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2

1.
1.1.
1.1.1.
1.1.2.
1.1.3.
1.1.4.
1.2.
1.2.1.
1.2.2.
1.2.3.
1.2.4.
1.2.5.
1.2.6.
1.2.7.
1.2.8. ()
1.2.9.
1.2.10.
1.3. 1
2.
2.1.
2.2.
2.2.1.
2.2.2. - -
2.2.3. E0
2.3.
2.3.1.
2.3.2.
2.3.3. 1. 1
2.3.4.
2.3.5. -30
2.3.6.
2.3.7. 2
2.3.8. 3
2.3.9. 4
2.4.
2.4.1.
2.4.2.
2.5. OSI PDH
2.6. PDH
2.7. 2
3.
3.1. SDH
3.1.1. PDH

3.1.2. SDH
3.1.3. PDH SDH
3.1.4.
3.2. SDH
3.2.1. STM-1
3.2.2. STM-1
3.2.3. STM-N
3.2.4. 1 STM-1
3.2.5. AU
3.2.6.
3.2.7. TUG
3.3.
3.3.1.
3.3.2. SOH
3.3.3. VC-3 VC-4
3.3.4. VC-1x VC-2
3.4.
3.4.1.
3.4.2.
3.4.3.
3.4.4.
3.4.5.
3.5. SDH
3.5.1. STM
3.5.2. SDH
3.6. SDH
3.6.1.
3.6.2. BIP-N
3.6.3.
3.7. SDH
3.7.1.
3.7.2.
3.7.3. AIS
3.8. SDH
3.8.1. SDH
3.8.2. - SDH
3.8.3. SDH
3.9. SDH
3.10. SDH
3.11.
3.11.1. SNCP-
3.11.2. MSP-
3.12. 3

1.
1.1.
,
, .. .
. , , . .
()
.
,
.
, ,
.
,
.
1.1.1.
()
().
, . , . , .
( ),
300...3400 , .

, 12 . ,
.
. 1.1
.

5
-1

a1(t)

a2(t)
-2

.
.
.

-N

S1(t)

S2(t)

S(t)

.
.
.

aN(t)

S N( t )

S ( t )

S1(t)

S2(t)

S ( t )

.
.
.

S N( t )

a1(t)

a2(t)

-1

-2

.
.
.

aN(t)

-N

. 1.1.

1(t), 2(t),...,N(t)
() 1, 2, ..., N
S1(t), S2(t),...,SN(t). S(t). , S(t) S(t), . , .
S(t)
s(t). 1, 2, ..., N
S(t) S1(t), S2(t), ...,SN(t)
1(t), a2(t), ..., aN(t).

. , ( ),

.
K
SK(t) K(t) SK(t) S(t). , , .
, ,
.
.
, ,
. , , . . : , , .
1.1.2.
. 1.2.


-1

-2
.
.
.

2
.
.
.

-N

.
.
.
N

-1

-2

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

-N

. 1.2.

() Frequency Division Multiply Access


(FDMA).
() , G1(), G2(), ...,
GN() . 1, 2, ..., N .
1, 2, ..., N g()
1, 2, ..., N,
1, 2, ..., N.
,
2(+1), .. . ,
- ( ), .. = = N.

,
(. 1.3).

.
.

gN ()

GN ( )

N
g2 ()

G2 ()

2
g1 ()

G1 ()

N +

2+

1 +

g ()

= N

K 2 ()

g' 2 ()

G' 2 ()

2 +

2 +

. 1.3.

, .
, 1, ...,
.
g1(), g2(),..., gN() ()
g() (). g() 0 , , .. s(t) s(t). .

( ),
g(). 1, 2,...,N , . , g() G(),
.
. , .
,
.
, .
, ; .
.
.
,
. ,
.

(. 1.4).
g ()


. 1.4.

, , 4 , 300
3400 , .. 3,1 . 0,9 , .
, 80%
. ,
.

10

1.1.3.
() , (. 1.5).

1
2

1
()

.
.
.

.
.
.

N
. 1.5.

Time Division Multiply Access (TDMA).


( ). 1- ,
.. N, 1 .
,
.
/.
,

. .
. 1.6
u1(t), u2(t) u3(t) -.
- . ()
N
.

11
U1(t)

U2(t)

t
U(t)

t
U(t)

. 1.6.


T - (Time Slot).
. T ,
, .. .
, ,
, .
, , - , .
, . , .
,
.

12


. ,
.
, . ,
F = 3100 ; ,
f0 = 1/ = 2F = 6200 .
: f0 = 8 .
,
( ) t = T0/N = 1/(2NF) = 1/(2F),
F=FN,
.
,
.

, , .
, ,
,
,
.
1.1.4.
, , .
. , , ,
, .
, , , .
,
1, 2, ..., N s(t) = c11 + c2t +...+ cNtN-1.
, , ,
cktk-1 . , , t
,
.

,

13

, .
, ,
. ().
, F
.
.
( ) () ( -), N
0 .
=/0=N.
(
) , , . / .
Code Division Multiply Access
(CDMA).
1.2.
1.2.1.

( )
, Ui (t).
f1, , fN (. 1.7) 1, , N
,
(. 1.8). 0,3 3,4 . .
S1(), , SN().

1, , N.

14
1
0,3

3,4

0,3

3,4

1
f1

f1

.
.
.

.
.
.

N
0,3

3,4

0,3

3,4

N
fN

fN

. 1.7.

f1

1
f2

. . .

fN

SN(f)

S2(f)

S1(f)

. . .
0 0,3
3,4
f,
FN
F2
F1
. 1.8.

1.2.2.
(),
- .
, .
. , ,
, .

. ,
(-) Ucost, () Ucost, -

U(t) = U(1+m cos t) cos t,

15

m= U / U .
U(t) ,
U(t)= U cos t + (m/2) U cos [( )t ] + (m/2) U cos [(+ )t ].

U =

max

i = min

cos i t .

-
,
= max min (. 1.9). ( + i)
, ( i) .
.
U

min max

. 1.9. -

, , ,
2 , () . , . , .
() .
(. 1.10),
,
= 2f , ( )
.
, . - 2
, . ,

4 ,
8 .

16
U

f
f - F

f + F

f
f - F

f + F

f + F
f

Fmin

Fmax

. 1.10.



. . .
1.2.3.
,
6570 min max, (. . 1.9)
1 = / = F / f=2Fmin / f.
F = 20,3 = 0,6 . , , LC , (0,025 0,03).
, ,
. , , . , ,
, [1].
(. 1.11) () . ( + min)
( + max) ( max) ( min), ,
.
1=2min/1 .
1

. 1.11.

17

2 2+(1+min)
+2+(1+max).
2=2(1+min)/2.
,
,
2 2 , . 1 1.
,
,
, .
, ,
. N-
Nn, n .
,
, . N m k , ..
km=N.
1, 2,..., k (. 1.12).
, (1+min) (k+max). 1,
2, ..., m,
N 1 (+max) m (1+min).
.
N+mn, k+mn,
n .

18
1

1
2

k
1

1
2

k
1

1
2

k
. 1.12.

,
, ..
.
.
,
. -
.
12- ,
60108 ().
. -

19

.
.
.

64, 68, 72, , 108


(.1.13).
.

0,3 ... 3,4

1
108

2
.
.
.

12

60 108

64

11
.
.
.

104

68

12

104
108

64

. 1.13.

LC-
(.1.14) , 1224 , . .

.

20

1
12

12..24

16

0,3 ... 3,4

3
20
4
5
6

12..24

84..96
108

7
8
9

12..24

72..84

60..108

96
10
11
12

12..24

60..72
84

. 1.14.

60- (),
312552 (.1.15). , ,
0,33,4 . ,
,
.
.
300
() 8122044 . [1364+(n1)248] , n .
8 , .

21

1
420

0,3 ... 3,4

468

312..552

516

4
564

5
612

. 1.15.

, 60 ,
900- 1800- , 851612388
8128544 . 900 , , 15 ,
3124028 .
, , , , .
.
. , .
:
12..24 ;
60..108 12 ;
312..552 60 ;
812..2044 300 .

( ).

22

1.2.4.
.
, , ,
.
12 0,33,4
60108
. (), . -60,
.
-300,
25 . .

. ,
() , . 60108 312552 . (),
15 .
. () (312552 )
(8122044 ) .
.
, , , -
. ,

( ).
. .

, ,
.

23


,
, , .
, . . , .
.

, ,
.
, ().

(), .
, , ,
. (. 1.19).

,
.
, ,
, (. 1.16).
6570 .
, , , .
(), : (),
(), (), , kf0, pf0, gf0, , .

24

gf0
m

n
pf0

kf0
. 1.16.

-
, 1 . ,
. , , ,
50 .
100%-
, , , .
1.2.5.

,
, (), , () () , (. 1.17).

()

()
()
. 1.17.

()

() .

(, ).
() () - , .
. ,

25

P = 1 ,
P = 0,001 . ,
amax = 10lg(P/P) = 10lg(1/0.001) =
30 . amax ,
l = amax/.

. .
(. 1.18).
.


. 1.18.


