+ c2

un = c1
2
2

c1, c2 :
1 + 5
1 5
+ c2
=1
c1
2
2
2

1 + 5
1 5
+ c2
=1
c1
2
2
1

c1 =

, c2 = -

1
5

- r P(x).

4. c 1n , c 2 nn , K , c r n r 1n , n = 0, 1, c1, , cr C (2).
5. P(x) 1, , s
r1, , rs (r1 + + rs = k) .
(2)
un = si =1 (c i1 + c i2 n +K+ c ir i n ri 1 ) ni , c ij C

(7)

.
6.
un = a1un-1+ + akun-k
u1, , uk .
nk
a1 a 2

1 0
0 1

.
.

0 0

a3
0
0
.
0

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

. ak

. 0
. 0

. .

1 0

nk

u k un

u k 1 u n 1
. = .

. .

u1 u n k +1

(8)

n. n = k (8) .
n. n + 1

53

a1 a 2

1 0
0 1

.
.

0 0

a3
0
0
.
0

.
.
.
.
.

. ak

. 0
. 0

. .

1 0

.
.
.
.
.

n +1 k

uk

u k 1
. =

u1
. ak

. 0
. 0

. .

1 0

a1 a 2

1 0
= 0 1

.
.

0 0

a3 .
0 .
0 .
. .
0 .

.
.
.
.
.

. a k a1 a 2

. 0 1 0
. 0 0 1

. . .
.

1 0 0 0

a1 a 2

1 0
= 0 1

.
.

0 0

a3
0
0
.
0

.
.
.
.
.

. a k u n u n +1

. 0 u n 1 u n
. 0 . = .

. . . .


1 0 u n k +1 u n k +2

.
.
.
.
.

a3 .
0 .
0 .
. .
0 .

.
.
.
.
.

nk

uk

u k 1
. =

u1

, , ,
. .
.
7. C(n, k) - n- , k .
C(n, k) = C(n - 1, k - 1) + (n - 1)C(n - 1, k)

(9)

C(0, 0) = 1, C(0, 1) = 0
X = {1, 2, n,}
k , - , n
, , n l, l > 1.
X = {1, 2, , n 1}, k - 1 , .. C(n - 1, k - 1). , n, X = {1, 2, , n - 1} k ,
C(n - 1, k). , n - 1 k n. i, i . i1 + + ik , i1, , ik - . i1 + + ik = n - 1.
(n - 1)C(n - 1, k). (9).
54

C(n, k)
sn,k , :
sn,k = (- 1)n+k C(n, k)
sn,k .

sn,0

sn,1

sn,2

sn,3

sn,4

sn,5

-1

-3

-6

11

-6

24

-50

35

-10

-120

274

-225

85

-15

55

3.
1. a0, a1, , an, .

R(x) = a0 + a1x + + anxn +
{an}. R(x) R > 0 F(x), F(x) {an}.
R(x) Q(x) - {an} {bn}
, :
) . - ,
R(x) = a0 + a1x + + anxn + , .. R(x) - {an}.
) .
R(x) + Q(x) = (a0 + b0) + (a1 + b1)x + + (an + bn)xn +
.. R(x) + Q(x) - {an + bn}.
) .
n

R(x) Q(x) = a0 b0 + (a0b1 + a1b0) x + + ( i =0 a i b n i )x n +


R(x) Q(x) - {an} {bn}.
R(x) Q(x) ,
Q(x)R(x) = 1.
1. R(x) ,
a0 0.
, R(x)
a0b0 = 1
a0b1 + a1b0 = 0

(1)

i =0 a i b n i

=0

, (1) b0, b1, , bn,


, a0 0 .

56

a
1
, b1 = - 1 .
a0
a 20

: b0 =
b0, b1, , bn-1 ,
bn =

1
(-a1bn-1 - - anb0).
a0


{an}
E(x) = a0 + a1x + +

an n
x +
n!

(2)

,
, .
: Ea(x), Eb(x) - {an} {bn} ,
Ea(x) Eb(x) = c0 + c1x + +

cn n
x +
n!

(3)

n
n
cn = a0bn + a1bn-1 + + akbn-k + + anb0.
1
k
, .
. an , n = 0, 1, ,
(1 - 4x)-1/2 .
.
(1 + x) = 1 + r =1

( 1)L ( r + 1) r
x
r!

, - ,
.
(1 - 4x)

-1/2

1
1
1
( 2 )( 2 1)... ( 2 r + 1)
= 1 + r=1
(4x) r =
r!

r 1 3
2r 1 )
4 ( 2 )( 2 )... (
2 r
= 1 + r=1
x =
r!
r
2 1 3L( 2 r 1) r
= 1 + r =1
x =1+

r!

r
2 r ! 1 3L ( 2 r 1) r
x =
r =1

r ! r !

57

= 1 +
r =1

(2 4L2 r )(1 3L (2 r 1)) r


x = 1+
r!
r!

