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The dynamic role of management functions in Coca-Cola Beverage Limited planning &
organizing process has been highly emphasized. This department has been identified as
the means through which the rapid industrialization and other developmental goals of the
organization can be achieved. This report explores the role of recruitment & selection
process of the organization. This report provides a defined role of other departments in
this process, role played by Head Office in this process, internal & external support of
different departments in this process. The findings about Coca- Cola’s strengths,
weekness, opportunity and strengths.



The focus of this report is basically to analyze the different management functions at
Coca cola beverages Pakistan limited Karachi. These functions include planning,
organizing, leading and controlling.

Coca-Cola laid the foundation of the beverage industry when it was formed in May 1886
in Atlanta. However it was not until 1895 that the idea of selling coke in bottles was
introduced. With the passage of time Coca-Cola gained popularity and its product began
to get recognized internationally. Thus from its mere beginning in 1886 Coca-Cola has
now been transformed into a strong multinational with its product being currently
recognized all over the world. Coca-Cola, in fact, has now become one of the most
famous and widely consumed brands in the world. It has not only established its footings
in the beverage industry but is currently heading the list of the most financially sound
companies in the world.

Although Coca-Cola is not a new name for the local market, Coca-Cola Beverages
Pakistan Limited (CCBPL) began its operations on 26 May 1996 in Pakistan. Coca-Cola
Beverages Private LTD (CCBPL) is a joint venture between Coca-Cola International,
Fraser and Neeves Singapore and Package Ltd. Initially it acquired National Beverages
LTD Karachi and later acquired International Beverages LTD Hyderabad .In May 1996
Fraser and Neeves, a Singapore based bottler of Coke, bought off the local bottlers in
Karachi. Not long after it went on to acquire the bottling plants in Hyderabad as well.
Since then coke has made an impressive impact on the local market by increasing it’s
availability as well as its volume share. CCBPL has decided to expand its operations in
Pakistan by buying other bottlers all over Pakistan. Implementing their plans of
acquisitions of other plants they have recently acquired all the plants in Pakistan as they
are inclined to give more attention to increase the market share in Pakistani market.


Coca cola Beverages Pakistan has a very narrow product range. It has the following
brands in Pakistan.

• Coca Cola
• Sprite
• Fanta

These products are sold in the market in different sizes of bottles. These sizes are
available for all its products.

• 250ml
• 250 ml (Non Returnable)
• 300ml
• 1 liter
• 1.5 liter pet




“Without a strategy the organization is like a ship without

A rudder, going around in circles. It’s like a tramp that
Has no place to go to”
(Joel Ross and Michael Kami)


Strategic planning, formulation and implementation are core management functions.

Although strategic management has been in existence for only a few years its
implications have been firmly and strongly rooted in organizations that want to stand in
good stead. Among all the varied things that managers have to deal with and act upon,
few affect an organization’s performance more lastingly than do the task of charting an
organization’s future course, figuring out the what strategic moves and approaches to
undertake, and then orchestrating execution of the chosen strategy as close to perfection
as is managerially possible. One of the biggest factors in determining whether the
organization performs up to its potential or not is the extent to which the management
team performs, the strategy making and strategic implementing functions. Indeed,

“Good strategy and good implementation are the most trustworthy

Proof of good management”

A strategic plan, then, is the bridge to the future, which an organization uses to lead from
what it is to what it envisions it can become.

The environmental factors affecting Coca Cola can be divided into:


The Coca Cola Beverages Pakistan limited has a very strong potential in the
future as Pakistani population is increasing and there is a shift in the consumer perception
of its conservatism and the stigma, which was attached to it as an American product, is
losing its effect. Increase in the level of inflation is a major concern for the company as
the purchasing power of the people is eroding day by day. As there is an increase in the
dual career families and women has started working in the offices with a great
enthusiasm so it can be a capitalizing point for the company. The legal/political
environment does have much effect on this company. As there has been a continuous
change in the governments and the policies related to the duties and taxation so it is
relatively less immune to changes in this sectors of the environment.


