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InvestigatingInvestigating AtomsAtoms andand AtomicAtomic TheoryTheory

StudentsStudents shouldshould bebe ableable to:to:

DescribeDescribe thethe particleparticle theorytheory ofof matter.matter. PS.2aPS.2a UseUse thethe BohrBohr modelmodel toto differentiatedifferentiate amongamong thethe threethree basicbasic particlesparticles inin thethe atomatom (proton,(proton, neutron,neutron, andand electron)electron) andand theirtheir charges,charges, relativerelative masses,masses, andand locations.locations. PS.3PS.3 CompareCompare thethe BohrBohr atomicatomic modelmodel toto thethe electronelectron cloudcloud modelmodel withwith respectrespect toto theirtheir abilityability toto representrepresent accuratelyaccurately thethe structurestructure ofof thethe atom.PS.3atom.PS.3

to to represent represent accurately accurately the the structure structure of of the the atom.PS.3 atom.PS.3

AtomosAtomos:: NotNot toto BeBe CutCut

Atomos Atomos : : Not Not to to Be Be Cut Cut The The History History

TheThe HistoryHistory ofof AtomicAtomic TheoryTheory

AtomicAtomic ModelsModels

ThisThis modelmodel ofof thethe atomatom maymay looklook familiarfamiliar toto you.you. ThisThis isis thethe BohrBohr model.model. InIn thisthis model,model, thethe nucleusnucleus isis orbitedorbited byby electrons,electrons, whichwhich areare inin differentdifferent energyenergy levels.levels.

in in different different energy energy levels. levels.   A A model model uses uses

AA modelmodel usesuses familiarfamiliar ideasideas toto explainexplain unfamiliarunfamiliar factsfacts observedobserved inin nature.nature.

AA modelmodel cancan bebe changedchanged asas newnew informationinformation isis collected.collected.

A A model model can can be be changed changed as as new new information information

TheThe atomicatomic modelmodel hashas changedchanged throughoutthroughout thethe centuries,centuries, startingstarting inin 400400 BC,BC, whenwhen itit lookedlooked likelike aa

starting in in 400 400 BC, BC, when when it it looked looked like like a

billiardbilliard ballball

starting in in 400 400 BC, BC, when when it it looked looked like like a

WhoWho areare thesethese men?men?

In this lesson, we’ll learn about the men whose quests for knowledge about the fundamental nature of the universe helped define our views.

learn about the men whose quests for knowledge about the fundamental nature of the universe helped
learn about the men whose quests for knowledge about the fundamental nature of the universe helped
learn about the men whose quests for knowledge about the fundamental nature of the universe helped
learn about the men whose quests for knowledge about the fundamental nature of the universe helped
learn about the men whose quests for knowledge about the fundamental nature of the universe helped

DemocritusDemocritus

400 BC

ThisThis isis thethe GreekGreek philosopherphilosopher DemocritusDemocritus whowho beganbegan thethe searchsearch forfor aa descriptiondescription ofof mattermatter moremore thanthan 24002400 yearsyears ago.ago. HeHe asked:asked: CouldCould mattermatter bebe divideddivided intointo smallersmaller andand smallersmaller piecespieces forever,forever, oror waswas therethere aa limitlimit toto thethe numbernumber ofof

a a limit limit to to the the number number of of times times a a

timestimes aa piecepiece ofof mattermatter couldcould bebe divideddivided??

the the number number of of times times a a piece piece of of matter matter

AtomosAtomos

Atomos Atomos   His His theory: theory: Matter Matter could could not not be be

HisHis theory:theory: MatterMatter couldcould notnot bebe divideddivided intointo smallersmaller andand smallersmaller piecespieces forever,forever, eventuallyeventually thethe smallestsmallest possiblepossible piecepiece wouldwould bebe obtained.obtained. ThisThis piecepiece wouldwould bebe indivisible.indivisible. HeHe namednamed thethe smallestsmallest piecepiece ofof mattermatter atomosatomos,,meaningmeaning notnot toto bebe cut.cut.

AtomosAtomos

Atomos Atomos   To To Democritus, Democritus, atoms atoms were were small small , ,
Atomos Atomos   To To Democritus, Democritus, atoms atoms were were small small , ,

ToTo Democritus,Democritus, atomsatoms werewere smallsmall,, hardhard particlesparticles thatthat werewere allall mademade ofof thethe samesame materialmaterial butbut werewere differentdifferent shapesshapes andand sizes.sizes. AtomsAtoms werewere infiniteinfinite inin

number,number, alwaysalways movingmoving andand capablecapable ofof joiningjoining together.together.

