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. .

2004

, .
.

24

1.
1.
()
, , . ,
,
.
u + iv = f (x + iy) ,
x, y, u, v R, R2 R2 ,
(
u = u(x, y) := Re f (x + iy) ,
v = v(x, y) := Im f (x + iy) .

R2 R2 .
.
, , ,
.
. .

,

24.

e =

X
xk
k=0

k!

X
1
=
(x2 )k .
2
1+x
k=0

, . : ?
, 1
, , ex

1 + x2
, . . R. x , , . ex
, , +. x2 + 1 = 0, x = i,
i 1 .
. . (17071783),
. (17891857), . (18261866), . (1815
1897).

. , ,
, , , , .
- , .

1.

2. ,

C 1 ,
. . z , z = x + iy ,
x, y R, i ( ) i2 = 1.
:
Re z = x z ;
Im z = y z ;
z = x iy , z = x + iy .
z :
() , Im z = 0;
() , Re z = 0.
, R C. :
Im z = 0 z = z ;
Re z = 0 z = z ;
(z) = z ;
z+z
Re z =
;
2
zz
Im z =
;
2i
z = Re z + i Im z .
, .
:
(
Re z1 = Re z2 ,
def
z1 = z2
Im z1 = Im z2 .

C 3 z = x + iy (x, y) R2
1

. 1, . 2, 3 .

24.

C R2 z = x+iy (x, y) , -
. , , . ( ) , ( ) . , ( ) . ,
z = x + iy z = x iy , .
C
, C .
(r, ),

. (
x = r cos ,
cos + i sin = ei

y = r sin
:
z = x + iy = r (cos + i sin ) = r ei ,

(24.1)

. , , ,
, .
r > 0 R, (24.1), (r = |z|) ( = Arg z)
z = x + iy .
z = x + iy p
2
2
|z| = x + y > 0. , z z = |z|2 .
0 z .
(. . -2 z )
2

(),
() .

1.

x
y
, sin =
r
r
, 2k , k
. , , 0 6 < 2 ,
3 = arg z . ,
Arg z = arg z + 2k , k Z.
C
, ,
. .
p
(24.2)
d(z1 , z2 ) := |z1 z2 | = (x1 x2 )2 + (y1 y2 )2 .
cos =

, C R2 . , C
.
C , .

3.

C
, . . , 6 C. b := C t {}
C
b , . C
,
b K , K C . . C
b
. C
.
1.
, , .
J
(. 1). R3 , , 3

, < 6 .

24.

S2 : 2 + 2 + 2 = 1. = 0 , O , O
. S2 P (, , ) 6= N (0, 0, 1),
N (0, 0, 1) S2 . P N z = x + iy = (x, y, 0)
P N = 0. z 7 P
C S2 N .
b S2 ,
7 N (0, 0, 1), C
.
,
, N (0, 0, 1) z = (x, y, 0)
0
0 1
=
=
= t,
x0 y0 01
= tx , = ty , = 1t.

(tx)2 + (ty)2 + (1 t)2 = 1 t2 x2 + t2 y 2 + 1 2t + t2 = 1 ,


t, P
t=

2
2
=
.
x2 + y 2 + 1 |z|2 + 1

, P

2x

=
,

2+1

|z|

2y
,
= 2
|z|
+
1

|z|2 1

.
= 2
|z| + 1

(24.3)

C, , C. , ,
(, , ) (0, 0, 1) |z| +, . .

1.

z = . , (24.3),

+ i 6= 1 ,
z = 1

= 1 .
, , S2 . , . S2 R3 . ,
b = C t {} . I
C
,

b (
N
C
),
P

.
O
y

.


C : . .1.
d : C2 R+
(24.2). : C2 R+
: (z1 , z2 ) z1 z2 C
(1 , 1 , 1 ) (2 , 2 , 2 ) S2 . (24.3),
x

p
p
(z1 , z2 ) = (1 2 )2 + (1 2 )2 + (1 2 )2 = 2 2(1 2 + 1 2 + 1 2 ) =
s

2x2
2y1
2y2
|z1 |2 1 |z2 |2 1
2x1

=
= 22
1 + |z1 |2 1 + |z2 |2 1 + |z1 |2 1 + |z2 1|2 1 + |z1 |2 1 + |z2 |2
p
2 [(|z1 |2 + 1)(|z2 |2 + 1) 2x1 x2 2y1 y2 (|z1 |2 1)(|z2 |2 1)]
p
p
=
=
|z1 |2 + 1 |z2 |2 + 1
p
2 x21 + x22 + y12 + y22 2x1 x2 2y2 y2
2|z1 z2 |
p
p
p
=
=p
.
|z1 |2 + 1 |z2 |2 + 1
|z1 |2 + 1 |z2 |2 + 1

24.

10
,

2|z1 z2 |
p
,
|z1 |2 + 1 |z2 |2 + 1

(z1 , z2 ) = p

(24.4)

b
C.
M C ,
z1 , z2 M
2|z1 z2 |
p
m |z1 z2 | 6 p
6 2|z1 z2 | m (0, 2) .
2
|z1 | + 1 |z2 |2 + 1

4.


f : A C , A C.
(. . ).
z = x + iy A, w = u + iv C,

w = f (z) u + iv = f (x + iy) .

(24.5)

,

(
u = Re f (x + iy) ,
v = Im f (x + iy) ,
,
u(x, y) := Re f (x + iy) , v(x, y) := Im f (x + iy) ,

u = u(x, y) ,
v = v(x, y) .

, (24.5) . ,

1.

11

(24.5)
R2 R2 . R4 , , , , ,
R R R2 R.
, . ,
z w -
f .
z ,
w . , .
. w = f (z)
, . . u = |f (z)|. b A C,
b C
b
f : A C,
. , A, f (A).
, , ( ) , (24.4).
, , . .

24.

12

2.

1. R- C-
1. l : C C R-,

a) z1 , z2 C : l(z1 + z2 ) = l(z1 ) + l(z2 ) ;
b) z C R : l( z) = l(z) .
2. l : C C C-,

a) z1 , z2 C : l(z1 + z2 ) = l(z1 ) + l(z2 ) ;
c) z C C : l( z) = l(z).
R C, C-
R-. .
.
2. (a) R- l
l(z) = a z + b z , a, b C ;
(b) C- l
l(z) = a z , a C ;
(c) R- l C-,
l(i z) = i l(z), i .
J (a) z = x + iy , x, y R, R-
l,
l(z) = l(x + iy) = l(x) + l(iy) = x l(1) + y l(i) =
z+z
zz
z+z
zz
l(1) +
l(i) =
l(1) i
l(i) = az + bz ,
2
2i
2
2

=

a :=

l(1) il(i)
,
2

b :=

l(1) + il(i)
.
2

2.

13

(b) l(z) = z l(1) = a z , a = l(1).


(c) l R- , l(iz) = i l(z). (a)
l(z) = az + bz . z iz ,
l(iz) = i (az bz) .
,
l(iz) = i l(z) = i (az + bz) .
l(iz), ,
b = 0, . . l(z) = a z , , C-.
, R- C-, . .
l(z) = a z .
l(iz) = a (iz) = i a z = i l(z) . I
. R- C-
. a = + i, b = + i, z = x + iy, w = u + iv ,
, , , , x, y, u, v R, R- w = az + bz
u + iv = ( + i)(x + iy) + ( + i)(x iy) .
,
(
u = ( + )x ( )y ,
v = ( + )x + ( )y .

(24.6)

, R- l : C C
l : R2 R2 .

u u

x y +
2
2
2
2
2
2

=
J =
+ = + = |a| |b| .
v
v

x y
, (24.6) (. .
R2 ), |a| = |b|.
|a| 6= |b| (. . ). ,
, , .

24.

14

|a| > |b| (24.6) , |a| < |b| .


C- l : z 7 w = a z a 6= 0
|a|
, a = |a| ei . 0:
l : z 7 |a| z 7 |a| ei z = a z = w .
,
C- .
. C- w = az |a|2 ,
a = 0.

2.

D C , . . ,
f : D C .
3. f
z D, l : C C,
,
f (z + h) f (z) = l(h) + o(h) h 0 .

(24.7)

R- C-
, (24.7) l
R- C- .
f

u
: D R2 , D R2 ,
v
f = u + iv , , R-
4
u
(x, y), z = x + iy .
(x, y) 7
v
4 .

. (. 3 ).

2.

15

C- R-, C- R- . C
.

:=
i
;
:=
+i
,
(24.8)
z
2 x
y
z
2 x
y
.
3. (a) R- f
z h
Df (z)(h) =

f (z)
f (z)
h+
h;
z
z

(24.9)

(b)
R- z C ,
:
f (z)
= 0.
(24.10)
z
J (a) h = h1 + ih2 , h1 , h2 R,
(24.7) l(h)
l(h) = l(h1 + ih2 ) = h1 l(1) + h2 l(i) .
, (24.7) h2 = 0
f (x + iy + h1 ) f (x + iy)
f (z)
= lim
= l(1) .
h1 0
x
h1
, (24.7) h1 = 0
f (x + iy + ih2 ) f (x + iy)
f (z)
= lim
= l(i) .
h2 0
y
h2

24.

16

,
h + h f (z) h h f (z)

=
2
x
2i
y
h + h f (z)
h h f (z)
=

=
2
x
2
y

!
1 f
f
1 f
f
f (z)
f (z)
=
i
h+
+i
h=
h+
h.
2 x
y
2 x
y
z
z

Df (z)(h) = l(h) = h1 l(1) + h2 l(i) =

(b) R- C-,
R- (24.9) C-, . .
(24.10). I
. (24.10) ( ). f = u + iv , (24.10)

!
1

+i
(u + iv) = 0
(24.11)
2 x
y
, ,

u v

x y = 0 ,

u v

+
= 0.
y x

(24.12)


.
. ,
R- , C-.
, , f (x + iy) = u + iv := x + 2iy .
, u = x , v = 2y .
u
v
v
u
= 1,
= 0,
= 0,
= 2.
x
y
x
y
1 6= 2, (24.12)
.

2.

17

4. f (
) z C,
, f (z)

0.
z

. , .
.

3.

5. f : U C
z U C
f (z + h) f (z)
.
(24.13)
h0
h
, . , (24.13) , h 0
C. , ,
,
.
, . , (24.13), :
(a) ( )
;
(b) , f 0 (z) := lim

24.

18

.
, , , , , , ,
.
. , .
4. :
(a) f 0 (z);
(b) f C- z .
J (a)(b)
f (z + h) f (z)
= f 0 (z) C .
h0
h
lim

f (z + h) f (z)
= f 0 (z) + o(1) h 0 ,
h
0
, f (z) = A,
f (z + h) f (z) = A h + o(h) h 0 .

(24.14)

, f C z .
(b)(a) (24.14). h 6= 0,
:
f (z + h) f (z)
= A + o(1) .
h
h 0, f 0 (z) = A.
6. f z [0, 2)
f (z)
f (z + h) f (z)
:= lim
.
|h|0
z
h
arg h=

5. (a) f R- z ,

f (z) f (z) f (z) 2i


=
+
e
.
z
z
z

(24.15)

2.

19

f (z)
z
, f C- z ,
(b)

f (z) f (z)
=
= f 0 (z) .
z
z
J (a) f R- z ,
Df (z)(h) =

(24.16)

f (z)
f (z)
h+
h.
z
z

h = |h|ei , f
f (z + h) f (z) =

f (z)
f (z)
|h|ei +
|h|ei + o(h) h 0 .
z
z

h,
f (z + h) f (z) f (z) f (z) 2i
=
+
e
+ o(1) h 0 .
h
z
z
|h| 0, arg h = ,
(24.15).
(b) (24.15) f (z)
= 0,
, , . .
z
. . f C- z .
f (z)
f (z)
h=
, Df (z)(h) =
h = f 0 (z)h,
z
z
(29.6). I
.
1) f (z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) C- z ,
f 0 (z) , ,
:
f 0 (z) =

f (z)
u
v
v
u
u
u
v
v
f (z)
=
=
+i
=
i
=
i
=
+i .
z
z
x
x
y
y
x
y
y
x

2) 4(b), f z z f 0 .

24.

20

3) . f (z) c
d
c 0. f (z) = z = x + iy C, ,
C,
dz

z=
+i
(x + iy) 0. ,
z
2 x
y
P (z) = a0 z n +a1 z n1 +. . .+an C,
P (z)
f (z) = z . f (z) =

Q(z)
C, ( ). ,
,
, 5 .
,
,
.
4) , C- . , , f (z) = |z|2 = x2 + y 2 .
f
1
=
z
2

+i
x
y

(x2 + y 2 ) = x + iy = z .

,
z = 0 .
C- z = 0,
.

4.
7. f : D C , D C
z D, h 7 Df (z)(h)
(
h) . f
D,
D D.
5

f ,
, . . z1 6= z2 = f (z1 ) 6= f (z2 ).

2.

21

6. f R-
z , Df (z)(h) 6 0. :
(a) f z ;
(b) f C- z .
J (a)(b) ,
f (z)
f (z)
h+
h
z
z
, . .
, h,
. , . .
i
Df (z)(i)
= = i.
h = 1 , h = i, :
Df (z)(1) 1
,
h 7 Df (z)(h) =

f f
f
f
+
; Df (z)(i) =
i
i.
z
z
z
z
,
!

f
f
f f
,
i
i=i
+
z
z
z
z
Df (z)(1) =

f (z)
= 0, . . f C- z .
z
(b) (a) (b),
h 7 Df (z)(h) = f 0 (z) h, . .
. I

. 1) , z f Df (z)(h) = f 0 (z) h, f 0 (z) = |f 0 (z)| ei arg f (z) .


, , h 7 Df (z)(h) ,
h.
2)
f (z + h) f (z) + f 0 (z) h ,
o(h) h 0,
Df (z)(h) = f (z) h

22

24.

. , o(h) h 0
f : z 7 f (z) , z , , f (z),
. , .
, ,
z , , w = f (z), . ,
, .
, , .
3) 6 , ,
D , D f (D).
: , f : D
G D .

5.

8. u : D R D R2 ,
2u
2u

,
x2
y 2
2u 2u
u := 2 + 2 = 0 .
x
y
7. , f : D C , D C
2-
D. D .
J
z = x + iy , u(x, y) = Re f (x + iy) , v(x, y) = Im f (x + iy) .
f ,

2.

u
v

x
y
u
v

.
y
x

23

(24.17)

x, y
,


v
v
2u 2u
+
=

0
x2 y 2
x y
y x
.
(24.17) y , x,
,


2v 2v
u
u

0.
+
=
y 2 x2
y x
x y
, u, v . I
.
, ,
(24.17). . :
u(x, y) ?
.

8. D C ,
u : D R D. v : D R,
u : D R,

(x,y)
Z

v(x, y) = C +

u
u
dx +
dy ,
y
x

(x0 ,y0 )

(x0 , y0 ) D , C R , (x0 , y0 ) (x, y), D.

24.

24

J (24.17),
(x,y)
Z

v(x, y) = C +
(x0 ,y0 )

(x,y)
Z

dv = C +

v
v
dx +
dy
x
y

(x0 ,y0 )
(x,y)
Z

=C+

u
u
dx +
dy
y
x

(x0 ,y0 )

,


u
u
=
x x
y y
u. I

6.

,
. , , . , , ,

. , ,
, ,
.
z = x + iy , ,
z = x + iy :
v (z) = v1 (x, y) + iv2 (x, y) .
, D C
v1 v2 . , , . , , ,

2.
()

rot v (z) =
x
v1

25

. .

j k


v2 v1
=

k = 0,
y
x
y
v2 0

v1
v2

0, v1 v2

x y . ,

6 ,

v2 v1

0.
x
y
, d = v1 dx+v2 dy
= (x, y), . .
.
, , , . . .
, . .
div v(z) =

v1 v2
+
0.
x
y

, d = v2 dx+v1 dy = (x, y). dy


v2
(x, y) const d(x, y) = v2 dx+v1 dy 0, . .
= .
dx v1
, (x, y) = const (x, y) v1 + iv2 . ,
(x, y) = const.
, .

d = v1 dx + v2 dy d = v2 dx + v1 dy 0 ,
6

, ,
(x) (y ).

26

24.

=
,
v1 =
x
y

v2 =
=
.
y
x

,
,
f (z) := (x, y) + i(x, y)
D.
.
,
. f D,
f 0 (z),
f 0 (z) =

+i
= v1 iv2 .
x
x

,

v1 + iv2 = f 0 (z) .
,
D.
, ,
D,
.
. f
, h (. . 2), , 1, . . lim f 0 (z) = 1.
z

, . , f (z) = (x, y)+i(x, y), , (x, y) 0,


(x, y) . ,
f : Im f (z) = 0,
z . , f (z) z
z , Im z > 0.

, f {Im w > 0}.


, .
t = z 2 t
, h2 +.
= t + h2
y
z


,
.
w =

. , x

w = z 2 + h2 ,
.2.

z 2 + h2 z
z .

25


1. -

1. - . .

9. -
,
az + b
,
(25.1)
cz + d
a , b , c , d .
(25.1)

a b

c d
a(cz
d)

+
+
c(az
b)
w0 (z) =
=
6 0 ,
(25.2)
(cz + d)2
(cz + d)2
w = w(z) :=

a b
=
:=
6 0.
c d
, - (25.1) , (25.1) ,
. (25.1)

1. -
1
, (25.1)


z +
= 1.
w=
,

z +

29

(25.3)

a
b
c
d
:= , := , := , := ,

a b

= 1 .
=
c d

(25.3) .
(25.1) c = 0,
a
b
w = Az + B , A = , B = .
(25.4)
d
d
, . . A = 1

w =z+B.
B = 0 (25.4) C-
w = Az.
A = |A| ei , C-
( )
= |A| z
:
w = ei
, , (25.4) A = 1, B = 0
w = z , .

30

25.

9 ( ).
.
J - ,

a b
az + b
= 1.
w=
,
c d
cz + d
M (a, b, c, d) C4 ,
ad bc = 1 .
M C4
, . . (a0 , b0 , c0 , d0 ) M , C3 . ,
a0 d0 b0 c0 = 1, a0 , b0 , c0 , d0 . , , a0 6= 0.
(a0 , b0 , c0 ) , a 6= 0 .
a, b, c 1 + bc
, d : d =
.
a
b0 6= 0, c0 6= 0, d0 6= 0.
M
(a , b , c , d) (a , b , c , d), M 0 ,
. ,
M 0 - : , (a, b, c, d),
(a, b, c, d) -
w=

az + b az b
=
. I
cz + d cz d

10 ( ). .

1. -

31

J
L1 (z) =

a 1 z + b1
c1 z + d1

L2 (z) =

a2 z + b2
c2 z + d2

- .
(L1 L2 )(z) = L1 (L2 (z)) =

a1 L2 (z) + b1
=
c1 L2 (z) + d1

a2 z + b2
+ b1
(a1 a2 + b1 c2 )z + (a1 b2 + b1 d2 )
c2 z + d2
=
=
.
a2 z + b2
(c1 a2 + d1 c2 )z + (c1 b2 + d1 d2 )
+ d1
c1
c 2 z + d2
, - . , -
(). ,
- . E(z) z .
a1

(L E)(z) = L(E(z)) = L(z) = L E = L .

(E L)(z) = E(L(z)) = L(z) = E L = L .


- L
az + b
.
cz + d

w=

w (cz + d) = az + b z (cw a) = b dw ,
dw + b
.
cw a
L1 ,
z=

(L1 L)(z) = L1 (L(z)) z L1 L = E .

25.

32

(L L1 )(z) = L(L1 (z)) z L L1 = E .


, -
. I
. 1. , -
. , ,
L1 (z) =

1
, L2 (z) = z + 1 .
z

1
1
=
;
L2 (z)
z+1
z+1
1
(L2 L1 )(z) = L2 (L1 (z)) = L1 (z) + 1 = + 1 =
.
z
z
(L1 L2 )(z) = L1 (L2 (z)) =

1
z+1
6=
, L1 L2 6= L2 L1 .
z+1
z
2. - . .
1) , . .

w = Az + B ,

A , B C , A 6= 0 ,

- . ,
L1 (z) = A1 z + B1 , L2 (z) = A2 z + B2 .
(L1 L2 )(z) = L1 (L2 (z)) = A1 L2 (z) + B1 = A1 (A2 z + B2 ) + B1 =
= A1 A2 z + (A1 B2 + B1 ) .
, . (L2 L1 )(z) = A1 A2 z + (A2 B1 + B2 ) , , A1 B2 + B1 6=
6= A2 B1 + B2 , . A C{0} ,
B C, ,
, C C{0}.
.
a) , . . w = z + B .
C.
b) , . . ,
w = z + n , 6= 0 , n Z.
Z .
c) ,
w = z + n1 + m2 ,

n , m Z ,

1. -
1 , 2 , , Im

33
1
6= 0.
2

Z2 .
d) C- w = A z ,
C := C0.
e) , . . w = |A| z , A 6= 0
R+ .
f) , . . w = ei z (
R), .
g) , n N
w = k z , := 2in,
n-.
h) {L0 , L1 , L2 , L3 , L4 , L5 },
L0 (z) z , L1 (z) =

1
1
z1
z
, L2 (z) = 1z , L3 (z) =
, L4 (z) =
, L5 (z) =
.
z
1z
z
z1

2.
- .
w(z) = Az + B C.
b = C t {}, w() := .
C
A 6= 0 , lim w(z) = lim (Az+B) = = w(). z
z
b
, , C,
( (24.4)).
- , .

a b
az + b
6= 0 , c 6= 0
w(z) =
,

c
d
cz + d
d
- . z =
c
z = ,

d
a
w
:= , w() := .
c
c

34

25.



d
az + b
lim w(z) = lim
==w
,
c
z dc
z dc cz + d
az + b a
lim w(z) = lim
= = w() ,
z
z cz + d
c
- , d
b (
z = z = , C
c
(24.4)).
10. - - ,
b
C.
- f :
z 7 w , z , w ( )
.
11.
z = t, z

1 , z 6= ,
t = (z) := z
0 , z = .

z = .
12. f : z0 7 w0
z0 , w0 . z0 , ,
w = f (z)
.
11. - b C.
b
C
J
w(z) = Az + B, A 6= 0, w() = . , -

1. -

35

b
C.
z(w) =

wB
, w 6= , z() = .
A

,
b , C
b
C.
b . z 6= , w0 (z) A 6= 0
C.
(. 6). z = ,
,

1 , w 6= ,
1 , z 6= ,
= w
t= z
0 , w = ;
0 , z = .