As Coca Cola has acquired 6 more plants in the country from their
franchisees so it will increase their share as they are having more professional people in
their management. The consumers of CCBPL are people from all the cultures and all the
level of incomes. It is a company who is distributing its products to the masses. Apart
from this they have some exclusive customers who are categorized as industrial
customers these are: KFC, PIA, Pearl Continental, Sheraton, etc. With the acquisition of
the new plants they have hired MBAs just to increase the level of professionalism. Their
major competitors are Pepsi, RC cola, and some local products, which are manufactured
in the cottages. Apart from these they consider all the thirst quenching products as their
indirect competitors like Nestle, Haleeb, Milo etc. As for as suppliers are concerned they
import their raw materials from the parent company.


Coca-Cola vision statement:

“We will become the best and the biggest anchor bottler in the

CCBPL has a very flat hierarchy, consisting of just three layers. Thus, the top
management handles most of the goals setting and planning activities.
The objectives of this company can be classified as:


The strategic goals are considered when company is thinking of the long-term
objectives but at coca cola strategic objectives and goals are set up for three years. These
strategic goals are decide by the top management with consultation by the parent
company head quartered at Singapore. However, they are reviewed every year in the
annual meeting to make sure that they are in line with the changing environment. They
• To continue to be an organization providing the quality products to the valuable
• To select and retain the professional people for the organization.
• To project an outstanding corporate image.
• To satisfy the customer through extra ordinary service and an excellent service
along with the complete tactical and operational support.


The top management of the company on an annual basis devises these goals
together with the consultation of the lower level employees. Then each departmental
director is given these annual tasks that then subdivide it on the quarterly or monthly
basis to have a proper check to ensure that these objectives are achieved, mainly through
marketing, is the job of the director of each division. For this year, these goals are:

• To increase the revenues by 20% as compared to last year.

• To increase the total retail customers by around 10%.
• To increase the market share by 5%.
• To reactivate the discontinued customers by 30%.


Operational goals are decided by the top management in consultation with the
lower level employees. They are following the concept of management by objectives

(MBO). Each employee is assigned its goals and is told what is expected of him and then
he is evaluated on the basis of certain rules and regulations followed evenly by the
For example: a sales man is given following tasks, duties and certain targets: Each
salesman has to oversee around 100-125 outlets. The frequency of visits to each outlet
depends upon the sales of that particular outlet. Normally, a salesman has to visit a single
outlet thrice a week i.e. every alternate day. This means that a salesman visits at least 20-
30 outlets per day.

The salesman has three basic functions to perform.

• To find new customers,

• To retain existing ones,
• To bring back the discontinued accounts.

Each salesman has to bring in at least three new accounts every month. These may either
be new customers or the reactivation of the discontinued accounts.
Sales manager is made responsible for the performance and achievement of operational
goals and is assigned to set certain milestones for the salesman so as to give him proper
feedback, which definitely helps the salesman achievement of the above-mentioned


“Competing in the market place is like a war. You have

Injuries and casualties, and the best strategy win”
(John Collins)
The decision-making process in CCBPL is centralized. The model used is classical,
whereby the top management takes their time while making decisions and explore and
evaluate all the possible alternatives before choosing the rationally economic and feasible

Programmed decisions are made only by the top management with no consultation what
so ever with the line managers while the daily and routine decisions are made by the line
managers at the middle level with the prior permission or approval from the general

Decisions, which are normally taken at the top management, are related to
• The package positioning
• Trade discounts
• Advertisements

• Price reductions
• Distribution

While recruiting new employees, the top management approves the vacancies
and asks the Human Capital Department to conduct the written test and this test normally
is conducted for the employees at the lower level. Then prospective applicants are short
listed through the interview process. Then the Business and operations manager or
general manager personally interviews the employees and then makes the final decision
about the selection himself.

Hence, the style of decision-making followed by the CCBPL model is AII. That is,
the decisions are made on the basis of the inputs provided by the lower level employees
and the managers at the middle management level. Top management asks for the
suggestions and ideas of his subordinates and then takes the final decision himself.