ThisThis theorytheory waswas ignoredignored andand forgottenforgotten forfor moremore thanthan 20002000 years!years!

theory was was ignored ignored and and forgotten forgotten for for more more than than 2000
theory was was ignored ignored and and forgotten forgotten for for more more than than 2000

TheThe eminenteminent philosophersphilosophers ofof thethe time,time, AristotleAristotle andand

Plato,Plato, hadhad aa moremore respected,respected, (and(and ultimatelyultimately wrongwrong)) theory.theory.

ultimately ultimately wrong wrong ) ) theory. theory. Why? Why? Aristotle and Plato favored the earth,

Why?Why?

ultimately wrong wrong ) ) theory. theory. Why? Why? Aristotle and Plato favored the earth, fire

Aristotle and Plato favored the earth, fire, air and water approach to the nature of matter. Their ideas held sway because of their eminence as philosophers. The atomos idea was buried for approximately 2000 years.

DaltonDaltonss ModelModel

InIn thethe earlyearly 1800s,1800s, thethe EnglishEnglish ChemistChemist JohnJohn DaltonDalton performedperformed aa numbernumber ofof experimentsexperiments thatthat eventuallyeventually ledled toto thethe acceptanceacceptance ofof thethe ideaidea ofof atoms.atoms.

eventually eventually led led to to the the acceptance acceptance of of the the idea idea
eventually eventually led led to to the the acceptance acceptance of of the the idea idea

DaltonDaltonss TheoryTheory

Dalton Dalton ’ ’ s s Theory Theory   He He deduced deduced that that

HeHe deduceddeduced thatthat allall elementselements areare composedcomposed ofof atoms.atoms. AtomsAtoms areare indivisibleindivisible andand indestructibleindestructible particles.particles. AtomsAtoms ofof thethe samesame elementelement

areare exactlyexactly alike.alike. AtomsAtoms ofof differentdifferent elementselements

areare differentdifferent

CompoundsCompounds areare formedformed byby thethe joiningjoining ofof atomsatoms ofof twotwo oror moremore elements.elements.

ThisThis theorytheory becamebecame oneone ofof thethe foundationsfoundations

ofof modernmodern chemistry.chemistry.
ofof modernmodern
chemistry.chemistry.
theory theory became became one one of of the the foundations foundations ofof modernmodern chemistry.chemistry.
theory theory became became one one of of the the foundations foundations ofof modernmodern chemistry.chemistry.

ThomsonThomsonss PlumPlum PuddingPudding ModelModel

Thomson ’ ’ s s Plum Plum Pudding Pudding Model Model   In In 1897

InIn 18971897,, thethe EnglishEnglish scientistscientist J.J.J.J. ThomsonThomson providedprovided thethe firstfirst hinthint thatthat anan atomatom isis mademade ofof eveneven smallersmaller particles.particles.

first hint hint that that an an atom atom is is made made of of even

ThomsonThomson ModelModel

HeHe proposedproposed aa modelmodel ofof thethe atomatom thatthat isis sometimessometimes calledcalled thethe PlumPlum

PuddingPuddingmodel.model. AtomsAtoms werewere mademade fromfrom aa positivelypositively chargedcharged substancesubstance withwith negativelynegatively chargedcharged electronselectrons scatteredscattered about,about, likelike plumsplums inin aa pudding.pudding.

charged electrons electrons scattered scattered about, about, like like plums plums in in a a pudding.
charged electrons electrons scattered scattered about, about, like like plums plums in in a a pudding.
charged electrons electrons scattered scattered about, about, like like plums plums in in a a pudding.

ThomsonThomson ModelModel

CathodeCathode RayRay ExperimentExperiment ThomsonThomson studiedstudied thethe passagepassage ofof anan electricelectric currentcurrent throughthrough aa gas.gas. AsAs thethe currentcurrent passedpassed throughthrough thethe gas,gas, itit gavegave offoff raysrays ofof negativelynegatively chargedcharged particlesparticles (electrons).(electrons).

gave off off rays rays of of negatively negatively charged charged particles particles (electrons). (electrons).
gave off off rays rays of of negatively negatively charged charged particles particles (electrons). (electrons).

ThomsonThomson ModelModel

Where did they come from?

Thomson Thomson Model Model Where did they come from?   This This surprised surprised Thomson,

ThisThis surprisedsurprised Thomson,Thomson, becausebecause thethe atomsatoms ofof thethe gasgas werewere uncharged.uncharged. WhereWhere hadhad thethe negativenegative chargescharges comecome from?from?

were uncharged. uncharged. Where Where had had the the negative negative charges charges come come from?
Thomson concluded that the negative charges came from within the atom. A particle smaller than

Thomson concluded that the negative charges came from within the atom.