1 A
= +B,

A + Bt Bt
0
(0) =

(A + Bt)2

t
, (0) = 0 .
A + Bt

=
t=0

1
6= 0 .
A

, z = .
- ,


az + b a b
d
a
w(z) =
,
,
w

= .
=
6
0
,
c
=
6
0
,
w()
=
cz + d c d
c
c
b
, C.

a
d
dw + b
, z() = , z
= .
z(w) =
cw a
c
c
b
- , , C.
, - b C.
b , . z 6=
C

36

25.

d
z 6= ,
c

a b

c
d
a(cz + d) c(az + b)
0
w (z) =
=
6= 0 ,
(cz + d)2
(cz + d)2

.
1
z = , z = ,
t
a
+ b a + bt
a
w(t) = ct
=
, w(0) = ;
c
+ d c + dt
t

b a
a b

d c
c d
w0 (0) =
= 2 6= 0 .
(c + dt)2
c
t=0

1
d
z = , , w = ,
c


cz + d
d
=
=0;
,
az + b
c

a b
a b

c
d
c
d
d
c2

0
=

=
=
6 0.

2 =

d
c
(az + b)2
a
b
ad

z=
+b

c
c
d
c
b I
, C.
. 1. ( 27) , , : - (25.1).
2. (24.4) z1 z = z2 , 2 + 2 + 2 = 1 :
|dz|
ds = 2
. , ,
|z| + 1
b S2 ,
(24.3) C
.

1. -

37

b ( , C-b
13. O C
)
, .
b
12. C-
C, b
. C-

Ezz + F z + F z + G = 0 ,

(25.5)

E , F , G , F C,
b
E , G R. , (25.5) C, , .
J

(
2 + 2 + 2 = 1 ,
(25.6)
A + B + C + D = 0 ,
A, B, C, D R .
(24.3) z = x + iy ,
A

2x
2y
|z|2 1
+
B

+
C

+ D = 0.
|z|2 + 1
|z|2 + 1
|z|2 + 1

,
2Ax + 2By + (D + C)|z|2 + (D C) = 0 .
E = D + C , G = D C ,
A(z + z) Bi(z z) + E|z|2 + F = 0 .
F = A iB , (25.5), E, G R,
E , F , G , A , B , C , D . ,
(25.5), E = D + C , G = D C , F = A iB
A, B, C, D. (25.5) (25.6).
, , , . I

38

25.

b
13 ( ). C -
b
C-.
J
w = L(z) = Az + B , A = |A| ei 6= 0, L() = .
L = L3 L2 L1 ,
L1 (z) = |A| z , L2 (t) = ei t , L3 () = + B :
L

1
2
3
L : z 7
|A| z = t 7
ei t = 7
+B = w.

L1 (), L2 ,
L3 .
, , . . . , , . .
L(z) = Az + B , .
L - ,
, . .

az + b a b
L(z) =
,
6= 0, c 6= 0 .
cz + d c d

a b
d
ad

a z+
+ b

c
d
az + b
a
c
c
L(z) =
=
=
cz + d
cz + d
c c(cz + d)
L = L3 L2 L1 ,

1
a a b
t = L1 (z) := c (cz + d) , = L2 (t) = , L3 () =
.
c d
t
c
L1 L3 , , . ,
1
L2 (t) = .
t
Ett + F t + F t + G = 0

1. -

39

1
b
C-
t. t = ,

E
F
F
+ + + G = 0.

,
G + F + F + E = 0 .
b
12 C-
1
. , L2 (t) =

t
. L = L3 L2 L1 , L1 , L2 , L3
, L . I
b
,
14. C-
b
C-
(. .
, ,
).
b
15. C-

b
C- (. . C,
,
).
b
. C-
-
b
C-.
J 11 13 , -
b
b
C-
C-.
b
( C-).
b
b
, C-
Cb
. C-
,
b
C-
. I

40

25.

l
z

l
z
z
z

. 3.

. 4.

b
3. , C-.

z , z , , 3 4.
16. z z l,
l, l.
, z l,
, . .
z l z = z .
, = l.
14. , z z
l, ,
b
C-,
z z ,
l.
b
J , C-,

b
z z , l. C-

, z z , , z z
l.

1. -

41

z z - L.
l, , L l.
z z l.
, OKz OKz ,
,
L. , |zK| = |z K|,
z z l.
, z z l.
, z z ,
l. z z L. ,
l , z z , ,
O L l. , l L . I
17. z z l R a,
a,
|z a| |z a| = R2 .
, z z l :
(

|z a| =

R2
,
|z a|

arg(z a) = arg(z a) .
1

z a=

R2
(z a)

(25.7)

z a, z .
, a l
. , (25.7)

(z a) (z a) = R2 .
1

(25.7) , - .
, .

25.

42

L
z

l
K

O
K

a
z

. 5. 14

z
z

. 6. 15

z = z , |z a| = R ( l).
, z l, .
15. , z z
l, b
, C-,
z z ,
l.
b
J , C-,

z z , l. , , z z , l. , l. , z z
l. L ,
z z . l l. , . 2 :
|z a| |z a| = R2 , . . z z .
, z z l. , z z ,
l , , l.
, z z . 2

:
,
.

1. -

43

, L, K
. |z a| |z a| = R2 = |aK|2 ,
aK l. ,
K l L . I
b
. , C-
. 16 17
b
C-.
, (), . b
C-,

14 15 : ,
b
z z C-,

b
, C-
b
C-.

16. - b
, C-,
b
, C.
b
J l C-,
z, z , b C
b - l, w : C
b
. C-,

z z . 14 15 l.
b
C-
-
b
b
C-. L = w(l) C, w = w(z), w = w(z ). w b
C-,
w w .
b
C-

b
C- L. 14 15 ,
b
w w C-
L. I
4. -

17. , - , , -

44

25.

.
J - ,
. . w(z) = az + b , a 6= 0 . lim (az + b) = , w() = .
z

a b
az + b
6= 0, w() = .
, w(z) =
,
c d
cz + d

az + b
lim
= ,
z cz + d
, c = 0, a 6= 0, . . w(z) =
a
b
= z + . I
d
d
18. - b C,
b
L : C
b C.
b
C
J z1 , z2 , z3 C
w1 , w2 , w3 C .
b C
b
- L : C

L(z1 ) = w1 ,
L(z2 ) = w2 ,

L(z3 ) = w3 .
-
b C
b Q : C
b C
b
P : C

P (z1 ) = 0 ,
Q(w1 ) = 0 ,
P (z2 ) = 1 ,
Q(w2 ) = 1 ,

P (z3 ) = ;
Q(w3 ) = .
, z1 , z2 , z3 , w1 , w2 , w3 ,
:
P (z) =

z z1 z2 z3
w w1 w2 w3

, Q(w) =

.
z z3 z2 z1
w w3 w2 w1

(25.8)

L
L = Q1 P L(z) = Q1 (P (z)), -

1. -

45

w
w w1 w2 w3
z z1 z2 z3

.
w w3 w2 w1
z z3 z2 z1

(25.9)

z1 , z2 , z3 w1 , w2 , w3 ,
P Q , (25.8), zk
wj . , z3 = , w2 = ,
(25.8), z3 w2 ,
P (z) =

z z1
w w1
, Q(w) =
.
z2 z1
w w3

(25.10)

.
, L = Q1 P .
b C
b
, T : C

T (z1 ) = w1 ,
T (z2 ) = w2 ,

T (z3 ) = w3 .
Q T P 1 . -
. ,

(Q T P )(0) = 0 ,
(Q T P 1 )(1) = 1 ,

(Q T P 1 )() = .
17
(Q T P 1 )(z) = az + b ,

(Q T P 1 )(0) = b = 0 ,
(Q T P 1 )(1) = a = 1 .
, Q T P 1 = E ( ),
T = Q1 P = L. I

46

25.

1. - , b
C-
l b
C- .
b
J , C-
,
.
z1 , z2 , z3 l w1 , w2 , w3 , 18 , -
L : L(z1 ) = w1 , L(z2 ) = w2 , L(z3 ) = w3 . b
L C-
l
b
C-
, . . = L(l). I
2. - , b
C-
C-.
b
J l C-,

b
C-.
z1 , z2 , z3 l,
,
w1 , w2 , w3 , ,
. , -
b C,
b (wj = L(zj )), ,
L : C
. I
. 1) - Im z > 0 |w| < 1.
J w(a) = 0. w(a) = ( ). ,
w=k

za
.
za

k , z = x R,

x a

= |k| .
1 = |w(x)| = |k|
x a
za
. I
za
2) - .
J
x1 7 u1 , x2 7 u2 , x3 7 u3 ,

, k = ei , , w = ei

1. -

47

xk , uj R, x1 < x2 < x3 , u1 < u2 < u3 .



w u1 u2 u3
z x1 x 2 x3

.
w u3 u2 u1
z x3 x 2 x1
w ,
w=

az + b
, a, b, c, d R ,
cz + d

a b

c d
0
w (x) =
> 0,
(cx + d)2

a b

c d > 0 . I

3) - |z| < 1
|w| < 1.
J a 7 0.
1
7 , ,
a
za
,
w=k
1
z
a
k . |z| = 1, z = ei ,

ei a
1 aei

= |k| |a| .
1 = k
= |k| |a|
i 1
1 aei
e
a
ka = ei ,
w = ei
|a| < 1, R. I

za
,
1 az

48

25.

2.
, -
1.

z 7 w z C,

w = z n,

(25.11)

n N, n > 1, . (25.11), , ( ),
w0 (z) = n z n1 .
, w0 (z) = 0 z = 0.
z C0 (25.11) , z = 0 .
(25.11) z w z = rei , w = ei . (25.11)

(
= rn, r > 0 ,
i
n in
(25.12)
e = r e

= n
( , 2 ). = n ,
z = 0 , n . , z1 , z2
|z1 | = |z2 | , arg z1 = arg z2 +

2
k,
n

(25.13)

k Z, w, . .
z1n = z2n . , w = z n (. . ) C n > 1.

2.
z

49

0
. 7.
w = z 6

. 8.
z = w16

w = z n . ( ) , . ,
, , (25.13).
,
, ( ). ,
w = z n {0 < arg z < 2n}.
r = const, = const
(25.12), w
{0 < arg w < 2} ( ). , w = z n
r = c = cn , = 0 = n0 ,
z = 0 n .
, z = w1n {0 < arg w < 2},
w = 0 n . , ,
,
, .

50

25.
2.

3 :

1
1
w=
z+
,
(25.14)
2
z
C0.

1
1
w0 =
1 2
2
z
C0, z = 1. ,
(25.14) ,
C0, z = 1.

1
1
1
1
z+
= , lim
z+
=
lim
z 2
z0 2
z
z
(25.14) z = 0
z = ,
w(0) := ,

w() := .

, , z = 0 z = .
, . z = 0 7 w = ,
,
1
w = , w = = 0 ,

1 1
1
2z
=
,
z+
, = 2

2
z
z +1
z = 0.
0 (0) = 2 6= 0, (25.14) 3

(18471921) ,
. .

2.

51

z = 0. z =
1
w = , w = = 0 ,

1
, z = t = 0 .
t

1 1
2t
1
+ t , = 2
(25.14), =

2 t
t +1
0
(0) = 2 6= 0. ,
z = .
(25.14).
z1 6= z2 ,

1
1
1
1
z1 +
=
z2 +
.
2
z1
2
z2
z=

1
=0
(z1 z2 ) 1
z1 z2
, z1 z2 6= 0,
z1 z2 = 1 .
,
(25.14) , z1 z2 , z1 z2 = 1. b
C-
{|z| < 1} {|z| > 1}.
(25.14)
{|z| > 1} (. 9). z = rei , w = u + iv ,
(25.14) :

1
1
1
1
i
w=
z+
v + iv =
re + i
(25.15)
2
z
2
re

52

25.

1
1

u = 2 r + r cos ,

1
1

r
sin ,
v =
2
r

(25.16)

r > 1 , 0 6 6 2 .
. r , , ,
(25.16) . ,
.
{r = r0 | r0 > 1}.
(25.16) r = 1,
(
u = cos , 0 6 6 2 ,
v 0.
[1, 1] , , 0 2 .
. , , (25.16) r = r0 > 1,

1
1

u = 2 r0 + r cos ,
0

1
1

r0
sin .
v =
2
r0
z = 1, ,

1
1
1
1
a :=
, b :=
r0 +
r0
2
r0
2
r0
,
u2 v 2
+
= 1,
a 2 b2

2.
z

53

. 9.

, a2 b2 = 1. , {r = r0 | r0 > 1}
1.
= 0 , r > 1.
(25.16) = 0, r > 1.

(
1
1
r+
, r > 1,
u=
2
r
v 0.

[1, +]. = ,
2
(
u 0
,

1
1
r
, r > 1.
v=
2
r
, i . 3
0 = 0 =
.
2
(25.16) = 0 .

1
1

u = 2 r + r cos 0 ,

1
1

r
sin 0 .
v =
2
r

54

25.

r,
u2
v2

= 1,
cos2 0 sin2 0
p
cos2 0 + sin2 0 = 1. ,
= 0 , r > 1, ,
, (cos 0 ; sin 0 ).
.
,
b
{|z| > 1} C[1;
1]. , , r = const = const,
, . , , . 6, (. 7).

z = 1,

1
1
2
z+
1
z1
w1
2
z

.
=
=
1
1
w+1
z+1
z+
1
2
z
,

U

z 7

z1
T
U 1 1 +
= t 7 t2 =
7
= w.
z+1
1

(25.17)

U U 1 - , , . T : = t2
t = 0. , z = 1.
z = 1.

1
1
1
w =
z 7
z+
z
2
z
, {|z| < 1} {|z| > 1}.
b
{|z| < 1} C[1,
1].

2.
z

55

2
1

. 10. L


(25.17), , l, z = 1 (0; 2)
, , w = 1
2 . b
l C,
.
z L,
1 l. ,
L , , , ( ), 10.
, . . . . (18691942)
.

3.
eiy = cos y+i sin y ,
z = x + iy
w = ez := ex (cos y + i sin y) .

(25.18)

25.

56

w = u + iv , :
(
u = ex cos y ,
z
w=e

(25.19)
v = ex sin y .

.
1 . 4 C.
J (25.19),
u
= ex cos y ,
x

u
= ex sin y ,
y

v
v
= ex sin y ,
= ex cos y .
x
y
,
u v
=
,
x y

u
v
= ,
y
x

C . I
2 . .
J
d z
x iy
d
e =
(e e ) = eiy ex = eiy ex = ex+iy = ez ,
dz
x
dx
d z
e = ez . I
dz
3 . C C ,
z C.
J
q
z
x
x
|e | = |e (cos y + i sin y)| = e cos2 y + sin2 y = ex 6== 0 ,

. .

4 ,

C, . ,
z .

2.

57

d z
. . C .
e = ez ,
dz
, . I
4 . ( ).
ez1 ez2 = ez1 +z2 .
J z1 = x1 + iy1 , z2 = x2 + iy2
sin cos,
ez1 ez2 = ex1 (cos y1 + i sin y1 ) ex2 (cos y2 + i sin y2 ) =
= ex1 +x2 [(cos y1 cos y2 sin y1 sin y2 ) + i(sin y1 cos y2 + cos y1 sin y2 )] =
ex1 +x2 [cos(y1 + y2 ) + i sin(y1 + y2 )] = ex1 +x2 +i(y1 +y2 ) = ez1 +z2 . I
5 . z 7 ez , 2i.
J , k Z
ez+2ki = ez e2ki = ez (cos 2k + i sin 2k) = ez .
, 2ki . ,
. T = T1 +iT2 , T1 T2
R.
ez = ez+T = ez eT1 +iT2 = ez eT1 eiT2 = ez eT1 (cos T2 + i sin T2 ) .
ez ,
eT1 (cos T2 + i sin T2 ) = 1 .
, T1 = 0 , T2 = 2k . I
6 .
, z1 , z2 C,
z1 z2 = 2ki k Z.
w = ez
{z C | 0 < Im z < 2}

25.

58

2i

. 11. () ()

2 , 11. ,
z = x + iy , w = ei w = ez

= ex , < x < +
ei = ex+iy
= y, 0 6 y 6 2 .
, x = x0 , 0 < y < 2
= ex0 , , . y = y0 (0 , 2), < x < +,
= y0 , > 0. , w = ez
{0 < Im z < 2}
C, . ,
w = ez , {0 6 Im z 6 2} ,
w, .
, { < Im z < }, 0 < < < 2 , { < arg w < }. = ,
. ,
{x < 0, 0 < y < 2} {x > 0, 0 < y < 2} ,
. , ,

2.

59

{a < x < b; c < y < d}, ,


{ea < < eb ; c < < d}.

4.
w = Ln z ,
z = ew . , , ,
Ln z .
. ,
. ,
.
, w = ln z . , z = ew
{0 < Im w < 2}. w = u + iv , z = rei ,

(
u = ln r ,
eu eiv = rei ,
v = i ,
ln r (. . )
. ,
w = ln z = ln r + i .
r > 0, 0 < < 2 ( ,
),

d
1
1
1
ln z = d w = w = .
dz
e
z
dw e
, ,

25.

60

.
, w = ln z , ,
w = ez .
, . 11, .
, , , w = Ln z
w = ln z
Ln z = ln z + 2ik = ln r + i( + 2k) ,
r = |z|, = arg z [0, 2), k Z.

,
d
d
1
Ln z =
ln z = .
dz
dz
z
5.
w = z ,
/ Z,

z := eLn z .
Ln z = ln |z| + i(arg z + 2k) ,
, .
{a < arg z < b}
{a < arg w < b} ,
7 8.
. , = i
w = z i = ei(ln |z|+iArgz) = ei ln |z|argz2n .
z = i ii = e22n , n Z. n = 0,
ii = e2 .

w = az , (a 6= 0),
az := ezLn a

2.

61

() , Ln a.

6. cos, sin, ch, sh



eiz + eiz
cos z :=
,
2
ez + ez
ch z :=
,
2

eiz eiz
sin z :=
,
2i
ez ez
sh z :=
.
2

(25.20)

, ,
cos, sin, ch, sh C , , :
cos2z + sin2 z = 1 ,

sin z +
= cos z ,
2
sin iz = i sh z ,
sh iz = i sin z ,

ch2 z sh2 z = 1 ,
cos iz = ch z ,
ch iz = cos z ,
... .

(25.20), ,
cos, sin, ch, sh ,
.

cos, sin, ch, sh, cos, sin
2 , ch, sh 2i.

cos, sin,
ch, sh, .

z = x + iy , x, y R ,

62

25.

| cos(x + iy)| = | cos x cos iy sin x sin iy| = | cos x ch y i sin sh y| =


q
q
2
2
2
= cos2 x ch y + sin x sh y = cos2 x(1 + sh2 y) + sin2 x sh2 y =
q
q
2
2
2
2
= cos x + (cos x + sin x) sh y = cos2 x + sh2 y > | cos x| .
, | cos(x + iy)| > | cos x|, y = 0. , , ,
cos z
, +k ,
2
k Z. .
,
. w = cos z .
w0 = sin z , sin z = 0 z = k , cos z , k , k Z. , cos z
k .
{ < Re z < 0; Im z > 0}. cos,
eiz + eiz
w = cos z =
2
:

1
1
t+
= w.
z 7 = iz 7 e = t 7
2
t

= iz

2
. t = e ,
{|t| 6 1 , Im t > 0}., ,

1
1
( ) w =
t+

2
t
{Im t > 0; |t| > 1} . , cos (. . 12). ,

2.

63

i
1

. 12.
w = cos z

w = cos z
{0 < Re z < ; Im z > 0} {Im w < 0}.
, w = sin z
{| Re z| < ; Im z > 0}. ,
2
+ z , sin
sin z = cos
2
:

z 7 + z = 7 cos = t 7 t = w .
2

. 2
. , ,
. ,

64

25.

sin . ,
ch, sh.

7. , cos, sin, ch, sh


cos, sin, ch, sh ,
.
w = Arccos z
z = cos w. ,

p
eiw + eiw
z=
e2iw 2zeiw + 1 = 0 , eiw = z z 2 1 ,
2

1
1
w = Ln (z z 2 1. , Arccos z = Ln (z z 2 1).
i
i
, ,

Ln .
w = Arcsin z z = sin w
eiw eiw
.
z=
2i
e2iw 2izeiw 1 = 0
w,
p
1
Arcsin z = Ln (iz 1 z 2 ) .
i
w = Arch z ew + ew
, e2w 2zew + 1 =
z = ch w =
2
= 0.
p
Arch z = Ln (z z 2 1) .
w = Arsh z ew ew
z = sh w =
, e2w 2zew 1 =
2

2.
= 0.
Arsh z = Ln(z

65

z 2 + 1) .

8. tg , ctg , th , cth
tg , ctg , th , cth

sin z
cos z
; ctg z =
;
cos z
sin z
sh z
ch z
th z :=
; cth z :=
.
ch z
sh z
, , .
. , tg ctg ,
th n cth
i. o
| Re z| <
tg.
4

tg z :=

sin z
eiz eiz
1 e2iz
w = tg z =
=
=i
,
cos z
i(eiz + eiz )
1 + e2iz
tg :
1
z 7 2iz = 7 e = 7 i
= w.
1+
n
o
, | Re z| <

4
{|w| < 1} (. . 13).

9. , tg, ctg, th, cth


tg, ctg, th, cth ,
.
.

w = Arctg z z = tg w.
sin w
eiw eiw
e2iw 1
z=
, z=
, iz = 2iw
,
cos w
i(eiw + eiw )
e +1
(e2iw + 1) iz = e2iw 1 , e2iw (1 iz) = 1 + iz ,

w=

1
1 + iz
1
1 + iz
Ln
, . . Arctg z = Ln
.
2i
1 iz
2i
1 iz

w = Arcctg z z = ctg w,
1
= tg w. ,
z
Arcctg z =

1
z +i
Ln
.
2i
z i

w = Arth z z = th w.
sh w
ew ew
e2w 1
z=
; z= w
, z = 2w
,
ch w
e + ew
e +1
(e2w + 1)z = e2w 1 , e2w =

w=

1+z
,
1z

1
1+z
1
1+z
Ln
, . . Arth z = Ln
.
2
1z
2
1z

, , w = Arcth z 1
z = cth w, = th w.
z

z +1
1
.
Arcth z = Ln
2
z 1
, ,

2.

67

. 13.
tg

.
. ,
w = Arctgnz o
{|z| < 1} | Re w| <
.
4

26


1.
. .

1.
: [, ] D D C, . f : D C
. (2- )
f z
Z
Z
f (z) dz := f [(t)] 0 (t) dt ,
(26.1)

, .
(x, y) R2 ,

z = x + iy ,

u(x, y) := Re f (z) , v(x, y) := Im f (z) ,

f (z) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) ,

(t) := x(t) + iy(t) ,

(26.1)
f (z) dz = [u(x, y) + iv(x, y)] d(x + iy) =
= (u + iv)(dx + idy) = (u dx v dy) + i (v dx + u dy) .
, (26.1)
2-
Z
Z
Z
f (z) dz = (u dx v dy) + i (v dx + u dy) .
(26.2)

1.