2r

r=1 r x r

,
2n
an = , n = 0, 1,
n
2n
bn= n! , n = 0, 1, .
n
2. t
t

2i 2t 2i
t
=4
ti

i=0 i

(5)

2i
, - xi
i
2t 2i
t-i
-1/2
(1 - 4x)-1/2,
- x (1 - 4x) .
ti
(5) - xt (1 - 4x)-1/2 (1 - 4x)-1/2. (1 - 4x)-1/2
(1 - 4x)-1/2 = (1 - 4x)-1 = 1 + 4x + (4x)2 + + (4x)t +
(5).
3.
F(n) = F(n - 1) + F(n - 2) , F(0) = a, F(1) = b

(x) =

a + (b a )x
1 x x2

(6)

() F(n).

F(0) = a
F(1) = b
F(2) = F(1) + F(0)

F(n) = F(n - 1) + F(n - 2)


i- xi . (x). x(x) - xa + a,
xb + x2(x).

58

, (x) = x(x) - xa + a + xb + x2(x)


(1 - x - x2)(x) = a + (b - a)x, (6).
.

un+k = a1un+k 1+ ... +akun.
, :
uk = a1uk 1+ ... +aku0
uk+1 = a1uk+ ... +aku1
. . .
un+k = a1un+k 1+ ... +akun
F( x ) =

n= 0 u n x n

F(x) = u0+u1x+ ... +uk 1xk 1 +a1(uk 1xk+ukxk+1+ ...)+


+a2(uk 2xk+uk 1xk+1+ ...)+
. . .
+ak(u0xk+u1xk+1+ ...) =
= u0+u1x+ ... +uk 1xk 1 +a1x(uk 1xk 1+ukxk+ ...)+
+a2x2(uk 2xk 2+uk 1xk 1+ ...)+
. . .
+akxk(u0+u1x+ ...) =
= u0+u1x+ ... +uk 1xk 1 +a1x(F(x) u0 u1x ... uk 2xk 2)+
+a2x(F(x) u0 u1x ... uk 3xk 3)+
. . .
+akxk(F(x)).
,
F(x)(1 a1x a2x2 ... akxk) = G(x),
G(x) k 1, .

F( x ) =

G( x )
1 a1 x a 2 x 2 ... a k x k

4.
Tn = T0 Tn-1 + T1 Tn-2 + + Tn-1 T0,

T0 = 1

(7)
59

Tn =

1 2 n
.
n + 1 n


f(x) = T0 + T1x + T2x2 + + Tnxn +

F(x) = x f(x) = xT0 + T1x2 + + Tnxn+1 +
F(x) .

F2(x) = T02 x 2 + (T0 T1 + T1 T0)x3 + + (T0 Tn-1 + T1 Tn-2 + Tn-1 T0)xn+1 + ...
, ,
F2(x) = T1x2 + T2x3 + + Tnxn+1 + ... = F(x) - T0 x
F2(x) - F(x) + x = 0
F(x),
F(x) =

1 (1 4x)1/ 2
2

( + , F(0) = 0).
un xn :
un =

1 ( 1 1)L ( 1 n + 1)( 4 x) n ( 1 )
2 2
2
2

n!

1 3L (2 n 3) 2 n 1
=
n!

, (n - 1) !,
=

1 3L (2 n 3) 2 4L (2 n 2) (2 n 2) !
=
n !( n 1)!
n !( n 1)!

x <

1
F(x) , 4

Tn = un+1.
,
Tn =

1 2n

n + 1 n

Tn .
. Tn.
n

Tn

14

42

132

429

.
60

.
x1 x2 xn .
. un - .
x1 x2 = (x1 x2) u2 = 1
x1 x2 x3 := ((x1 x2) x3), (x1 (x2 x3))

u3 =2

x1 x2 xn r
n - r r, ..
x1 xn = (x1 xr)( xr+1 xn)
r ur , n - r un-r .

un = u1 un-1 + u2 un-2 + + un-1 u1

(8)

u1 = 1.
, (4),

f(x) = u1 x + u2 x2 + + un xn +
f(x) (8)
f2(x) = f(x) - x
,
f(x) =

1 (1 4x)1/ 2
2

(.. f(0) = 0, )

,
un =

(2n 2) ! 1 2n 2
=

n !(n 1)! n n 1

- .
.
5. {un} {vn} , t
t

un =

k=0 (1) k k v n k

vn =

k=0

(9)

t + k 1
u n k
k

(10)

(10) (9).
61


u(x) =

n=0 u n x n

v(x) =

n=0 v n x n


(1 - x)t =

k=0 (1) k k x k

v(x)(1 - x)t
an =

R(x) = a0 + a1x + + anxn +

k=0 (1) k k v n k

(9) v(x)(1 - x)t = u(x)

, v(x) = u(x) (1 - x)-t


(1 - x)-t =
k =0
n

( t )( t 1)L ( t k + 1)
( x) k =
k!

t + k 1 k
x
k

k=0

t + k 1
u n k
k

k=0

vn =

6. {an} {bn},

bn =

k=0 k a n k

an =

(11)
n

k=0 (1) k k b n k

(12)

, (12) (11).