A particle smaller than an atom had to exist.

The atom was divisible!

Thomson called the negatively charged “corpuscles,” today known as electrons.

charged “corpuscles, ” today known as electrons . Since the gas was known to be neutral,

Since the gas was known to be neutral, having no charge, he reasoned that there must be positively charged particles in the atom.

But he could never find them.

no charge, he reasoned that there must be positively charged particles in the atom. But he
no charge, he reasoned that there must be positively charged particles in the atom. But he

RutherfordRutherfordss GoldGold FoilFoil ExperimentExperiment

InIn 1908,1908, thethe EnglishEnglish physicistphysicist ErnestErnest RutherfordRutherford waswas hardhard atat workwork onon anan experimentexperiment thatthat seemedseemed toto havehave littlelittle toto dodo withwith unravelingunraveling thethe mysteriesmysteries ofof thethe atomicatomic structure.structure.

do with with unraveling unraveling the the mysteries mysteries of of the the atomic atomic structure.
do with with unraveling unraveling the the mysteries mysteries of of the the atomic atomic structure.

RutherfordRutherfordss experimentexperiment InvolvedInvolved firingfiring aa streamstream ofof tinytiny positivelypositively chargedcharged alphaalpha particlesparticles atat aa thinthin sheetsheet ofof goldgold foilfoil (2000(2000 atomsatoms thick)thick)

particles at at a a thin thin sheet sheet of of gold gold foil foil (2000
particles at at a a thin thin sheet sheet of of gold gold foil foil (2000
particles at at a a thin thin sheet sheet of of gold gold foil foil (2000
particles at at a a thin thin sheet sheet of of gold gold foil foil (2000

RutherfordRutherfordss GoldGold FoilFoil ExperimentExperiment

MostMost ofof thethe positivelypositively chargedcharged alphaalpha particleparticle bulletsbulletspassedpassed rightright throughthrough thethe goldgold atomsatoms inin thethe sheetsheet ofof goldgold foilfoil withoutwithout changingchanging coursecourse atat all.all. SomeSome ofof thethe positivelypositively chargedcharged alphaalpha particleparticle bullets,bullets,however,however, diddid bouncebounce awayaway fromfrom thethe goldgold sheetsheet asas ifif theythey hadhad

HeHe

gold sheet sheet as as if if they they had had He He hit hit something

hithit somethingsomething solidsolid

knewknew thatthat positivepositive chargescharges repelrepel positivepositive charges.charges.

solid solid knew knew that that positive positive charges charges repel repel positive positive charges. charges.

http://http://chemmovies.unl.edu/ChemAnime/Rchemmovies.unl.edu/ChemAnime/R

http://http://chemmovies.unl.edu/ChemAnime/Rchemmovies.unl.edu/ChemAnime/R

UTHERFD/RUTHERFD.htmlUTHERFD/RUTHERFD.html

UTHERFD/RUTHERFD.htmlUTHERFD/RUTHERFD.html

  UTHERFD/RUTHERFD.html UTHERFD/RUTHERFD.html UTHERFD/RUTHERFD.html UTHERFD/RUTHERFD.html

ThisThis couldcould onlyonly meanmean thatthat thethe goldgold atomsatoms inin thethe

sheetsheet werewere mostlymostly emptyempty spacespace

AtomsAtoms werewere notnot

aa puddingpudding filledfilled withwith aa positivelypositively chargedcharged material.material. RutherfordRutherford concludedconcluded thatthat anan atomatom hadhad aa small,small, dense,dense, positivelypositively chargedcharged centercenter thatthat repelledrepelled hishis positivelypositively chargedcharged alphaalpha particleparticle bullets.bullets. HeHe calledcalled thethe centercenter ofof thethe atomatom thethe nucleusnucleus

the the atom atom the the “ “ nucleus nucleus ” ”   The The

TheThe nucleusnucleus isis tinytiny comparedcompared toto thethe atomatom asas aa whole.whole.

RutherfordRutherford

Rutherford Rutherford   Rutherford Rutherford reasoned reasoned that that all all of of an an

RutherfordRutherford reasonedreasoned thatthat allall ofof anan atomatomss positivelypositively chargedcharged particlesparticles werewere containedcontained inin thethe

nucleus.nucleus. TheThe negativelynegatively chargedcharged particlesparticles werewere scatteredscattered outsideoutside thethe

nucleusnucleus aroundaround thethe atomatomss edgeedge withinwithin aa lotlot ofof emptyempty space.space.