69

,
(26.1) 2- .

Z
(z a)n dz ,

(26.3)

n Z, |z a| = r ,
. : z = a + r eit , 0 6 t 6 2 . (26.3)
(26.1), n 6= 1
Z

Z2
Z2
(z a)n dz = (reit )n rieit dt = irn+1 ei(n+1)t dt =

t=2

rn+1 i(n+1)t
rn+1 2i(n+1)
=
e
e

1
=0
=

n+1
n+1
t=0

. n = 1, (26.3)
:
Z2 it
Z2
Z
rie dt
dz
=
= i dt = 2i .
za
reit

,
Z
|za|=r

(
2i n = 1 ,
(z a)n dz =
0
n Z , n 6= 1 .

(26.4)


.
1 (). a , b C,
Z
Z
Z
[af (z) + bg(z)] dz = a f (z) dz + g(z) dz .
(26.5)

J
. I
.

70

26.

18. 1 : [, ] C 2 : [, ] C
, 1 () = 2 ().
1 2 : C,
(
1 (t) t [, ] ,
1 2 (t) :=
(26.6)
2 (t) t [, ] .
,
, , , 10 () 6= 20 ().
2 (). 1 2
,
Z
Z
Z
f (z) dz = f (z) dz + f (z) dz .
(26.7)
1 2

J (26.1)
. I
. 1.
.
2. , - ().
3. :

[, ] C (, () = ),

(26.1) ,
(26.1) () .

3 ().
1 : [1 , 1 ] D 2 : [2 , 2 ] D ,
Z
Z
f (z) dz = f (z) dz .
(26.8)
1

J , () 1 2
,
: [2 , 2 ] [1 , 1 ] , 2 = 1 . -

1.

71

(26.1),
Z

Z2
f [2 ( )] 20 ( ) d =

f (z) dz =
2

Z1

f [2 ( (t))] 20 ( (t)) 0 (t) dt =


1

Z1
=

Z
f [1 (t)]

10 (t) dt

f (z) dz . I
1

. (26.8) ,
(26.1) ,
( ).

4 ( ).
(26.1) .
J ,
(26.1) . I
5 ( ). : [, ] D -
, f : D C ,

Z
Z

f (z) dz 6 |f (z)| ds ,

ds = | 0 (t)| dt .
J < .
Z
f (z) dz =: I = |I| ei ,

(26.9)

26.

72

Z
Z

f (z) dz = |I| = ei I = ei f (z) dz = ei f [(t)] 0 (t) dt =

Z
=

Z
6

e f [(t)] 0 (t) dt =
i

e f [(t)] 0 (t) dt =

Re ei f [(t)] 0 (t) dt 6

Z
|f [(t)] 0 (t)| dt =

|f (z)| ds .

(26.51). I
. |f (z)| 6 M < +,

f (z) dz 6 M l ,

l .
J (26.51),

Z
Z
Z

f (z) dz 6 |f (z)| ds = |f [(t)]| | 0 (t)| dt 6

Z
0

6M

| (t)| dt = M

ds = M l . I

2. .
1

Z
ZZ
Q P
(P dx + Q dy) =

dx dy ,
(26.10)
x
y
D
1 .,

., 5 , . 22, 2.

1.

73

D C - D,
2 , P , Q
D t D. (26.10) ,
.
19. D C D. f : D C D t D.
Z
ZZ
f
f (z) dz = 2i
dx dy ,
(26.11)
z
D

xOy , D .
J u := Re f , v := Im f . D,
D (26.10). ,

Z
ZZ
v u
dx dy ;
(26.12)
(u dx v dy) =
+
x y
D

ZZ

(v dx + u dy) =
D

u v

x y

dx dy ;

(26.13)

i ,

Z
Z
Z
f (z) dz = (u+iv)(dx+i dy) = [(u dx v dy) + i (v dx + u dy)] =
D

ZD
Z
v u
u v
=
+

+i
dx dy =
x y
x y

ZZ
ZDZ

f
1
+i
(u + iv) dx dy = 2i
dx dy .
= 2i
2 x
y
z
D

2 .

. , D
, D .

74

26.

(26.11) . I
. ,
dz dz = (dx i dy) (dx + i dy) = dx dx i dy dx + i dx dy + dy dy =
= 2i dx dy .
, (26.11) :
Z
ZZ
f
f (z) dz =
dz dz .
z

(26.14)

( ). D C
- D, f D D t D.

Z
f (z) dz = 0 .
(26.15)
D

J f
f
, . .
0. , z
, (26.14)
, (26.14) (26.15). I
. .
.

2.

,
(26.15), ,

2.

75

, .
,
.
19. ()
f : D C D
F : D C, , F 0 (z) = f (z) z D. f U a D
F : U C, , F 0 (z) = f (z)
z U .
20. F f
D C, f
: [, ] D
Z
f (z) dz = F [()] F [()] .
(26.16)

J F ,
d
(F ) (t) = F 0 [(t)] 0 (t) = f [(t)] 0 (t) .
dt
, F t 7 f [(t)] 0 (t) [, ]. , ,
(26.1)
,
Z

Z
f (z) dz =

t=

f [(t)] 0 (t) dt = F [(t)]


=
t=

= F [()] F [()] . I
21. f : D C
D C, ,
D, , a D
f .

76

26.

J a D. U a ,
U D. F : U C,

Zz
F (z) :=

f (t) dt , z U ,

(26.17)

[a, z]. , F , (26.17), f U . h 6= 0,


, z + h U . U
, 0, z ,
z + h U .
z z+h

Z
Z
Z
Za
0 = f (z) dz = +
+ f (z) dz ,

z+h

:
Zz+h
F (z + h) F (z) =
f (t) dt .
z

h f (z),

Zz+h

F (z + h) F (z)
1

=
=

f
(z)
f
(t)
dt

f
(z)

z+h

1
[f (t) f (z)] dt 6 max |f (t) f (z)| 0 (26.18)
=
t[z,z+h]
h
z

h 0 f . (26.18)
h 0, F 0 (z) = f (z) . I

2.

77

. f 21 .
,
(
1 z = 0 ,
f (z) =
0 z 6= 0 ,
, , ,
z = 0 . , F , . , F 0
z = 0, .

22. f : D C D C, a D
f .
J
,
z+h
D.
(26.15)
z
U
Z
a
f (t) dt = 0 .

,
, ,
f
. 14. 21 22
. . I
23 ( ).
f : D C D C, -
1 : [1 , 1 ] D

2 : [2 , 2 ] D

D,
Z
Z
f (z) dz = f (z) dz .
1

(26.19)

26.

78

J ,
3 . ,

f (z) dz = (u + iv)(dx + i dy) = (u dx v dy) + i (v dx + u dy)


.
,
u
v
= ,
y
x

v
u
=
,
y
x


f = u + iv . I
, , .
20. D ,
D D,
, , D D (. . ).
b C, ,
C,
D C, (. . 15).

24. D C ,
f : D C D,
F : D C, f
D.
J z0 D,
Zz
F (z) :=

f (t) dt ,

(26.20)

z0

, D
z0 z . D ,
D. 48 (26.20)
, , z .
3 .,

., 5 , . 22, 3.

2.

79

. 15.

, F 0 = f , ,
(26.20), ,
21. I
25 ( ).
D C , f : D C D,
Z
f (z) dz = 0
(26.21)

- : [, ] D.
J D ,
(. .
0 (t) z0 D. 48 ( ),
Z

Z
f (z) dz =

Z
f [0 (t)] 00 (t) dt =

f (z) dz =
0

0 dt = 0 ,

00 (t) 0 . I
26 ( ). D C
- D.
f : D t D C D D t D,
Z
f (z) dz = 0 .
(26.22)
D

80

26.

J , D .
24 f F : D C, (26.20),
, D
z z0 . C (26.20)
F D
F : D t D C. , f D t D (
D). D , D. z D. (z)
, z ,
|(z)| . ,
|(z)|
= 1.
z, | z|
lim
z


Z
Z

F () F (z)
1
1

f () =
f (t) dt
f () dt =

z
z
z

(z)
(z)

1
|(z)|

[f (t) f ()]dt 6
max |f (t) f ()| 0
=
| z| t(z)
| z|
(z)

z , z f . , F 0 (z) = f (z)
z D t D.

f (z) dz = F (z) = 0 ,
D

D , () .
, D . D t D , D ,

2.

81

, , ( D).
4 D - , ,
, ,
D. ,
- ,
, . , e D,
D.
,
e t D
e (. 16).
D

Z
Z
0 = f (z) dz = f (z) dz ,
e
D

C . I
, e
D
D
,
( ),
e
. 16. D D
.
21. L C ,
t0 L0 5 , f : Lt0 C . > 0, L |z t0 | < , L L .
4

D
D .
5 . .

26.

82

f L
( )
Z
Z
(v.p.) f (t) dt := lim
f (t) dt .
(26.23)
+0

, ,
, (26.23) . 6 v.p., ,
,

R
. , f (t) dt
L

,
. , , , , .

Z
dt
,
t t0
L

L C , D C, t0 L.
21, R+ ,
L |z t0 | = t2
D
t1 , t2 , t0
t1
, t2 , t0 , t1 L
L (. . 17). . 17. 21
( 26),
D , . 17, L
|z t0 | = , , t1 = ei1 t2 = ei2 , 0 < 2 1 < 2 ,
6

valeur principal .

2.

83

. .
Z
L

dt
=
t t0

Zt2
t1

dt
=i
t t0

Z2
d = (2 1 )i i 0 .
1

Z
(v.p.)
L

dt
= i .
t t0

(26.24)

, .
27. D C D. f : D C D
D,
c1 , . . . , cn D,
lim [(z ck ) f (z)] = 0 , k = 1, . . . , n .

zck
zD

(26.25)

Z
(v.p.)

f (z) dz = 0 .

(26.26)

J

|z ck | < . D D , L .
D 26,
Z
0=

Z
f (z) dz =

f (z) dz +
L

n
X
k=1

Z
f (z) dz .

(26.27)

|zck |=
zD

(26.25), -

84

26.

Z
Z


dz


(z ck )f (z)
f (z) dz =


z ck
|zck |=
|zck |=

zD
zD

Z
|dz|
6
6 max |z ck | |f (z)|
|z ck |
|zck |=
zD

|zck |=
zD

6 2 max |(z ck ) f (z)| 0 +0 .


|zck |=
zD

+0 (26.27), ,
(26.26)
. I
. 1. (26.25) 27 , , . , f (z) =
1
=
(26.25) lim [(z t0 ) f (z)] = 1, (26.26)
zt0
z t0
(26.24).
2. , , . .
,
.
.

b -
28. D C
D, D, D . f : D C
D D,
c1 , . . . , cn D, (26.25), ,
lim [z f (z)] = 0 .

z
zD

(26.26).

(26.28)

2.

85

b {|z| > R}, R


J C
. D DR , D LR .
DR , .
,
Z
Z
Z
0=
f (z) dz = f (z) dz +
f (z) dz .
(26.29)
LR

DR

|z|=R
zD

(26.28),

Z
Z


dz


f (z) dz =
zf (z) 6

|z|=R
|z|=R

zD
zD
Z
|dz|
6 max |z f (z)|
= 2 max |z f (z)| 0 R +
|z|
|z|=R
|z|=R
zD

zD

|z|=R

(26.28). , (26.29),
(26.26). I
.
, .

b -
29. D C
D, f D D, ( , D ), .
Z
f (z) dz = 0 .
D

J , , D . 24 f : D C
F : D C. f

26.

86

D, ,
, F
F : D t D C.
F : D C , ,
7 f .
f D . ,

f (t) dt = F (t) = 0 ,
D


. I
.

Z+
2
I(a) :=
ex cos 2ax dx ,

a R+ ,

, I(0) = .
2
J z 7 ez ,
:= {0 < Im z < a}, 29,
Z
0=

z 2

++ai
Z+
Z
Z+

2
z 2
x2
e dx
e dz =
dz =
e(x+ai) dx =

+ai

Z+
Z+

2
x2
2xai
a2
a2
e
e
e dx = e
ex (cos 2ax + i sin 2ax) dx =
=

=

I(a) =

ea I(a) .

ea . I

. 2 , . 10.

3.

87

3. .

1.
30. D C D, f : D t D C
. z D
Z
ZZ
f ()
f () d d
1
1

f (z) =
d +
.
(26.30)
2i
z
2i
z

. f
D, z D :
Z
1
f ()
f (z) =
d .
(26.31)
2i
z
D

J (26.30) ,
1
= .
lim
z z
, .
, .
, ,
ZZ
f () d d

,
(26.32)
z

|z|6

z ,
+0.
(26.32) , z :
= z + rei ,

0 6 r 6 , 0 6 6 2 .

26.

88

,
d = ei dr + riei d ,

d = ei dr riei d .

,
d d = 2ir dr d .
,
ZZ
|z|6

f () d d

= 2i
z

Z2
dr

f () i
e d .

(26.33)

, (26.32)
, (26.33), .
, (26.33)

ZZ

d
f
()
f
()

0 +0 .

6 4 max

|z|6
, (26.30) .
(26.30), D
D, | z| 6 .
D D D
| z| = , . D (26.14),

Z
ZZ
f () d

f ()
=
d d .
(26.34)
z
z
D

f ()
f ()

1
f ()
1
1

+ f ()

,
=
=
z
z
z

3.

89

1
1

= 0

z
z
6= z . , (26.34)
Z
Z
ZZ
f () d d
f ()
f ()
d
d =
,
(26.35)

z
z
z

|z|=

.
| z| = , z = ei , d = iei d
Z

f ()
d =
z

|z|=

Z2
0

f (z + ei )
iei d = i
i
e

Z2
f (z +ei ) d 2if (z)
0

+0. (26.35)
+0,
Z
ZZ
f ()
f () d d
d 2if (z) =

,
z
z

(26.30).
, f D,
f ()

0.
(26.30) ,
(26.31). I
. 1. (26.30)
z
. ,
. (D. Pompeiu) 1912 .
. .
. . (26.30)
.
2. (26.31), , . D D . z
/D

90

26.

f ()

z
D , D ( 26).
:
(
Z
f (z) z D ,
1
f ()
d =
(26.36)
2i
z
0
z
/ D.
( D ), 7

2. .

D f ,
30.
b -
31. D C
D. f D, D t D
. (26.36).
f ()
J z
/ D, 7
D, DtD
z
.
, ,
(26.36) .
z D, , D | z| 6
D
,
Z
Z
f ()
f ()
d
d = 0 .
(26.37)
z
z
D

|z|=

,
30,
Z
D

f ()
d i
z

Z2
f (z + ei )d = 0 .
0

3.

91

0,
Z
f ()
d 2if (z) = 0 ,
z
D

(26.36). I
. 1. , f
, (26.36) , ,
.
2. (26.36) , f 1
,
.
z
(. . ,
), .

22. L C ,
: L C , .
: CL C,

Z
()
1
d , z
/ L.
(26.38)
(z) :=
2i
z
L

32. ,
(26.38), CL
z .
J ,
z0 CL 0 (z0 ).
> 0, K := {|z z0 | 6 } L
. h , 0 < |h| 6 ,

Z
(z0 + h) (z0 )
1
()
=
d .
(26.39)
h
2i
( z0 )( z0 h)
L


(h, ) {|h| 6 } L. , ,

26.

92

(26.39).
,
Z
(z
+
h)

(z
)
1
()
0
0
0 (z0 ) = lim
=
d .
h0
h
2i
( z0 )2
L

,
|z|:

max |()| Z
()
L

z d 6 |z| min || |d| 0 z . I

3. ,

33 ( ).
f : D C, D C, f (n) : D C, D C n N,
.
J K := {|z z0 | 6 R},
D, f K 0
Z
1
f ()
f (z) =
, |z z0 | < R .
(26.40)
2i
z
K

z K 0 (0, R |z z0 |).
K {|h| 6 } , , h 6= 0

Z
f (z + h) f (z)
1
f ()
=
d ,
(26.41)
h
2i
( z)( z h)
K

h.

3.

93

h 0,
1
f 0 (z) =
2i

f ()
,
( z)2

|z z0 | < R .

(26.42)

f 0 ,
f . (26.42),
f 0 (z + h) f 0 (z)
=
h

Z
Z
f ()
f ()
1
1
1
=

=
h
2i
( z h)2
2i
( z)2
K
K
Z
( z) + ( z h)
1
=
f () . (26.43)
2i
( z h)2 ( z)2
K

h 0,
Z

2!
f (z) =
2i
00

f ()
, z K 0 ,
3
( z)

, f 0 .
, ,
(n 1) , f (n1) K 0

f

(n1)

(n 1)!
(z) =
2i

f ()
, z K 0 ,
n
( z)

(26.44)

94

26.

f (n1) (z + h) f (n1) (z)


=
h

Z
Z
f ()
1
f ()
(n 1)!
1 =
=

2i
( z h)n
2i
( z)n
h
K

(n 1)!
2i

n1
P

( z)n1k ( z h)k

k=0

( z h)n ( z)n

f () . (26.45)

h 0,
Z
n!
f ()
(n)
f (z) =
, z K 0 .
n+1
2i
( z)
K

, , , . I
. 1. 33 :
z ? .
n (26.36) z ,
(
Z
f (n) (z) z D ,
n!
f ()
(26.46)
d
=
2i
( z)n+1
0
z
/ D.
D

.
2. 33
.

,
.

34 ( ). f z
> 0 z , . .
Z2
1
f (z) =
f (z + ei ) d .
(26.47)
2
0

3.

95

C | z| 6
f .
z = ei , d = iei d,
1
f (z) =
2i

1
f () d
=
z
2i

Z2
0

|z|=

f (z + ei )iei d
=
ei
1
=
2

Z2
f (z + ei ) d . I
0

. 1. , 34,
y = kx + b, . . . 34 , , , .
.
2. f (z) = u(z) + iv(z), (26.47)
,
Z2
1
u(z) =
u(z + ei ) d .
(26.48)
2
0

, .
, (26.48) , .

35 ( ). f
, |f |
f .
J : z0 , |f (z0 )| > |f (z0 + ei )
[0, 2]. [0, 2] , :
|f (z0 )| > max |f (z0 + ei )| .
[0,2]

(26.49)

96

26.

, 34

Z2

|f (z0 )| =
f (z0 + ei ) d 6 max |f (z0 + ei )| ,
2
[0,2]
0

(26.49). I
. (26.48), ,
.

36 (). f : C C C ,
.
J R R+ , |z| < R.
f ,
Z
f () d
1
0
f (z) =
.
(26.50)
2i
( z)2
||=R

|f (z)| 6 M R+ . (26.50)
= Rei , d = Riei d ,

Z2
i
i

f
(Re
)Rie
d
1
6
|f 0 (z)| =
i
2
(Re z)
2i
0

MR
6
2(R |z|)2

Z2
d 0 R + . (26.51)
0

, R || = R
, (26.50) R. (26.51) ,
f 0 (z) 0, , f (z) const . I
37 ( ).
C
nN
z n + a1 z n1 + . . . + an = 0 ,
(26.52)

a1 , . . . , an C .
J
f (z) := z n + a1 z n1 + . . . + an ,
C. ,
h

a1
an i
n
lim f (z) = lim z 1 +
+ ... + n = .
z
z
z
z

(26.53)

, . . (26.52)
C. ,
(z) :=

1
,
f (z)

(26.54)

C (
, ).
, (26.54) ,
1
= 0.
z f (z)

lim (z) = lim

(26.55)

, . . b C
() := 0, , : C
b . 36
C
() (z) const , , (26.55) ,
(z) 0. (26.54),
, (z) 6 0 . I

27



1.
.

1.

1
.
23.
z :

cn (z z0 )n = c0 + c1 (z z0 ) + . . . + cn (z z0 )n + , (27.1)

n=0

z0 C , (cn )
n=0 , .
24. (27.1)
R [0, +],

1
R := lim p
.
n n |c |
n

(27.2)

(27.1)

z C |z z0 | < R , R .
1

4 , , , , 38.

1.

99

. R = 0 ,
R = + C, 0 < R < +
z0 R.

38. :
, , ,
.
39 (). f D C, z0 D
,
U := z C |z z0 | < R , D,

X
f (z) =
cn (z z0 )n = c0 +c1 (z z0 )+. . .+cn (z z0 )n + , (27.3)
n=0

1
cn =
2i

Z
|z0 |=

f () d
, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
( z0 )n+1

(27.4)

> 0.
J f
zU
Z
1
f ()
f (z) =
d .
(27.5)
2i
z
|z0 |=R

z z0
= r < 1.
r := |z z0 |, r < R, ,
z0
R

1
1
1
1
=
=

=
z
( z0 ) (z z0 ) z0 1 z z0
z0
n X

1 X z z0
(z z0 )n
=
.
=
n+1
z0 n=0 z0
(

z
)
0
n=0
f (),

X
f ()
f ()(z z0 )n
=
,
n+1
z
(

z
)
0
n=0

(27.6)

100 27.

z | z0 | = R,

X
M r n
,
R
R
n=0

M = max |f ()| .
|z0 |=R

, (27.6).
,
Z

X
1
f ()
f (z) =
d =
cn (z z0 )n ,
2i
z
n=0
|z0 |=R

1
cn =
2i

Z
|z0 |=R

f ()
d ,
( z0 )n+1

n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

, (27.4)
. I
1 ( ).
(27.3) :
|cn | 6

M ()
,
n

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,

(27.7)

0 < < R, M () = max |f ()| .


|z0 |=

J (27.4)

Z
Z
1
f () d
|f ()| |d|
1

|cn | =
6
6

2i
( z0 )n+1 2
| z0 |n+1

|z|=
|z0 |=
M ()
6
2n+1

Z2
|iei | d =
0

M ()
. I
n

1.

101

2 ( ). f : C C
C , .
J f C,

X
f (z) =
cn z n ,
n=0

|z| < R+ . (27.7) +.


cn = 0 n N.
(27.3) , f (z) c0 . I
40.
, .
J

X
f (z) =
cn (z z0 )n
(27.8)
n=0

, |z z0 | < R .

(z) =

ncn (z z0 )n1 .

(27.9)

n=1

|zz0 | < R.
38 (27.9)
, .
Zz
c0 +

(t) dt = c0 +
z0

X
n=1

Zz
ncn

(tz0 )

n1

dt = c0 +

n=1

z0

Zz
f (z) = c0 +

(t) dt ,
z0

cn (z z0 )n = f (z) ,

102 27.

. h 6= 0
:
z+h

Zz+h
Z
Zz
1
f (z + h) f (z)
1
=
(t) dt (t) dt =
(t) dt =
h
h
h
z0

z0

= (z + h) ,
[0, 1]. h 0, f 0 (z) =
= (z). f . I

P
1. f (z) =
cn (z z0 )n
n=0

.
J 40 (27.8) , , .

P
f 0 (z) =
ncn (z z0 )n1 .
n=1

, . I
2.