, () - . ,
.
() ( )
. , () , . () .
() ,
.

l1, l2 li ,
( ), (. . 1.19).
, ,
(), .
(), (),

26

(), (), () .. ,
, .
(t)

U(t)

U(t)
CC

fi

l2

CC

l1

CC

CC

l2

l3

CC

l2

(t)
U(t)

. 1.19.

U . , , ( ) ,
fi
() . U(t)
, () Z. , , ,
. U(t)
.
, (Z)
, (Z)
(. 1.20). ,
(), () .
. 1.19 .

, ,

. 1.20.

27

.
l1 ,
, , .
. 1.19, , ,
. ()
, .
, U.
U. U = 0,5U. ,
.
, ,
, ,
. U(t).
, . .
()

[1].
1
(. . 1.19). 1 1
. : 1= . 1
2+S1. 1 l1 ;
; S1 .
1 S1 , . , S1
, .. ,
.
,
.


fi.
, .. , ,
.

28

, , (),
.
: ,
.
(.1.21). ( ) (), ( ), , ,
U U. U= U, : = . , . , , < .
: U < U.
U U = U, . ,
= . ,
, = .

fi

U
U

. 1.21.

29

1.2.6.
:
. ,
(. 1.22, ).
; 1,2 (). ..
,
. . , , , , ..
.
.
(. 1.22, ). . f1f1,
f2f2. : . f1f1
f2f2, f2f2
f1f1. (60
). .
, .

.
. .

. . .

)
f1 f1

f1 f1

f1 f1

f2 f2

f2 f2

f2 f2

. 1.22. ()
()

30

,
(. 1.23).
(S- S-).
S-

4-

1
4

S-

. 1.23.


(). 1-1 .
, . 1.23.

= 1-2 S- (-) + a4-1. , 1-2 a4-1 .
-
(). , , , .
, , 4-4 2-2 , a.
, ,
a = a1 + a2 S- S- .
a 0, .
(),
(. 1.24) ( ).
Z3, .
.

31

I
1

2
3

II III

Z
1

Z3
3
4

4
. 1.24.

. .
4-4 2-2 Z=Z3.
1-1 3-3 Z..=Z4.
, 1-1 4-4,
2-2 1-1 , , 4-1 = 1-2 = 10lg2 = 3.
.
.
.
, .
. ( )

600 1 . 20..40 .
1.2.7.
, , ,
.., ,

32

, . (
). ( ).

1 , 600 . ( ).
U 2
3
P0 = 10 ; P0 = U I =
= I 2 R .
R
R=600 :
P
U = P0 R 0,775B ; I = 0 = 1,29 .
R
( ) ( ),
.
P0, U0, I0 ,
.
, P (. 1.25),
U x2
Zx

Z
U 2 Z0
U
Z
P = 10 lg 2 = 10 lg x
= 20 lg x 10 lg x = P 10 lg x , .. P P

U0

U
Z
Z
U 2 Zx
0
0
0
0
Z0

P 10 lg

Z
Z

x
0

, .. P P ,

P P P P .

,
, - ,
.

, .

Px , Ux , Ix

Px , Ux , Ix

. 1.25.

,
- .

33

, P0 = 1, U0 = 0,775, I0 = 1,29.
P
U
I
P = 10 lg x ; P = 20 lg x ; P = 20 lg x .
P0
U0
I0
R = 600 ,
P = P = P.
[2]:
1 ( [dBm]).
1
(0 [dBm0]).
0,775 ( [dBu]).
0,775 (0 [dBu0]).

1.2.8. ()
, . .. .
, . . 1.26

.
0

20
40
60
80
100
0,01

0,1

10

f,

. 1.26.

( ) ,
.

= 10 lg = 2,5 (1,78 ) .

34

.
, 50% , 50% , 1 1 3 1012 .
,
. - (
) ,

.. = 1 (.. 10 lg =0), () 0
:
P = 10000 = 10 8 ;
P = 100000 = 10 7 ;
P = 10 6 .
,

50000 ,
P 87000 = 0,087 .
.

P = 32 (P = 2220 = 2,22 ).

P
0,087
3
C = F log 2 1 + . = 3100 log 2 1 +
= 25 10 / ,
P
3200

F ; P
.
.. 12500 5 , P
50000
P =
= 10000 .
5
2500 , 7500 .
12500
( 5-) l1 =
= 2500 , 1
5

7500
P 1 =
= 3 .
2500

() , . (12500 )
P = 25000 , 12500 , 12500 . P = 1 .

1
( 0 [dBm0p]).

35

1.2.9.
. ()

, , .
.
() .
3,5 .
- . - , 43 15.04.96.
()
: 0 ,
3,5 ,
13 , 4,3 , 3,5 7 (. 1.27).
13

3,5

+4,3

3,5


+4,3
13
. 1.27.

Z Z 600 . Z = [(Z Z)/(Z + Z)] () =20lg[(Z + Z)/(Z Z)], Z


. 10%.
. , : a = a S.
7 .
2,2 0,95.

P
a = 10lg .
P

36

. , .

Pmax
.
Pmin
D = 3545, D = 40.
D = 10lg

, (0,3 3,4 ) 8,7


800 .
7 , .. 12 (. 1.28).
a
8,7

4,3
2,2

0,3 0,4

0,6

0,8

2,4

3,0

3,4

f,

2,2
. 1.28.

. .. , .
()
1900 2500 (. 1.29).

37


2,5
2
1,5
1
0,5
0,4

0,8

1,4
2,4
3
3,3
2
. 1.29.

f,


1,5% (1% ) 800 .
:
0,3 17,5 3,5
0,3...3,4 . 8,7 20 1,75 7,8 .
. , , ,
7 .
() 2500 1,1
(10000 ).

1.2.10.

-1920. 1920 300
() (). 6 2 312...8524 . 5 , 273...8491 . 12500 , 1500 . . .
40 . 6 0,15 .
-3600. 360 1800 ,
. 812...17596 .

38

12500 . . . 61 .
30,15 .
-10800 -5400. 4..60 . , 1,5 , , -10800. -5400 4..32
, 3 0,15
. -5400
, -1920 -3600.

VLT-1920, -960. -1020
-3600
.

-300. -4 . 600 . 5 60...1300 .
12500 ,

.
-120 -420. , . 60...552 , 812...1304 . -420 , -120.
300 .
-60 -1020. (). -60 . 12...252
. -60. -1020.
312...4636
.


. ,
, .
, .
. 30 . .
80

39

. 15 , .
-6 -12.
.
. 105 120
.
-3-3 -12-3. .
.
150 .
. . 28
64 .

40

1.3. 1
1. ? , ?
2. ,
?
3. ?
4.
.
5. ?
6. ?
7.
?
8.
?
9. ,
, .
S-

4-

1
4

S-

10. , ,
?
11. .
12.
?

41

2.
2.1.

, . .
.
()
,
.
.
. , . ,
100 .
().
( , .) .
, , . .
.

. , ,
, ,
64 /,
33,6 /.
. , , . , , .
- .

. , , -

42

. ,
.
G.
2.2.
2.2.1.
, , ..
.
, , .
.
0,3 3,4 + 0,9 ( ), ..
f = 4 . f = 2f = 8 . 8 , ,
f 8 = 80008 = 64 /. .
, . .. , , .
. ,
.
i- i.
U Ui i/2 U Ui i/2, i- Ui.
: (. 2.1). U U U. U>U
, U. , . ,
.

43

p(U)

U
U

P
P

. 2.1.


p(U).

P =

p(U

)(U + U ) dU +
2

p(U

)(U U ) 2 dU .

U
.
.

P =

p(U

)(U U ) 2 dU .

(
) , i- p(U) () pi(U).

M

P = pi
i

i2
,
12

pi i- .
,
i ,

pi = 1, P =

2
. 12

44

, .
. ,

= 10lgP/P = pc p ,
( ) .
, , , .. . 2 4 , . U>U pc>p .
m,
. N = 2m.
. ,
,
. .
, .
. 2.2 . P , , , . , .

45

U
U

U
P

. 2.2.

D
.

2.2.2. - -

= / = 32,5 .
i = u 12 100,05 .

( ).
.
,
, ( )
. , . /
, . / () ln(x) .
( ) [1].

46

-:
= sgn (x)[z(x)/(1+lnA)],
= 87,6, =u/U , z=Ax 0 1/ z=1+lnx (1/) 1.
.
- 2/4096 = 1/2048,
i

dx
dy

X =Xi

2
.
M

- (D1 = 100 D2
= 255).
y = sgn(x)[ln(1+
|x|)/ln(1+
)].
- 2 / 8159.
:
U

ln
+ 1
U
U = U sgn(U )
,
ln(1 + )

U / U
1
, 0< x <

A .
1 + ln A
U =
1 + ln( AU / U )
1

,
< x <1

1 + ln A
A
1,5 ( 8
) , 1,5 .
x < 1/
=

2(1 + ln A)
(.. AM

). x > 1/ .
, Pc/P -
, -.
- - . - ,
(.2.3). . ,
y . - 15
(8 8 ). ( )
,
15 . - 8
,
. 13 . -

47

Umax 1, 1/128, 1/64, 1/16, 1/4, 1/2.