A(x) =

n=0 nn! x n

B(x) =

n=0

bn n
x
n!


x x2
xn
e =1+ +
+K+
+K
n!
1! 2 !
x


f
f
f
ex A(x) = F(x) = f0 + 1 x + 2 x 2 +K+ n x n +K
1!
2!
n!

fn
1 a n k
n
= k=0
n!
k ! (n k)!

62

fn =

k=0 k a n k = b n

F(x) = B(x) = ex A(x)


A(x) = e-x B(x)
e-x =

k
a

k x
(

1
)
. , n =
k=0
n!
k!

k=0 (1) k

1 b n k
k ! (n k)!

5 6 .

63

4. .
1. - :
1, n = 1
(n)=0, p, p2 n
k
(-1) , n = p1 pk - k
.

:
1.
1, n = 1

(d ) = 0, n > 1
d n

(1)

n = 1, d = 1 (1) , .. (1) = 1.
n > 1.
s

n = p11 p 22 K p kk ,
d

pi, i 1, k - , si - . d - n, d = p 1 1 p 2 2 K p k k ,
0 di si, i 1, k . di > 1 i 1, k , (d) = 0. (1)
d, di 1, i 1, k . r , r 1, k ,
k
(1) (-1)r . ,
r
k
1

k
k

(d ) = 1 +K+( 1) k = 0.

dn

2. ( ). f(n) g(n) - .
g(n) =

f (d)

(2)

dn

,
f(n) =

(d)g( dn )

(3)

dn

(2) n.
64

g( dn ) =

f (d )

n
d

(3),

(d)g( dn ) = (d) f (d )

dn

dn

n
d

d, d , ,
ddn . d, d

n
.
d

(d)g( dn ) = f (d ) (d )
d n

dn

(1)

(d )

n
d

n
d

n > d
n = d

0
=
1

, (3) . (3) n.

f (d)

dn

(d )g( dd ) , d = d d

dn

- n

d d

(d )g(d )

d n d n

g(d ) (d )

d n

d n

(1) d = n, . (2).
2. .
s . sn n .
w0 = a1 a2 an n - 1
w1 = a2 a3 ana1, w2 = a3 a4 a1 a2 , , wk-1 = an a1 an-1, ,
. sn :
,
. , n .
.
w , , w, , n . w ,
u m, , w = u u u (m ).
3. w , .
65

, w , . w .
p - , , w = wp.
w = a1 a2 an, wp = a1+p a2+p an+p ( n). ,
u a1 a2 ap, m =

n
. ( , pn). p

M(d) - , d .
dn. ,

dM(d) = sn.

dn

g(n) = sn, f(d) = dM(d).

(d)s

nM(n) =

dn

n
1
(d)s d

ndn

M(n) =

, M(n) - . n = p - ,
1 p
(s s)
p

M(p) =

.
4. f(n) g(n) - ,
f(n) =

g(d)

(4)

dn

g(n) =

f (d)

(n )
d

(5)

dn

, (5) (4).
, . GF(q) - q m - .
m(q) GF(q)
m(q) =

1
(m d)q d
mdn

(6)

m(2)
66

m(2)

67

5.
.
1. .
A = (ai, j), i = 1, n , j = 1, m , n m
( - per )
per A =

( j1 ,K, jn )

a 1 j1 a 2 j2 L a njn

(1)

n- m 1, 2, , m. , , .
(1) , .
1. (nm)- (n m) , per A = 0.
n = m .
2. .
3. .
Aij - , i- j-
.
4. i-
per A = ai1 per Ai1 + ai2 per Ai2 + ... + aim per Aim (2)
, .
, det(AB) = detAdetB , .
1 1 1 1 2 2
,

=

1 1 1 1 2 2
1 1
per
= 2, per
1 1

2 2

=8
2 2

1 1
1 1
, 4 = per
per
per
1 1
1 1

2 2

=8
2 2

(3)

68

. X = {x1, , xm} - , X1, , Xn -


X. x1, , xn
X1, , Xn ,
xi Xi,

i = 1, n

xi xj

i j.

(4)

, xi Xi .
. . , .. .
, ,
, .
: abc abd abe cde cde abecd.
, ab ab bc abc bcd
, .
X1, , Xn A = (aij), i = 1, n ,
j = 1, m ,
aij =

1, xi Xi

(5)

0, .

1. A = (aij), i = 1, n , j = 1, m , (n m)
X1, , Xn , Xi X, i = 1, n , X = {x1, , xm} . R(X1, , Xn) X1, , Xn
R(X1, , Xn) = per A

(6)

, aij = 1 , xj Xi aij = 0 ,
xj Xi, ( x i1 , x i2 , K , x i n ) X X1, , Xn , a 1i1 , a 2i2 ,K , a ni n = 1 a 1i1 , K , a ni n .
a 1i1 ,K , a ni n n- 1, 2, , m. X1, , Xn, - .
69

. X1, , Xn
, :
per A > 0

(7)

(1) m(m - 1) (m - n +1) ,


. .
2. = (aij), i, j = 1, n .