P
f (z) =
cn (z z0 )n
n=0

ck =

f (k) (z0 )
,
k!

k = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

(27.10)

J k -
f

(k)

(z) =

n (n 1) . . . (n k + 1) cn (z z0 )nk .

n=k

z z0 , f (k) (z0 ) = k! ck ,
. I
. , (27.4),
(27.10), . , ,

1.

103

. ,
, :
z2 z3 z4
+
+
+ ... , z C,
2!
3!
4!
z2 z4 z6
cos z = 1
+

+ ... , z C,
2!
4!
6!
z3 z5 z7
sin z = z
+

+ ... , z C,
3!
5!
7!
1
= 1 + z + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 + z 5 + . . . , |z| < 1 ,
1z
z2 z3 z4
ln(1 + z) = z
+

+ . . . , |z| < 1 ,
2 3 4

2
3

(1 + z) = 1 +
z+
z +
z + . . . , |z| < 1 ,
1
2
3

ez = 1 + z +

z .

41 (). f : D C
D C, ,
D, , f D.
J 21 f U a D
F : U C. f
F . I

2.
25. f z ,
f (z) = 0.
f , .
,
(
e1x x > 0 ,
f (x) :=
0
x 6 0
C (R), (, 0].

104 27.

x2 sin 1 x 6= 0 ,
g(x) :=
x
0
x = 0

R, x = 0
1k , k Z, x = 0.
,
.
.
, ,
, .
42. f : D C ,
b z0 D f . D C,
z0 f
, 2 U (z0 ), ,
z U (z0 ) : f (z) 6= 0 .

(27.11)

J , z0 6= . f
(z z0 )
f (z) = c0 + c1 (z z0 ) + c2 (z z0 )2 + . . . ,

(27.12)

V (z0 ) z0 . c0 =
= f (z0 ) = 0, f (z) 6 0 V (z0 ), c1 , c2 , . . . . c0 = c1 = . . . = cn1 = 0,
cn 6= 0. (27.12)
f (z) = cn (z z0 )n + cn+1 ) (z z0 )n+1 + . . . = (z z0 )n (z) , (27.13)

(z) := cn + cn+1 (z z0 ) + cn+2 (z z0 )2 + . . . ,
2 ,

,
.

1.

105

V (z0 ),
(27.12). , lim (z) =
zz0

= c0 6= 0, U (z0 ) V (z0 ) , z U (z0 ) : (z) 6= 0.


(27.13) , (27.11).
, D f () 6= 0.

1 z 6= ,
t := z
0 z = ,

(
f (1t) t 6= 0 ,
g(t) :=
0 t = 0 ,

t = 0. g
z , , (27.11) z0 = . I
. 42 (27.11) .
.

43. f : D C
b E D,
D C
z0 D. f (z) 0 D.
J

F := z D f (z) = 0 .
, F = D.
F 0 F ,
F . z0 f , f (z) 0 z0 . z0
F 0 , , F 0 6= . , , F 0

106 27.

D. , (zn )
n=1
0
zn F , , lim zn = z0 D, z0
n

, , z0 F0 . , F 0 , D, D ,
F 0 = D. , , F 0 F D,
F = D. I
44 (). f1 , f2 b E D,
D C
, D, f1 = f2 D.
J f := f1 f2 . . f = 0 D,
, f1 = f2 D . I
. 1. .
. f , D ,
G D 3 F : G C, (. .
F D = f ), .
2. , 42, , f 6 0.

26. n ( ) f z0 C, 4
f (z)
C.
n
zz0 (z z0 )

f (z) (zz0 )n z z0 , , , lim

z0 = , :
n
1
z , , , lim z n f (z) C .
f (z)
zz0
z
45. f : D C b
D C,
D f
.
3

.
C
, .
4

1.

107

J , z0 6= . f
(z z0 )
f (z) = c0 + c1 (z z0 ) + c2 (z z0 )2 + . . . .

(27.14)

c0 = 0, f (z) 6 0,
c1 , c2 , . . . . c0 = c1 = . . . = cn1 = 0,
cn 6= 0. (27.14)
f (z) = cn (z z0 )n + cn+1 ) (z z0 )n+1 + . . . = (z z0 )n (z) , (27.15)

(z) := cn + cn+1 (z z0 ) + cn+2 (z z0 )2 + . . . =

f (z)
.
(z a)n

z z0 ,
f (z)
lim
= lim (z) = cn 6= 0 .
zz0 (z z0 )n
zz0
z0 = D, f () = 0. f (z) t = 1z ,
:
d1 d2
f (z) = d0 +
+ 2 + ... ,
z
z
f () = d0 = 0. , , ,
n N, , d0 = . . . = dn1 = 0, dn 6= 0.

lim z n f (z) = dn 6= 0 . I
z

3.
, , , ,
. , ,
.

108 27.

46 ().

P
f (z) =
fk (z) D C,
k=1

K D,
D, n N
f

(n)

(z) =

(n)

fk (z) .

k=1

J D.

P
, f (z) =
fk (z)
k=1

. , f ,
. ,
Z
Z X

X
X
f (z) dz =
fk (z) dz =
fk (z) dz =
0 = 0.

k=1

k=1

k=1

41 () ,
f D.
, , z D,

n!
f (t)
n! X f (t)

=
,
2i (t z)n+1
2i
(t z)n+1

(27.16)

k=1

n!fk (t)2i

t D |t z| = . (27.16)
t |t z| =
,
Z
Z X

n!
n!
f (t) dt
fk (t) dt
(n)
f (z) =
=
=
2i
(t z)n+1
2i
(t z)n+1
|tz|=

|tz|=

X
n!
=
2i
k=1

|tz|=

k=1

X (n)
fk (t) dt
=
fk (z) . I
(t z)n+1
k=1

1.

109

4.
.
, ,
. . C, 46 () ( )
, K D, , D. ,
( )
.
f |z z0 | < r, , ,
z0 f , . , ,
, .
, ,
, .
27. , f : D C,
D C,
P K , D,
:
K D R+ P : max |f (z) P (z)| 6 .
zK

(27.17)

. ,
D . D ,
.
1
, , f (z) = , {r < |z| < R},
z
0 6 r < 1 < R 6 +. ,
.
J K := {|t| = 1} (0, 1), , . .
P , K

110 27.

(27.17), . . max P (t) 6 < 1.


|t|=1 t

Z
Z

dt
1

2 =
P (t) dt 6 max P (t)
|dt| 6 2 < 2 ,
=

|t|=1 t
t
t
|t|=1 |t|=1

|t|=1
. . 2 < 2 . I
, , ,
, .

b
. D C , CD
.
b
b
J CD,
CD
6= . , D , ,
b ,
A , B C,
b
A 6= , B 6= , A B = , A t B = CD
.
, B .
/ A, A
. , a A C. R+ , A B .
C = 3 , a
. , A,
( , ) . G
, a.

Z
dz
= 2i .
(27.18)
za
G

, G B = , G B ,

3
2> = .
3 2 2
1
, G D. a
/ D,
za
D. , , D ,

1.

111

G D , ,

Z
dz
= 0,
za
G

(27.18). I
47 (). f ,
D C,
, D.
J K D . , , G
- G, , K G G t G D.

Z
f ()
1
f (z) =
d z K .
2i
z
G

, , f K .
G k = k k+1
0 , 1 , 2 , . . ., N = 0 , G
N 1

N 1 Z

k=0

k=0
k

1 X f (k )
1 X
g(z) :=
k =
2i
k z
2i

f (k )
d .
k z

N 1
1 X f ()
f (k )
f (z) g(z) =

d .
2i
z k z
k=0

f ()
(, z)
z
G K , ,
. .
R+ R+ ( 0 , z 0 ) , ( 00 , z 00 ) G K :

112 27.

00
f ( 0 )
f
(
)
|z 0 z 00 | 6
6 .
= 0
00
0
00
0
00
| | 6
z
z
0 , 1 , 2 , . . ., N = 0 ,
max {|0 |, |1 |, . . . , |N 1 |} 6 . k , z K

f ()

f
(
)
k

z k z 6 ,
z K

N 1 Z
1 X f ()
f (k )

|| ,
|f (z) g(z)| 6

|d|
6
z k z
2
2
k=0
k

||,
zK
2
D
.
, , 1


k z
K .

1
E := a
.
/ G
za
E , ,
K . , a
/ {|z z0 | 6 R} K ,

X
1
1
(z z0 )n
=
=
,
n+1
z a (z z0 ) (a z0 )
(a

z
)
0
n=0
|| G. , max |f (z)g(z)| 6

K . , E ,
1
1
an E an a n ,

n z an
za
z K . , a E , E .
, , E ,
a0 E , R+ 1

P , , max
P (z) < ,
zK z a0
a, a0 . G
, CG , E - . I

2.

113

2.
.
1.

, , ,
(z z0 ), . .
, :
+
X

cn (z z0 ) =

n=

1
X

cn (z z0 ) +

n=

+
X

cn (z z0 )n =

n=0

c1
c2
+ c0 + c1 (z z0 ) + c2 (z z0 )2 + . . . .
+
= ... +
2
(z z0 )
z z0
(27.19)

( ) ( ),
. (27.19) ,

1
X

cn (z z0 )

n=

+
X

cn (z z0 )n ,

n=0


.
48 (). f ,
V = {r < |z a| < R},
+
P
f (z) =
cn (z a)n , n=


Z
1
f () d
cn =
, n Z,
2i
( a)n+1
|a|=

(27.20)

114 27.

(r, R) .
J z V .
r0 R0 ,
r < r0 < |z a| < R0 < R .

(27.21)

f ,
, 18,
Z
Z
1
1
f ()
f ()
f (z) =
d
d .
(27.22)
2i
z
2i
z
|a|=R0

|a|=r0

| a| = R0 , (27.21),

X
1
1
1
1
(z a)n
=
=

=
.
n+1
z
( a) (z a) a 1 z a
(

a)
n=0
a
,
n

P
|za|
1
1
. 2i

f ()
R0
R0
n=0

,
Z

X
1
f ()
d =
cn (z a)n ,
2i
z
n=0

(27.23)

|a|=R0


1
cn =
2i

f () d
, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
( a)n+1

(27.24)

|a|=R0

| a| = r0 , (27.21),

1
1
1

=
=
=
z
z
(z a) ( a)

X
1
1
( a)n1
=

.
=
n
a
za
(z

a)
n=1
1
za

2.

115

, 0 n

P
1
r

.
|za| |za|
1
2i f ()

n=1

,
Z

2i

|a|=r0

1
X
X
cn
f ()
d =
=
cn (z a)n ,
n
z
(z a)
n=
n=1


Z
1
cn =
2i

f ()( a)n1 d ,

n = 1, 2, 3, . . . .

(27.25)

(27.26)

|a|=r0

(27.23)
(27.25)
(27.22),
f (z) =

+
X

z
a

cn (z a) ,

(27.27)

n=


. 18.
(27.24) (27.26) n > 0
n < 0 . , (27.24) (27.26)
.
- | a| = , (r, R)
, , (27.27)
(27.20). I
+
P
28.
cn (z a)n ,
n=

(27.20), f a.
+
1
P
P
cn (z a)n cn (z a)n
n=0

n=

116 27.
. ,
, .

49. f V
= {r < |z a| < R}
f (z) =

+
X

cn (z a)n ,

(27.28)

n=

, (27.20)
J , , .
46 ()
f . ck
1
(27.28) 2i
(z a)k1
|z a| = , (r, R).
1
2i

Z
|za|=

Z
+
X
1
f (z)(z a)k1 dz =
cn
2i n=

(z a)nk1 dz = ck ,

|za|=

Z
|za|=

(
2i , n = k ,
(z a)nk1 dz =
0 , n 6= k .

( ). (27.28) :
|cn | 6

M ()
,
n

0 < < R, M () = max |f ()| .


|z0 |=

n Z,

(27.29)

2.

117

J (27.20)

Z
1 Z
1
f () d
|f ()| |d|

6
|cn | =
6

2i
( z0 )n+1 2
| z0 |n+1

|z|=
|z0 |=
M ()
6
2n+1

Z2
|iei | d =
0

M ()
. I
n

. 49 :
.
, ,
(27.20),
. .
1
. f (z) =
(z 1)(z 2)
0.
J , ,
z = 1 z = 2. |z| = 1 |z| = 2 C
:

V1 := z C 0 < |z| < 1 ;

V2 := z C 1 < |z| < 2 ;

V3 := z C 2 < |z| < + .




f (z) =

1
1
1
=
+
.
(z 1)(z 2)
z1 z2

|z| < 1

1
1
=
= 1 + z + z2 + . . . + zn + . . . ;
z1
1z

1
1
1
1
z z2
zn
=
= 1+ +
+ ... + n + ... .
z2
2 1 z2
2
2
4
2


X
1
1
=
1 n+1 z n ,
(z 1)(z 2) n=0
2

|z| < 1 .

118 27.
( ),
.
1 < |z| < 2

X
1
1
1
1

=
=
;
z1
z 1 1z
zn
n=1

1
1
1
1
z z2
zn
=
= 1+ +
+ ... + n + ... .
z2
2 1 z2
2
2
4
2

X
X
1
1
zn
=

,
n
n
(z 1)(z 2)
z
2
n=1
n=0

1 < |z| < 2 .

|z| > 2

X
1
1
1
1
=
=
;

z1
z 1 1z
zn
n=1

X 2n1
1
1
1
=
=
.
n
z2
z 1 2z
z
n=1
,

X (2n1 1)
1
=
,
(z 1)(z 2) n=1
zn

2 < |z| < + .

( ). I

2.
29. f : D C , b ( D C.
) , D. a f ,
f D
a, ,
.

2.

119

, .
, ,
.
50.
f (z) = c0 + c1 (z z0 ) + c2 (z z0 )2 + . . . + cn (z z0 )n + . . . (27.30)
z0
f (z).
J R > 0 (27.30),

b z0
z C
f . z = , (27.30) C, R = +.
z C, (27.30)
{|z z0 | < |z z0 |},
{|z z0 | < R}. , |z z0 | 6 R. , |z z0 | < R,
z (27.30)
. ,
|z z0 | = R. I

3.
, , .
30. f : D C , b a
D C.
/ D f ,
U (a) a, U (a) D.
f f

120 27.

.
b 31. a C
f :
(a) , lim f (z) C;
za

(b) , lim f (z) = ;


za

(c) , lim f (z) .


za

, ,

sin z
,
z

1
,
z

e1z ,

z = 0 ,
.
. ( ), ,
.

51 ( ).
a C f ,
+
P
a f (z) =
cn (z a)n , . .
n=0
.
J f
a
+
1
X
X
n
f (z) =
an (z a) +
an (z a)n .
(27.31)
n=

n=0

, a , . . lim f (z). |f |
za
z a, . .
M R+ R+ : |z a| < = |f (z)| 6 M .
(27.29),

2.

121

n < 0
|cn | 6

M
= M |n| 0
n

0.

, n < 0 : cn = 0, . .
(27.31) .
, , (27.31)
.
f (z) =

+
X

an (z a)n ,

(27.32)

n=0

, lim f (z) = a0 C. I
za

.
,
29. , (27.32) , f z = a.

52 ( ).
a C f ,
f a ,
.
J , a C f . lim f (z) = . (z) :=
za

:= 1f (z). a, 1
lim (z) = lim
= 0. a
za
za f (z)
. 51
a
:
(z) = bN (z a)N + bN +1 (z a)N +1 + . . . ,
N N, bN 6= 0. (z a)N ,

1
= (z) = (z a)N (z) ,
(27.33)
f (z)

122 27.

a, (a) = bN 6= 0.
1
,

(z)
a
1
= cN + cN +1 (z a) + . . . + c1 (z a)N 1 + . . . ,
(z)
1
6= 0. (29.17) bN
f

1
1
1
c1
cN
f (z) =
=

=
+ ... +
+ ... ,
(z) (z a)N (z)
(z a)N
za
cN =

. , .
, , f
a C
f (z) =

N
X
k=1

X
ck
+
ck (z a)k ,
k
(z a)

cN 6= 0 .

k=0

(z a)N z a,

lim (z a)N f (z) = cN 6= 0 ,


za

(z a)N 0 z a, f (z) z a.
, a f . I
32. N N ( ) a C f , 5
f a
cN

, cN 6= 0. N
(z a)N
N = 1 N > 1.
5

, z a
.

2.

123

. 52 , a C
f = 1f .

53 ( ). a C f
, f .
J .
, a C
f . (27.31)

( 51 52). , , .
, (27.31)
, 51 52 a . ,
. I
. ,
f , t := 1z .
z , f
:
+
X

+
X
cn
f (z) =
cn z +
,
n
z
n=1
n=0
n

(27.34)

, .
51 54 .

b 54 (). a C
f ,
(a) a |f | ;
b
(b) A C
(zn )
n=1 , lim zn = a lim f (zn ) = A.
n

J , ,
a C.

124 27.

(a) : |f |
z a . .
M R+ R+ : |z a| < = |f (z)| 6 M .
(27.31)
(27.29), n < 0
|cn | 6

M
= M |n| 0
n

0.

, n < 0 : cn = 0, . . (27.31) . a .
.
(b) a |f | , n N zn , .
1
|f (zn )| > n .
n
n ,
lim zn = a lim f (zn ) = . ,
n
n
A = .
, A C.
a f (z) = A , n N
1
zn , 0 < |zn a| 6 f (zn ) = A.
n
n , lim zn = a lim f (zn ) = lim A = A.
n
n
n
, ,
U (a) a, f (z) = A . 1
(z) :=
.
f (z) A
U (a), , . a . , a
,
lim f (z), .
0 < |zn a| 6

za

(zn )
n=1 , , lim zn = a
n

2.

125

lim (zn ) = . :
n

lim f (zn ) = A. I

4. ,

, , b , .
C
, ,
, .
b
, C
. , , , C.
33. , C, .
f
z = 0,
f (z) = c0 + c1 z + c2 z 2 + . . . + cn z n + . . . ,

(27.35)

C (
+).
, , , . (27.35)
f . c0 , c1 z + c2 z 2 + . . . + cn z n + . . . .
, f (z) c0 ( ). ,
( (n + 1)-), ,
n, f (
)
f (z) c0 + c1 z + c2 z 2 + . . . + cn z n .

(27.36)

126 27.

. (27.35) , f .
.
,
.
34. f
D, f ,
.
,
f , ,
D.
,
b C.
,
.
b 55. , C,

.
b C
b
J f C.
, f .
a1 , . . . , am C , , ,
n1
X
=1

nm
n0
X
X
c1
cm1
,... ,
,
c z

(z a1 )
(z am )
=1
=1

(27.37)

f .

f (z)

n1
X
=1

nm
n0
X
X
c1
cm1
...

c z .

(z a1 )
(z am )
=1
=1

(27.38)

, a1 , . . . , am , (27.38) . , , (27.38) b .
C

,
f (z) const +

n1
X
=1

nm
n0
X
X
c1
cm1
+ ... +
+
c z , (27.39)

(z a1 )
(z am )
=1
=1

. . f , (27.39) . I
. 55
.

b C
b
56. f : C
, - .
b
J , C
b
, C
.
f : 7 , f
f (z) = c0 + c1 z , . . f .
f : z0 7 , z0 C,
f (z) =

c1
+ c0 + c1 (z z0 ) + c2 (z z0 )2 + . . . .
z z0

f z = , c1 = c2 = . . . = 0,
f (z) =

c1
+ c0 ,
z z0

. . f -. I

28

1. , ,

1. ,
, .
35. 1 b
a C
Z
1
res f :=
f (z) dz ,
(28.1)
a
2i
U (a)

U (a)
a, f , a.
(28.1) ,
U (a)
b
C-,
a. a C U (a) ,
, a = U ()
, ,
.
, . a C,

Z
1
res f :=
f (z) dz ,
(28.2)
a
2i
|za|=r
1

res residue ,

1. ,

129

r R+ . a = ,

Z
1
res f :=
f (z) dz ,
(28.3)

2i
|z|=R

R R+ .
.
a f ,
a f
. , f a
.
57. (a) a C f , res f = c1 , c1 (z a)1 a
P
f (z) =
cn (z a)n .
nZ

(b) f ,
res f = c1 , c1 z 1

P
f (z) =
cn z n f .
nZ
P
J (a) f (z) =
cn (z a)n
(28.2) ,
1
res f :=
a
2i

Z
|za|=r

1
f (z) dz =
2i

|za|=r

cn (z a)n dz =

nZ

X cn
=
2i
nZ

nZ

Z
(z a)n dz = c1 ,
|za|=r

, ,
n = 1.
P
(b) f (z) =
cn z n nZ

28.

130

(28.3) ,
Z
Z X
1
1
cn z n dz =
res f :=
f (z) dz =

2i
2i
nZ
|za|=R
|za|=r
X cn Z
=
z n dz = c1 ,
2i
nZ

|za|=R

, ,
n = 1. I
. 1) f a C
, res f = 0,
a
+
P
cn (z a)n , c1 = 0.
f (z) =
n=0

2) f ,

f (z) = c0 +

c1 c2
+ 2 + ... .
z
z

57 (b), res f = c1 .

3)

1
1
1
+
+
+ ...
2
z 2!z
3!z 3
C = {0 < |z| < +}, 0, .
57
e1z = 1 +

res e1z = 1 ,
z=0

res e1z = 1 .

z=


, ,
.
58. (a) a C n
f ,
1
dn1
res f =
lim n1 [(z a)n f (z)] .
a
(n 1)! za dz

(28.4)

1. ,

131

(b) n f ,
h
i
(1)n
n+2 (n+1)
lim z f
(z) .
(28.5)
res f =

(n + 1)! z
J (a) f a
f (z) =

cn
c1
+ c0 + c1 (z a) + . . . .
+
.
.
.
+
(z a)n
za

(28.6)

c1 ,
f . (28.6) (z a)n
(z a)n f (z) = cn +cn+1 (z a)+. . .+c1 (z a)n1 +c0 (z a)n +. . . .
(n 1) ,
dn1
[(z a)n f (z)] = (n 1)!c1 + n (n 1) . . . 2 c0 (z a) + . . . .
n1
dz
z a (n 1)!,
(28.4).
(b) f
f (z) = an z n + . . . + a0 +

a1 a2
+ 2 + ... .
z
z

(28.7)

(a1 ). , (28.7) (n + 1)
f

(n+1)

(1)n+1 (n + 1)!
A
B
(z) =

a
+
+
+ ... ,
1
z n+2
z n+3 z n+4

(28.8)

A , B . (28.8) z n+2
z ,
h
i
n+2 (n+1)
lim z f
(z) = (1)n+1 (n + 1)! a1 .
z


a1

h
i
(1)n
n+2 (n+1)
=
lim z f
(z) ,
(n + 1)! z

28.