However, the remaining decisions, which are mainly related to the daily
operations, are made by the respective managers who are eventually made responsible for
the results.
The management is very much cooperative and encourage its employees to come up with
new ideas related to their duties and the work they do so as to increase the overall
efficiency of the organization and eventually increasing the profits.


Analysis of the organization’s structure

CCBPL is divided into different departments on the basis of functional
approach. People are grouped together on the basis of common skills and work activities.
This approach helps company in achieving the economies of scale through high quality
of problem solving and lesser needs of the training of the employees.

CCBPL is headed by the General Manager. There are five departments at

CCBPL namely, Production, Industrial Relations, Sales and Marketing, Human Capital,
and Finance and Accounting.

• Production Department is responsible for the overall production of the

CCBPL. There are 8 plants of CCBPL operating throughout the country.
Different areas are distributed the products on the basis of nearness so as to
reduce the transportation cost.

• Industrial Relations Department is responsible for dealing with the
problems related to the working environment of the employees and the
issues related to the labor unions.

• Sales and Marketing Department is responsible for the making the

product available in the market and to deal with the issues related to the
advertisements of the products.

• Human Capital Department is responsible for looking for the efficient

pool of workers, selecting the professionals and makes them happy so that
they should stick to the company. The Human Capital department deals
with management level employees’ grievances.

• Finance Department deals with the overall costing and pricing of the
products. This also handles the import related issues of the company.
Accounting department assists the sales department in making invoices and
payroll entries.


The work specialization is high, as each Manager is made responsible for only a
particular function, which is his expertise. There is no boredom or monotony as each
salesman is meeting the different sort of person and the work is challenging and
promotions are based on performance there is no monotony and boredom.


The salesman has to report to the sales manager. These sales managers are
responsible for the performance of the sales man and they are required to provide them
timely feedback. They are also required to provide the guidance at any time and related
to the issues related to the performance of the employees. These salesmen are monitored
on an on-going basis by their manager, which serves as an effective control mechanism.

The employees have a lot of authority, responsibility and information relative to the
work that they are doing. However, all the information and authority relative to the work
is provided by their respective managers.
The procedure is same in the other departments as well.


There is a high degree of delegation and delegation is done with proper authority
and responsibility. Each manager is also made accountable for the actions of his
subordinates. Proper instructions and guidance is given at time to time to achieve the
objectives by the respective managers.

Apart from the delegating every manager is responsible for

motivating his juniors so as to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the
employees. Human Capital department also helps employees realize their
potential and motivate them through different methods. They make sure that they
give the best in return to their managers. This increases their performance, the
quality of their work, and customer satisfaction.


The span of control is low as there are 3-5 employees reporting to their managers.
This low structure is due to the fact that organization is a vertical and different people
have different works to do so. It is also difficult to control more than five people and still
manage the resources and people in an effective manner.


As far as resource allocation is concerned, the managers of each department have the
authority to utilize the organizational resources whenever needed for the functions of his
department. They have to get the approval from the other managers if these assets belong
to other managers. These resources may be capital, human or any other available.


Recruitment is normally done on the required positions and not on the standby basis.

Recruitment starts whenever a supervisor or sales manager needs a salesperson and it is

first approved by the general manager before sending it to the human resources

All the vacancies are first internally advertised so that all the employees who fulfill
the requirements can avail this opportunity. If there aren’t any suitable persons for a
particular job then human resource department search its data bank and if there is no
suitable person then at last it is advertised in the newspaper but it is rarely the case at
coca Cola for the sales man.
Selection is based on different criterion for different positions. Education requirements
are the first and the most important and are the first part of the screening of the

After the screening stage, applicant is called for the aptitude test. For a salesman job
simple arithmetic and general knowledge is tested. Know how of English is also
necessary in some cases.
After passing the aptitude test applicant is asked to appear for an interview. This
interview is normally carried out by the sales and human resource department. Purpose
of this interview is to confirm the data and claims, which the applicant has produced and

If the applicant is selected, he is asked for four sureties or any other references, which
he can make and sometimes, human resource department also like to confirm from their
Ex-Employers about the conduct and the reason for leaving of the applicant.