U
8
7
6
y

5
4
3
2
1

U
1/8 1/4

1/2

1/16
1/32
1/64
1/128

. 2.3. -

-


20 lg
30 ( = 255), - 20 lg 1 + 24 .

1 +

- - G.711. -.
-.
, , ( 01 ) , 2. , . - .

0
1
2
3
4

(P XYZ ABCD)
P 000 ABCD
P 001 ABCD
P 010 ABCD
P 011 ABCD
P 100 ABCD



0 1/128
1/128 1/64
1/64 1/32
1/32 1/16
1/16 1/8

U
1/2048
1/2048
1/1024
1/512
1/256

48

5
6
7

1/8 1/4
1/4 1/2
1/2 1

P 101 ABCD
P 110 ABCD
P 111 ABCD

1/128
1/64
1/32

P ABCD,
P=1 ,
P=0 ,
,
ABCD , ,
.. .
8 .
.
. 12 . 12- 8.
, , .., .. , 50% .

(. 2.4).

. 2.4.

, ,
. . .
, ,
PXYZABCD, (1 , 0
); XYZ Nc; ABCD N.

49

, . :
1. ( 1).
2. XYZ ( 24).
3. ABCD ( 58).
. , =1,
=0.
. ,
(N = 47), =1, . ,
(N = 03) =0, .
Y. ,
. =1, , .
,
(N = 6, 7), Y=1, . , Y=0. =0,
, . , , Y=1.
,
Y=0.
Z.
X, Y
, .

PXYZ , ,
.

ABCD , , . ,
,
, , .
12-
8- .

50

12-

8-
XYZ
P 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A B C D P 0 0 0 A B C D
0
P 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 A B C D P 0 0 1 A B C D
1
P 0 0 0 0 0 1 A B C D x P 0 1 0 A B C D
2
P 0 0 0 0 1 A B C D x x P 0 1 1 A B C D
3
P 0 0 0 1 A B C D x x x P 1 0 0 A B C D
4
P 0 0 1 A B C D x x x x P 1 0 1 A B C D
5
P 0 1 A B C D x x x x x P 1 1 0 A B C D
6
P 1 A B C D x x x x x x P 1 1 1 A B C D
7
() . XYZ, N, (l) 12-
ABCD ( XYZ l). XYZ 8- ABCD
, 12- , .
2.2.3. E0
, , , . ,
, .
.
- (. 2.5).
(. . 1.28), ,
.
(. 2.6).

51

a
0,9

0,45
0,25

0,2 0,3

2,4

3,4 3,6

3,0

f,

0,25
. 2.5.


0,6

0,1
0,6
1
2,6
f,
. 2.6.

, . - () (. 2.7).

35
30
25
20
15
10
5

33
27
22

-5

-10

-15

-20

-25

-30

-35

-40

-45

. 2.7. /

52

2.3.
2.3.1.
, . , , , .
, ,
; .
..
ITU-T : () ().
64 /, ().
.

, .

.
.
.

/
/
.
.
/
.
0
0,064

0,064

0,064

1
2,048
30
1,544
24
1,544
24
2
8,448
4
6,312
4
6,312
4
3
34,368
4
44,736
7
32,064
5
4
139,264
4

97,728
3
.
T (
DS), . 1 E1, 2 2 .. ITU-T
G.703 2001 . :

/
0,064
0
1,544
11
2,048
12
6,312
21
8,448
22
32,064

53

34,368
31
44,736
32
139,264
4
. .
, , , .
. ,
.

. 2.8. , . (
2 /, . 2.8)
.
34 /

140

140

140

34

34

8 /
34

34
2 /

140

/ 2 /
. 2.8.

. ( - ). . , -30, -120 ..
2.3.2.
, () . :

54


, ,
F.
:
1) : (. 2.9);

. 2.9.

2) : () () (. 2.10);



. 2.10.

3) ( ):
(. 2.11);

. 2.11.


.
. -

55

().
(),
.

, ( 0011011 -30).
:

;
, ..
;

.
,
.
(
), .. ,
, .. , , , , . , ,
, ,
. , ( ).

. .
0 1. , d , :
0111
...
1
424
31 011...1
d

1 0;
111
12...
31 d ;
d

010101 d/2 ;
0011011 .
<500 (),
.

( d ).
, -

56

( 1 100
). .
, ,
.

, , , .
,
:
;
; ;
.
, (. 2.12).



n2



n1

. 2.12.

, , ,
.
, ,
, , ( ).
(
), , , ..
.

57

( ) , 1 .
, .
,
( n1 n2).
,
1,
, ,
. n1 23 .
, , , -
.
n2 46 .
.
, ,
1 ,
.
. , , ,
, .. .
, ,
, ,
. , . ,
n2 , ..
, . , . ,
.

. . -

58

2 , , (n2 1)- , ..
1. ( , ), , 2
. , .
, , . n1
, ,
, 2 , .. .
, :
, .
,

t = t + t + t , t ; t ; t
.

.
-,
, .. t ,
t.
-,
(n1 n2) ,
. ( ),
.
, .
,
.
, . 2.12, ,
.
, .. , . ,
.
, (n1
n2) ,
.

59

,
.
.
,
,
() ( 0).
.
, ..
,
.. .

() . ,
( , , , .)
, ,
() .
.
, .. , .. .

.


(),
()
F, (),
, F: () ()
(. 2.13).

. . .

. 2.13.

60

F
4F
F
2F
3F
. 2.14.

, , , , - , (. 2.14). , :
-
( ).
,
(
).


.
.
, .

.
:
, ( 105106); ,
; ,
, .
,
, ,
, .

61

2.3.3. 1. 1
3 1:
( , ;
2048K/); ;
( ,
() ) 31;
( , ) -30.
-30 (. 2.15). 1 ITU-T G.704. 30- [1].


= 2

0

14 15

= 125

14 15 16 17

0 1 2

28 29 30 31

= 3,906
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0/1 0 0 1 1 0
1

8
1

.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1
= 488

16 1 - 15
1 2
0/1 0/1

3
0

4
1

5 6
0/1 0/1

7
0

8
1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0
0/1

0/1

.
.
.

0/1

0/1

.
C

. 2.15. 1

, , , . 2.15 ( 0/1
).
() ,
30 () (
). =2. 16
( 0 15). =125 8 .

62

32 =3,906 . 115, 1731 .


0 16 . (18) =488.

=244 ( ).
0 (), 0011011 2
8. 1 (. .). P3 6 0 (. LOF) ,
(. .). 4, 5, 7 8
, . 16 (0)
0000 (14), (6 . LOM).
. 16 (115)
1 2, 1
1- 16- , 2 2- 17- .. 3, 4,
6 7 .
8- .
. , ( , ..) (). 1
15 , 4 ( -
). 16
(16). . .. 30 , , 15 , , 1 15 . , .
(0000 1- MFAS). 6-
(LOM).
2.3.4.
. N (. 2.16).
N . ,
N. N . , , , N.
, .

63
:
N

:
N

...

...

...

...

. 2.16.

1. 1. 1 2 8
(. 2.17). 8 () x4+x+1 ( CRC-4). 4-
( 1,2,3,4)
1. 1 x4+x+1 (
1,2,3,4) 2
1,2,3,4. , CRC-4.
:

2
...

1
...

...


x4+x+1

1,2,3,4

1
...


x4+x+1

1,2,3,4


1,2,3,4
1,2,3,4

. 2.17. 1

(. 2.18). , 1 1,2,3,4 ( 2
). 2 1,2,3,4

64

( 1 ). 1 2

(1 = 1,
1, 2 = 1 2). ( 14
16) CRC-4 (001011), CRC.

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

1-
0

. 2.18. 0

CRC-4 -

CRC-4

CRC-4 .
CRC-4.
, CRC-4
.

2.3.5. -30

, (. 2.19). 30 - ,
(
). ,
.

-. - : , .. .
.. ,
,
. ,
, .

65

, -, , ,
; . -
(),
.
,
.
(
, , ..) , .
.
- ,
,
.
.
.
, , , . (
) .


. .
, . ,
. .
, . , ,
, .

66

...

30

...
1

...

30

30

...

30

...

30

. 2.19. -30

-
: , . , - .
-
( ),
, , . ,

.
-,
,
-, .
, -. .
. ,
.
, .

67

. . , .

.
, ,

. ,

.
.
2.3.6.
.
, ,
, , , .
: -, ().
,
.
,
. , . , ..
() ,
, ,
. , :
1) .

(), ()
.
2) . (),

68


.
: , , ,
.
(), ..
: , .., , ..
.
. , ,
,
..
, . ,
( ). , , ,
.

,
, . , , ,
.. .
.
( )
()
() . ,
, . . 2.20, , ,
(64+2)/64=33/32 , -120.
( , )
, ,
() , . , , -

69

, 232/33. ,
. 2.21.

64

64

63

64

63

64

32 / 33

. 2.20.

4
4

1
32
33

33
32

. 2.21.

: 1 2. 1 , ( ), , . 14, 2,
(), 33/32 .
14 14 14, , , ().

70

() . ()
14, 1:
1, 2 .. 1 4
,
. ,
14,
,
/2.

