Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 12

Constructivism

Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Learning Goals
Describe the assumptions of constructivism
Explain equilibrium, disequilibrium,
assimilation, and accommodation, giving
original examples of each.
Explain the major teaching methods according
to constructivism.

Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Constructivism
Learners construct their own meaning from
information in the environment
Behaviorism

Passive

Cognitive
Theories
Actively process
incoming
information

Constructivism

Actively seek to
understand the
environment

Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Assumptions of Constructivism
Learners actively seek meaning in the
environment
Knowledge is constructed as learners make sense
of their experience
Knowledge constructions may not match reality

In the learning process, learners create and test


theories until a satisfactory explanation is known
Knowledge depends on the context in which it is
learned
Social interactions are vital to learning
Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Constructivism:
Process of Learning
Schema:
Typically a
misconception

Test
Schema

Develop new
schema
(Accommodate)
No

Expected
Results?
Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Yes

Assimilate

Types of Constructivism
Psychological Constructivism: Learning as improving
individual knowledge and cognitive abilities
Many cognitive theories of learning can also be classified as
Psychological Constructivist theories

Social Constructivism: Learning as increasing the ability to


participate with others in activities meaningful within the
culture
Culture influences thinking when a more skilled person uses
tools and practices from the culture to instruct another toward
valued cultural goals
Thinking influences culture when members generate new
practices and solutions to add to the cultural groups repertoire
Situated Cognition/Learning is a social constructivist theory

Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Psychological Constructivism
According to Piaget
Schema: Mental structure for representing concepts

Equilibrium

Disequilibrium
Disconnect between
world and mind
(Confusion)
Occurs when schema
cannot explain the world
Uncomfortable, so we
have a natural tendency
to try to return to
equilibrium
Have to either change
the mind or the world

Balance between world


and mind
Occurs when schema
works to explain world
Humans have a natural
tendency to maintain
equilibrium

Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Psychological Constructivism


Assimilation





Fit new information


(world) into the existing
schema (mind)
Interpret experiences
based on what we
already know
World is changed to fit
our mind
It is possible that people
can misrepresent the
world in their minds

Accommodation


Change schema (mind)


to explain a new
situation (world)
Schema is changed
because of new
information from the
world

Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Constructivism:
Goals of Education
According to Constructivism, the key goals of education
are:
1. Improve students ability to solve problems

K now the problem


I dentify possible Solutions
T est the solutions
E valuate the solutions

2. Improve students critical thinking skills


Critical Thinking Skills: Evaluating a conclusion by logically
examining the problem, the evidence, and the solution

3. Improve students personal inquiry skills


Inquiry Skills: Ability to identify and pursue own learning goals
Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Constructivism:
Conditions of Learning
According to constructivism, learning occurs
best:
In complex, realistic, and relevant environments
When social interaction is involved
When teachers use multiple methods
When students take ownership in learning
When teachers also provide instruction in
metacognitive skills

Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Constructivist Teaching
According to constructivism, the steps of
teaching include:
Identify a problem to be solved
Learners more motivated to learn when faced with
problem solving situation that requires a bit of new
information

Identify the skills or information that the learner


needs to know prior to problem solving
Prerequisite skills are taught in the context of
higher-order goals
Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Problem-Based Learning
Students learn in the context of a real world
problem
Students work together to find a solution to the
problem
Students learn basic knowledge in the context of
solving the problem

Teachers Role
Provide topic, Gather background information, Create
ways to incorporate a variety of subjects, Delegate
tasks to students, Facilitate the project
Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Instructional Conversations
Conversations with probing questions to
facilitate deep learning
Teachers scaffold students knowledge by
asking probing questions (Vygotsky)
Teachers Role
Facilitate the discussion, Use good questioning
techniques, Be open to student input

Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Cognitive Apprenticeships
Students work with an expert to learn a skill
Students learn in the context of real-life
situations
Experts Role
Model, Guide, Scaffold

Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Inquiry Learning Process

Hypothesize

Test

Report

Evaluate

Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Inquiry Learning
Scientific Procedure

Hypothesis
Test Hypothesis
Draw Conclusions
Reflect

Teachers Role
Identify topic of study, Pose deep questions, Provide
appropriate materials, Guide, Let students ask questions
and discover the answer

Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Constructivism
Common elements of all constructivist
teaching strategies:
Students actively participate
Teacher is a facilitator
Requires deep thinking from students
Real-world applications
Social orientation

Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Applying Constructivism to Instruction


Elicit students ideas and experiences, then
create learning situations to restructure
current knowledge
Provide opportunities to engage in complex,
meaningful, problem-based activities
Provide opportunities for students to apply
the knowledge in many meaningful contexts
Teach self-regulation strategies
Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Constructivism
Strengths:
Learning is interesting
Learning is relevant
Students are active in classroom
Deep learning occurs
Students are more creative
Students are more motivated to learn

Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Constructivism
Weaknesses
Hard to plan for
Students may ask questions you dont know the
answer to
Difficult for low students
Takes lots of classroom time
Not cover as much material

Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

10

Research-Supported Conclusions
Active learners are most successful
Learning from examples and doing fosters
deep understanding
Meaningful learning is more effective than
rote memorization
The social structure of the learning
environment is critical to successful learning

Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

Constructivist Theories Overview


Results: Meaning of the environment
Means: Attempt to develop a theory of the world
Inputs: New information from the environment

Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

11

Constructivist Theories Overview


Learning Outcomes: Reasoning, Critical Thinking
Role of the Learner: Make meaning of the world
Role of the Instructor: Provide complex and realistic
learning environments that challenge learners to
solve problems
Inputs for Learning: Self-regulation learning skills,
Motivation to make sense of the environment
Process of Learning: Assimilation and
Accommodation
This is a weakness of constructivism: There is little said
about the process of learning

Dr. K. A. Korb
University of Jos

12