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StudyGuideQuestions

1.BiologicalMoleculesStudyGuideQuestions
WhatcolorchangesdidyouobservewhenyouaddedBenedict'ssolutiontowaterandheatedit?

WhatisindicatedbyBenedict'ssolutionchangingfrombluetoorangewhenheated?

WhatcolorchangesoccurwhenBenedict'ssolutionisaddedtothe5%Glucosesolutionandheated?

WhatisindicatedbyIodinesolutionwhenitchangesfromlightbrowntopurple?

Whatcolorchangesareobservedwhensudansolutionisaddedtowater?

Whatcolorchangesoccurwhensudansolutionisaddedtocornoil?

Iodinesolutionwasaddedtochocolatechipcookiesolutionandthecolorchangedtopurple:basedonthisresultwhat
biologicalmoleculesarepresentinthechocolatechipcookiesolution?

IstheBenedict'stestaqualitativetestorquantitativetest?Explain.

IstheIodine'stestaqualitativetestorquantitativetest?Explain.

2.MicroscopyStudyGuideQuestions
WhatarethethreeideasthatmakeuptheCellTheory?

Whocameupwiththename"cell"?

Whichtypeofcellwouldbeeasiertoseeunderamicroscope,aeukaryoticcelloraprokaryoticcell?

ThreemoleculesofAareontheinsideofacelland100moleculesofAareontheoutside.IfanAmoleculemovesfromthe
insidetotheoutside,woulditbemovingalongoragainsttheconcentrationgradient?

Isenergyrequiredtomoveasubstancealongitsconcentrationgradient?

Doallcellscontaincytoplasm?

Whichtypeofcellisusuallyorganizedinmulticellulargroups?

Whatstructurestoallcellscontain?

Ifinsulinisasecretedprotein,whichorganelle(s)is/areessentialforittobesecreted?

Whatisthepropertyofacellmembranethatdescribeshowsomechemicalscanpassthroughitandotherscannot?

WhatcellularstructuresarecommontoallEukaryotesandProkaryotes?

Whatisthefunctionofthecytoplasm?

Whichcellularstructureseparatesandprotectsthecellfromtheenvironment?


Whatorganellestorefluids,nutrientsandwaste?

3.DiffusionandOsmosisStudyGuideQuestions

Describehowyouknowifequilibriumhasbeenreachedwhenlookingatthedistributionofmolecules.

Whatisactivetransport?Doesitrequireenergy?

Youfilladialysisbagwithastarchsolutionandplaceitinabeakerwithdiluteiodine.Thecolorofthediluteiodinestays
yellow(ish).Whatcanyouconcludeabouttheporesizeofthemembranerelativetothesizeofthestarchmolecules?

Describewhatelodeacellswouldlooklikeiftheywereplacedinahypertonicsolution.Howwouldthischangeiftheywere
putinahypotonicsolution?

4.EnzymesStudyGuideQuestions
Whydoestheenzymeonlyfunctioninalimitedrangeoftemperatures?

WhydoestheenzymeonlyfunctioninalimitedrangeofpHvalues?

Whatwastheenzyme,substrate,andproductinthisexperiment?

5.CellularRespirationStudyGuideQuestions
Howisanaerobicrespirationdifferentthataerobicrespiration?

Whatisthepurposeofrespiration?

WhydodisaccharidesproducemoreCO2thanmonosaccharides?

6.PhotosynthesisStudyGuideQuestions
Whyisphotosynthesissocrucialtolifeonearth?

Photosynthesistakescarbondioxide,waterandsunshineandturnstheminto"?

Photosynthesisproducesoxygenandglucosefrom...?

Howdoplantsmetabolizethesugarstheyproducebyphotosynthesis?

Ifplantcellsmaketheirownglucose,whydotheyneedmitochondria?

7.MitosisandMeiosisStudyGuideQuestions
Whatarethefourphasesofmitosisandwhatoccursduringeachphase?