132

57(b) (28.5) . I
. 1. , f a C ,
(28.4)
res f = lim [(z a)f (z)] .
a

za

2. f , . .

f (z) = c0 +

c1 c2
+ 2 + ... ,
z
z

(28.9)

res f = c1 = lim z 2 f 0 (z) .

(28.5) n = 0.
3. (28.9) c0 = 0,
res f = c1 = lim [zf (z)] .

, (28.5) n = 1.

2.
b
59 ( ). D C
- D, f
D t D, , D. 2
Z
X
(28.10)
f (z) dz = 2i
res f .
D

zD

J ,
/ D, {z1 , . . . , zn } D C
f .
r R+ , K := {|z z0 | 6 r},
= 1, . . . , n, D
(. . 19). Dr := D (K1 . . . Kn ), ,
2

f ,
(28.10) .

1. ,

133

f Dr t Dr
. ,
Z
0=

Z
f (z) dz =

Dr

f (z) dz

n Z
X
=1K

f (z) dz =

Z
=

f (z) dz 2i

=1

(28.10).
, D. ,
{z1 , . . . , zn } f . R R+
,
f D
DR := D{|z| < R}.
,
2i

n
X
=1

Z
res f =

Z
f (z) dz =

DR

n
X

res f ,
z

. 19. Dr

Z
f (z) dz +

f (z) dz =

|z|=R

f (z) dz 2i res f .


Z
f (z) dz = 2i

n
X
=1

res f + 2i res f ,
z

(28.10). I
. f C, ,
X
res f + res f = 0 .
(28.11)
zC

28.

134

J K C, f . 59,
Z
X
res f 2i res f .
0 = f (z) dz = 2i
zC

(2i),
(28.11). I

2.

, , .
.

1. ,
cos sin

Z2
R(cos , sin ) d ,

(28.12)

, R(, ) , , (28.12)
[0, 2].
(28.12) |t| = 1,

1
1
1
1
i
t = e , cos =
t+
, sin =
t
, dt = it d .
2
t
2i
t

2.

135


Z2

Z
R(cos , sin ) d =

|t|=1

1
1
1
1
dt
t+
;
t
=
R
2
t
2i
t
it
Z
=
R1 (t) dt ,
|t|=1

t 7 R1 (t) , |t| = 1. , , 59 ,
Z2
R(cos , sin ) d = 2i

X
|z|<1

res R1 (z) =
z

= 2i

X
1<|z|6+

res R1 (z) . (28.13)


z

.
Z2

d
,
1 2p cos + p2

p (0, 1) .

J t = ei ,
Z2
0

d
=
1 2p cos + p2

|t|=1

dt

.
1
2
1p t+
+ p it
t

1
2
1p t+
+ p it = (1 + p2 )t (1 + t2 )p i = i(1 pt)(t p) .
t
,
Z2
0

1
2
d
= 2i res
=
. I
2
t=p i(1 pt)(t p)
1 2p cos + p
1 p2

28.

136

2.
60. f : R C R, ,
,
lim [z f (z)] = 0 .

(28.14)

z ,
Im z>0

Z+
X
f (x) dx = 2i
res f ,
Im z>0

(28.15)


.
J R R ,
f P := {|z| < R ; Im z > 0}.
,
2i

X
Im z>0

Z
res f =
z

Z
Z+R
f (z) dz =
f (x) dx +
R

f (z) dz .

(28.16)

|z|=R,
Im z>0

z = Rei ,

Z
Z


f (z) dz = f (Rei )Riei d 6 R max f (Rei ) 0


[0,]

|z|=R,

0
Im z>0

R + . (28.16)
R +, (28.15). I
. 1) (28.15), 60,
Z+

P (x)
dx ,
Q(x)

(28.17)

2.

137

P Q . (28.14) ,
P (z)
=O
Q(z)

1
z2

z ,

. . Q
P .
Z+

X
X
P (x)
P (z)
P (z)
= 2i
res
= 2i
res
.
z Q(z)
z Q(z)
Q(x)
Im z>0
Im z<0

2)
Z+

1
dn1
dx
2i
=
2i

res
=
lim
(z + i)n =
z=i (z 2 + 1)n
(x2 + 1)n
(n 1)! zi dz n1

2i
(2n 2)!
lim (n)(n 1) . . . (2n + 2)(z + i)12n =
.
(n 1)! zi
22n2 [(n 1)!]2

. .
61 ( ).
{|z| > R0 , Im z > 0} R0 R+ ,
z
lim , (z) = 0. > 0
Im z>0

Z
lim

R+
|z|=R ,
Im z>0

(z) eiz dz = 0 .

(28.18)

J M (R) := max |f (R ei )|. 066

lim M (R) = 0. (28.18) z = Rei ,

R+

28.

138

Z
Z

(z) eiz dz = (Rei ) eiR(cos +i sin ) iRei d 6

|z|=R ,

0
Im z>0

Z
|(Rei )| R d 6 R M (R)

6
0

eR sin d =
0

2
2
Z
Z
2
= 2R M (R)
eR sin d 6 2R M (R)
eR =
0

=2

2R M (R) R 2

=
=
e

M
(R)

e
. (28.19)

2R

=0

y

sin >

sin

2
,

0 6 6
2
2


y=

y = sin 0 6 6 2
0
2
(. . 20). , (28.19) . 20.

iz
(z) e dz 6 M (R) 1 eR .


|z|=R ,

Im z>0

y=

R +, , (28.18). I
62. , {Im z > 0}, , ,

2.

139

z
lim , (z) = 0. > 0
Im z>0

Z+
X

(x) eix dx = 2i
res (z)eiz ,
Im z>0

(28.20)

.
J R0 R , {|z| < R0 ; Im z > 0}.
R > R0
2i

res (z)eiz =

Im z>0

ZR

Z
(x)e

ix

dx +

(z) eiz dz .

|z|=R ,
Im z>0

R + , , (28.20)
, (28.20). I
. (28.20)
< 0, , 62,
{Im z < 0}.

Z+
X

(x) eix dx = 2i
res (z)eiz .
Im z<0

. 1)

+
R
0

cos x
dx, , a , R+ .
x2 + a2

J (28.20),
Z+

eiz
eiai
a
eix
dx
=
2i

res
=
2i

=
e
.
z=ai z 2 + a2
x2 + a 2
2ai
a

+
R cos x

,
dx =
ea . I
2
2
x
+
a
2a
0

28.

140

2)

+
R x sin x

dx, , a , R+ .
x2 + a2
J (28.20),
0

Z+

xeix
zeiz
aieiai
dx
=
2i

res
=
2i

= i ea .
z=ai z 2 + a2
x2 + a 2
2ai


+
R x sin x

,
dx = ea . I
2
2
2
0 x +a

3.

63. 0 < a < 1, Q ,
[0, +), Q() = 0.
Z+

eia X
a1
x
Q(x) dx =
res z a1 Q(z) .
z
sin a
0

(28.21)

zC

J (28.21)
R+
x 0 x +.
D := C [0, +) D,
. , (28.21) R+ .


z a1 = e(a1)(ln r+i) ,

(28.22)

z = rei , r R+ , ln r R, 0 6 6 2 .
(28.22) = 0,

2.

141

= 2 . ,
Z
X
a1

2i
res z
Q(z) = z a1 Q(z) dz =
zC

Z+
Z0
=
xa1 Q(x) dx +
e(a1)(ln r+2i) Q(r) dr =
+

0
Z+

xa1 Q(x) dx e2i(a1)

Z+
ra1 Q(r) dr =

= 1e

2ia

Z+
xa1 Q(x) dx .
0


Z+
xa1 Q(x) dx =

a1

2i X
res
z

Q(z)
.
z
1 e2ia

(28.23)

zC

,
e2ia 1 = eia (eia eia ) = 2ieia sin a ,
(28.23) (28.21). I

. - (a)(1a) =
sin a
0 < a < 1.
J - -,
-,
Z+
(a) (1 a) = B(a, 1 a) =

xa1
dx .
1+x

(28.21),
Z+
(a) (1 a) =

eia
z a1
eia
xa1
dx =
res
=
(1)a1 =
z=1
1+x
sin a
1+z
sin a

eia (a1)i
e
=
. I
sin a
sin a

28.

142

64. Q ,
[0, +), Q(z) = O(z 2 ) z .
Z+
X
res [Q(z) ln z] ,
(28.24)
Q(x) dx =
zC

ln z := ln r + i, z = rei , 0 6 6 2 .
J , ,
2i

X
zC

Z+
Z0
res [Q(z) ln z] =
Q(x) [ln x + 2i] dx =
Q(x) ln x dx +
z

Z+
Z+
Z+
Z+
=
Q(x) ln x dx Q(x) ln x dx2i
Q(x) dx = 2i
Q(x) dx .
0

(2i),
(28.24). I
. [a , b] R+ , Q ,
[a , b].

Zb
X
za
,
Q(x) dx =
res Q(z) ln
z
b

z
zC
a

za
C[a, b] ,
bz
(a , b) .
.

ln

3.

1.
f C. , C,

3.

143

,
. f , ,

.
f ,
. ,
.
.
36. C (Dn )
n=1 , :
S
Dn = C;
(a) 0 D1 D2 . . . Dn . . .;
nN

(b) Dn - Dn ;
() n N : Dn t Dn Dn+1 .
65. f C ,
(Dn )
n=1 , t Dn nN

f . n N z Dn
f (z) =

X
aDn

1
Ga (z) +
2i

f ()
d ,
z

(28.25)

Dn

Ga (z) f
a.
J (28.25) , Ga (z) 0,
a f . a
f ,
cN
c1
Ga (z) =
+
.
.
.
+
=O
(z a)N
za


1
z

z ,

N , cN , . . ., c1 a.

28.

144

, , z Dn
#
Z "
X
X
d
1
f (z)
Ga (z) =
f ()
Ga ()
=
2i
z
aDn
aDn
Dn
Z
Z X
1
f ()
1
d
=
d
=
Ga ()
2i
z
2i
z
Dn
Dn aDn
Z
Z
Z
1
1 X
1
f ()
d
f ()
=
d
Ga ()
=
d ,
2i
z
2i
z
2i
z
Dn

aDnD

Dn

Z
a Dn z Dn :

Ga ()

d
0
z

Dn

,
b
CD
n. I
. , n ,
(28.25), , (28.25)
f .
.

2.

66. f C ,
(Dn )
n=1 C ,
Z
K R+ n N :
|f () d| 6 K .
(28.26)
Dn

f (z) = lim

Ga (z)

(28.27)

aDn

Ga (z) f
a.

3.

145

J (28.25)
:
Z

Z

f ()
K

6 max 1
d
|f
()
d|
6
0 n .
Dn

min ||
Dn

Dn

Dn

, (28.25)

Z
Z
Z

f ()
f ()
f ()
f ()

=
d
6
d
+

Dn

Dn

Dn

Z
Z

f
()
zf
()
d
6
=
d +

z)

Dn
Dn
Z

z
f ()

6 1 + max
d 0 n . I
Dn z
Dn

66 1
sec z :=
,
cos z
(2 1)2, N. sec
.
res

sec =

(21) 2

lim

z(21) 2

z (2 1) 2
1
1
=
= lim
=
z(21) 2 sin z
cos z
sin(2 1) 2
1
1
1
=
=
= (1) .
=

sin( 2 )
sin( 2 )
cos

, sec z =
= (2 2) 2

(1)
.
z (2 2) 2

, Dn
, 2n, z = 0, , (. 21). sec

28.

146

(28.26), n- . z = n + iy , ,
| sec z| =

1
1
1
=
=
,
| cos(n + iy)|
| cos iy|
ch y

|y| 6 .

z = x in , ,
| sec z| =

1
2
2
1
= ixn
6 n
=
.
ixn
n
| cos(x in)|
|e
+e
|
|e e |
| sh n|

,
Z

Zn
| sec d| 6 2

Dn

dy
2
+
ch y sh n

Zn

Zn
dx = 4

dy
4n
+
=
ch y sh n

Zn
=8

dey
4n
+
4
2y
e + 1 sh n

n .

, sec (28.26). , ,
n- 2, 32, . . ., (2 1)2
sec
(28.27),
sec z =
(
n
X
= lim
n

=1

(1)
z

=
. 21. sec

(21)
2

X
=1

(1)
z+

(21)
2

)
=

(1) (2 1)
,
z 2 (2 1)2 2 4


sec z , .

, , 66.

3.

147

67. f C ,
(Dn )
n=1 C ,

Z
f ()

K R+ p N n N :
(28.28)
p d 6 K .
Dn

(Pn )
n=1 (p 1), , f
"
#
X
f (z) = lim Pn (z) +
Ga (z) ,
(28.29)
n

aDn

Ga (z) f
a.
J || > |z|,

1
z z2
1
1
z p1
1 + + 2 + . . . + p1 + . . . =
=
=
z
(1 z )

zp
1
z
z2
z p1
1
+ p
+ 2 + 3 + ... + p
. (28.30)
=

z
, z Dn
Z
Z p
1
f () d
1
z f () d
= Pn (z) +

,
2i
z
2i
p z
Dn

(28.31)

Dn


1
Pn (z) :=
2i

1
z
z2
z p1
+ 2 + 3 + ... + p

f () d .

(28.32)

Dn

, (p 1) z .
, (28.25) :
Z p
X
1
z f () d
f (z) = Pn (z) +
Ga (z) +

, z Dn . (28.33)
2i
p z
aDn

Dn

28.

148

(28.28), (28.33)

Z p

Z
p
p

f () d
|z|
z
f
()
d

6 K |z|

p
p

z
min
|

z|
min
|

z|

Dn

Dn

Dn

Dn

n .
, n (28.33) (28.29). I

67
ctg.
n , n Z,

(z n) cos z
res ctg = lim
= 1.
n
zn
sin z
,
,
,

x=
+ n , y =
+ n ,
2
2

. 22. ctg

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . (. 22). , ctg
(28.28) p = 1, . .

ctg z

dz ,
(28.34)

Dn

+ n + iy
Dn n- . z =
2
n-
h

i cos
+ n + iy

h 2

i =
+ n + iy =
ctg
2
sin
+ n + iy
2



sin(iy) sh y ey ey
< 1.
=
=
=
cos(iy) ch y ey + ey

3.

149

z = xi
+ n n-
2
:
h

i cos x i
+ n

h
2
i =
+ n =
ctg x i
2
sin x i
+ n
2

eix e( 2 +n) + eix e( 2 +n) e 2 +n + e 2 n

6
=
=
cth
+
n
6 cth ,

+n

n
eix e( 2 +n) eix e( 2 +n) e 2
2
2
e 2
cth . , cth
| ctg z| 6 cth

> 1,
2

z Dn .

Z
Z

ctg d
cth 2
|d|

6 ctg

8
+
n
= 8 cth .


2
||
2
2
+ n
2
Dn

Dn

, (28.28) , p = 1.
Pn (z) (28.32). p = 1,
Pn (z) (p 1) = 0, . .
ctg
. , . ,

ctg
, , res
= 0. ,
=0
1
Pn (z) =
2i
=

Dn
n
X
k=1

n
X
ctg
ctg
ctg
d =
res
+ res
=
=k
=k

k=1

n
( k) cos
( + k) cos
1
1
lim
+ lim
=
+
= 0.
k
k
sin
sin
k k
k=1

, ctg (28.29), P (z) 0

n

X
1
1 X
1
1
ctg z = lim
= +
+
,
n
z k
z k=1 z k z + k
k=n
, ,
ctg.
:

ctg t

1 X
2t
=
.
2 k22
t
t
k=1

(28.35)

28.

150

0 z ,

Zz

sin z
1
=
ln
ctg t
dt =
ln(z 2 k 2 2 ) ln(k 2 2 ) ,
z
t
k=1
0

sin z X
z2
ln
=
ln 1 2 2 .
z
k
k=1

, sin


Y
z2
sin z = z
1 2 2 ,
(28.36)
k
k=1
.

4.
1. t (0, 1) .
e2itz
f (z) :=
z (e2iz 1)

(28.37)

Z, z = 0
2, .
z = 0 (28.4)

d
ze2itz
res f (z) = lim
=
z=0
z0 dz
e2iz 1
(e2itz + 2itze2itz )(e2iz 1) 2ize2iz e2itz
= lim
=
z0
(e2iz 1)2
(1 + 2itz)(e2iz 1) 2ize2iz
= lim
=
z0
(e2iz 1)2
= lim

z0

(1 + 2itz)(2iz +

(2iz)2
2!

+ . . .) 2iz (2iz)2 . . .
1
=
t

.
(2iz)2 + . . .
2


e2itz (z k) e2itk
1
e2itk
res f (z) = lim
=
lim
=
.
z=k
zk z (e2iz 1)
zk 2ie2iz
k
2ik

4.

151

Dn

1
n+
2

i n,

n N .

(28.37) ,
Z

X e2itk
1
f (z) dz = 2 t
+
.
2
k

(28.38)

16|k|6n

Dn

n , . (28.37)

1
Dn . z = x i n, |x| 6 n +
2

2it(xin)

e
e2t n
6

=
|f (z)| =

(x i n)(e2i(xi n) 1))
x2 + n e2 n 1
1

.
x2 + n e2(1t) n e2t n

(n+12)i

n
n+12
Z
Z

2
dx

f (z) dz 6 2(1t)n
6
2
2t n
2+n

e
x
(n+12)in

(n+12)
6

2n + 1
2
0

2(1t)n
n
e2t n
e

n
.

28.

152

z = (n + 12) + iy , |y| 6

2it[(n+12)+iy]
e

|f (z)| =
=
2i[(n+12)+iy]
[(n + 12) + iy] e
1
e2ty
p

=
=
2
2
2i(n+12)
2y

(n + 12) + y e
e
1
e2ty
=p
=
(n + 12)2 + y 2 |1 + e2y |
1
1
M
6p
=p
2ty
.
+ e2(t1)y
(n + 12)2 + y 2 e
(n + 12)2 + y 2

(n+12)+i

n
Z
Zn

dy

p
f (z) dz 6 2M
=
2
2

(n
+
12)
+
y

(n+12)i n

n
n

2
2
= 4M ln y + (n + 12) + y =

2
n + (n + 12) + n
= 4M ln
,
n + 12
, n .
(28.38) n ,

X e2itk
= i (1 2t) , 0 < t < 1 .
k
kZ0

, :

X
sin 2tk
k=1

(1 2t) , 0 < t < 1 .


2

4.

153

, , t = 14

1 1 1
= 1 + + ... .
4
3 5 7
2. f ,
.
1
zk
1
res 2iz
= lim 2iz
=
,
z=k e
1 zk e
1 2i
D C - D, f , ,
m, m + 1, . . . , n D,
Z
n
X
f (z) dz
f (k) =
+ R1 ,
(28.39)
e2iz 1
k=m

R1 2i D f .
, ,
cos z
res ( ctg z) = lim
(z k) = 1 ,
z=k
zk sin z
, ,
Z
n
X
1
f (k) =
f (z) ctg z dz + R2 ,
(28.40)
2i
k=m

R2
f , D.
(28.39) (28.40) . , ,
1
f (z) :=
,
(t + z)2
t
/ Z . C
1
|z| 6 n + , n N, ,
2
Z
ctg z
dz 0 n .
(t + z)2
|z|=n+12

28.

154

J | ctg z|, z = (n + 12)ei .


ctg , 7
7 | ctg z| .
7 . = 0 =
, = 2
( 0 < < 2 ).

| ctg (n + 12)ei | 6 | ctg (n + 12)ei2 | = cth [(n + 12)] .


cth [(n + 12)] 1 n ,

M R+ n N [0, 2] : | ctg (n + 12)ei | 6 M .


Z
Z

ctg z dz
|dz|

6 M
2

(z + t)
|z + t|2
|z|=n+12

|z|=n+12
Z2
= M
0

(n + 12)d
2 2 M (n + 12)
0
=
|(n + 12) |t||2
[(n + 12) |t|]2

n . I
, , ,
Z
n
X
1
ctg z dz
ctg z
1
=
res
+
.
z=t (z + t)2
2i
(z + t)2
(n + t)2

(28.41)

k=n

|z|=n+12

,
2
ctg z
d
res
= lim
ctg z = 2 .
z=t (z + t)2
zt dz
sin t
(28.41)
n ,
X
nZ

1
2
.
=
(n + t)2
sin2 t

5.

155

, ,
:

X
1
2
=
.
2
n
6
n=1

5.

1.

f D .

b , (. .
f : D C,
).
37.
b a D res f 0
f : D C
f
a

(. . a f ).
b
38. f : D C
a D ord f , a
:

n , a n f ,
ord f := p , a p f ,
a

0 , f (a) C0 .
. ,
f , f
.

b 68. a C
f .
f a f ,

28.

156

. .

f0
res = ord f .
(28.42)
a f
a
J , a C. ord f = 0,
a

f (a) C0. 0
ff a (
0

). res ff = 0. a
a
n f . a
f
f (z) = (z a)n (z) ,

(28.43)

, (a) 6= 0. (28.43),
f 0 (z) = n(z a)n1 (z) + (z a)n 0 (z) .

(28.44)

(28.44) (28.44),
f 0 (z)
n
0 (z)
=
+
.
f (z)
z a (z)
(a) 6= 0,
0
res
a

a,

= 0. ,

f0
n
0 (z)
res = res
+ res
= n + 0 = n.
a f
z=a z a
z=a (z)
a p f .
a f
(z)
f (z) =
,
(28.45)
(z a)p
, (a) 6= 0. (28.45),
0 (z)(z a)p p(z a)p1 (z)
f (z) =
=
(z a)2p
0 (z)
p (z)
=

. (28.46)
(z a)p (z a)p1
0

5.

157

(28.46) (28.45),
p
f 0 (z) 0 (z)
=

.
f (z)
(z)
za
0

res ff = p.
a

a = . f () = c0 6= 0, f
c1 c2
+ 2 + ... .
(28.47)
f (z) = c0 +
z
z
,
c1 2c2
f 0 (z) = 2 3 . . . .
(28.48)
z
z
(28.48) (28.47), :
f 0 (z)
1 c1 + 2c2 z 1 + . . .
= 2
.
f (z)
z
f (z)
,
f0
1
f z ,
0

res ff = 0. n f ,


f1 (z)
f (z) = n , f1 () C .
z

f 0 (z)
n f10 (z)
= +
.
f (z)
z f1 (z)
0

res ff11 = 0, res ff = n.

p f ,
f (z) = z n f1 (z) ,

f1 () C .

f 0 (z) p f10 (z)


= +
.
f (z)
z f1 (z)
0

res ff11 = 0, res ff = p. I

28.

158

2.
69 ( ). ,
:
b - D;
(a) D C
(b) D D t D;
b D,
(c) f : D t D C
b1 , . . . , bP D,
a1 , . . . , aN D,
, ;
(d) f 0 D D .