per A =

( i1 ,K,i n )

a 1i 1 a 2i2 L a ni n

i1, , in
1, 2, , n. - . i1, , in , a 1i1 , K , a ni n .
- , . n P1, , Pn i1, i2, , in 1, 2, , n,
Pi , i1, , in i. , i1, , in, P1, , Pn. W( Pi 1 , K , Pi k ) , k
Pi 1 ,K , Pi k . W(0) i1, , ik.
W(0) =

a 1i1 , K , a ni n = (a 11 +L+a 1n )(a 21 +L+ a 2 n )L (a n1 +L+ a nn )

(8)

i1 ,K,i n

W(N(Pi)) =

a 1i1 , K , a ni n = (a 11 +L+ a 1i +L+ a 1n )L (a n1 +L a ni +L+ a nn ) (9)

i1 ,K,i n
i

^ , .
sij (i < j)
^

W(N(Pi, Pj)) = (a 11 +L+ a 1i +L+ a 1 j +L+ a 1n )L (a n1 +L a ni +L+ a nj +L+ a nn ) (10)


, -,
:
n

per A = in=1 (a i1 +L+ a in ) nk =1 (a k1 +L+ a ki +L+ a kn ) +L +


i =1

+ ( 1) s

^
^
n
(
a
L
a
L
a
+
+
+
+
ki 1
ki s +L+ a kn ) +L
k =1 k1
1i1 <L<is n

(11)

,
70

(2n - 1)(n - 4) (2n - 2)(n + 1) .


n, .
3.
(0, 1)-. .
2. A = (aij), i, j = 1, n - (0, 1)- n.
per A= 0 ,
s t, s + t = n + 1.
.
, , , ..
B C
A=

O D
- (s t) - , B (n - s) t. t . ,
, 1, 2, , n - s. n - s = t - 1 < t , .. per A = 0.
per A = 0. n.
n = 1 ( = (0)). , n. - n, . - , aij = 1. i:
per A = ai1Ai1 + + ainAin
per = 0, per ij = 0. ij (n - 1) (n - 1)
s1 t1 , s1 + t1 = n - 1 + 1 = n. ,
:
C E
A B=

O D
- s1 t1, s1 + t1 = n, - (n - s1) t1, D s1 (n - t) . , D - (t1 t1)
(s1 s1) . per B = per A ,
per B = per C per D per = 0 , per C = 0, per D = 0.
per C = 0.
71

u v, u + v = t1 + 1. i1, , iu j1, , jv . B,
i1, , iu, t1+ 1, , n j1, , jv. (u + n - t1) v,
u + n - t1 + v = n + +1. , B s t,
s + t = n + 1. B ,
.
. (k,
n) - 0,1 n n k
(k > 0).
3. (k, n) per (k, n) > 0.
, per (k, n) = 0. 2 s t, s + t = n + 1. , (k, n)
B C

O D
- (s t)-.
B D. A(k, n) k
, B D k
. (k, n) nk , nk tk + sk = (t + s)n. , n t + s, , .. s + t = n + 1 .

3. - (0,1)- nm (nm). per = 0
, st, s+t=m+1.
4. . (nm)- X={x1,,xm}
(nm) - X, n-
X, m- X. n=m .
, n=1 1m m!. n=2
, , , . Dm, 2m m! Dm.
72


. (nm)- (n<m).
((n+1)m) - (n+1)- ?

4. (nm) - n<m
(nn) m-n .
X={x1,,xm } L- (nm)- X.
A1, ,Am Ai - i - L. - A1, ,Am.
mm , n , Ai= n,
i = 1, m . xi X L m ,
, .
L mn, xi X n .
, n .
A , .
A X1, , Xn , Xi = X\Ai,
i = 1, m . m - n .
3 per A > 0. ai1 a mi m 0 . x i1 X1 ,K , x i m X m
x i1 , K , x i m . x i1 , K , x i m (n + 1)-
(n m)- L. , .
l n - n, X = {1, 2, , n}, . l n :
n

ln

56

9408

16942080

535281401856

5. A = (aij) n n , ,

73

j=1 a ij = 1

i 1, n
n

i=1 a ij = 1

j 1, n

. ,
1926 : 1. , per A

n!
nn

2. (n n)- J = (1/n), 1/n.


1980 .

1. r- 0, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3
.
: 4r - 33r + 32r -1
2. a1, a2, , an - .
n

Max (a1, a2, , an) = a i Min(a i a j ) +K+ ( 1) n 1 Min(a 1 , K , a n )


i =1

i< j

3.
an + 6an-1 + 12an-2 + 8an-3 = 0
a0 = 1, a1 = -2, a2 = 8
n2 n
: an =
+ 1 (2) n
2
2
4. (n n)-

74

11 1 2

2 1 2 2
...
...

n 1 n 2

... 1 n

... 2 n
... ...