, ,
,
. , ( ). , 33/32 ( -120). ,
. 2.22, , .
64 ( ) 32 /33 () . ,
, .. 64-
(. 2.22, ). , ,
(), . : 64- 1- , 63- 64-. ,
62- 63- ..

71
63

64

63

63

64

63

64

64

63

63

64

64

)
63

63

64

63

64

64

. 2.22.
( )

, . . 2.23, ,
32/33.
, (64-) (. 2.23, ). .
63

64

64

63

64

64

64

63

64


)
63

64

62

63

64
B

63

64

63

64

. 2.23.
( )

(),

32/33.

72

, .
, : , , .
, ..
, . ,
, , .

, , . : , , , , ,
.

(2)

. 2.24.

. 2.24 () , . () 1, .
2, . , .
, ( )
, . , , , , ,

73

( ,
. . 2.22, ).

1, ,
. , (),

() (),
().
,
. , ,
, ,
(. . 2.23, )
: .
,
,
. ()

.
2.3.7. 2
2 , ITU-T G.745 (. 2.25). 2
1. , 1, . 2.25
I, II, III, IV. 125
1056 . 4 , . 11100110, .
(), . . . 1
1 1, 2 1 2 .. , (
1). : 111 , 000 ,
101 ( ). 58
.
912 .
58 2
. 58 3 (

74

10

11

12

...

263

264

0
0
1

II

III

IV

...

III

IV

II

III

IV

...

III

IV

II

III

IV

...

III

IV

I
II
III IV
I
II
III IV


. 2.25. 2

...

III

IV

I
II
III IV
1-

I
II
III IV
2-

I
II
III IV
3-

AIS

), ( ). , 2 10244 . 2 8448 /.

2.3.8. 3
3
2. 3 , ITU-T G.753 (. 2.26).
2148 3 716 . 62,5 . , 2 2 3. 3
716*3*2*8000=34 368 /.
12 111110100000,
. 14 912 14 .
2.
912 3. 1316 3.

56 2 3.
3 21124.

75
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

...

715

716

0
1
0

II

III

IV

...

III

IV

I
II
III IV
2-

II

III

IV

...

III

IV

I
II
III IV

I
II
III IV

...

III

IV

I
II
III IV
1-

I
II
III IV
3-

. 2.26. 3

2.3.9. 4

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

0
1
0

.
.

4
3. 4 , ITU-T G.754 (. 2.27). 2176 . 4 544 . 4
64 . 15,625 .
4 139 264 /.
10
1111010000.
24. 2.
58 4. 912 4.
11, 12 1.
4 21484.

II

III

IV

III

IV

II

III

IV

II

III

III

IV

II

III

IV

II

I
II
III IV

II

I
II
III IV
1-

II

I
II
III IV
2-

II

I
II
III IV
3-

I
II
III IV

. 2.27. 4

543

544

...

III

IV

IV

...

III

IV

III

IV

...

III

IV

III

IV

...

III

IV

76

2.4.
. 2.28.
(
).
.
, (, ). (),
,
. ( ), , , .
A

. 2.28.

, () .
,
, ,

.
2.4.1.

, .
. :
. , , ,
;
.
;

,

77

;
,
;
, ;
.
, , ,
.
NRZ
NRZ ,
(. 2.29). NRZ
, , .
NRZ :
, .
NRZ :
, .
,
.
1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
NRZ

NRZ

. 2.29. NRZ

NRZ . () ,
. ,
. .
NRZ ,
NRZ , -

78

.
NRZ RS232-C. NRZ
RS-485.
(8 ), .
RZ
RZ (Return to Zero )
, (. 2.30).
RZ : ,

.
RZ :
,
.
RZ ,
( ), , . ,
, .
1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
RZ

RZ

. 2.30. RZ

RZ ,

NRZ (
).
-12 -15.
AMI, ,
, . RZ , . RZ ,
(
NRZ)
.

79

AMI
NRZ ()
(Bipolar Alternate Mark Inversion, AMI).
, (. 2.31).
, , ,
.
1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
AMI

. 2.31. AMI

. ,
AMI
, NRZ, ,
. ,
f0 N/4 , N .

, , NRZ.
AMI
.
-30, -120, .
AMI .
AMI
. 0,
,
. AMI ,
, , . ,
.
AMI (-3), n = 3.

80

HDB-3
c n = 3 (High Density Bipolar of order 3, HDB-3) , AMI. , 000V B00V.

000V B00V.
:
1. B00V 1
0.
2. 000V 1
0.
3. B .
4. V .
,
. HDB-3 . 2.32.
1

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1

HDB3

V
B

. 2.32. HDB-3

000V, B00V, () .
, AMI,
.
000V, .
.
B00V, () .
, HDB-3
, . , 0 1,
, HDB-3 AMI.
HDB-3 -15/30, -30-4, -120, .

81

CMI
(Coded Mark Inversion, CMI)
,
, ,
(. 2.33).
1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
CMI

. 2.33. CMI

, .
, .
CMI - .
2.4.2.

, . , , .
.

.


(. 2.34), () ()
[1].

. 2.34.

82

:
1. P = kTf, k = 1,28 10-23 / , , f = (0 0,5f), ..
f = 0,5f .
2. P = PD, D .
(T = 293K) p = 10lg (P/1) = 173,95+10lg(0,5f).
, ,

p = p + 10lg(0,5f/1) + 10lgD,
D .
.. 0,5f,
p = p (0,5f)l, (f) , l .

= p = p p 10lg(0,5f/1) 10lgD (0,5f)l.
:
1,2/4,6 : (f) = 0,07 + 5.26 f +0,015f,
2,6/9,4 : (f) = 0,014 + 2.46 f +0,006f,
f , .
, ,
:
1
= 5,23 + 11lglg P1
+ 20lg(m1) + A,
P1 ; m
( AMI HDB-3 m=3, CMI m=2); A , (
510 ).
= :
l=

1
p p 10 lg(0,5 f / 1) 10 lg D 11lg lg P
20 lg(m 1) A

(0,5 f )



-480 (3) :
p = 10 .
f = 34,368 .
P1 = 108.
HDB-3 (m=3).
-4 (1,2/4,6 ).
A = 8 .
D = 5 .

83

T = 293K
p = 173,95+10lg(17184000) = 101,6 .
1,2/4,6
(0,5fT) = 0,07 + 5,26 17,184 +0,01517,184 = 22,13 /.

10 + 101,6 10 lg 17,184 10 lg 5 11 lg lg 108 20 lg 2 8
l=
= 3,08 .
22,13



, ,
. , , . 0 l (. 2.35, 2.36):
0 = 20lg(I1/I20) = 20lg(U1/U20),
l = 20lg(I1/I2l) = 20lg(U1/U2l),
I1, U1 ; I20, U20 ; I2l, U2l
.
N

I1, U1
0

I20, U20

. 2.35.

N+1
I1, U1
l

I2l, U2l

. 2.36.

84

,

(. . 2.35). , N , 0 = 0 + 10lgN.
, .. , , , ,
, , (. . 2.36). , N , l =
l + 10lgN.
, ,
:
= 0,l = p + 0,l 10lgN = A0,l (0,5f)l 10lgN.

= :
l=

1
A0,l 5,23 11lg lg P
1 20 lg( m 1) A 10 lg N

(0,5 f )

-
() (. 2.36).
;
, ,
;
( 2);
,
, .

. 2.37.

()
(). () (),

().
. , La

85

Ld. .

:
= 10lg(P/) = = L + N + N,
, ,
(); , (); L (); (/); , (); N, N .
0,1 .
,
(. 2.38 2.40). 0,5 .

. 2.38.

. 2.39.

a
Z

. 2.40.

86

, N = 2,
, .

N = (L/L) 1,
L ( ).
, N, :
La =

p p apc N pc + a
,
a
+
L

, (),
= 6.
,
, 2. ( , , ..) .

.
= + + + ,
; ; .

, , , .
() . .
, , . .
2
= t
t2

,
-

t ; t
.
t2 t2 .
. . , ,

87

, ()
.

.
= +

,
; .
,
:
Ld =

4,4 105
,
B

(/(*))
; () ; () .

, .
Ld > La
.

:
= 1540 , = 0,35;

= 18 /(*);
L = 2 .
:
(-480) = 34,368 ;
= 1540 ;
= 1 ;
= 8 ;
= 28 ;
= 6 ;
aHC = 0,1 ;
aPC = 0,5 ;
N PC = 2.

La =

20 6 0,5 2 + 0,1
= 32,75 .
0,1
0,35 +
2

= 1540 ,

88

Ld =

4,4 105
= 711 .
18 1 34,368

Ld > La . ,
.
, , .

2.5. OSI PDH




,
. ITU-T G.703.
PDH :
0 (120 ),
1 (75 ) (120 ),
E2, 3, E4 (75 ).
:
0 AMI,
E1, E2, 3 HDB-3,
4 CMI.
. . 2.41 1.

20%
20%

V = 100%

10% 10%

269
(244 + 25)

194
(244 50)

50%

10% 10%

219
(244 25)

20%

0%

10% 10%

244

488
(244 + 244)

. 2.41. 2048 /

89


, ,
/ .

,
, .
2.6. PDH
PDH , (),
(. 2.42).