Z
N
P
X
X
1
f 0 (z)
(z)
dz =
(ak )
(bk ) .
(28.49)
2i
f (z)
D

k=1

k=1

J
(28.49) . f .
.
a D C n f . 68, a :

f 0 (z)
n
(z)
= [(a) + (z a)1 (z)]
+ f1 (z) ,
(28.50)
f (z)
za
1 f1 a.
(28.50) ,

f 0 (z)
res (z)
= n (a) .
(28.51)
z=a
f (z)
D n f .
68, :

f 0 (z)
1 (z)
n f1 (z)
(z)
= () +
+ 2
,
(28.52)
f (z)
z
z
z

5.

159

1 f1 .
(28.52) ,

f 0 (z)
res (z)
= n () .
(28.53)
z=
f (z)
b D C p f .
68, b :

f 0 (z)
p
(z)
= [(b) + (z b)1 (z)]
+ f1 (z) ,
(28.54)
f (z)
zb
1 f1 b.
(28.54) ,

f 0 (z)
res (z)
= p (b) .
(28.55)
z=b
f (z)
D p f .
68, :

p f1 (z)
f 0 (z)
1 (z)
(z)
= () +

+ 2
,
(28.56)
f (z)
z
z
z
1 f1 .
(28.52) ,

f 0 (z)
res (z)
= p () .
(28.57)
z=
f (z)
(28.51), (28.53), (28.55), (28.57)
f , (28.49). I
b
70 ( ). , D C
b
- D, f : D tD C

N P (
).

1
Arg f (z) = N P ,
(28.58)
2
D

28.

160

D
, ,
, , .
J (28.49) (z) 1,
Z 0
N
P
X
X
1
f (z)
dz =
1
1=N P .
(28.59)
2i
f (z)
k=1

k=1


(28.58).
u(z) := Re f (z) ,

v(z) := Im f (z) ,

f (z) = u(z) + iv(z)

(28.49) :
Z 0
Z
Z
1
f (z)
du + i dv
(u i v)(du + i dv)
1
1
dz =
=
=
2i
f (z)
2i
u + iv
2i
u2 + v 2
D
D
D
Z
Z
Z
u du + v dv
u dv v du
1
1
1
d ln(v 2 + v 2 )+
=
+
=
2
2
2
2
2i
u +v
2
u +v
4i
D
D

Z
Z D

1
v
1
v
1
+
dArctg =
ln |f (z )| +
d Arctg =
2
u
2i
2
u
D
D
D
Z
Z
v
1
1
d Arctg =
d Arg f (z ) .
=
2
u
2
D

ln |f (z)| D ,
,
. , (28.59) :
Z
1
d Arg f (z ) = N P .
(28.60)
2
D


, , Arg f (z) , , . ,

5.

161

() . () . , ,
Arg f (z), ()
. , (28.60) (28.58),
. I
. 1. 70 ,
f D (. . ),
:

1
Arg f (z)D = N .
2

(28.61)

, f (z) = 0, D .

2. Arg f (z)
D D

, (. . f 0 D
).
. .

3. ,

b -
71 (). D C
D, f g D, D t D,
t D |f (t)| > |g(t)|.
f f +g D ( )
.
J f
D. , , , t0 , D t D, . , t0 D,
43 () f (z) 0, -

162

28.

. , t0 D,
f f (t0 ) = 0,
.
w2
w3
ln(1 + w) = w
+
. . . |w| < 1,
2
3



Ln (1+w). fg(t)
(t) < 1 t D,
w = fg(t)
(t) .
i
h
t 7 ln 1 + fg(t)
(t) ,
D . D
,

g(t)
ln 1 +
= 0.
(28.62)
f (t) D

g(t)
,
t D : f (t) + g(t) = f (t) 1 +
f (t)
,
,

g(t)
.
Arg [f (t) + g(t)] = Arg f (t) + arg 1 +
f (t)

2
D (28.62),

1
1
Arg [f (t) + g(t)] =
Arg f (t) ,
2
2
D
D
(28.61)
f f + g D. I
( ).
n N C C n
( ).
J P (z) := z n +c1 z n1 +. . .+cn
n. f (z) := z n , g(z) := c1 z n1 + . . . + cn .

5.
g(z)
f
z (z)

lim

163

= 0, R R+ ,


|t| > R fg(t)
(t) < 1, . . |f (t)| > |g(t)|.
, ,
f f + g |z| < R .
R,
R +, , f f + g
C. , f (z) = z n
C n ( ). I
72 ( ). f
D , D = f (D) D f
.
J .
( ), D
. .
w0 D = f (D). z0 D, , w0 = f (z0 ).
w

f ()
,
w
r R+ ,
w0
{|z z0 | 6 r} D, f (z) w0
(, ) z = z0 .
{|t z0 | = r}. . 23. 72
, f ()
, w0 ,
w0 f () . ,
{|w w0 | < } D . , w0
D , .
w ,
|w0 w | < . t |f (t) w0 | > > |w0 w |.

f (z) w = (f (z) w0 ) + (w0 w )

{|z z0 | < r} , f (z)w0 , . . z . , z D, f (z ) = w . {|w w0 | < }


D , , D . I
1 ( ). f
D ,
|f |
D.
J D := f (D)
. z0 D, w0 := f (z0 ) D .
|w0 | w0 D , D
, ,
, w0 = f (z0 ). , |f | z0 . I
2 ( ). f
D,
D, |f | D.
J D := f (D)
. z0 D, w0 := f (z0 ) D w0 6= 0.
|w0 | w0 D ,
D , ,
, w0 = f (z0 ). , |f |
z0 . I
. f D , D tD . ,
|f | D t D .
D . , D .
, f D ,
, |f |
D .

29

1.

1. ,

b f : M C.
M C
39. , F : D C

f D M , F

D, F M = f .

, ,
.
b
40. , F : D C

f D M , F

D, F M = f .
, , , ,
f : M C ,
. ,
. .
b , M D
73. D C
, D,
f : M C D.
J , D
F1 F2 , ,

F1 D = F2 D = f : M C .

29.

166

F := F1 F2 D
M, ,
D. F = 0, , , F1 = F2 . I
, , ,
M , D, .
.
sin z
1) f (z) =
C := C0.
z
,
sin z
z2 z4 z6
=1
+

+ ... .
z
3!
5!
7!
z = 0 , . . f (0) := 1,
, C.
2) 1 + z + z 2 + . . . + z n1 + . . . |z| < 1. ,

1
= 1 + z + z 2 + . . . + z n1 + . . . |z| < 1 .
(29.1)
1z
C {1}, C {1}.
(29.1) (. . ), b {1}. , ,
C
z = 1 (. . ),
b
1 + z + z 2 + . . . + z n1 + . . . C.
3) x
f (z) =

x2 x3
ln(1 + x) = x
+
... ,
2
3
x3 x5 x7
arctg x = x
+

+ ... ,
3 5 7

2
(1 + x) = 1 +
x+
x + ...
1
2
(1, 1) .
x z , |z| < 1.
z
ln(1 + z) = z

z2 z3
+
... ,
2
3

1.

167

z 3 z 5 x7
+

+ ... ,
3
5
7

(1 + z) = 1 +
z+
z + ... .
1
2
arctg z = z

4)
Zz
Ln z :=

Zz

dt
t

Arcsin z :=

dt
,
1 t2

(29.2)

,
,
ln arcsin, (1, 1), z . (29.2)
. , , (29.2)
. , , .

74 ( ).
M ,
D M , f1 , . . . , fn
D. F (w1 , . . . , wn ) w1 , . . . , wn
C, , z M
F [f1 (z), . . . , fn (z)] 0.
z D.
J , F [f1 (z), . . . , fn (z)] D
.
M , D.
73 ,
z D : F [f1 (z), . . . , fn (z)] 0 . I
. , , M
0

F [f (z), f (z), . . . , f (n) (z)] 0 ,


D.

29.

168

.
5)
x2 x3
+
+ ... ,
2!
3!
x2 x4
cos x = 1
+
... ,
2!
4!
x3 x5
sin x = x
+
...
3!
5!

ex = 1 + x +

, , , cos2 x+sin2 x = 1. x z ,
C
z2 z3
+
+ ... ,
2!
3!
z2 z4
cos z = 1
+
... ,
2!
4!
z3 z5
+
... .
sin z = z
3!
5!

ez = 1 + z +

74 z ,
, , cos2 z + sin2 z = 1. ,
x R : cos x + i sin x = eix , 74
z C : cos z + i sin z = eiz .
6) - x R+ :
Z+
(x) :=
tx1 et dt .
0

x z z ,
Z+
Z+
Z+
z1 t
z1 t
t e dt ,
t e ln t dt ,
tz1 et (ln t)2 dt , . . . .
0

, ,
,

1.

169

{Re z > 0}. , z = x + iy ,


+
+

Z
Z

tz1 et (ln t)k dt = e(x+iy1) ln t et (ln t)k dt 6

Z+
Z+
(x1) ln t t
k
6
e
e (ln t) dt =
tx1 et (ln t)k dt , (29.3)
0

, , . ,
(29.3) .
Z+
(z) =
tz1 et dt

(29.4)

{Re z > 0} (x), R+ .


, x > 0 (x + 1) = x (x),
74 Re z > 0 (z + 1) = z (z).
:
(z + n) = (z + n) (z + n 1) . . . z (z) ,
(29.5)
Re z > 0 , n N.
- C.
, Re z 6 0, z C . n N
, Re(z + n) > 0. (z + n)
, (29.4), (29.5) (z):
(z) :=

(z + n)
.
(z + n) (z + n 1) . . . z

C {0, 1, 2, . . .}, Im z > 0


(z). ,
- C {0, 1, 2, . . .}
C.
, , , , , . ,
(z) (1 z) =
, .

sin z

29.

170

7) , |z| < 1, .
f , 1 :
n

f (z) = 1 + z 2 + z 4 + z 8 + . . . + z 2 + . . . .

(
ck =

lim

p
k

|ck | = lim

1,
0,

k = 2n ,
k =
6 2n .

2n

1 = 1.
1
p
R =
= 1 , |z| < 1.
lim k |ck |
n

|z| 1. x (0 , 1)
n

f (x) = 1 + x2 + x4 + x8 + . . . + x2 + . . . > 0 .
E R+ , N = [E], [. . .] .
,
N

fN (x) := 1 + x2 + x4 + x8 + . . . + x2 N + 1 x 1 , x < 1 ,

R+ R+ x (1 , 1) : fN (x) > N + 1 .
, N + 1 = [E] + 1 > E ,
E R+ (0 , 1) x (1 , 1) : f (x) > fN (x) > E .
,
lim f (x) = + .

x1
x<1

, x = 1 f , . . f
,
z = 1. ,
f (z) z 2 + f (z 4 ) ,
z 2 = 1, . .
z = 1. ,
f (z) z 2 + z 4 + f (z 4 ) ,
z 4 = 1, . .
z = 1, z = i. , ,
n
f z 2 = 1, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
|z| = 1,
.
1

, ()
, z , .

1.

171

2.

41. f : D C , b (D, f ) ()
D C.
.
42. , (D1 , f1 ) (D2 , f2 ),
D1 D2 6= ,

D1 D2 ,

f1 = f2 .
D1 D2 f1
f2 . , .
43. , (D, f ) (G, g)

0 , 1 , . . . , n1 ,
(D, f ) = (D0 , f0 ), (D1 , f1 ), . . . , (Dn , fn ) = (G, g), ,

= 0, 1, . . . , n 1 : D D+1 f = f+1 .
. , 43,
, -

D1

.
.

D2

, .

. 24. 42

75 ( ). D1 t D1 D2 t D2 -
, f1 : D1 t D1 C, f2 : D1 t D2 C D1 , D2
. , D1 D2 = ,

29.

172

e D1 D2 l,
(0 , 1) .
f1 (z) f2 (z)

z l,

F : D C,
(
f1 (z) ,
z D1 t D1 ,
F (z) :=
f2 (z) ,
z D2 t D2

(29.6)

(29.7)

D := D1 t l t D2 .
J z D1 t D2 . ,

(
Z
f1 (z) z D1 ,
f1 ()
1
d =
2i
z
0
z D2 ;
D1

1
2i

f2 ()
d =
z

D2

(
0

z D1 ,

f2 (z) z D2 .

, (29.7) , l ,
(
Z
f1 (z) z D1 ,
F ()
1
(29.8)
d = F (z) =
2i
z
f2 (z) z D2 .
D

D1

l l

D2

, F ,
(29.7),
D (29.8). 32 , F D . I
.
75. ,

. 25. 75

F , (29.7),
l , , l .

1.

173

76 ( ).
D , l
b
C-.
f D, l, L := f (l) l
b
C-.
f
D l D , b
D C-
l,
f (z) := (f (z )) ,

z D ,

(29.9)

b
C-.
J , l L
, l ( D) . z 7 z ,
(29.9) l :
f (z) := f (z) ,

Im z 6 0 .

(29.10)

x l. z x , z x , Im f (x)
0, (29.6)
f (x) f (x) .
, z 7 f (z)
z 7 f (z).

d
f (z + h) f (z)
f (z + h) f (z)
= lim
=
f (z) := lim
h0
h0
dz
h
h

f (z + h) f (z)
= lim
= f 0 (z) ,
h
h0
(29.9) . 75 ,
(29.9) .

174

29.

b
l L C-.
1 18, , z = U (), b
{Im > 0} C-,

l. , -
b
V , C-,
L, .
V f U . (29.9), :

V (f (U ())) := V f U () .

(29.11)

z := U () U , , U () = z ,
l.
(29.11)
V (f (z)) := V (f (z )) .
V ,
(29.9),
L. I

2.

1.
()

, .

2.

175

44.

P
a C F = (Ur (a) ; fa ), fa (z) =
cn (z a)n
n=1

a, Ur (a) = {|z a| < r}


.

, ,
.

, , .
1. F = (Ura (a) ; fa )
G = (Urb (b) ; , fg ) , |ra rb | 6 |a b|.
J , {|z a| = ra }{|z b| = rb } ,
.
|ra rb | 6 |a b|
(. . 26). I
F G , F G
, .
45. (0 , ra ] Fa = (Ura (a) ; fa (z))

K (Fa ) := F | a| < F Fa .
, T
.
2. Fa = (Ura (a) ; fa (z))
a. (0, r] K (Fa )
{| a| < },
, .

29.

176

J F 7 K (Fa )
{| a| < }. , ,
| a| < , fa (z) (z )
fa (z) =

(k)
X
fa ()
k=0

k!

(z )k = f (z) .

r . F := (Ur () ; f (z))
, , F Fa . I
46.
,
,
45.
3. T ra
rb
.
a
b
J , Fa =
= (Ura (a) ; fa (z)) K (Fa ) T. , T . 26. 1

46.
.
. I
, , , . .
, , C
: [0 , 1] C. a = (0) b = (1) .
47. : [0, 1] C
a = (0) b = (1). Fa = (Ura (a); fa (z))
t 7 Ft [0 , 1] T, Ft

2.

177

(t), F0 = Fa .
,
. ,
, .
77. t 7 Ft
Fa : [0 , 1] C. r(t) Ft = (Ur(t) ((t)); f(t) (z))
t [0 , 1] , , ,
m R+ t [0 , 1] : r(t) > m .

(29.12)

J t1 t2 , Ft1
Ft2 . 1 |r(t1 ) r(t2 )| 6 |(t1 ) (t2 )|.
(t)
r(t). , t 7 r(t) [0 , 1] ,
m > 0, (29.12). I
78. F G
,
.
J : [0 , 1] C , t 7 Ft
, , F0 = F , F1 = G .
[0 , 1],
R+ R+ t0 , t00 [0 , 1] :
|t0 t00 | 6 = |(t0 ) (t00 )| 6 . (29.13)

Ft = Ur(t) ((t)); f(t) (z) , := m = min r(t) > 0,


[0 , 1]

77.
0 = t1 < t1 < . . . < tn = 1 ,
(29.13). Fk := Ftk .

F = F0 , F1 , F2 , . . . , Fn = G

29.

178

Fk Fk+1 (. .
k : [tk , tk+1 ] C
). I
79 (). t 7 Ft t 7 Gt
: [0 , 1] C, ,
F0 = G0 . t [0 , 1] : Ft = Gt . , F1 = G1 .
J

Ft = Ur(t) ((t)); f(t) (z)


Gt = U(t) ((t)); g(t) (z) ,
inf r(t) = m > 0, inf (t) = > 0 ,
[0,1]

[0,1]

77. (29.13)
:= min {m , }, 0 = t0 < t1 < . . . < tn = 1 ,
(29.13).
F0 = Ft0 , Ft1 , . . . , Ftn = F1 G0 = Gt0 , Gt1 , . . . , Gtn = G1 .
, F0 = G0
. ,
Ftk = Gtk k = 1, 2, . . . , n. , F1 = G1 . I
48. 0 , 1 : [0 , 1] D
a = 0 (0) = 1 (0) b = 0 (1) = 1 (1) D,
(s , t) : [0 , 1] [0 , 1] D
(a) (0 , t) 0 (t), (1 , t) ( t);
(b) (s , 0) a, (s , 1) b.
80 (). , 0 1
D C,
s (t) = (s, t) : [0 , 1] [0 , 1] D
.
,
s [0 , 1]

F = Ur(a) (a) ; fa (z)


s : [0 , 1] D. F 0 1
G .

2.

179

J Fts = F(s, t) s (t) =


= (s , t) rs (t) = r(s , t), , s [0 , 1] t 7 Fts
s . s0 [0 , 1], inf rs0 (t) = m0 > 0
[0,1]

, ,
> 0,
)
0
00
m0
|s s | 6
0
0
00
00
.
(29.14)
=
|(s
,
t
)

(s
,
t
)|
<
|t0 t00 | 6
2
0 = t0 < t1 < t2 < . . . < tn = 1,
, 78
0
F = F0s0 Fts10 Fts20 Ftsn1
F1s0 .

(29.15)

Ftsk0 (s0 , tk ),
m0 , m20
(29.14). , s0 ([tk , tk+1 ]) Urs0 (tk ) (s0 (tk )), (29.15).
s [0 , 1] , |ss0 | 6 ,

F = F0s Fts1 Fts2 Ftsn1 F1s .

(29.16)

(29.14) , k < n ([s0 , s] [tk , tk+1 ])


Urs0 (tk ) (s0 (tk )) , , Ftsk+1 Ftsk0
m0
|(s , tk+1 ) (s0 , tk )| <
, rs0 (tk ) > m0 ,
2
m0
m0
m0
rs (tk+1 ) >
. rs (t0 ) >
. , rs (tk ) >
2
2
2
k = 0, 1, . . . , n.
s ([tk , tk+1 ]) Urs (tk ) (s (tk )) ,
. . Ftsk0 Ftsk+1 . ,
:

29.

180

...

0
F0s0 Fts10 Fts20 . . . Ftsn1
F1s0

F0s Fts1 Fts2 . . . Ftsn1 F1s

,
. ,
F0s0 = F0s = F . , Fts10 Fts1

, . ,
Fts10 Fts1 . , ,
. , F1s0 F1s ,
, F1s0 = F1s . ,
s 7 F1s , , .
[0 , 1] , s 7 F1s [0 , 1].
, F10 = F11 = G . I
49. (D , f ) (G , h)
a D G,

U a, U D G, f U = g U .
2 a
.
. 1. a
, . ,
( ) . ,
. ,
.
2.
. ,
2

: ,

.

2.

181

; ,
. .
.
F = (U , f ),

U = z = rei r R+ , < < ,


f U ,
f (z) = z , f (1) = 1.

, . .
it

0 (t) = e

, 0 6 t 6 1,

it

1 (t) = e

. 27.

, 0 6 t 6 1.

, (. . 27):
s (t) = cos t + i(1 2s) sin t , (s , t) [0, 1] [0, 1] .
f

f (z) = e 2 ln z = exp

1
2

Zz

d
,

U .
, , ,
.
0

Z
Zz
Z
1
d
1
d
d 1
f1 (z) = exp
+
= i exp
,
2

z = rei r R+ , 0 < < 2 . , 1


Z
Zz
Z
1
1
d 1
d
d
f1 (z) = exp
+
= i exp
,
2

z = rei r R+ , 0 < < 2 .

182

29.

,
0 1 (f1 (z) = f1 (z)),
, 0 1 . 80,
. , F 1 (t) = cos t , 0 6 t 6 1 ( 2

), z = 0,

z .

2.
,
(, , ) F0 .
50. ,
F0 , T(F0 ) ,
F0 .
1. F = (UF , f ) T(F0 ) .
S
J D :=
UF , , D FT(F0 )

. ,
D . z0 D
F0 , z1 , z2 D. z1 , z2
F1 , F2 T(F0 ). 50 1 2 C, , F1 F0
1 , F2
2 . 1 2 D, 1 (t)
2 (t) t [0 , 1]. 2 11 D, z1 z2 . , D
. I

2.

183

51. ,
F0 , z 7 A(z),
z D, D 1,

A(z) := fz (z) (Uz , fz ) T(F0 ) , z Uz .


A(z) ,

, . ,
,
, ,
.
:
(a) ;
(b) .
.
52.
z 7 A(z), z D,
f : G C, G D, f (z) A(z). ,
,
.
. .
81 ( ). G , (U , f ), U G, : [0 , 1] G, F : G C, , F U = f .
J a G (U , f ), z G
, : [0 , 1] G , (0) = a, (1) = z .
(U , f )
. (V , F )
z . 80 . G ,

29.

184

. , (V , F )
z , z 7 F (z), z . z U ,
F (z) = f (z). I
. . 81
z 7 A(z), z D . , G D ,

.
. 1) |z 1| < 1
Z

k
X
d
k1 (z 1)
=
.
ln z = ln[1 + (z 1)] =
(1)
k

k=1
z

, ,
C := C0. Ln z
C . , ,
Ln z G C . ,
,

G = rei | 0 < r < + , || < .



Zz
ln z =
1

d
=

Zei
1

d
+

rei
Z

ei

d
==

ieit dt
+
eit

Zr

dt
= ln r + i .
t

2k , k
, Ln z ,

Ln z = ln r + i( + 2k), z = rei , 0 6 6 2 .
2) CZ |z 1| < 1

z := eLn z .
, z a
C0,
G C0. , ,
G = {rei | 0 < r < +; || < } ,

2.

185

z = e[ln r+i(+2k)] , k Z .
k .
= 1n,

z 1n = n z = n r ei(+2k)n , k Z .
n , ,
, k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1.

,
.
53. (
3 ) , () .
, R, , . , . .
.
-

(U , ) I , U , . . I U R, : U (U ) C . ,
( ) 1
.
54. R .
f : R C R, I
f 1
.

1

f 1
=
f

, .
55. , F0 ,
R := T(F0 ), T
.
3

(18851955) , (1913 .)
.

29.

186

82. 53, (U (a) ; fa (z)) 7 fa (a)


R.
J R :

(U (F) ; F ) F R ,
U (F) F = (Ur(a) (a); fa (z)),
. .