... n n
: (n!)3

75

III. .
1. .
1. G(V,E) - , : V - V, .. E
VV, , , ,
. G(V,E) ,
. e = (v1, v2),
e E, , e v1,v2, v1 = v2, e . v1,v2 ,
. , . .
v d(v), ,
. d0(v)
di(v) - .
- e1, e2, , em, , ei, ei+1 . . , . ,
.
, ,
, .
, ,
. .
, , . ,
, .
, ,
.
:
1. Kn. n , n
. , Kn .
2
2. F: X X. X, xi xj , xj= F(xi).
76

3. . ,
V1, V2,,
V1 V2.
4. n- Bn. - n-
. , .
1. .
G xi i,
x1+ 2x2+ + kxk = 2 E

(1)

,
. , x1+ x3+ + x2S+1 - .
. ,
- ,
: , . ,
.
2. G - n k . m

n-k m

(n k)(n k + 1)
2

(2)

G.
, . G (
m0), . , k + 1 m0 - 1 . ,

m0

- 1 n - (k + 1), m0 n - k.
G . Ci Cj - ni nj
(ni nj > 1), ni + 1 nj - 1 , ,
, . ,
(n j 1)(n j 2)
(n i + 1)n i
n (n 1) n j (n j 1)
- i i
= ni - n j + 1 > 0
+
2
2
2
2
, G ,
k - 1
n - k + 1 . .

77

. n , ,

(n 1)(n 2)
2

, .
, k , ,

(n k)(n k + 1)
(n 1)(n 2)
(n k)(n k + 1)
.
<
2
2
2

k = 1.
,
.
3. G(V,E) , G
.
v - V.
(v,v1), (v1,v2), , v1 v, , vi+1 - vi, vi-1.
vi+1 . V , . vk. vk .
2. G , u, v . d(u, v)
u v u v.
d(u, v) = 0 u = v.
, :
1. d(u, v) 0
2. d(u, v) = 0 u = v
3. d(u, v) = d(v, u)
4. d(u, v)+d(v, w) d(u, w) ( )
G d(G)

d( G) = max d( u, v )
u ,v

3. G1(V1, E1) G2(V2, E2) , f: V1 V2, ,


(v1, v2) E1 (f(v1), f(v2)) E2.
f G1 G2. G
.
1.
78

2. , ,
(1, 3) , (2, 4) , (13)(24).
1

,
, .
.
4. , .
.
G1 + (V1, E1), G2 = (V2, E2) .
G1 G2 , V = V1 V2, E = E1 E2.

G1+G2

V = V1 V2,

E = E1 E2 {(v1, v2)} v1 V1, v2 V2.

V = V1 V2,

(( c 1 , v 2 ),( v 1 , v 2 )) E ( v 1 , v 1 ) E1 ( v 2 , v 2 ) E2 .
. f1: V1 V1, f2: V2 V2.

f1 f2: V1 V2 V1 V2, f1 f2(v1, v2) = (f1(v1), f2(v2)).


f1 f2 l 10 l 20 . f1 f2 l 0 = l 10 | v 2 |+ l 20 | v 1 | l 10 l 20 .
79

5. . (, 1936 .)
. , .
 G = (V, E) , k. v1 C , v1. v1, v2, ..., vk.
, k .
G = (V, E) .
V = V1 V2 : v1 V V1. u V1 d(u, v1) .
V2.
, G . , , (v, v),
v, v V1. , d(v1, v), d(v1, v) . (v, v) , v1 v, (v, v), v v1. , (v, v), v, v V2. 

80

2. .
G(V,E) e1,e2, , et ,
1 , .. t =E. G(V,E) ,
, , ,
.
1. G , G .
, G.

. , .
G. G . 3 . , .
, G , . G1, . G1 G,
.
G1 . G G1
. G :
G1. G1,
G1. , , .

2. G ,
.
. , .
, .
1 .
3. G(V,E),
, ,
v, di(v) = d0(v), v1 v2 , d0(v1) = di(v1) + 1,
d0(v2) + 1 = di(v2),
81

di(v) = d0(v).

(3)

, v 1 v2.
4. G - , 2s > 0
. s P1, , Ps,
G .
P1, , Ps .
1 G 2s . s (v1, w1), , (vs, ws). G1,
(vi,wi), i = 1, s . G - , . 1 G1 ,
. s
P1, , Ps, . , . t t < s P1, , Pt,
G.
, , 2s , G , s
.

.
5. G - . G.
, , :
1) ( , );
2) , , , .
, . v, u, v u.
v u, , G1 v u. 2 G1 v u. u G1,
u G2 82

, , . ( v = u, , ,
u). , . , G
, ,
u, ,
, , 2).
.
= {0, 1, , m-1} - m . , mn
n .
a0 a1 aL-1 , , ai ai+1 ai+n-1
i = 0, , L-1 L = mn n.
m = 2.
. .
.

n = 1, m = 2

01

n = 2, m = 2

0011

n = 3, m = 2

00010111

00011101

Gm,n(V,E) :
1) V mn-1 n-1 .
2) E mn n .
3) (a1, a2, , an) (a1, , an-1) (a2, , an).
G2,3 :

83

,
Gm,n, . , Gm,n,
, ,
.
. G2,3
000, 001, 011, 111, 110, 101, 010, 100

00011101
6. m n Gm,n
.
, Gm,n ,
. , b1, , bn-1 c1, , cn-1 .
(b1, b2, , bn-1, c1), (b2, , bn-1, c1, c2), , (bn-1, c1, , cn- 1).
di(v) = d0(v) = m v.
, v = (b1, b2, , bn-1) :
(b1, b2, , bn-1, c)
(c, b1, , bn-1), c A.
3 Gm,n .
. m, n .
.
7. m, n