1 PDH PDH.

.
.
PDH
. , .

.

. 2.42. PDH

PDH - (. 2.43),
(. 2.44) (
. . 2.42).

. 2.43. -

90

. 2.44.

, PDH. :
-15, 15
1024 /.
-15 .
- -, (60-)
.
- -,
( ) .
.

-15



,
/
, /

15

-30
(-30)
30

1024
(13105)

2048
(13105)

NRZ-S

CMI


,

,
,

-120

-480

-1920

120

480

1920

2048
(13105)

8448
(13105)

34368
(11,5105)

8448
(12105)
CMI
HDB-3

34368
(11,5105)

139264
(11105)

HDB-3

HDB-3

2+2()

0,75

0,5

0,15

107

107

107

107

107

,
()

-4

-4

7,4

2,7 (3,8)

5 0,5

2,3...3,2

2,75...3,15

50

43 (110)

200

200

240

100

85 (440)

600

2500

2500

20 (28)

40

80

80

91

2.7. 2
1. ?
2. , -?
3. , - - ?
4. 1? ,
.
5. ?
6. 1 ?
7. 2? , .
8. ?

9. .
10.
.
11. 1 ITU-T G.703.
12. . .
1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0

13. -
, .
14.
- .
15. PDH .

92

3.
3.1. SDH
3.1.1. PDH
:

.
( ) .
( ).
PDH, - () . PDH, () .

() .

. ,
.
.

.
.
PDH SONET, SDH. SDH.

3.1.2. SDH
(Synchronous Digital Hierarchy SDH)
ITU-T G.702, G.707.
SDH
STM-1 (Synchronous Transport Module). STM-1
155,52 /. 4. STM-N. N=1,4,16,64. SDH :
,
.

93

.
, .
PDH .
. STM-1. , STM-N STM-1.
SDH
155,52 /, : STM-4 622,08 /, STM-16 2488,32
/, STM-64 9953,28 /.
.
.
. 3.1. b .
,
.
a

NA

PA

NB

A
B

a*

NA

b*
c NA

NB

* ,

MUX
b

PB

a*

NA

MUX
.

b*

A PA
NB

NB

B A PA PB

PB

A*

NA

B*
NA

NB

NB

B*
A*
A, (),
PA, PB ,
, , *, * ,
N, NB .
. 3.1.

94

3.1.3. PDH SDH


SDH :
140 /.
, .
. STM-1.
SDH 155,52
/.
,
/ .
,
TMN.
PDH,
G.702 ITU-T.
, .
.

SDH.
.
SDH , .
SDH PDH :
- .

34 / STM-1,
.
,
.
3.1.4.
ITU-T G.805. .
. .
, .. -

95

2
3

PDH

Transmission
Section layer
media layer
( )
network
(

Physical media layer


)
(
)

Regenerator section
( )
: ,
,


PDH

Path layer
network
(
)

PDH


PDH, ATM

VC-11/12
VC-2/3
VC-3
VC-4

Multiplexor section
( )
Regenerator section
( )
: ,
,


(, 64 /,
2, ISDN ..)


SDH

SDH

Circuit layer
network
(
)


PDH


SDH

. ,
/, .
(. 3.2):
1. Circuit layer network ( ) ,
.
2. Path layer network ( ) , . .
3. Transmission media layer network ( )
,
. .
4. Section layer network ( ) ,
.
SDH . PDH .

. 3.2.

5. Multiplex section layer network ( ) , . / / .


6. Regenerator section layer network ( )
,
. .

96

7. Physical media layer network ( ) ,


( ,
, ).
SDH
(. 3.3).
, , , , [3].

. 3.3.
SDH

3.2. SDH
3.2.1. STM-1
SDH
STM-1, 155, 52 /.
STM-1 2430 9 270 (. 3.4). STM-1
125 , 8000 . 64 / [4].

97

261

. 3.4. STM-1

STM-1 (. 3.5):
SOH (Section OverHead),
(payload),
PTR (pointer).
270
9

SOH

PTR

SOH

261

. 3.5. STM-1

STM-1 , , ,
.
SOH 8x9 ,
, , . (RSOH Regenerator SOH) (MSOH Multiplex SOH).

98

( 2 140 / G.702) 9x261 .


STM-1 .
STM PTR,
. STM-1.
, 3 .
STM-1 . 3.6. STM-1.

AU

+ AU-PTR

+ POH
VC

AU

+ TU-PTR

+ SOH

AUG

STM-1

+ AU-PTR
TU

TU

TUG

VC
(
)

. 3.6. SDH

3.2.2. STM-1
C
STM-1, , , , .

, . .
125 . PDH.

-11
-12
-2
-3
-4

, /
1 544
2 048
6 312
44 736 34 368
139 264

99

.
, .
:
( PDH).
( ).
( )

.
.
.
,
:
.
VC
C POH (Path
Overhead). VC (Virtual
Container) (. . 3.6).
POH ,
. POH VC
. , POH
.
STM-1 VC,
STM-1.
HO (high-order)
LO (low-order).
, ,
LO. LO VC-11,
VC-12 VC-2. VC-3 LO,
VC-4.
, STM-1,
HO. VC-4 HO. VC-3,
.
AU
VC-4 VC-3 STM-1.
( AU-PTR) STM-1 . STM-1, VC, AU (Administrative Unit).
, AU (AU-PTR),

100

AU (. . 3.6). AU 9 STM-1.
AU-4 AU-3. STM-1 AU-4
AU-3.
VC-3 (AU-3) STM-1 AU4. VC-3 VC-4 (. TU-3).
AUG
AU AU (AUG
AU group) (. . 3.6). AUG , STM-1 SOH. SOH AUG
STM-1. AUG AU-4 (. 3.7, ) AU-3
(. 3.7, ).
3

AU-4

87

AU-3
AU-PTR

VC-4

261

AUG

261

AUG
1

AU-4

...

. 3.7. AUG

TU
VC-4 VC VC
STM-1. VC
( ) VC.
VC , VC
. TU (Tributary Unit) ,
HO, VC LO
(TU-pointer) (. . 3.6). TU-11, TU-12, TU-2, TU-3.

101

TUG
TU .
TUG (Tributary unit group) (. . 3.6). TUG-2 TUG-3.
STM
STM-1, .

-11
-12
-2
-3
-4
,
25
34
106
756
2340
, /
1600
2176
6784
48384 149760

VC-11
VC-12
VC-2
VC-3
VC-4
,
26
35
107
765
2349
, /
1664
2240
6848
48960 150336

TU-11
TU-12
TU-2
TU-3
,
27
36
108
768
, /
1728
2304
6912
49152

TUG-2 TUG-3
,
108
774
, /
6912
49536

AU-3
AU-4
,
786
2358
, /
50304 150912

AUG

,
2358
, /
150912
3.2.3. STM-N
STM-N

xN

AUG

x1

AU-4

VC-4
x3

x3

TUG-3
AU-3

TUG-2

TU-3

x4

x1

E4 (140 M/)

C-3

E3 (45 M/)
E3 (34 M/)
E2 (6 M/)

VC-3

x7

VC-3
x7

xN

x1

C-4

TU-2

VC-2

C-2

TU-12

VC-12

C-12 E1 (2 M/)

TU-11

VC-11

C-11 T1 (1.5 M/)

x3

AU-3

AUG

. 3.8. STM-N

102

()
STM-N . 3.8.
(TUG-2, TUG-3, AUG)
(1, 1-4) , STM-N, .
STM-N 1
4.
STM-N STM-1 (. 3.9).
STM-1 1
RSOH
PTR

STM-1 2
RSOH
PTR

MSOH

STM-1 N
RSOH
PTR

MSOH

MSOH


STM-N
Nx9

Nx261

RSOH
PTR

MSOH
12

. . . N1

...

N1 2

... N1

...

. 3.9. STM-1 STM-N

3.2.4. 1 STM-1
E1

C-12
32

VC-12

34

35
LO-POH
1

36

x3

TUG 2

2349

AU-4

x7

TUG 3

108

774
+18
(. ,
)

TU
1

VC-4

O-POH 9
+ 18

TU-12

AUG

STM-1
2430

AU-PTR
9

RSOH 27
MSOH 45

. 3.10. STM-1 1

STM-1 1
. 3.10. 1
STM. 1

103

4 () 8 . 2 -12.
-12 VC-12. (V1)
TU-12, 4 9 (. 3.11).
TU-12 125 .
1

-12

VC-12

TU-12

V1

+LO_POH

0
1-15
16
16-30

32

. 3.11. TU-12

TU-12
TUG-2,
12 9 (. 3.12). ,
V1 TU-12. TUG-2 125 .
TU-12
1
1

TU-12

TU-12

4
V1

V1

V1

125

TUG-2
1

V1

V1

12

V1

125
9

. 3.12. TUG-2

TUG-2 TUG-3. (NPI ) (R , 15 ), ,


86 9 (. 3.13).
TUG-3, .. 3 (. . 3.8).
TUG-3 VC-4. -

104

(POH , 9 ) (R
, , 18 ). VC-4
261 9 (. 3.13). , VC-12 , 10-
.
, TU-12[K, L, M] VC-4,
:
Y = 10 + (K 1) + 3(L 1) + 21(M 1) + 63(X 1),
X TU-12 (14),
K TUG-3 (13),
L TUG-2 (17),
M TU-12 (13).
, TU-12[1,1,1]
10, 73, 136, 199.
TUG-2
1

TUG-2
1

12

1
2

3
4

R1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2

TUG-3

N
P
I

86

TUG-3

1N
P
I

....