U (F) = F | a| < F F ,
F
F : {| a| < } U (F), : F : 7 F .
U (F) U (G) 6= , G = (U(b) (b); gb (z)).
{| a| < } {| b| < } 6= , , , G G,
= z , , , .
(Ur(a) (a); fa (z)) 7 fa (a), , . (Ur(a) (a); fa (z)),
w = fa (z), . .
. I
R
. &f
D 1C
f

, -

. 28

, . 28. : R D

.
.

R D . .
.
1) k Z
z = rei 7 ln r + i( + 2k)

2.

187

Ln z ,

(r , ) 0 < r < + , 2k 6 6 2(k + 1) ,


k - (. 29).
ln r + 2(k + 1)i = ln r + 2ki + 2k

(29.17)

(k + 1)-
k- . ,
,
k = . . . , 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, . . . .
k Z (k + 1)-
k- . (29.17) Ln z = ln r + i( + 2k)
.
, (. 30) :

(r , ) R2 0 < r < +, < < + ,


Ln z = ln r + i( + 2k) .

(r , ) 7 rei .
, ( )
Ln 1.
2) w = n z = e n Ln z .
z

, ,
Ln z = ln r + i( + 2k) ,
,

n
z = n r ei(+2k)n
n , , , k = 0, 1, . . .,
n 1.
n z n ,
, , 0, 1, . . . , n 1 .

n
r = n r e(2in)(n1)+2in

=0
= 2

. 29.

29.

188

. 30.

. 31.

(n 1)- . , ,

n
z = n r e(i+2kn) , k = 0, 1, . . . , n 1,
. ,

n
z n , . ,
,
, R3 . , , ,

n z , , R3 . ,
R4 , . ,
( ) , .

3.
, F0 = (U , 0 )
4
D = {0 < |z a| < r} .
, , , 4 .

. .

2.

189

D. D1 =
= D[0 , r). 1
1 : D1 C. 1
, D,
(0 , r),
1 (x + 0 i) 1 (x 0 i). .
:
x (0 , r) : 1 (x + 0 i) = 1 (x 0 i) .
75 (
, (0 , r)) 1 D = {0 < |z a| < r.. 1

1 (z) =

+
X

ck (z a)k ,

k=

. a ( ) 1 . ,
1. k < 0 : ck = 0 (a ) ;
2. n N : cn 6= 0 ck = 0 k > n (a ) ;
3. n N k > n : ck 6= 0 (a ) .

1 (x + 0 i) 6 1 (x 0 i) , x (0 , r) .
, 1

D1 = {( , ) 0 < < r; 0 6 6 2} .

1 ( e0i ) 6 1 ( e2i ) .

29.

190

1
x = e2i D1
D2 = {(, ) | 0 < < r; 2 6 6 4}
2 , D1 D2
1 (e2i ) 2 (e2i )
2

D3 = {(, ) | 0 < < r; 4 6 6 6}
3 ,
2 (e4i ) 3 (e4i ) .
, , .
1) n ,
n (en2i ) 1 (e0i ) .
, n .
, a
(n 1).
1 , 2 , . . . , n

D1 , D2 , . . . , Dn ,

1 (e2i ) 2 (e2i ) ,
2 (e22i ) 3 (e22i ) ,
..................... ,
n (en2i ) 1 (e0i ) .

2.

191

, 1 , 2 , . . . , n a . ,
z = a + on
n
p
0 < || < n f (r)

D1 D2 . . . Dn
, D
2

6 arg 6 2 , = 1, 2, . . . , n .
n
n

,
1 (a + n ) , 0 6 arg 6

(a + n ) , 2 6 arg 6 4 ,
2
F () =
n
n

.............................. ,

(a + n ), 2 (n 1) 6 arg 6 2
n
n

{0 < || < n r}, ,


+
X
F () =
ck k
k=

z ,

(z) =

+
X

p k
ck n .

k=

.
1. k 6 0 : ck = 0. a
.
2. m N : cm 6= 0 k > m : ck = 0.
a m .

3. m N k > m : ck 6= 0. a
.
a = 0 F .
2) , n N,
n (en2i ) 1 (e0i ) .
a ,
a .

30

1.
1.
83 (
). (fn (z))
n=1 , D, 1
D C f (z) 6 const, f D.
J f 46 (), . , . .
(
z1 6= z2 ,
z1 , z2 D :
f (z1 ) = f (z2 ) = a .
z1 z2 1 2
,
D, , 1 t2 f (z)a.
, f ,
.
f 1 t 2
m R+ z 1 t 2 : |f (z) a| > m .
2 fn f 1 t 2 ,
n N z 1 t 2 : |f (z) fn (z)| < m 6 |f (z) a| .
1

, , , , .
2 , .

30.

194


fn (z) a = [f (z) a] + [fn (z) f (z)]
71 () , fn (z) a
, 1 2 . fn . I
84 ( ).
(fn )
n=1 , D, 3
, , D.
J E , E D. ,
(fn )
n=1 E
D, . .
R+ R+ z1 , z2 E n N :
|z1 z2 | 6 = |fn (z1 ) fn (z2 )| 6 . (30.1)
1 > 0 E Fr D
D. E1 , E
, E 1 2. ,
E1 , E1 D. fn (z) , . .
|fn (z)| 6 M R+ . z1 , z2 E ,
|z1 z2 | < 1 4, K 1 2 z1 .
E1 . ,
Z
Z
1
fn ( )
1
fn ( )
fn (z1 ) =
d, fn (z2 ) =
d .
2i
z1
2i
z2
K

, :

Z
1

z
1
2
|fn (z1 ) fn (z2 )| =
fn ( )
d 6
( z1 )( z2 )
2i
K

6
3

4M
M |z1 z2 | 1
|z1 z2 | .
=
1 1
2
1

2 4

, .

1.

195

, :
|fn (z1 ) fn (z2 )| 6

:= min
.

4M
|z1 z2 | .
1

1 1
,
, 4 4M

, (fn )
n=1 . 4 . I
85 ( ). f
{|z| < R} , . . |f (z)| 6 M < +,
M
M
f (0) = 0. |f (z)| 6
|z| , , |f 0 (0)| 6
.
R
R
( z 6= 0)
M
, f (z) ei z .
R
J f (0) = 0, z 7 f (z)z
0
|z| < R,
f (0).
f (z)
6 M .
|z| = r, r (0, R),
z
r
,
M
|z| 6 r , , |f 0 (0)| 6
.
r
M
M
|z| , , |f 0 (0)| 6
.
r R , r < R |f (z)| 6
R
R
, ,
f (z)
f (z)
M i
, ,
const, . .

e
z
z
R
M
f (z) = ei z . I
R
4

196

30.

2.
M1 M2 b C.
, , f : M1 M2 . ,
. ,
. ( ),
. ,
, , ,
, : . , , , , ( ) .
, ,
, .

b , C,
.
, . ,
.
()
b C.

1.

197

, , .
56. D1 C D2 C, D1 D2 .
k

.
86.
.
.
k

J , , .
k
, . . D D D. ,
w = z D D.
k

: D1 D2 , D2 D1 .
f : D1 D2 D1 D2 .
, ,
, f 1 : D2 D1
.
k

: D1 D2 , D2 D3 , D1 D3 .
, f : D1 D2 , g : D2 D3 .
, g f : D1 D3 k
D1 D3 . , D1 D3 .
. I

.
. b M
M C,
b . . . C,
M , . .

198

30.

. Fr M , . .
Fr M := MM . .
b
, , CM
( ). M , . , M ,
, M (
b
, M C).
57. D , : [0, 1] D D.
: b C, C-.
b
C,
,
, , Im z > 0,

: K = z C |z| < 1 .
(, , ), ,
.

,
. , C,
.
58. ,
.
D C ,
D . ,
( n), (, n-).
32 34 , , . , ,
(),
, ,
, .
, , .
59. D C (k + 1), k ,

1.

. 32

. 33

199

. 34

D, .
b C
, . , ,
.
. , ( ,
), , . , ,
, .
, .

3.

b ,
Fr D D C
. Fr D , b
, {z0 }, z0 C,
( ). -

30.

200

:
b ;
C
C
;

K := z C |z| < 1 .
b C, K
87. C,
.
J , b , C
. C
K , b K C.
b
( ) C C
, C K . w = f (z), ,

C.

K = w C |w| < 1 , , . . |f (z)| < 1


z C. ,
.
. I
. C K , .
C K , ,

= 2 arctg r ,
z = rei C , w = ei K .

= ,

. .

b 88 (). D C
b ( : C
), C , K (
).
b , D
J , Fr D = , D = C,
b
C.
b z0 = ,
Fr D z0 C.
D = C, , D C. z0 C,

1.
b {z0 }, w =
D = C

201

1
z z0

b {z0 } C.
C
, Fr D D . Fr D , ,
n D
o
b |w| < 1 .
K = w C
, D
, . b
, CD
= . Fr D ,
a, b C Fr D .
r
za
w=
(30.2)
zb
D,
,
D.
z=

bw2 a
w2 1

(30.3)

, , , (30.2) D
D D1 ,


.
, D2 = w w D1 ,
w z (30.3).
D, D1 ,
D2 D1 .
, D1 .
, D
. , , D . ,
D . D, . . , a C,
1
D. w =

za

30.

202

D D2 , . ,
D2 .
, D ,
. , , D .

z z0
z0 D, D z C |z z0 | < M . w =
M
D D3 ,
.
, ,
, 0 D K (. 35). z

D
f0 , D
1
1
0
K , : f0 (0) = 0, f00 (0) > 0. , f0

. 35

f0 (z) = z + a2 z 2 + . . . , > 0 .

M, f ,
D,
f (0) = 0 , f 0 (0) > 0 , |f (z)| < 1 .
M , f (z) = a z 0 < a 6 1,
. : M , f 0 (0)
. = sup f 0 (0).
f M

1 6 < 1, {|z| < }, D. , > 1


. f M. f D, , {|z| < },
|z|
, f (0) = 0. |f (z)| 6
,

1
1
z 0 f 0 (0) 6 , , 6 .

1.

203

0
(fn )
n=1 M, fn (0) n .

n N z D : |fn (z)| < 1 ,

fn (z) n N . , (fnk )
k=1 , D. f0 (z) := lim fnk (z). 46 () f0
k

D,
f0 (0) = 0 , f00 (0) = lim fn0 k (0) = , |f0 (z)| 6 1 .
k

f00 , f0 , |f0 (z)| < 1.


, f0 , . .
f0 M.
, w = f0 (z)

D {|w| < 1}. a


, a
{|w| < 1},
f0 .
{|| < 1} a K (.
. 36) 5
. 36.
|t| < 1 , = 0 t = 0. t = ()
:
r

a
a
1 a
r
, (0) = 0 ,
(30.4)
t = () = ei

a
1 a
1 a
, 0 (0) > 0.
a f0 , (30.4) f0 (D),
5

= a ,
.

30.

204

. t = (), , ,
, , . , = (t) f0 (D). , (0) = 0, |t| < 1.
(t)
< 1 |t| < 1,

t
, C- .
1
0 (0) < 1, , 0 (0) = 0
> 1. (0)
F (z) := [f0 (z)]. D,
F (0) = 0, F M, F 0 (0) = 0 (0) f00 (0) > , 0 (0) > 1.
F 0 (0) > f0 . , w = f0 (z)
|w| < 1. f0 : D K , f0 (0) = 0, f00 (0) > 0. I
. 1. , f0 , D K ,
f0 (0) = 0, f00 (0) > 0 .
J , w = f1 (z) = f2 (z) , w = f1 f21 () || < 1 |w| < 1.

w() = f1 f21 () = ei

w(0) = 0, w0 (0) =

a = 0,

= 0,

a
.
1 a

f10 (0)
> 0,
f20 (0)
. . f1 f21 ()

f1 (z) f2 (z) . I

2. b G C,
b
D C
. f : D G , , .
z0 D , w0 G, R , w0 = f (z0 ),
= arg f 0 (z0 ).

2.

205

2.

1.

, .

. ,

.
89. f D G, z D
D f (z) G.
J , , z t0 , z D G
.

lim |f (z)| = 1 .
(30.5)
zt0
zD


lim |f (z)| = < 1 .

(30.6)

zt0
zD

(30.6) , (zn )
n=1
zn D, , lim zn = t0 lim |f (zn )| = < 1.
n
n
> 0 , 0 < + < 1.
n N n > n : |f (zn )| 6 + .
f (zn ) {|w| 6 + }
zn f 1 ({|w| 6 + }).
( ). , , f 1 ({|w| 6 + }) D,

30.

206

t0 . zn t0 . , (30.6)

lim |f (z)| > 1 ,
zt0
zD

,
1 6 lim |f (z)| 6 lim |f (z)| 6 1 ,
zt0
zD

zt0
zD

. . , (30.5). I
. 89 , z t0 , z D
w = f (z) G.
.
.

90. D G , D G () - .
f , D G,
D = D t D f : D G.
J ,
z0 D zz
lim f (z) = w0 G. 0

zD

, f D , D, , . D
G , f 1 G. f
. , w = f (z)
D, . .
R+ R+ z 0 , z 00 D : |z 0 z 00 | 6 = |w0 w00 | 6 ,

2.

207

w0 = f (z 0 ), w00 = f (z 00 ). , . .
, ,

(
|z 0 z 00 | 6 ,
R+ R+ z 0 , z 00 D :
|w0 w00 | > .
R+ n = 1n, n N,
00
(zn0 )
n=1 , (zn )n=1 D
00
(wn0 )
n=1 , (wn )n=1 G, ,

|z 0 z 00 | 6 1 ,
n
n
n N :
n
|w0 w00 | > .
n
n
,
, , (. 37)
lim zn0 = lim zn00 = z0 D ,

lim wn0 = w00 G ,

lim wn00 = w000 G ,

n
0
, w1 , w20 , , . . .
0 , w100 , w200 , . . .
n

|w00 w000 | > .


00 ,

(0, ) ( G).
R = min {|z10 z0 | , |z100 z0 |}. 0 00
D L0 L00 . , L0
z10 , z20 , . . ., L00 z100 , z200 , . . .. ,
L0 L00 |z z0 | = r r 6 R.
L0 ( z10 ) |z z0 | = r zr ,
L00 |z z0 | = r zr .
zr zr wr wr . wr 0 ,
wr 00 ,

Zzr
Z

0
6 |wr wr | = f (z) dz 6 |f 0 (z)| ds ,

zr
Kr

30.

208
z

z0
D
zr
z30

w40
w30
0
w20

z300

z20

z200

L0

L00

z10

wr

zr R

w000

w00

z100

wr
w400

w10

w300
w200
00
w100

. 37. 90

ds = |dz| = r d,
|zz0 | = r, D.

2
Z

Z
Z

2
h(z)g(z) ds 6 |h(z)| ds |g(z)|2 ds ,

Kr

Kr

Kr

h(z) := |f 0 (z)|, g(z) : 1.


Z
Z
Z
2
0
2
6 |f (z)| ds ds 6 2r |f 0 (z)|2 ds ,
Kr

Kr

Kr

Z
2 6 2r

|f 0 (z)|2 r d .
Kr

2r r > 0 R,
2
2

ZR

dr
6
r

ZR Z

ZZ
0

|f (z)| r drd 6
Kr

dudv = (G) ,
G

u = Re f (z), v = Im f (z), (G)


G. ,
2
R
ln 6 (G) < + .
2

2.

209

+0 + 6 (G) . I
,
D G , 90.
90. ,
90 ,
.
, ,

D = rei 0 < r < 1 , 0 < < 2


D

(. 38), G = {|w| < 1}


, f : D G . 90
, f
f : {|z| 6 1} {|w| 6 1} .

. 38.

f , . . |z| < 1, |w| < 1. f


za
- w = ei
.
1 az
[0, 1),
, ( !) |w| < 1.
60. t0 D
, : [0, 1]
D t {t0 }, t0 .
, t0 FrD ,
z D , D.
. 39.
, . ,
. . , () .

210

30.

. 39.

, .
91 (). :
b ([0, 1] C C
, . . , , . . ),
, ,
.
, : [0, 1] C , . , ,
39, , ,
.
. ,
|t| = 1, . , ,
. ,
.
92 ( ). D G , C .
f , D G, D .
,

2.

211

90
- .
93 (). D G , C - ,

t1 , t2 , t3 Fr D

1 2 , 3 Fr G ,

. f : D G,
D G, ,
, f (tk ) = k , k = 1 , 2 , 3.
J
: D {|w| < 1}

: G {|| < 1} .

,

D
x

K = {|w| 6 1} 1
{|| 6 1} = E
f

f 1 : K E -, . .
( f 1 )(w) = ei

wa
,
1 aw

|a| < 1 , R .

t1 , t2 , t3 Fr D
t01 , t02 , t03 Fr K , 1 , 2 , 3 Fr G 10 , 20 ,
30 Fr E . t0k 7 k0 k = 1 , 2 , 3 -
. I

, ,
.

, .

212

30.

61. D C z1 , z2 D ,
D z1 z2 .
D (z1 , z2 ), ,
:
1 . D (z1 , z2 ) > 0 ; D (z1 , z2 ) = 0 z1 = z2 ;
2 . D (z1 , z2 ) = D (z2 , z1 ) ;
3 . D (z1 , z2 ) + D (z2 , z3 ) > D (z1 , z3 ) .
, (D , D ) ,
. . z1 , z2 D , D (z1 , z2 ) = |z1 z2 |, . .
D . (zn )
n=1 ( )
D. |zn zm | 6 D (zn , zm ), . lim zn
n
D, Fr D . ,
(D , D ) .
D D t D, D
,
. . 40 , .
, ,
.
94 ( ). D , . f ,
f :
D {|w| < 1},
D t D f :
D t D {|w| 6 1}. , , t1 , t2 ,

2.

213

t3 D 1 , 2 , 3
( ).

90, . (. . , ).

f :
D {|w| < 1}
. D (Ck )
k=1 ,
. .
, D,
, . 40.
. C1
D,

D
, B1 . C2
B1 , D, C1
B1 . B2 , C1 . , Cn+1
Bn ,
D Bn . Bn+1 ,
Cn .

T B1 B2 . . . Bn . . .,
E = nN Bn 6= ( ). Cn

T, E D
(. . nN Bn = ). Bn |w| < 1 Gn : Gn
.
w0 |w| = 1, E ( ) D. ,
, w0 |w| = 1, -

214

30.

, .
, w0 , |w| = 1,
D.
D D, DtD
,
.
D t D D.
.
b , 95. D C
f , f :
D
{|w| < 1}, D t D
{|w| 6 1}.

2.
88 ()
, f : D {|w| < 1}. ,
,
, . . b
D D C,
.
88 ()
.
b ,
96. D C
. F0 , D
-

2.

215

: F0 (z0 ) = 0, F00 (z0 ) = 1, z0 D


.
J ,
f0 (z)
F0 (z) := 0
, f0 f0 (z0 )
6 . , F0 F0 (z0 ) = 0,
F00 (z0 ) = 1 D
1
{|w| < R}, R := 0
.
f0 (z0 )
, ,
F1 : B {|| < R1 }, ,
F1 (z0 ) = 0, F10 (0) = 1. = f (w) := F1 [F01 (w)] {|w| < R} {|| < R1 }
f (0) = 0, f 0 (0) = 1. , f = Id, . . R1 = R F1 = F0 . I
b ,
62. D C
, z0 D. D z0
1
, f0
R := 0
f0 (z0 )
.
b , 0 D.
97. D C
N F : D C, ,
F (0) = 0, F 0 (0) = 1,
F 7 M (F ) := sup |F (z)|
zD

F0 , F0 : D {|w| < R}, M (F0 ) = R.


J f0 : D {|w| < 1}, f0 (0) = 0, f00 (0) > 0 , z = ()
. F 7 M (F )
F ,
6

, D {|w| < 1} f0 (z0 ) = 0,


f 0 (z0 ) > 0.

30.

216

F [()]

M (F )
{|| < 1}, (0) = 0, |()| < 1.
F 0 (0) 0 (0)
0
, | (0)| 6 1, . .
6 1,
M (F )
1
M (F ) > 0 (0) = 0
= R, R . f0 (0)
, , 0 (0) = 1
f0 ()
0 () , . . F0 () := 0
. I
f0 (0)
M (F ) < +. () :=

.
D 0 D . -,
D , D N . -,
Id : D D M (Id) max |z|, R
zD

. , , R f0 (z)
, F0 (0) = 0 min |z|. F0 (z) = 0
f0 (0)
zD
{|z| < R + } > 0 , , |F0 (z)| < R.
R
|F00 (0)| 6
< 1, R+
0
F0 (0) = 1.
T
, {|z| = R} Fr B 6= , . . |z| = R, R , , D .
. , D ,
.

98 ( ).
1 : K D1

2 : K D2

K := {|| < 1}, 2 , 1 (0) =


= 2 (0) D1 D2 . |01 (0)| 6 |02 (0)|,
1 () 2 ( ), || = 1.
J = f2 (z) , 2 .
w = f2 [1 ()] || < 1 ,
, , f2 [(0)] = 0. , , |01 (0)02 (0)| 6 1,

2.

217

f2 [1 ()] , . . 1 () 2 ( ) . I
99 ( ). N
F, D 3 0 . F (0) = 0,
F 0 (0) = 1,
ZZ
|F 0 (z)|2 dxdy ,

A(F ) :=

z = x + iy ,

(30.7)

f0 (z)
, .
f00 (0)
J F 7 A(F )
F, A(F ) < +.
f0 : D {|z| < 1} f0 (0) = 0,
f00 (0) > 0, z = (),
(30.7). = + i , z = () = u(, ) + iv(, ),

u u
2
2

v
u

+
= |0 ()|2 .
v v =


F0 (z) :=

(30.7) z = (), = rei ,


ZZ

ZZ
0

A(F ) :=

|F 0 [()]| |0 ()|2 d d =

|F (z)| dxdy =
D

||<1

ZZ
2

|F 0 [()] 0 ()| r drd .

=
r<1

F [()] () =

X
n=0

an n a0 = F 0 (0) 0 (0) =

1
,
f00 (0)

30.

218

A(F ) = lim

ZZ X
X

1
<1 r6

an am rn+m+1 ei(nm) drd =

n=0 m=0

= lim

1
<1 n=0 m=0

= 2 lim

1
<1 n=0

ZZ
rn+m+1 ei(nm) drd =

an am
r6

Z
|an |2

r2n+1 dr = 2
0

Z1
|an |2

n=0

r2n+1 dr =
0

X
|an |2
> |a0 |2 .
=
n+1
n=0

, A(F ) > |a0 |2 ,


1
a1 = a2 = . . . = 0, . . F00 [()] 0 () a0 = 0 . f0 (0)
0 , F0 [()] f00 (0).
() = z , = f0 (z),
F0 (z) = f0 (z)f00 (0) .