At Coca cola on the job training is given the utmost importance. At first a sales man
is given information about the product, sales environment and company policies and
procedures. Ethical behavior is emphasized most so as not to create any sort of bad habits
which can cause great problems for the company. Normally a new sales man is supposed
to work under another salesman to learn the basics of selling techniques and the overall
environment in which he will be working.

A salesman is then allowed to work under the salesman but he is asked to perform
all the operations by his own. These include filling out the route card, dealing with the
customers, communicating with to loader, cash management, setting the visi cooler and
the next days order to be loaded. After doing this entire if has any problems in learning
then he is guided by salesman, market developer, and sales manager if required.

Apart from this on the job training, the company also has some in-house training
facilities. The company has a sales hall in which all the sales personnel are given some
tips regarding the changes in the selling environment and how to improve efficiency and
efficacy. These tips are normally given by the general manager.

Coca Cola also arranges some type of seminars, work shops and modules related to
the sales management, Forecasting of the daily sales, merchandising, selling skills,
supervisory techniques and other areas related to the sales.

Coca Cola does not have any library and special trainers but they do have the
separate space for the training and they also use some sort of videos to elaborate and
show the examples of effective selling skills and techniques.

To maintain the professional employees company has a policy of promotion from

within. Promotions are based on the performance, which is measured very objectively.
Apart from this the company pays its employees more than the industry wages. Not only
the wages and salary but different other benefits are also given to employees to motivate
and retain them in the organization. The company also has an effective incentive plan.



The general manager of the company is at the topmost position in the organizational
hierarchy; Even though he is not directly involved in its operations he is responsible for
taking major administrative decisions regarding the company policy and Operations.
Departmental managers are responsible for leading and directing their subordinates.
These leaders focus on these areas:
• Increasing business with a coordinated approach by helping each other in its
• Encouraging the employees to give new ideas so as to increase the customer

As there is a very high degree of delegation and participation so they believe that the
leadership style used in all the departments of CCBPL is democratic. The concept of
team management is only practiced in the sales and marketing department as they have to
work in dependence of one another. Subordinates are given a fair treatment and are dealt
in a very good manner so as to give them a feeling that you are not only an employee but
also a member of the family.

The managers at CCBPL are very supportive as they use teams and treat subordinates
as equals, and have a highly open communication system. They are participative since
they encourage the involvement of the employees in decision-making and make use of
group discussions. However, some monetary and non-monetary rewards are used to
create a high involvement from the employees especially at the lower level.


Employee motivation is given a very high consideration at CCBPL. At CCBPL they
have the policy of promotion from within policy. Promotions are bestowed on the
performance basis. This performance base motivates employees to work hard and
achieve the goals, which are very objective and are perceived achievable by most of the

Apart from this compensation plan is also a motivating factor as CCBPL is paying
more than the industry averages. Not only this different campaigns and competitions
between the employees itself are also used to motivate the employees.

Managers play a vital role in motivating employees as they give them the timely
feedback about their activities. They also help them solve different problems, which can
be job related or personal problems. Working environment and a challenging milestone
are a major factor in employee motivation at CCBPL.

There is open environment in CCBPL, which discourages barriers among the
members sharing information. The top management consults lower ranks before deciding
on the policy matters and then these things are communicated downwards. Every
employee is allowed to see the general manager at any time if he has any problem. Inter
departmental communication is done through formal and informal manners. Grapevine is
also used to get the feedback about the employees’ views about the management.


The Top management at coca cola also tries to emphasize to follow the prescribed
culture of the organization. CCBPL has formal and documented values that are
communicated to all the employees. To ensure proper application of the rules and
behaviors of the values, the top management act as role models, and closely administer
and review their employee’s behaviors.