86

TUG-3

1N
P
I

12

1
2

TUG-2
1

12

TUG-2
1

12

86

VC-4
1

3 4

6 7

N N N
P P P
I I I

9 10 11 12 13 14

261

V1 V1 V1 V1 V1

P
O R R 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2
H
R R R R R R

...

. 3.13. VC-4

VC-4 STMN .

105

3.2.5. AU
AU-4
VC-4 AU-4. AU-4
, 9x261+9 STM-1
SOH (. 3.14).
VC-4 PDH 140 /. VC4 -4 (9x260 ) POH VC-4 (9 ) (. . 3.14).
(. . 3.10), VC-4
63 1, (E1 C-12 VC-12 TU-12 TUG-2 TUG-3 VC-4).
VC-4 AU-4 (. 3.15). AU-4
() (J1) POH. AU-4 , VC-4
. . 3.4.
270

270

AU-4 PTR

SOH

1
J1
B3
C2
G2
F2
H4
Z3
Z4
Z5

261

STM-1

AU-4

SOH
9

261

SOH

260

AU-4 PTR

SOH

VC-4

C-4

J1
B3
C2
G2
F2
H4
Z3
Z4
Z5
J1

SOH
AU-4 PTR

VC-4 POH

. 3.14. AU-4 STM-1

125

. 3.15. VC-4 STM-1

AU-3
STM-1 VC-3 AU-3
(. . 3.8). VC-3 PDH 34 / 45 /. VC-3 -3 (9x84 )
POH VC-3 (9 ) (. 3.16).
270
261

3 x AU-3

SOH
9

AU-3
...PTR

SOH

VC-3 POH

J1
B3
C2
G2
F2
H4
Z3
Z4
Z5

STM-1

C-3
VC-4
85

. 3.16. AUG AU-3

106

AU-3 , 9x87+9 , VC-3. AU-3 (87 ) ,


VC-3 (85 ), (. 3.17).
270
261

STM-1

3 x AU-3

SOH
AU-3 PTR

J1 2
B3
C2
G2
F2
H4
Z3
Z4
Z5

SOH

29

30

57

58

85

VC-3 3

. 3.17. AU-3

AU-3 STM-1, AU-3 (. 3.18).


VC-3, POH VC3.
270
9

261

SOH
9

125
SOH
SOH

AU-3 1
AU-3 2
AU-3 3

VC-3 1
VC-3 2
VC-3 3

. 3.18. STM-1 AU-3

AUG STM-1
AUG , 9x261+9 .
STM-1 AUG SOH. AUG AU-4 AU-3
(. . 3.7).

107

3.2.6.
TU-1, TU-2
,
:
VC-11 PDH
1,5 /. -11 (25 )
POH VC-11 (1 ).
VC-12 PDH
2 /. -12 (34 )
POH VC-12 (1 ).
VC-2 PDH 6 /. -2 (106 ) POH
VC-2 (1 ).
VC-1x VC-2 VC-4 VC-3 . VC-3
AU-3 (. SDH). VC-1x
VC-2 . TU-1x TU-2
VC-1x VC-2
(. . 3.11).
125 VC-1x VC-2.
(VC-4 VC-3). . .
500 .3.4.
3.2.7. TUG
TUG-2
TU-1x (VC-4 VC-3).
TUG-2
TU-1x. TUG-2
TU-2.
, TUG-2 :
TU-2
TU-11,
TU-12 (. . 3.12).
TUG-3
TUG-3 TU-3 TUG-2 (. . 3.13). TUG-3 9x86 .
TUG-3 TU-3,
6 . TUG3 TUG-2, TUG-3 ,
TUG-2
VC-1x VC-2.
NPI (Null Pointer Indication). TUG-3
VC-4 AU-4.

108

3.3.
3.3.1.
:
.
.
.
.
.
STM-1 STM-N ,
. , .
SOH (Section Overhead) POH (Path Overhead) .
. 3.19.
LO-POH
VC-1,2
HO-POH
VC-3,4
MSOH
STM-N

MSOH
STM-1

C
-1,2

C
-1,2

VC
-1,2

MSOH
STM-1

VC
-3,4

VC
-3,4
STM-1

STM-N

RSOH
STM-N

RSOH
STM-N

RSOH
STM-N

C
-1,2

C
-1,2

STM-1

NNI

NNI

RSOH
STM-1

STM-N

VC
-1,2

RSOH
STM-1

* ,
R ,
NNI (Network Node Interface)

. 3.19.

3.3.2. SOH
SOH 9 . RSOH,
MSOH. AUpointer, . . 3.20
SOH STM-1.
STM-N STM-1 SOH
SOH STM-1 (. . 3.9). SOH STM-N.

109

RSOH
. , ,
(. . 3.19).
STM.
MSOH (. . 3.19).
A1
B1
D1

A1

B2
D4
D7
D10
S1

B2

Z1

A1

B2

Z1

A2
A2
A2 C1/J0
E1
F1
D3
D2
AU Pointer
K1
K2
D5
D6
D8
D9
D11
D12
Z2
Z2
M1 E2

. 3.20. SOH STM-1

SOH .
: 1, 2
. 1=11110110,
2=00101000.
STM-1 STM-N. , STM-4 46=24 , STM16 166=96 .
: D1D12
12 (D1D12)
DCC (data communication channels).
DCCR 192 / (D1D3) DCCM 576 / (D4D12).
STM-N DCC STM-1.
SDH () Q-,
OS (operation system) (. 3.21). (
) GNE (gateway
network element) NE (network element).
DCCR GNE GNE . , DCCR. DCCM GNE , DCCM.

110
OS
Q -

GNE

NE
DCCM+DCCR

. 3.21. DCC

STM: 1 (J0)
STM-1 , STM-N. C1. STM-1,
J0 , ASCII ITU-T E.164. (
).
: E1, E2
,
. (1) (2). STM-1 1.
: F1
F1 . .
STM-1 1.
BIP-8: B1
1 STM-N . 1 RSOH
STM-1. STM-N 1
STM-1 1.
BIP.
STM-N BIP-8 . 8- 1 STM-N . 1 .
BIP-24: 3 2
2. BIP-24 24-
, 2 STM-1. 2
(Nx3x2) STM-N.

111

STM-1 BIP-24 SOH, 2 .


SOH (RSOH) B2,
RSOH B2.
APS: K1, K2
1 2
APS (automatic protection switching) :
6, 7 8 2 1 AIS (alarm indication signal) .
1 STM-N, AIS.
section-FERF (Far End
Receive Failure). STM-N AIS,
FERF, 110 6,7 8 2. ,
AIS.
1:n (n=1..14).
.

. 1.
, ITU-T G.783.
1 2 STM-1 1 STM-N.
: S1

STM-N. 4 , ITU-T, ,
. STM-1 1
STM-N.
section-FEBE (Far End
Block Error): 1
,
BIP-24 (B2). STM-1 0 24, STM-4 0
96. , ,
.
STM-N 1 .
Z2.
: Z1, Z2
SOH STM-1 STM-N.

112

3.3.3. VC-3 VC-4


POH (Path Overhead) .
VC, . POH . POH. POH . 3.19.
. 3.22.
J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1


BIP-8






. 3.22. VC3 VC4

POH VC-3 VC-4 :


: J1
, ASCII ITU-T E.164.
. 64 , 16 .
BIP-8: B3
VC.
VC . .
: C2
.
11 .
:
00: VC . .
01: VC , .
02: 3 TUG-3.
12: VC-4 -4 ( PDH E4 140 /).
13: .

113

: G1

()
. POH, .
14 FEBE (Far End Block Error)
, B3. 0 8. , , . 0
( ).
5
FERF (Far End Receive Failure). 1 ,
AIS ( ).
68 .
: F2, F3
. .
: H4
. , ()
VC-4. , . 3.23 , TU
TU, , TU-1/2 4
VC-3/VC-4.

114
POH VC3/VC4
TU_PTR (V4)
VC4/VC4
H4 (00)

TU_PTR (V1)
VC4/VC4
H4 (01)

TU_PTR (V2)
VC4/VC4
H4 (10)

TU_PTR (V3)
VC4/VC4
H4 (11)

TU_PTR (V4)
VC4/VC4
H4 (00)

. 3.23. (500 ) TU-1/2


H4

(Automatic Protection
Switching APS): K3
SDH. SDH.
: N1
HO-POH LO-POH
( BIP-N), N1.

115

3.3.4. VC-1x VC-2

125

125

125

125

VC-1x VC-2 POH (V5, J2,


N2, K4) 500 (. 3.24).
V5

J2

N2

K4

BIP-2


. 3.24. VC-1x VC-2

V5 :
,
,
.
1 2 VC-1x VC-2.
BIP-2. BIP-2
VC , POH,
TU-1x TU-2 ( V3
).
3 LO-FEBE VC-1x VC-2. ( BIP-2)
1.
5, 6, 7 :

5
6 7

0
0
0
,
0
0
1

0
1
0
-
1
0
0
,
1
1
0
J2
J2 , .