. F : D C , (30.7)
D F .
J ,
ZZ
F (D) =
F (D)

Z Z u u
x y
dudv =
v v dxdy =

D x
y
"
Z Z 2 2 #
ZZ
u
u
2
=
+
dxdy =
|F 0 (z)| dxdy . I
x
y
B

3. 219

3.


,
. ,
. , , .

( , ) .

1.
z = (), {Im > 0}

().
, n- (
) b1 , b2 , . . ., bn , ,
, 1 , 2 , . . ., n 7 .
90 ( ) z = () b = R t {} R
{Im > 0} .
, z = ()
n-, a1 , a2 , . . ., an ,
,
< a1 < a2 < . . . < an < + .
, , (ak ) = bk , k = 1, 2, . . ., n.
7

30.

220

l1 := (a1 , a2 ) , l2 := (a2 , a3 ) , . . . , ln := (an , +] [ , a1 ) .


, k := (lk ), k = 1 , 2 , . . . , n.
lk , k .

lk {Im < 0} (. 41).
lk ,
, , . k ,
lk , k .
z = k ()
k z = ().
, .
. z 7 z
Ax + By + C = 0,

z + z
z z
A
+B
+ C = 0.
2
2i

(30.8)

J , z = x + iy ,
z+z
zz
A
+B
+ C = 0.
2
2i
, , ,
( , . . z = z ).
z .
(30.8) z ,
z =

A + Bi
2C
z
.
A Bi
A Bi

(30.9)

3. 221
z

Im > 0

ak

lk

bk+1
k

ak+1

bk

Im < 0

. 41.

z ,
(30.9)
z = ei z + .

(30.10)


z 7 z , z 7 ei z ei z 7 ei z + .
(30.10)
.
z ,
z0 . (30.9)
, z z0 , . .
z z .
, |z z0 | = |z z0 |, z
z . , , z z
, z = z , . . z
. , (30.9)
. I
, k
k () = eik () + k ,

k = 1,... , n,

(30.11)

k k . k {Im < 0} k ,

30.

222

k .

() Im > 0 ,

bk () := () = k () lk ,

k () Im < 0

Dk := {Im > 0} t lk t {Im < 0}

t k t k ,


b0k Dk C .
,
, 6= . (30.11) k = k = ,
() = ei () + ,

() = ei () + .

(),
ei () ei () = ei ei
, q := ei( ) ,
() = ei( ) () + q .

(30.12)

, , . . ( ).
(30.12) ,
.
0 () = ei( ) 0 () 00 () = ei( ) 00 () .
,
00 () 00 ()
=
,
0 () 0 ()

, = 1, 2, ... , n.

, 00 0 , ,
lk , (. . ,

3. 223
lk ). 0
lk ,
b ,
00 0 C,
, a1 , . . ., an .
=
() = c0 +

c1 c2
+ 2 + ... ,

c1 6= 0, .
0 () =

c1 2c2
3 ... ,
2

00 () =

2c1 6c2
+ 4 + ... .
3

,
00 ()
2

= + 2 + ... ,
0
()

. . 00 0 = . ,
{| ak | < , Im > 0}
bk ,
k . t = [() (ak )]1k {| ak | < , Im > 0} t = 0, . ,
{| a| < } t = 0,
[() (ak )]1k = ( ak ) 1 () ,

1 (ak ) 6= 0 .


() = (ak ) + ( ak )k 2 () ,
0 () = ( ak )k 1 3 () ,

2 (ak ) 6= 0 ;

3 (ak ) 6= 0 ;

ln 0 () = (k 1) ln( ak ) + ln 3 () .

30.

224

,
d
00 () k 1 30 ()
0
ln () = 0
=
+
, k = 1, ... , n.
d
()
ak 30 ()
d
b ,
ln 0 () C,
d
a1 , . . . , an , , 1 1 , . . . , n 1 , .
55 (
) ,
n

X k 1
d
ln 0 () =
.
d
ak

(30.13)

k=1

,
Z X
n
n
X
k 1
0
ln () =
dt =
(k 1) ln( ak ) + ln C ,
t ak
0

k=1

k=1

, ,
0

() = C

n
Y

( ak )k 1 .

k=1

,
() = C

Z Y
n

(t ak )k 1 dt + C 0 ,

(30.14)

0 k=1

C C 0 , 0 .
(30.14) .
, {Im > 0}
.

3. 225
, ,
= .
an = , . . () = bn .
= :
4 ()
, 4 () 6= 0 ,
n
5 ()
0 () = +1 , 5 () 6= 0 ,
n
6 ()
00 () = +2 , 6 () =
6 0.
n
() = bn +


00 () 7 ()
=
,
0 ()

7 () 6= 0 ,

. . 00 ()0 () = .
() = bn
:
() = C

Z n1
Y

(t ak )k 1 dt + C 0 ,

(30.15)

k=1

C C 0 , 0 .
, , a1 , . . ., an
b
, C-,

, b
C-
.
b
C-,

a1 , . . ., an .
a1 , . . ., an .
ak , C C 0

(ak ) = bk , k = 1 , . . . , n .

30.

226

, b1 , . . . , bn .
,
.

, .
, b
( C-)

, , (a) = , a .
:
c1
+ c0 + c1 ( a) + . . . ,
a
c1
0 () =
+ c1 + . . . ,
( a)2
2c1
00 () =
+ ... .
( a)3
() =

, a
00 ()
2
=

+ ... ,
0 ()
a
. . a (2).
(30.13)
n

2
00 () X k 1
=

,
0 ()
ak a
k=1

() = C

Z Y
n
0 k=1

(t ak )k 1

dt
+ C0 .
2
(t a)

(30.16)

3. 227
2.
z = ()
{Im > 0} . , a1 , a2 , a3 0, 1, .
(30.15),
Z
t1 1 (1 t)2 1 dt + C 0 .

z = () = C

(30.17)

(, 0), (0, 1), (1, +). , ,


.
. . ,
0, 1, ,
, z
,

.
, ,
, 8 , , (). , (30.17)
, , z .
1 , 2 , 3 , .
8

30.

228

,
, , , .
, 2
, . .
rk :=

2
1
=
,
2 k
k

k = 1, 2, 3

. , , 1 + 2 + 3 = , . .
1 + 2 + 3 = 1, r1 , r2 , r3

1
1
1
+ + = 1.
r1 r2 r3

(30.18)

, ,
(30.18). ,
, 1 6 r1 6 r2 6 r3 6 +.
,
r1 = r2 = r3 = 3 .
,
. 42. 1
(. 42).
r1 < 3. r1 = 1, (30.18)
1
1

+
= 0. ,
r2 r3
r2 = r3 = +. , 0, 0, . . . r1 = 2,
1 1
1
(30.18) + = .
r2 r3
2
: r2 = r3 = 4, r2 = 3 , r3 = 6 r2 = 2 , r3 = +.

3. 229
r1 r2
r3
1 3
3
3
2 1 + +
3 2
4
4
4 2
3
6
5 2
2 +
2 (30.17)

Z
z=
0

dt
1
= ln
,
1t
1

, . = 1 ez
2i.
5 .
Z

dt

p
.
t(t 1) 2

z = () =
0

, z = arcsin(2 1). = (1 + sin z)2 2 .


(1, 4, 5)

Z
z=
0

dt
p
,
3
t2 (1 t)2

dt

p
4

z=
0

t2 (1 t)3

Z
,

dt

p
6

z=
0

t3 (1 t)4

.
. () .
.

30.

230

. 43. 2 5

3.
.
, {Im > 0}
1
,
2

1
+ i2 ,
2

1
+ i2 ,
2

1
,
2

1 , 2 R+ . ,
0, 1, 0, 1 2, i2 .
1
+ i2 1k , 0 < k < 1. ,
2
1
1 1 1

+ i2 ,
,
,
+ i2
2
2
2 2
1k , 1, 1, 1k . -

3. 231

Z
p

z = () = c
0

dt
(1 t2 )(1 k 2 t2 )

(30.19)

, t = 0 +1. (30.19) , c > 0.


(30.19)
.
c k , . .
1
=c
2

Z1
p
0

1k
Z

dt
(1 t2 )(1 k 2 t2 )

i2 = ic
1

dt
|(1 t2 )(1 k 2 t2 )|

R1

1
0
= 1k
2
R
1

p
p

dt
(1 t2 )(1 k 2 t2 )
dt

|(1 t2 )(1 k 2 t2 )|

, k
1 2 , . . k
. k 0 1 1 2
0 +. c . 1 2 , c ,
z = 0. ,
(1 , 2 ) (k, c) .



1
1
1
1
,
1,
, + .
,
, 1 , (1 , 1) ,
,
k
k
k
k

, .

. ,
z ,
.
= 1 (z), (30.19),
z . , , = 1 (z),
,
. , 1 (z + 2 + 2i 0 ) 1 (z). , z 2 + 2i 0 . ,
1 C . . .
63. 1 2 , R. 1 2 C
b
f : C C,
f (z + 1 ) f (z)

f (z + 2 ) f (z) .

m 1 + n 2 m , n Z ,
. f (z + m 1 + n 2 ) f (z).
u0 , u0 + 1 , u0 + 2 ,
u0 + 1 + 2
f .
- .

31

1.
1. -
. 27, 2, . 4 ,
,
C. C .
b 64. f : C C
C, z C ,
.
, , , .
,
. ,
b
, f : C C
(, ) .
,
, .
f C. ,
f .
, . ,
,
.
65. M ,
M , -

31.

234

M , M .
100 (-).
(an )
lim an =
n=1 (gn )n=1 an C, n

gn (z) :=

pn
X

cn
,
(z an )

=1

n N,

(31.1)

b
f : C C,
an ( ),
f an gn (z).
J , , a1 6= 0, f f g1 ,
an .

q (0

, 1), Kn :=

:= z C |z| 6 q |an | , ,
{|z| < |an |}. gn Kn

Pn (z) :=

mn (k)
X
gn (0)
k=0

k!

zk ,

(31.2)

mn ,
n N z Kn : |gn (z) Pn (z)| 6

1
.
2n

(31.3)

Pn
f :=

(gn Pn )

n=1

K C
65. , K n N
, K Kn n > N ,
fN :=

X
n=N

(gn Pn )

1.

235

K ,
() . , fN
K .
N
1
X
f=
(gn Pn ) + fN ,
n=1

f K .
K C , f C
. I
b
. f : C C

f =h+

(gn Pn ) ,

n=1

, h ,
gn f , Pn .
J f 100

X
f0 :=
(gn Pn ) ,
n=1

. h := f f0 ,
, . I

2.
, ,

l
l
Y
Y
z
m
m
P (z) = a z
(z an ) = A z
1
,
(31.4)
a
n
n=1
n=1

236

31.

an ,
, , m
z = 0.
() , (31.4) .

(1 + ck )

(31.5)

k=1

, ,
n
Q
n :=
(1 + ck ) k=1

= lim n , n

(31.5).
, , , (31.5) ,
. ,
(31.5)
lim cn = 0.
n

ln(1 + cn ) ,

n=1

,
< arg(1 + cn ) 6 .
, , M C,
M , M .
. , , M ,

1.

237

M , .

().
101 ().
(an )
lim an = ,
n=1 an C, n
f , an , , f an
, an , .
J , an = 0 m .
z m f (z), f , () . ,
, n N : an 6= 0,

0 < |a1 | 6 |a2 | 6 . . . 6 |an | 6 . . . .
(pn )
n=1 ,

p +1

X
z n
(31.6)
a
n
n=1
{|z| 6 R}.
, , pn +1 = n,
(31.6) +.
(pn )
n=1 , ,
"

pn #
2

Y
z
1 z
1
z
z
f (z) =
(31.7)
1
exp
+
+ ... +
a
a
2
a
p
a
n
n
n
n
n
n=1
K C
.

31.

238

2
p
g(, p) := (1 ) exp + + . . . +
2
p
,

2
p
p+1
p+2
ln g(, p) = ln(1 ) + + + . . . +
=

...
2
p
p+1 p+2
|| 6 q < 1
p+1

| ln g(, p)| < ||

||p+1
.
(1 + || + || + . . .) 6
1q
2

(31.8)

Kn := {|z| 6 q |an |}, , K C N N, K Kn


n > N . n (31.8)

pn +1

z
z
1
ln g
6

,
p

1 q an
an
, ,

X
z
(31.9)
, pn
gn (z) :=
ln g
an
n=N

K
p +1

1 X z n
,
an
1q
n=N

(31.6). ,
(31.9) K ,
K .

Y
z
fN (z) := egn (z) =
g
, pn
an
n=N

K
K .
(31.7) NQ
1
z
fN
g
, pn ,
a
n
n=1
a1 , . . ., aN 1 , .

1.

239

K C , f , ,
. I
. F ,
,

F (z) = z e

g(z)


Y
n=1

z
1
an

1
z
an + 2

( azn )

+...+ p1n ( azn )

pn

(31.10)

m z = 0 F , g , (an )
n=1
F , ,
, ,
(pn )
n=1 , (31.10).
J F (z)z m
, , , (an )
n=1 , 101. ,
f (31.7). F (z)(z m f (z)) .
g(z) := ln [F (z)(z m f (z))]
C 81 ( )
C . F (z) = z m eg(z) f (z),
(31.10). I

240

31.

2.
1.
66. f : C C
Mf : R+ R+ ,
Mf (r) := max |f (z)| .
|z|=r

(31.11)

Mf (r)
max |f (z)| {|z| 6 r}, r 7 Mf (r) ,
.
, m N Mf (r) = O(rm ) r +, ,
f m z . . ,

P
f (z) =
ck z k .
k=0

J , n > m

1
Mf (r) O(rm )
|cn | 6
=
= O nm 0 r + .
rn
rn
r

, cn = 0 n > m, . . m
P
f (z) =
ck z k . I
k=0

,
, Mf (r)
r + rm . ,
Mf (r)
.
r 7 exp ( r ) ,
R+ . Mf (r) f .

2.

241

67. f
ln ln Mf (r)
:= lim
.
(31.12)
r+
ln r
, [0 , +].
. cos

z , sin z , exp(z n ) exp(exp(z))

12, 1, n + .

.
68. f R+
ln M (r)
:= lim
.
(31.13)
r+
r
, , = 0, R+ = + .
f
f (z) =

cn z n .

(31.14)

n=0

+,p lim n |cn | = 0. n


; ,
1 , 2 ( 1 < 2 ),
as

r0 R+ r > r0 : 1 (r) < 2 (r) .


1. f
Mf (r) < exp(r ) ,
as

(31.15)


e n
|cn | <
.
(31.16)
as
n

31.

242

J (27.7)
(31.14) (31.15),

er

|cn | < n = er nln r .


as r

(31.17)

r,
(31.17) , r. r, r1 nr = 0,
rn = [n()]1 .
(31.17) + r +0 r +,
. ,
rn + n , (31.17) r
rn , (31.16). I
.
2. (31.14) f
(31.16), f ,

R+ : Mf (r) < e(+)r .


as

Jp f , (31.16)
lim n |cn | = 0. , |z| = r,

|cn z n | <

e n
n

as

rn =

er
n

n
.

, 12n ,
er n < 12 , . . n > 2 er . , N :=
:= [2 er ], [.] ,
|f (z)| <
as

N
X
n=0

|cn |r +

1
2N +1

1
2N +2

+ ...

N
X
n=0

|cn |rn +

1
.
2N

2.

243

m(r) := max |cn |rn (31.14)


n

|z| = r. n,
lim |cn |rn = 0. n

(31.18)
Mf (r) < (2 er + 1) m(r) + 2N .
as

, r + m(r) +
r. , r +,
(31.16):

n
er
m(r) < max
.
n
as
n
,

n
er
1
er
(n) := ln
, 0 (n) = ln
1 .

n
, 0 (n) = 0 n = r .

, m(r) < er . (31.18),


as

Mf (r) < (2 er + 2) er < e(+)r


as

as

R+ . I
102. (31.12) f (z) =

P
=
cn z n :
n=0

ln n
.
1
n
ln p
n
|cn |

= lim

(31.19)

J (31.19) e. , = e.
= +, > e . 0 6 < +,
(31.12)
> r0 R+ r > r0 :

ln ln Mf (r)
< ,
ln r

31.

244

Mf (r) < er .
as

1 :
e n
e 1
p
n
|cn | <
|cn | <

.
as
as
n
n
,
>
as

ln n ln(e)
ln n
ln(e)
=

.
1
1
1
ln p
ln p
ln p
n
n
n
|cn |
|cn |
|cn |

n , > e,
> > e.
, ,
e [0 , +). > e
n
ln n
1
lim
< , |cn | <
.
1
n
as
as
n
ln p
n
|cn |
2 ,


1
Mf (r) < exp
+ r
as
e
R+ . , 6 , > e
, 6 e. I

P
103. f (z) =
cn z n
n=0

R+ , :
p

1
n

=
lim n |cn | .
e n

(31.20)

J (31.20)
e . , =
e.

2.

245

= +, >
e . 0 6 < +,
(31.13)
ln Mf (r)
< ,
r
:
> r0 R + r > r0 :

Mf (r) < er .
as

1
e n
p
e
.
|cn | <
n |cn | <
as
as n
n
,
p
p
1
1
>
lim n n |cn | =
e,
n n |cn | , , >
as e
e n
> >
e.
, ,

e [0 , +). >
e
e n
1 p
n

.
n |cn | < , |cn | <
as
as
e
n
2 ,
Mf (r) < e(+)r
as

ln Mf (r)
<+
as
r

R+ . r , 6 + ,
>
e > 0 6
e. I
. 102 103
.
e n
P
z n
. 1) f (z) :=
n
n=1
.

n

P
ln n
2) f (z) :=
z n
n
n=2
.

31.

246

1
3) f (z) :=
z n
n ln n
n=2
.

P
zn
4) f (z) =
.
n
n=2 (ln n)

P
2
5) f (z) =
en z n .
n=0

2.
f D D t D,
( 1 72)
, |f (z)| 6 M D, D.
D,
.
2

2
, , D := x + y < x
f (z) = e1z .
D tD {0},
1z
2
2
D {0} , e ex(x +y ) e. f (z) , z 0 .
, ,
f .
. ,

n

, 0 < 6 .
S := z C | arg z| <
2
S ,
f : S C :
Mf (r) := max |f (z)| |z| = r, z S ,
ln ln Mf (r)
,
r+
ln r

:= lim

ln M (r)
.
r+
r

:= lim

2.

247

104 ( ). f S ,
S |f (z)| 6 M < +.
< , |f (z)| 6 M S .
0
J R
+ , 0 ( , )
f (z) := f (z) exp z ,
0

z | arg z| < 2
. z = rei ,

|f (z)| = |f (z)| er

cos 0

,
0

, S , = 2
|0 | =
2 < 2 ,
|f (z)| 6 M . , , ,

( , 0 ) r0 R+ r > r0 :

ln ln Mf (r)
6 .
ln r

, r > r0 {z S ; |z| = r}
|f (z)| < er

r cos 0

(31.21)

0
cos 0 > cos
2 > 0 < ,
> 0 (31.21) r +,
|f (z)| 6 M .
, |f (z)| 6 M S .
, |f (z)| 6 M S . I

. S (. . ), . < : =
104 . S

f (z) = exp(z ), | arg z| < 2


. ,
S 1.

248

31.

3.
1.
T0 = 4ABC , {|z| 6 1}; {|t| = 1}, , . ( 88) w = (z)
, A, B
C 0, 1 . ( 76)
(k)
T1 , k = 1 , 2 , 3, T0
. , T0 , , .
J , , , BC {|t| = 1}, A, . A1
A . I

, T1k
, .
(k)
T1 , (, 0), (0, 1), (1, +).
, , ,
(k)
T2 ,
(k)
T1 .
,
, U ( , . 43), , -

3.

249

.
U .
J , C
U B2
A2
{An }, {Bn }, {Cn }, T23
T22
B1
A1
A, B , C
T12
T11
4
C2
T2
T21
C2
T0
T0 . , z
An , , (z) 0,
T13
A
B
T25
T26
z Bn
B2
A2
Cn , (z) 1
C1
. ,
. 44.
U ,
. I
, U : 0, 1 . .
, , () - .
- , , , . 0 , -
.
, 0 , . .
0 : [(z)] (z) .

(31.22)

J , 0 ,
z U . z
T .

250

31.

T , 0, 1 . (T )
,
0, 1 . T
. (31.22). I
. , - ,
.
.

T 6= 0.
() (. 63).

2.
()
, .
z = 1 (w),
T0 .
( , 0), (0 , 1),
(1 , +). , ,
. , , ,
( (k)
T2 ).
,
,
.
1

3.

251

, ,
, , 0, 1
.
{|w| < 1}.
, ,
, z .
105 (). b C
f : C C
b , , .
, C,
J , . .
b a , b , c C.
b
f : C C,
f +
- F (f ) =
, f +
a , b , c 0 , 1 , . z 7 F (f (z)) 0 , 1 , ,
w = 1 (F (f (z))). C, F f
, 1 . 81 ( )
, w = 1 (F (f (z)))
C. , , , ( 2 39) ,
. . I
. ,
, . ,
tg i.

(). f :
C C C , C, , , .
J ,
, . I

252

31.

. . ,
exp 0.

1. . . . ., 1976. . I.
2. . ., . . . ., 1973.
3. ., . . ., 1968.
4. . . . ., 19671968.
. III.
5. . . .
., 1978.
6. . . . ., 1991.
7. . ., . .
. ., 1974.
8. . . . ., 1966.
9. . . , . . , . .
. ., 1970.
10. . . .
. ., 1972.

24.
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. R- C- . . . . . . . . . .
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3
3
5
7
10
12
12
14
17
20
22
24

25.
1. - . . . 28


1. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
b
3. , C-.
4. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. , - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. . . . . . .
6. cos, sin, ch, sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. , cos, sin, ch, sh . . . . . . . . . .
8. tg , ctg , th , cth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9. , tg, ctg, th, cth . . . . . . . . . .
26.
1. . .
1. . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . .
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. . . . . . . . . .
2. . .

255

28
33
40
43
48
48
50
55
59
60
61
64
65
65

68
68
72
74
87
87
90

256

3. , . . . . . . . . .

92

27.
1. .
. . . . . . . 98
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2. 103
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
2. 118
3. . 119
4. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
28.
1. , ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
1. , . . . . . . . . . . 128
2. . . . . . . 132
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
1. ,
cos sin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
2. 136
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140


3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . .
5. . . .
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . .
1.
() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . .
30.
1. . . . . . .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

257

142
142
144
150
155
155
158
161

165
165
171
174
174
182
188
193
193
196
199

258

2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . .
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. . . .
2. . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . .

205
205
214
219
219
227
230

31.
1. . . . .
1. - . . . .
2. . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . .
3. . . . . . . .
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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.
.

233
233
235
240
240
246
248
248
250

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

253
254
254
254

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