Whatistheorderofprogressionofthemitoticphases?(e.g.,whichisfirstandwhichphasesfollows)

Whatadditionalconsiderationneedstobetakenintoaccountinmitosisofplantandfungalcells?

Whatistherelationshipbetweenmitosisandsomaticcells?

Whatarethetwoprocessesthatleadtonucleardivision?

Whatistherelationshipbetweenmeiosisandgametes?

Isagametedestinedtodivide?Ifnot,whatisitdestinedtodo?

Dogameteshavepairsofchromosome?Dosomaticcells?

Howmanypairsofchromosomesinhumansomaticcells?Howmanytotalchromosomes?

Whatdoesitmeanwhenwesaythatsomaticcellsarediploidandgametesarehaploid?

Howmanycopiesofachromosomearepresentinacellthatistetraploid?Howaboutinanoctoploid?

IsDNAreplicatedthesamenumberoftimesinmitosisandmeiosis?Doesacelldividethesamenumberoftimesinmitosis
andmeiosis?

DoescrossingoverhappeninprophaseduringmitosisasitdoesinprophaseIofmeiosis?

AresisterchromatidsstillattachedinanaphaseduringmitosisastheyareinanaphaseIofmeiosis?

8.BasicGeneticsStudyGuideQuestions
WhoistheAustrianmonkthatdiscoveredtwofundamentallawsofgenetics?Whatorganismdidheworkwith?

Whatisaphenotype?Whatisagenotype?Giveanexampleofeach.

Whatisa"truebreeding"plant?

Whatisthedifferencebetweenadominanttraitandarecessivetrait?

AndiploidindividualhasRrasagenotypeforthetonguerollingtraitinhumans.SomeofhisgameteswillcontainRwhile
otherswillcontainr.DoesthisexampleillustratetheLawofIndependentAssortmentortheLawofSegregation?Why?

Drawapunnettsquarewhereyoucrosstwoheterozygousindividuals,eachhavinganAagenotype(assumeAisdominant
toa).Whatfraction(or%)oftheoffspringwilldisplaythedominantphenotype?Whatfraction(or%)willdisplayarecessive
phenotype?

IfyouhaveanotherindividualwithagenotypeofBbCcDd,whatareallthedifferentpossiblegametesthatshewillproduce?

9.DNAStudyGuideQuestions
Whatarethethreecomponentsofanucleotide?

WhatarethenamesofthefournucleotidesfoundinDNA?

Ifthe%ofAdenineinadoublestrandedpieceofDNAis15%,whatistheamountofCytosine?whatistheamountof
Thymine?

Ifthe%ofCytosineisthesameasthe%ofThymineinadoublestrandedpieceofDNA,whatarethepercentagesforeach
ofthenucleotides?

IfyouhaveastrandofDNAwiththefollowingsequence:AATGCTGCA,whatisthesequenceofthecomplementarystrand?
SincetwohydrogenbondsholdAdenineandThyminetogether,whilethreehydrogenbondsholdGuanineandCytosine
together,whichofthefollowingstrandsofDNAwouldbehardertopullapart?

Option1:AATTATAOption2:GGTGCCA
TTAATATCCACGGT

YouarestudyingDNAreplicationinaMartiancell.YouobservethatafterreplicationoneDNAmoleculecontainsthetwoold
strandswhiletheotherDNAmoleculecontainstwonewstrands.Isthissortofreplicationsemiconservative?

Whatisthenameofthestructurewheretwochromatidsarejoined?

10.RNAtoProteinStudyGuideQuestions
Whatistranscription?

Whatisthenameoftheenzymethatcarriesouttranscription?

WhatisthedifferencebetweenRNAandDNAintermsofthetypeofsugarpresentineach?

WhatarethefournucleotidespresentinRNA?Howdotheypair?

WhatisthedifferencebetweenRNAandDNAintermsofthenumberofstrands?

WhatisthefunctionofribosomalRNA,transferRNAandmessengerRNA?