BohrBohr ModelModel

InIn 1913,1913, thethe DanishDanish scientistscientist NielsNiels BohrBohr proposedproposed anan improvement.improvement. InIn hishis model,model, hehe placedplaced eacheach electronelectron inin aa specificspecific energyenergy level.level.

model, he he placed placed each each electron electron in in a a specific specific energy
model, he he placed placed each each electron electron in in a a specific specific energy

BohrBohr ModelModel

Bohr Bohr Model Model   According According to to Bohr Bohr ’ ’ s s
Bohr Bohr Model Model   According According to to Bohr Bohr ’ ’ s s

AccordingAccording toto BohrBohrss atomicatomic model,model, electronselectrons movemove inin definitedefinite orbitsorbits aroundaround

thethe nucleus,nucleus, muchmuch likelike planetsplanets circlecircle thethe sun.sun. TheseThese orbits,orbits, oror energyenergy levelslevels,, areare locatedlocated atat certaincertain distancesdistances fromfrom thethe nucleus.nucleus.

Wave Model

Wave Model
Wave Model

TheThe WaveWave ModelModel

The The Wave Wave Model Model   Today Today ’ ’ s s atomic atomic
The The Wave Wave Model Model   Today Today ’ ’ s s atomic atomic
The The Wave Wave Model Model   Today Today ’ ’ s s atomic atomic

TodayTodayss atomicatomic modelmodel isis basedbased onon thethe principlesprinciples ofof wavewave mechanicsmechanics

AccordingAccording toto thethe theorytheory ofof wavewave mechanics,mechanics, electronselectrons dodo notnot movemove aboutabout anan

atomatom inin aa definitedefinite path,path, likelike thethe planetsplanets aroundaround thethe sun.sun.

TheThe WaveWave ModelModel

InIn fact,fact, itit isis impossibleimpossible toto determinedetermine thethe exactexact locationlocation ofof anan electron.electron. TheThe probableprobable locationlocation ofof anan electronelectron isis basedbased onon howhow muchmuch energyenergy thethe electronelectron has.has. AccordingAccording toto thethe modernmodern atomicatomic model,model, atat atomatom hashas aa smallsmall positivelypositively chargedcharged nucleusnucleus surroundedsurrounded byby aa largelarge regionregion inin whichwhich therethere areare enoughenough electronselectrons toto makemake anan atomatom neutral.neutral.

which there there are are enough enough electrons electrons to to make make an an atom
which there there are are enough enough electrons electrons to to make make an an atom

OrbitalsOrbitals

AA spacespace inin whichwhich anan electronelectron isis mostmost likelylikely toto bebe foundfound isis calledcalled anan orbitalorbital

ElectronsElectrons whirlwhirl aboutabout thethe

nucleusnucleus billionsbillions ofof timestimes inin oneone secondsecond TheyThey areare notnot movingmoving aroundaround inin randomrandom

not not moving moving around around in in random random patterns. patterns.   Location Location

patterns.patterns. LocationLocation ofof electronselectrons dependsdepends uponupon howhow muchmuch energyenergy thethe electronelectron has.has.

electrons electrons depends depends upon upon how how much much energy energy the the electron electron
electrons electrons depends depends upon upon how how much much energy energy the the electron electron
electrons electrons depends depends upon upon how how much much energy energy the the electron electron

ElectronsElectrons

ElectronsElectrons withwith thethe lowestlowest energyenergy areare foundfound inin thethe energyenergy levellevel closestclosest toto thethe nucleusnucleus ElectronsElectrons withwith thethe highesthighest energyenergy areare foundfound inin thethe outermostoutermost energyenergy levels,levels, fartherfarther fromfrom thethe nucleus.nucleus. ElectronsElectrons areare locatedlocated inin areasareas ofof highhigh probabilityprobability calledcalled orbitalsorbitals

in in areas areas of of high high probability probability called called orbitals orbitals  
in in areas areas of of high high probability probability called called orbitals orbitals  
in in areas areas of of high high probability probability called called orbitals orbitals  
in in areas areas of of high high probability probability called called orbitals orbitals  



IndivisibleIndivisible ElectronElectron NucleusNucleus OrbitOrbit OrbitalOrbital GreekGreek XX DaltonDalton XX
IndivisibleIndivisible
ElectronElectron
NucleusNucleus
OrbitOrbit
OrbitalOrbital
GreekGreek
XX
DaltonDalton
XX
ThomsonThomson
XX
RutherfordRutherford
XX
XX
BohrBohr
XX
XX
XX
WaveWave
XX
XX
XX