Control is done through the evaluation, which is based on the very objective basis.
Certain criteria are fixed in advance and if these criteria are not met then the employees
are asked and evaluated for the reasons and corrective actions are taken by the respective
managers. Different departments have different criteria and different reporting and
controlling systems. The reporting, evaluation and control system of sales departments is

5.1: Sales Person’s reporting system:

Every sales person directly reports to market developer of his area. A sales person is
supposed to give him a daily report of his activities and he is free to ask for any kind of
assistance from the market developer.

Every salesperson is given an attendance punch card, which records his arrival and
departure time. He is also given a route call card, which he is supposed to fill out. This
card includes all the details about the visits of the outlets, time spent on these outlets,
sales made on these outlets, time spent on these outlets, sales made on these outlets, time
during traveling, names of the loaders and salesperson’s time in and time out of the

Apart from this a sales person is also given a form to fill up for the next days order
to be loaded in the truck. This basically tells about the total sales of the salesman
according to the brand and the size of the product. This basically is used by the human
resources department to evaluate the performance and calculating the total salary of the

5.2: Sales Person’s Evaluation System:

Every salesperson’s evaluation is done on quarterly basis. Evaluation helps the
company to promote the people to the higher levels of the organization. This evaluation
also motivates salespeople to work hard and get the promotion or at least the monetary
rewards, which are given not only to the best salesman but the best market developer and
the best sales manager of the year.

Performance is evaluated on the basis of performance development plan.

Performance is measured on the basis of achievement of the targets, which are set and
communicated at the very beginning of the year to each sales manager, each quarter to
every market developer and every month to each salesperson. This performance
development plan evaluates the sales people on the basis of call slips, Route call, Call

completion, Effective and productive call, attendance, growth in sales, market
development and the punctuality of the salesman.



Coca-Cola has a brand name that holds its own prestige in the world market. The
multinational entity of the Coca-Cola Pakistan gives it an edge upon other competitors.
The management of this beverage company comprises of one of the most professional
people and the strong financial firmness guarantees it a solid backing to sell its products.


It is rated as the world’s number one cold drink and is famed for its internationally
well-known brand name “Coca-Cola”.


The product quality has improved due to upgraded quality of packaging and the
ameliorated liquid in comparison to its competitors. My personal experience is that the
product quality and taste is far better than any product of it’s kind and also the
improvement in packaging and the commencement of plastic shells has received a
favorable response from the dealers and the loaders.


The regular supply of the products is strength of the company. The products are
regularly supplied to the dealers through proficient means of delivering and distribution
has given Coca-Cola Pakistan an added advantage. Coke trucks supply the products
regularly and always have the desired products for the dealers.


In the past Coca-Cola was not available in abundance but now stiff measures has
been taken to increase its availability. The increase in the procurement of Coca-Cola has
done through new supply and distribution measures and advertising campaigns


Its marketing strategy is very aggressive which aids it in further and incessant
production and distribution of its products. It gives trade offers to its dealers for storing
more and more coke products and the signage strategies and agglomeration of all the
marketing strategies proves that it has a very aggressive marketing strategy. This will
help Coca-Cola Pakistan in strengthening its integrity in the market.



One of the major weaknesses as in majority of companies is the lack of co-

ordination between the management and the worker. In short there is a weak point in
their Human Resource management. Workers feel that they are being exploited and are
not given the remuneration that they deserve. The management fault is that they think
that the worker is indefatigable and can work tirelessly. The tough schedule results into
limited rest for them and there are no holidays.


The employees lack motivation simply because of the huge communication gap
between them and the management. Thus grievances reign high for they feel that their
problems and recommendations are not being aired the top management. The workers
expect to be adequately satisfied in terms of their salary and compensations.


The decision making process in the company is highly centralized and the workers
feel that there exists no proper authority existing in the firm. The salesmen feel
dissatisfied for they are totally powerless to make any decisions themselves. In dealing

with their buyers they have not the slightest authority to allow them any credit or


The product is not available to the extent that it should be. If Coca-Cola wants to
make an impact in the market they will have to do more than they are doing at the
present moment.


Promotional activities have been greatly neglected in many areas. In an interview
with the route officer and a few salesmen it was clear that for areas such as Nazimabad
and Liaquatabad no heed has been paid both to the singe and promotional activities. This
indeed results in a high degree of difficulty for coke in penetrating the market.


