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SECURITY COUNCIL

Question of: Promoting Effective


Measures Against International
Terrorism

Chair: Martina Vasconcelos


Vice-Chair: Mateus Brando
PEMUN 2015

Background Information

Understanding the Nature of Terrorism


Terrorist organizations, regardless of motive, beliefs, strength, share a
basic structure as depicted in figure 1. At the base, underlying conditions,
such as corruption and poverty, are what terrorists use to justify their actions.
The international environment defines the boundaries within which terrorists'
strategies take shape. As a result of freer borders, this environment unwittingly
provides access to havens, capabilities, and other support systems. But access
alone is not enough. Terrorists must have a physical base from which to
operate. Whether through ignorance, inability, or intent, states around the
world still offer havens - both physical (e.g., safe houses)and virtual (e.g.,
reliable communication) - that terrorists need to plan, organize, train, and
operate. Once established said structures, organizations begin to solidify and
expand. The leadership breathes life into the terrorist campaign, saying what to
do and providing strategies. Often do organizations collapse if you remove their
leadership; however, today organizations are adopting autonomous cells, which
challenges even more counterterrorism.
Many countries today supported terrorist organizations, which is why so
many of them do not fall. When the Soviet Union - which provided critical
backing to certain organizations - collapsed, it accelerated the decline of state
sponsorships. With the end of the Cold War, improvements in the ease of
transnational communication, commerce, and travel were seen. Unfortunately,
many groups today use this friendlier environment for their gain. Al-Qaeda is
the perfect example. It uses today technology, phones, encrypted e-mails, etc.
to communicate. They also use numerous banks to operate with funds raised
through drug trafficking, credit card fraud, extortion, and money from covert

supporters.
Terrorist groups with objectives in one country or region can draw
strength and support from groups in other countries or regions. For example, in
2001, three members of the Irish Republican Army were arrested in Colombia,
suspected of training the FARC in how to conduct an urban bombing campaign.
There are three levels for terrorists to operate on: state, where they operate
within their own country; regional, where they transcend at least one
international border; and global, in which they span several regions and their
ambitions can be transnational and even global. Even though organizations
may operate on different levels, they might still operate together. The
interconnected nature of terrorist organizations necessitates that we pursue
them across the geographic spectrum to ensure that all linkages between the
strong and the weak organizations are broken, leaving each of them isolated,
exposed, and vulnerable to defeat.
Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) pose an even bigger threat to the
international community. The Aum Shinrikyos unsuccessful efforts to deploy
biological weapons and its lethal 1995 sarin gas attack in the Tokyo subway
provided an early warning of such willingness to acquire and use WMD. In
1998, Usama bin Laden proclaimed the acquistion of WMD a "religious duty".

Goals and Objectives


An analysis of the history of combating terrorism confirms that the best
way to defeat terrorism is to isolate and localize its activities and then destroy
it through intensive, sustained action. However, due to the broad expanse and
sophistication of some of these global terrorist organizations, it is needed to
first act to reduce their scope and capability. Preventing terrorist groups from
gaining access to technology, particularly that which supports WMD, needs to
be one of the highest priorities.

How Can Preventing the Underlying Conditions


Prevent Terrorism
Violent extremism impedes growth by discouraging long-term
investment - not only by international corporations, but by local entrepreneurs
who hesitate before setting up shop in a market or fear investing in inventory.
Violent extremists actions tax health systems, overcrowd hospitals, create
refugees, and displace people from their homes. Responding to attacks
consumes government services and resources, stymieing development.
Addressing the root causes of violent extremism successfully starts by
resolving issues at the community level. While each case is different,
experience indicates it is often a combination of social and economic

marginalization, unaccountable governance, and inadequate institutions,


among other push factors, that are at the root of extremism. These issues are
also at the heart of what impedes economic growth. These grievances create
opportunities for pulling forces that draw vulnerable people into the
compelling, but ultimately empty, narratives of violent extremism.

The United Nations' Stance


The United Nations adopted the The United Nations Global CounterTerrorism Strategy on 8 September 2006 by Member States. The strategy is a
unique global instrument that will enhace national, regional, and international
efforts to counter terrorism. This is the first time that all Member states have
agreed to a common strategic approach to fight terrorism, not only sending a
clear message that terrorism is unacceptable in all its forms and manifestations
but also resolving to take practical steps individually and collectively to prevent
and combat it. Those practical steps include a wide array of measures ranging
from strengthening state capacity to counter terrorist threats to better
coordinating United Nations system's counter-terrorism activities. The adoption
of the strategy fulfills the commitment made by world leaders at the 2005
September Summit and builds on many of the elements proposed by the
Secretary-General in his 2 May 2006 report, entitled Uniting against Terrorism:
Recommendations for a Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy.

Key Words
Terrorism - The calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against
civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in
nature.
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) - A chemical, biological or
radioactive weapon capable of causing widespread death and destruction.
Combatants - A person who is prepares or engaged in a fight
Coup - A sudden and decisive change of government illegally or by force
Al-Qaeda - is a global militant Islamist organization founded by Osama bin
Laden, Abdullah Azzam, and several others, at some point between August
1988 and late 1989, with origins traceable to the Arab volunteers who fought
against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in the 1980s. It operates as a
network comprising both a multinational, stateless army and an Islamist,
extremist, wahhabi jihadist group.
Boko Haram - an Islamic extremist group based in northeastern Nigeria, also
active in Chad, Niger and northern Cameroon. The group's leader is Abubakar
Shekau. The group had alleged links to al-Qaeda, but in March 2015 it
announced its allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).
ISIS (ISIL) - a Salafi jihadist extremist militant group and self-proclaimed
Islamic state and caliphate, which is led by and mainly composed of Sunni
Arabs from Iraq and Syria. As of March 2015, it has control over territory
occupied by ten million people in Iraq and Syria, and has nominal control over
small areas of Libya, Nigeria and Nangarhar Province in eastern Afghanistan.
The group also operates or has affiliates in other parts of the world, including

South Asia.

Guiding Questions
How might providing help for development of the
"underlying

conditions"

and

growth

affect

terrorism? Why?
What is the source of the money that these
organizations use and how does this money
influence counterterrorism?
What are the biggest terrorist organizations out
there and how do they have influence over us?
How do terrorist organizations affect the lives of
people, from those who have suffered from
attacks to those who have not?

What are some ways to stop altogether the


organizations from getting hole of WMD?

Further Research
https://www.cia.gov/news-information/cia-the-war-onterrorism/Counter_Terrorism_Strategy.pdf
http://www.un.org/en/index.html
http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/other/des/123085.htm
http://blogs.state.gov/stories/2015/09/29/countering-violent-extremismthrough-development
http://www.nctc.gov/site/timeline.html Timeline