N2
N2 -

116

4
.
:

BIP
. - - - - - - -

-
.

J
B

N
D
E
F
A
LO-POH
J2
V5 V5
V5
K4
N2
HO-POH
J1
B3 C2
G1
K3
N1
F2, F3
MSOH
B2
K1, K2
D4D12 E2
RSOH
J0
B1 C1
D1D3 E1
F1
A1, A2

, SDH. RS MS.

.
3.4.
3.4.1.
() . , , , .
.
VC ( POH) .
, , .
, .
(HO VC)
AU.
(LO VC)
.

/ ( )
.
STM

. 3.25.

117

RSOH
AU-PTR

TUPTR

H
O

MSOH

LO
POH

P
O
H

. 3.25.

3.4.2.
:
1. AU.
2. TU.
. 3.26.
H1

H2

H3

. 3.26. AU

H1 H2 :
( POH ),
,
,
(AU-3, AU-4 TU-3).
3 .
TU-1x, TU-2
AU . 3.27.

500

V1
V2
V3
V4

,
,
,

. 3.27. TU-1x, TU-2

118

3.4.3.
AU-4 0 782 ( 1 3 ) (. 3.28), TU-12 0
139 ( 1 1 )
(. 3.29).
270
261
522

523

696
AU-4 PTR 0
87

1
88

RSOH 609

36

608
782
86

MSOH
RSOH

522

AU-4 PTR 0

523

521
608

782
86

V1
105

..
..

139
V2
0

..
..

34
V3
35

..
..

. 3.28. AU-4

69
V4
70

..
..

104

. 3.29. TU-12

3.4.4.
,
[3]. ,
STM-1. , STM-1 STM-N VC STM-1 STM-N.
. VC , .
VC ( ) . .
(. 3.30). VC
, 3 (
). . VC ( POH) 3 . 1.
(. 3.31). VC
, .
, -

119

3 VC. VC
3 , 1.
, ..
, , 3
.

AU-4
H1 Y Y H2 1* 1* H3 H3 H3

VC-4

VC-4

AU-4

H1 Y Y H2 1* 1* H3 H3 H3

VC-4



VC-4

AU-4
H1 Y Y H2 1* 1* H3 H3 H3

VC-4

VC-4

. 3.30. AU-4

AU-4
H1 Y Y H2 1* 1* H3 H3 H3

VC-4

AU-4

VC-4



VC-4

H1 Y Y H2 1* 1*

VC-4

AU-4
H1 Y Y H2 1* 1* H3 H3 H3

VC-4

VC-4

. 3.31.

TU AU-4.
V1 V2 VC12 ( V5 VC-12).
(. 3.32). -

120

V3. ,
V3.
TU-12 VC-12

TU-12 VC-12

V1
V1

36
N2

36
125

N2

V2

125

V2

36
K4

36
250

K4

V3

250

V3

36
V5

36
375

V5

V4

375

V4

36
J2

36
500

J2

V1

500

V1

36
36

N2

N2

125

V2

125

V2

36
36

K4

K4

250

V1 - PTR1 V3 - PTR3 (. .)
V2 - PTR2 V4 -
V5, J2, N2, K4 - VC-12 POH

. 3.32. TU-12

3.4.5.

. 3.33 [4]. STM-1 AU-PTR ( 1),
AU-4, AU-3. ( 1
VC-4, 3 VC-3). VC-4 (
2) VC-4 ( TUG-3,
-4 E4, ATM). TUG-2 ( 2)
TU-3 ( VC-3), NPI ( TUG-2).
V1 TU TU-2, TU-12,
TU-11. VC-12 , -12 1.

121
270
STM-1

1 AU-4

3 AU-3

261
VC-4

87
AU-3

2=12

2=02

2=13

86
TUG-3

260
C-4

TU-3
85
VC-3

260

NPI ( SS)

12
TUG-2

SS=00

SS=10

SS=11

12
VC-2

4
VC-12

3
VC-11


=010

=100
-

. 3.33.

122

3.5. SDH
3.5.1. STM
SDH
.
.

( ).
STM-1 STM-N .
(. 3.34).
SOH

PTR
SOH

. 3.34. STM-N

. 2. . (. 3.35).
+

STM-N

+
.

( )
( )
+ 2 ( )
. 3.35. ()

STM . , .

123

STM-1 STM-N,
SOH (. . 3.34),
. .
. 1+6+7.
1111111 SOH, . , , .
3.5.2. SDH
STM-1 G.703 :
: 155,52 /.
: CMI (Coded Mark Inversion).
: 1,0 VSS 0,1 .
75 .
STM-1 STM-N (
G.957) :
: N x 155,52 /.
: NRZ.
3.6. SDH
3.6.1.
, . 3.3,
.
.

n .
(. 3.36).
. .
. .

124
:
N
...

:
N

...

...

...

. 3.36.

3.6.2. BIP-n
SDH
, BIP-n: (Bit-Interleaving
Parity).
( STM-N VC) n
(. 3.37). 2. BIP-n. n-.
BIP-n .

n

1 2 3 ... n 1 2 3 ... n 1

n
.....

.....

1 2 3 ... n

BIP-n P1 P2 P3 ... Pn
n

. 3.37. BIP-n

3.6.3.
SDH BIP-n (. 3.38).

125
V5
BIP-2
B3
BIP-8
B2
BIP-N*24

B2
BIP-24

C
-1,2

VC
-1,2

VC
-3,4

VC
-3,4
STM-1

B2
BIP-24

STM-N

C
-3,4

B1
BIP-8

B1
BIP-8

B1
BIP-8

C
-1,2

C
-3,4

STM-1

NNI

NNI

B1
BIP-8

STM-N

VC
-1,2

B1
BIP-8

* ,
R ,
NNI (Network Node Interface)

. 3.38.

: 1 RSOH
BIP-8.
STM-N (. 3.38). BIP-8 B1
RSOH . .
: 2 MSOH

BIP-N x 24 N x 3 . BIP-N x 24 STM-N
SOH N x 3 2,
(. 3.39). 2
.
VC-3 VC-4: B3 POH
3 VC-3 VC-4. BIP-8 (1 )
3 POH VC. , ,
3.
VC-1 VC-2: 1 2 V5 POH
V5 POH
VC-1 VC-2. BIP-2
(2 )
500
V5 POH VC.

126

B1: BIP-8
( STM-N )

RSOH +1

B2: BIP-24
( STM-N )

MSOH

BIP-n
. 3.39. 1 2

3.7. SDH
3.7.1.
FEBE
POH
(VC-3 VC-4) (VC-1 VC-2) . ,
BIP-8 BIP-2 .
BIP , (
) FEBE (Far End Block Error) (Remote Error Indication REI).
FEBE VC-3 VC-4
14 G1 POH. BIP-8 8
, 8
. , FEBE 0
8. 0.
FEBE VC-1 VC-2
3 V5 POH. 0,
BIP-2 . 1.

127

FEBE
M1 MSOH
, 2.
1 FEBE 0 Nx24 STM-N.
3.7.2.
FERF
VC AIS,
(Remote Alarm Indication) FERF (Far End Receive Failure) .
1
5 G1 POH VC-3 VC-4. 0 .
VC-1 VC-2
8 V5 POH.
FERF
STM-N
AIS, FERF. FERF (110)
68 K2.
3.7.3. AIS
, ,
AIS (Alarm Indication Signal). AIS , . . AIS (
) . AIS :
(RS/HP/LP-TIM).
(HP/LP-UNEQ).
(HP/LP-PLM).
(AU/TU-LOP).
(LOM).
(LOF).
(LOS).
AIS PDH.
AIS STM-1 .
AIS .

128

AIS
AIS . AIS TU TU-n (n=1,2,3), , 1. AIS AU AU-n (n=3,4), ,
1.
STM-1 .
AIS
AIS STM-1 STM-N. 2 6, 7 8 1.
. 3.40
. n n+1 (, )
SDH, .

FEBE (REI)

BIP-Err

FERF (RDI)

UNEQ/TIM
LOP/PLM

AIS

AIS

n+1

. 3.40.

3.8. SDH
3.8.1. SDH
SDH , ().
[5].
() () () / (MUX / DEMUX).
/ / (Multiplexer drop / insert).
-

129

SDH PDH


--DXC.
() .
.
SDH , , , ..
SDH

, ,
, , / () .
SDH PDH
,
SDH
. , , . SDH (SMUX) .
, SMUX.
SMUX SMUX / .
(TM SMUX) /
SDH PDH SDH (. 3.41). TM
SMUX ( ) ,
.. . , - . (..
, 1,5 2 /).

TM

3.41.

.. SDH ,
MUX . STM-1
, , STM-4;64
/.
, , ( ), / . / : , -

130

, ..
SDH MUX- ,
(. 3.42). .



. 3.42.

/ ADM (Add / Drop Multiplexer) (


Drop / Insert) , , , , , ()
(. 3.43). ADM ()
.
,
.. . , ADM ,
, .. .