WhatarethreetypesofRNA?Whicharetranslatedintoproteinsarewhicharenot?

IfyouhavethefollowingmessengerRNAsequence:

AUGCCCGUAAGAUAA

1)DrawthesequenceofthedoublestrandDNAusedtomakethismessengerRNA.
2)Whatisthesequenceoftheproteinthatismade?

11.BiotechnologyStudyGuideQuestions
Whatarerestrictionenzymesandwhatistheirfunction?

YoucutapieceofDNAwithrestrictionenzymeAandrestrictionenzymeB.EnzymeAleavesastickyendofCTTAAG
whileEnzymeBleavesastickyendofTAAGGC.CouldsegmentscutwithEnzymeAbejoinedtosegmentscutwith
EnzymeB?

Whatisaplasmid?

IfyouweregiventheresultsofgelelectrophoresisforDNAfromthevictim,defendantandcrimescene,howwouldyou
determinewhetherthedefendantwaspresentatthecrimescene?

DescribethetechniquethatisusedtoincreasethequantityofDNA.Whatisthetechniquecalled?

12.EvolutionStudyGuideQuestions
Whichofthefollowingevolves:individuals,populations,entirespecies?

Whatisthesourceofnewallelesinapopulation?


Whatisthedifferencebetweenallopatricandsympatricspeciation?

Istheevolvingofanewspeciesanexampleofmicroevolutionormacroevolution?

DoestheHardyWeinbergruleallowustodemonstratemacroevolutionormicroevolution?

13.SystematicsStudyGuideQuestions
Describethebiologicalspeciesconcept.

Whatissystematicsandwhatareitstwobranches?

Whatisthedifferencebetweenphylogenyandtaxonomy?

DoesthebiologicalspeciesconceptholdforArchaea?Whyorwhynot?

Describehowlifewasclassifiedbeforeandafterthe1960s.

Giveanexampleofthebinomialsystemofnomenclatureappliedtoyourfavoriteorganism.

Whyisthebinomialsystemofnomenclaturestillusedtoday?

Beabletoarrangethe7taxafrommostinclusivetoleastinclusiveandviceversa.

Givenagroupoforganisms,createaclassificationsystem.

Usingaclassifcationkey,identifytheorganism.

14.PlantsStudyGuideQuestions
Plantscanbelabelledastracheophytes,gymnosperms,seedlessvascular,monocots,bryophytes,angiospermsanddicots.
Describehowthesetermsareusedtocategorizeplantsandthebasiccharacteristicsofeachgroup.

Youfoundafloweringplantthathasleaveswithparallelveins.Isthisamonocotordicot?

Givenapictureofaplant'sroots,leavesorvascularstemtissue,beabletoidentifywhetheritisamonocotordicot.

Describethefunctionsofthefollowingangiospermorgans:roots,leaves,stemsandflowers.

Whatisaseed?

15.AnimalTissuesStudyGuideQuestions
Describethestructureandfunctionofthefourtypesofanimaltissues.

Ifyoulookunderthemicroscope,howcanyoutellthedifferenceamongsmoothmuscle,cardiacmuscleandskeletal
muscle?

16.EarthwormStudyGuideQuestions
Thedorsalsideoftheearthwormisamuddybrownanddarkerthantheventralside.Howmightsuchcoloringbenefitthe
organisminitsnaturalhabitat?

Whatisthefunctionoftheclitellumtheonlyorganvisibleexternallyontheearthworm?

Whichoftheearthworm'sorganspumpblood?

Onwhatsideoftheearthwormarethesetaelocatedandhowdoesthatconnecttotheirfunction?

Howdoesanearthwormbreathe(withwhatorgan)?

17.EcologyStudyGuideQuestions
Whatisaniche?

Describetheconceptofcompetitiveexclusion.

Whatdoessymbiosismean?

Describethethreetypesofsymbioticrelationshipsandgiveanexampleofeach.