(m!) m
mn

n1

84

3. .
, . ,
, , . , , . , ,
. : G , . , .
1. G(V,E) n (n 3)
d(v)

n
v V. G .
2
. G -

, , G. G(V,E) k
, k > 0, .
v1, w, v2 , , v1 G, vi V, w - . ,
v2 v1 G, w, k. ,
v2 v2, v1- v1. v2 v1 . , v1, w, v2, , v1, v2, , v1
v1, v1, , v2, v2, , v1 w. ,
G, v2, , v1,
, v1, , v2. , v1, ,

n
+ k, v2.
2

, G ,
v2, , , n + k , 2(

n
+ k) = n + 2k. 2

,
k = 0, .. .
.
85

1. Kn .
2. Bn .
3. (Sn) - n!
. s1 s2 ,
, s1 s2. (Sn) .
(S3) :
1

2
3

,
. .
(Sn). . Ln - 1, 2, , n. Ln(i) (1 i n+1)
1, , i-1, i+1, , n+1, : Ln(n+1) = Ln Ln(i),
(1 i n) Ln(i+1) i i+1.

Ln+1= Ln(n+1) (n+1), L n(n) n, Ln(n-1) (n-1), L n(n-2) (n-2), (4)
, Ln(i) i Ln(i)
i. L n(i) - Ln(i), . n,
.
.

n=3

:
L2(3) :

(12) (21)

L2(2) :

(13) (31)

L2(1) :

(23) (32)
86

L3 = L2(3) 3, L 2(2) 2, L2(1) 1 =


= (123) (213) (312) (132) (231) (321) .
" " .
G(n) V = {1, 2, ..., n}.
P , G(n) .
Gp(n) G(n), P.
, P,

| Gp ( n)|

lim

| G( n)|

=1

P,

lim

| Gp ( n)|

| G( n)|

=0

.
. .
 G1(n) , G(n) ,
G2(n) , .
G1(n) G2(n), .. G2 .
, G2(n) G(n 1)
.

| G( n 1)| = 2
| G2 ( n)| 2
| G( n)| = 2

n1

n1

=2

n
n+ 1
2

n

2

,
|G2(n)| = 0(|G(n)|)

|G1(n)| = 0(|G(n)|)

. 
.
. .
. 2.
. .
87

.
.

88

4. .
G(V,E) - s t. (
) s t. ,
.

1) s 0. i = 0.
2) , , i. , t s, . , i+1.
3) t , 4). , i
1 2).
4) s t i+1, .
.
1. v G(V,E) l (v)
, s v l (v).
i. , i = 0, l (v) = 0 v = s . , v,
l (v) m. u , s u,
m+1. u , , , - ,
m+1 , - , m s , ,
s u m+1. u a ,
m, , , m+1 s u,
m.
.
1. G s t, ,
, s.
2. G s t, , , 2) : 2) , , ,
i. l (t) s t, , l (v).
v(0), v(1), , v( l (t)) , v(0) = s, v( l (t)) = t.
89

.
1) i = l (t) v(i) = t.
2) u , u v(i) l (u) = i-1.
v(i-1) = u.
3) i = 1, . , i 1 2).

.
G(V,E), V= n , .. (nn) -
A = (aij), i, j = 1, , n,
1, i , j c

aij =

0, .

( l)

2. l = (a ij ), i , j = 1, , n, l - .
( l)

a ij l , i j.
l = 1 . l -1 .
l = l1 * A.
( l)

( l1)

a ij = a i1
(l 1)

a ik

(l1)

a1j + a i2

(l1)

a2j + + a in

anj .

akj 0 ,
( l1)

( l -1) i k, k j . a ik
( l1)

l -1 i k. a ik

akj, - l i j, ,

k - j. k,
l .

90

5. .
1. G(V, E), , .
.
1. G(V, E) n .
.
1) G ;
2) G n - 1 ;
3) G n - 1;
4) G , ;
5) G ;
6) G , .
n = 1 , n 2. 1) 2). G . l = (v1, v2) . G. G v1 v2 , .. , G
. G . , n1 n2 (n1 + n2 = n) .
G

n1 - 1 + n2 -1 . , G

n - 1 .
2) 3). G ,
. , . ,
, , G n - 1.
3) 4). n n-2 ,
2 1.
4) 5). G, .
, , .
.
5) 6). G , . G l = (v1, v2).
, .. v1 v2 . , .

91

6) 1). G , ,
, .
. 1.
, v1, , vn - ,
n

i=1 d(v i ) = 2(n 1)


d(vi) 1 , .
2. G(V, E) .
G(V, E) - V V E E, , e E V.
G(V, E) - ,

E V V, E. () G(V, E) V, .
2. G(V, E) , . . , G
, .
. , , G - .
, .
, .

. G(V, E) e
l (e), . G(V, E), , V = V,
M(G) =

l(e )

e E

.
, G(V, E) . , G(V, E)
, G(V, E).