()

ADM

()

PDH

. 3.43. /

( ) , ( ) ,

SDH (. 3.44). .
, .

.

SDH

131

SMUX

. 3.44.

SDH PDH

SDH PDH

. , .
STM-N . 1540 . 1 /. 100 , 150 .
. ADM .
- (DXC) . -
(. 3.45).

MUX /
MUX


. 3.45.

,
, . , .
SDH
SDXC, , ( ) (34 /
) .. - , .

. 3.46. SDXC n/m

SDXC . SDXC n/m, n VC, , m VC,

132

(. 3.46).
VC, .
, STM-4:
SDXC 4/4 , VC-4, 140
155 /.
SDXC 4/3/2/1 VC-4 140 155 /, () VC-3, VC-2, VC-1 34,
45 /; 1,5 2 /.
SDXC 4/1 VC-4, VC-11/12 ( 1,5
2 /).
, :
1. (routing),
VC (. 3.47).

. 3.47.

2. () (consolidation/hubbing)
() (. 3.48).
1
2

1 2 3
3

. 3.48.

3. (translation) (), (point-to-multipoint), (. 3.49).

. 3.49.

4. ( ) (groomming) , - , (. 3.50).

. 3.50.

5. VC (test access), (. 3.51).

133

. 3.51.

6. / (drop/insert) / (. 3.52).
1W

1E

1W 1E

. 3.52. /

3.8.2. - SDH
,
: / (in),
/ (out) / (trib).
, nn
(. 3.53).
L in

L out

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

t in

t out

. 3.53.


:
TU-1 (1,5 2 /),
TU-2 (6 /),
TU-3 (34 45 /),
AU-4 (140 /).
, ().
inout; outin.
intrib; tribin; outtrib; tribout.
tribtrib.

134

S-1

S-1

- in2 (trib1, trib2, trib3) .. .. - (broadcasting).


( 4096 4096 ).
SDH
.
-, SDH
.
MUX.
-, MUX, ,
(3- )
(4- ) . , .
, ..
.
. , STM-4 2 STM-1,
126 252 2 / .
, -
PDH, SDH, SONET.
PDH SDH .
SDH SONET.
- STM-1
1 - VC-12
. 3.54.

VC-12
E1
1 2

...

. 3.54. -

3.8.3. SDH
/
-,
(. 3.55).
. PDH. STM-N.
(Ethernet / IP,

135

ATM ..).
.
, , STM-N.
(F) (Q3-).

STM-N

STM-N

STM-N

E1

E3

E4


IP,ATM

Q3

. 3.55. SDH

3.9. SDH
SDH . (), 11011.
() . . ,
, , ,
() . SDH.
,
STM-N. PDH 2 /,
.
. . , , SDH. -

136

. .
SDH , .
.
, , SDH
. .

3.10. SDH
SDH
.
, , .

, [6].
-
().

. 3.56. -

( ),
(. 3.56).
. 1+1. , ,
. .

- (. 3.57). 1+1
(. 3.58).

137

ADM


. 3.57.

ADM

. 3.58.
1+1

,
() .

, (
), SDH , () (. 3.59).
ADM

MUX /
SDH

SMUX

PDH
MUX

MUX

MUX

. 3.59.

SDH
(155 622 /). .

.

138

,
( ) (. 3.60).
ADM

ADM

ADM

ADM

. 3.60.

( )
, (. 3.61).
ADM

ADM

ADM
ADM
. 3.61.

3.11.

.
:
1. 1+1 . , .
2. 1:1. ( ).
( ).
3. 1+1 1:1.
4. 1:1 N:1,
N , 1 .
5. .
6. .
2 ( )
, 4 -

139

. /
,
, ( 1+1). / ( ), (
) , .
3.11.1. SNCP-
(Subnetwork Connection Protection SNCP) SDH
(VC-12).
. 1+1. SNCP- SDH . 3.62.
1 NE2 VC-12
( NE1 NE3) NE4.
, 2 /, . , .
E1
NE1

NE2

NE4

NE3
E1
. 3.62. SNP-

3.11.2. MSP-
MSP- (Multiplex Section Protection) . . ( )
(. 3.63). NE2 NE3 NE1 NE4
( ). -

140

, . ..
STM-1 63 1.
1 2
. 1 . 2 . , . MSP-
MSP-Ring.
NE1

NE2

NE3

NE3

. 3.63. MSP-

MSP- ,
(. 3.64).
, , , (: 1,3,5; 2,4,6).
, , , .
, . , , . , ,
, 2 . .. STM-1 1 31.

141

NE1

NE4

NE2
1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

12 34

1 2 34

43 21

4 3 21

12 34

1 2 34

43 21

4 3 21

4
3
2
1

4
3
2
1

4
3
2
1

4
3
2
1
NE3

(VC)

(VC)

. 3.64. MSP-

142

3.12. 3
1. SDH PDH?
2. STM-N ? STM-N ?
3. , (TU)?
4. 1 STM-1?
5. ?
6. STM-N?
7. SDH ?
8.
STM-N.
9. SDH c
BIP-n.
10. AIS. .
11.
STM-N?
12. - SDH?

143

AM

-30

-




-

-









-
, 1

-31 , 1


- ,


7 7

144

( 64 /)














145


ADM
AIS
AMI

Add-Drop Multiplexor
Alarm Indication Signal
Alternate Mark Inversion code

/


ANSI
American National Standard In- stitute

APS
Automatic Protection Switching
ASCII
American Standard Code for

Information Interchange

ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AU
Administrative Unit

AUG
Administrative Unit Group

AU-PJE
AU Pointer Justification Event AU
AU-PTR
AU Pointer
AU
BIP
Bit Interleaved Parity

Container

CDMA
Code Division Multiply Access
CMI
Coded Mark Inversion

CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check

CRC ERR CRC errors
CRC
DCC
Data Communication Channel
DEMUX
Demultiplexer

FAS
Frame Alignment Signal

FEBE
Far End Block Error

FERF
Far End Receive Failure

FDMA
Frequency Division Multiply

Access
GNE
Gateway Network Element

HDB3
High density bipolar of order 3 3
HO
High Order

- High-order POH

HP-REI
HO Path Remote Error Indica-
(HP-FEBE) tion
HP-RDI
HO Path Remote Defect Indica- (HP-FERF) tion

HP-TIM
HO Path Trace Identifier Mis-
match
HP-PLM
HO Path Payload Label Mis match

146

HP-UNEQ HO Path Unequipped VC Indication (VC3/4)


ITU-T
International Telecommunication Union Telephony group
LO
Low Order
LOF
Loss of Frame
LOM
Loss of Multiframe
LOP
LO-POH
LOS
LP-REI
(LP-FEBE)
LP-RDI
(LP-FERF)
LP-TIM

Loss of Pointer
Low-order POH
Loss of Signal
LO Path Remote Error Indication
LO Path Remote Defect Indication
LO Path Trace Identifier Mismatch
LP-PLM
LO Path Payload Label Mismatch
LP-UNEQ LO Path Unequipped VC Indication (VC3/4)
MAIS
Multiframe Alarm Indication
Signal
MFAS
Multi Frame Alignment Signal
MRAI
Multiframe Remote Alarm Indication
MS-REI
Mux Section Remote Error Indication
MS-AIS
Mux Section AIS
MS-RDI
Mux Section RDI
MSOH
MSP
MUX
NE
NFAS

Multiplexer Section Overhead


Multiplex Section Protection
Multiplexer
Network Element
Non-Frame Alignment Signal

NRZ
OOF
OS

Non-Return to Zero
Out Of Frame
Operation System

OSI

Open System Interconnection

PDH

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy


Path Overhead
Pointer

POH
PTR









1
LO
LO
LO






AIS




( )


( )




SDH

147

RDI
REI
RSOH
RZ
SDH
SDXC
SMUX
SNCP
SOH
STM
TCM

TDMA
TIM
TM
TMN
TS
TU
TUG
TU-LOP
TU-AIS
TU-LOM
TU-PTR
VC

Remote Defect Indication

Remote Error Indication



Regenerative Section Overhead
Return to Zero

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
Synchronous Digital Cross

Connect
Synchronous Multiplexer

Subnetwork Connection Protec-
tion

Section Overhead

Synchronous Transport Module
Tandem Connection Monitoring
Terminal Equipment

Time Division Multiply Access
Trace Identifier Mismatch

Terminal Multiplexer

Telecommunications Manage- ment Network

Time Slot

Tributary Unit

Tributary Unit Group

Loss Of TU pointer
TU
Tributary Unit AIS
AIS
Loss Of TU Multiframe
TU
TU Pointer
TU
Virtual Container

148


1. : . / .. [
.]; . .. . .: , 2003. 232 .
2. 45.1592000. .
. 2000. http://www.minsvyaz.ru/ministry/documents/
1153/1155.shtml
3. .. . . . 1. 1,
PDH, SDH / .. .: -, 2000. 142 .
4. .. . . . 3. :
. / .. . .: , 1999. 76 .
5. .. . - , / .. . .: -, 2001. 237 .
6. .. . / .. . .: , 2000. 468.