The huge amount paper work takes a lot of time, which could be effectively
channeled to other important activities. The salesmen have to do a lot of clerical work i.e.
he has to fill a lot of forms (call slips, route riding forms, cash memos, clearing bills etc.)
at the shops and also after arriving back at the factory. At the same time the management
also complains that the paper work leads to a lot of pilferage by the employees. All such
activities cause an overall great reduction in productivity.


In the factory there is a co-ordination lag between the activities of the marketing,
sales and repairing departments. The sales department complains that the marketing
department does not pay any heed to their problems. The sales department also
complains that the repair of the visionless is always delayed. Until or unless Coca-Cola
restructures its co-coordinating activities the availability of its product would be always



We know that Coke came to Pakistan in 1996 and since it is working hard to develop
its market. We think that Coca-Cola can secure new dealers and buyers of its product as
still large part of the country is still devoid of its products. It can promote its products in
the younger generation by targeting the new outlets being opened due to improved law &
order situation and a growing population.



In areas such as Liaqatabad, New Karachi, Glimmer etc Fake beverages by the name
of coke are being supplied by unknown people. Such activities really hamper the
company’s name and its brand originality. Above all the fake beverages supplied are
almost similar to the taste of the original Coke brand and not everyone can decipher the
difference between the original and the fake product. This is in fact a great threat to
Coca-Cola for unworthy people is taking advantage of its brand name and spoiling its
good name in the market.


For the purpose of promoting its product, Coca-Cola’s competitors have been doing
much more than Coke itself is doing. For example Pepsi’s signage operations have been
very successful. In addition to this Pepsi is also giving very liberal credit policies to its
dealers, which gives the dealers a greater incentive to buy Pepsi rather than Coke.


The mango season is a great threat to Coca-Cola’s operations and also its sales.
According to statistics during the mango season Coca-Cola’s sales are reduced by about
25-30%. This is indeed a huge blow to Coca-Cola especially since it is a fairly new
company in the market. The greatest affect is on the revenue from the rural areas where
mango drinks take over. However this is one factor that Coke cannot do anything about
for it is not in their hands. If the mango season is to come nothing can be done about it.

Coca Cola being the multinational and reputed organization apply all the good traits of
planning, organizing, leading and controlling from top to bottom.

When we look at the planning procedure of the Coca Cola it runs very smoothly in every
department. There is very well integrated effort of all the department of the organization
to organize and control an individual for a particular task

It’s forecasting planning system according to the company requirements in which each
department has to justify the employees it required in the Annual Business Plan of the

The Head Office f the organization has complete check on the every function of the
Taking about organizing and controlling all the work done by their respective
departments as the company is divided in different departments planning starts (strategic
planning) from top authority and afterwards organizing and leading and controlling is
done as per the requirements of each and every department.

8: Recommendation
Coca cola is a multinational company and running their business successfully. Americans
took over the organization in 2000. They introduced many advantageous programs to the
employees which were very lucrative such as life insurance, health and safety insurance
and many other reward-giving policies. But there are some draw backs in there
organization, these are

Coca cola does not use advertisement media extensively as most of the jobs are filled by
referrals and unsolicited applications files. Unsolicited applications files are good
approach but most of the people do not know about such methods.

Coca cola does not hire fresh graduates at middle level management, this creates bad
image of the organization. They should hire fresh graduates as it may give them new and
fresh ideas.

To some extend they include the lower management staff in decision mailing so their
should be
De-centralized structures of planning to some extend.

Their should be proper communication cycle from top to bottom employees so their
should be no chance of miscommunication.

And at the end their should be proper motivational practices should be implement to
increase the moral of employees so they work more efficiently.

9: Conclusion
This report gives complete briefing about all the planning process carried out in an
When planning is completed how to carried out all the phase of organizing different tasks
in different departments according to the requirements. This report gives complete
information about the working of coca cola in market a complete overview of strengths,
weakness, opportunities and threats.