92

3. V - G(V, E) e , l (e) , V.
G(V, E), e.
- G(V, E). e , e . T - , , . e, V, .
l (e) l (e), .
,
.
4. G(V, E) n . .
1) e1, G .
2) e2, , en-1 () ,
, ,
. G, e1, , en-1, .
n - 1 , - ,
1. , . ,
G , , M() < M(). ek () , .
ek - , ek. e, . e ek.
.

l (ek)

l (e), M() M(). ,


. , ,
. , M() M(), . .
, , n
, , ,
. ,
, ,
, , -
93

. 4. ,
,
.
3.

. . G(V, E) , V = {v1, , vn}, E = {e1, , em}. G :
A = (aij), i = 1, , n, j = 1, , m,
aij =

+ 1, vi ej ;
- 1, vi ej ;
0 , vi ej .

i1
, A
j1

i 2 ... i p
, j2 ... j p

i1, , ip j1, , jp .
5. + 1, - 1 0.
, +1
i1
-1, 0. A
j1

i 2 ... i p
.
j2 ... j p

, . ,
(+ 1 - 1), ,
.. p = 1.
+ 1 - 1,
, , .
i
6. A 1
j1

i 2 ... i n 1

j2 ... j n 1

G(V, E) (.. + 1 - 1) , ~

G , E = { e j1 ,K , e jn1 }
.

94

G . ,
~

n - 1, 1 G . ,
~

G , .
~

. , G . n = 2, G .
21, + 1 - 1. ~

, G k - 1 , ,
~

G k . E ={ e j1 , e j2 ,K , e jk1 }-
, {v i1 , v i 2 ,K , v i k1 , v i k } - . 2 , k - 1 v i1 , v i 2 ,K , v i k1 , vt. t. , , (+ 1 - 1) k - 2 . ,
~

, , G , G vt , .
.
- .
- (n m)- B - (m n)- , n m.

det(AB) =

1
A
1 j 1< j2 <K< jn m j1

j2

... n j1
B
... j n 1

j2
2

... j n

... n

.
7. - ((n - 1) m)-,
G(V, E) . det()
. ( - ).
-
det() =

1
M
j1
1 j 1< j2 <K< jn1 m

1
=
M

1 j 1< j2 <K< jn1 m j1

2
j2

2
j2

... n 1 j1
M
... j n1 1

... n 1

... j n1

j2
2

... j n1
=
... n 1

95


1
M
j1

... n 1
j1
= M
j2 ... j n 1
1
2

j2 ... j n 1

2 ... n 1

, 6 ,
E = { e j 1 , e j2 ,K , e j n 1 } ,
1
M
j1

2
j2

... n 1
= 1. ... j n 1

. , , 1, , 0.
G(V, E), , .
, G(V, E).
V = {v1, v2, ... , vn}.
vn . , ()ii - vi , ()ij
i j- , vi vj , .
. G:

2 1 0

= 1 2 1

0 1 2

det() = 4.
n
. .
8. n
nn-2 .
:

96

n 1 1

1 n 1

1
1

... 1

... 1

...

... n 1


n 1 n

n
1

0
1

... n

... 0

...

... n

,
1 0 ... 0

1 n ... 0

...

1 0 ... n
, nn-2.
4. , I. Sn - n, n -
. , G G G,
, , G.
, Rn Tn
Sn? Rn = {t1, ... , tr} . Rn
(Rn), :
(Rn) 1, 2, , n. ti Rn,
ti = (p, q) (Rn) , p q.
9. Rn = {t1, , tr}, (r n - 1)
Sn, (Rn)
.
1. n - 1 Rn Sn
, (Rn) .

97

2. Sn,
n - 1 , nn-2.

98

6.
1. , . ,
, , , .
, , , . . ,
K2, 3, K4. K3, 3, K5.
, K3, 3, K5 . , ,
.
1. .
R3.
2. R3.
 G . , , |E|
. (u, v) ,
u, v. ,
. 
2. G . : u v ,
, , , .
.
.
.
. 4 .

4
2

99

G = (V, E) , , n = |V|, m = |E|, f .


3 (). G
n m+f = 2
 m n. G ,
m n 1. m = n 1. G . G f = 1 .
m, , n 1 m < m1. m1.
G , n m1 , f .
m1 > n 1, G . ,
. . G.
, G11 G , , .
G1 n , m1 1 , f 1 .
n (m1 1)+(f 1) = 2
n m1+f = 2, . 
,
f = m n+2
3.
.
G . k , k
.
,
0 = 1 = 2 = 0.
:
f = 3+4+ ...
2m = 33+41+...
, , , .
3, 3. n = 6, m = 9. K3, 3 .
f = 9 6+2 = 5 .
100

K3, 3 3, 3 = 0. ,

5 = 4+5+ ...
18 = 44+55+ ...
(.. k 0), 2 0 .
5. n = 5, m = 10. 5 , f = 10 5+2 = 7. ,
7 = 4+5+ ...
20 = 44+55+ ...
, 1 0 .
, 4 (
) .
4. . -.
. e = (u, v)
e1 = (u, w) e2 = (w, v), w . ,
.

(-). ,
, 3, 3 5.
5. ,
. G t(G) , G. ,
1.
:
n + 7
t( Kn ) =
6
n + 1
t( E n ) =
4
mn

t( Km,n ) =

2(m + n 2)
[x], ]x[ , [x] x ]x[.
101

G (G),
, G. , G (G) = 0
.
.
( E n ) = 1 + ( n 4 ) 2 n 3
( n 3)( n 4 )
( Kn ) =

12

( m 2 )( n 2 )
( Km,n ) =

102

7.
G = (V, E) . {1, 2, ..., k} "".
f: V {1, 2, ..., k} k- G. -
,
(v1, v2)

(v1, v2) E f(v1) f(v2).

.. . G k, k-. k,
G k-,
G (: x(G)). x(G) = k, G k-.
, (
, .).
, n G, ,
x(G) = n. Kn. , x(Kn) = n.
, 1- , . 2- .
k- k 3.
. ,
.
1. p G = (V, E).

x(G) p+1
 n = |V|. v V . G,
, p. G n 1 G
(p+1)-, (p+1)-. (p+1) G : v , , ,
p. 
( ).
2. 6-.
 , G = (V, E)
2m 3f 0.
103

:
f = 3+4+ ...
2m = 33+44+ ...
n m+f = 2. 3n
m 6.
,
5.
, , 6.

deg(v) = 2m , , 2m 6n m 3n.
.
n = |V|.
G = (V, E) |V| < n0 .
G |V| = n0. , G v 5. v
G n0 1 , .
x(G) G. v1, ..., vk G, v.
k 5. G v , v1, ..., vk. , x(G) G. 
, , x(G) 5
. 4 . 1878
, x(G) = 4.
1978 . . .

104

8. .
,
. - , , , ..,
.
.
.
v1

4
v

1
2

w
4

v2
4

. 1.
v w .
. 1 , . v , ,
.
N , e (e), . , N (, ), - - , , . v N
(v, x). . ,
.
, v, , , . .
105

N = (, ). , e (e),
e, :
1) (e) (e) e.
2) (, ) , . ,
( ) . ,
, , ,
. .
, , . , . 2 , 6.
. 2 .

v1
3
v

0
2

v2

2
1

2
1

w
4

v3

N = (,) , ,
v . .
,
. , . 1 (v1, ), (v3, ) . 6, .. . e, (e) = (e), . ,
(e) = 0 e, .
,
, ,
. , .
, -.
106

1. .
, , ,
, . , - . V W : G - .
z N V , G v z: v = v0, v1, , vm-1, vm = z, ,
{vi, vi+1} (vi, vi+1),
(vi+1, vi) , . , V v. W V
N. , W w. , w V. v, v1, , vm-1, w ,
{vi, vi+1} (vi, vi+1), (vi+1, vi)
. , :
)
.
)
.
, ,
,
+ . . w
W.
R (x, y), x V, y W. ,
R . , (x, y) R ,
y V.
R , , . R .

. . .

107

1. - . , . .
2. , .. , v w . , v w, .
, .
3. . .
3.1. v o. vi ,
+ i , vi ,
- i , vi .
3.2. , w ,
, v w, .
1, ,
1 , .
, 1. 3.1. 3.2. ,
w .
, w ,
. , V , W - ,
x V, w W, R (x, y), x V, y W .
(x, y) , y . - . .
G(V, E) M E, , .
,
. ,
. H = (V1, V2, E) - .
, V1 I V2 = e E (x, y), x V1, y V2.
108

S(H) :
1. s () t ().
2. s x V1 y
V2 t.
3. e E , e=(x,y) x y.
4. 1.
, S(H) .
2. H S(H), k
k, :
M = {(x1, y1), , (xk, yk)}
k

(s, xi) = (xi, yi) = (yi, t) = 1


k
(e) = 0

(1)

M= {(x, y)},
x V1, y V2
k (x, y) = 1

(2)

M = {(x1, y1), , (xk, yk)} - k.


x1, , xk y1, , yk . , , (1), s t. ,
. , - S(H), ,
( , ) x V1 , .. , x - (s, x) ,
1. , , (2) (x, y1),
(x, y2),
y1 y2 . (x1, y), (x2, y), x1 x2 . , - H. , , (1) (2), .
, .

109

110

.
1. , (n > 2) ,
n 1

, .
2
2. , G , G .
3. , m, n m,n ( m n ), n ( n ), n ( )
.
4. , n , n,n , n .
5. n , n 2 .
6. n = 3.
7.
6
a1
3
s

b1
7

a2

2
b2

5
a3

6
b3

111


[1]

. . . ., , 1970.

[2]

.. , ., , 1966.

[3]

.. . ., , 1985.

[4]

. . ., , 1982.

[5]

. , ., , 1988.

[6]

. . ., , 1968.

[7]

. . ., , 1973.

[8]

.., .. , ., , 1963.

[9]

. , ., 1977.

[10]

. . ., 1975.

[11]

. . . ..,
., 1982

[12]

.., .. , ., , 1992.

112

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