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Unit Plan - Biology 2.

3 (AS 91155): Demonstrate understanding of adaptation of plants or


animals to their way of life.
Achievement Standard 91155: Biology 2.3 - Demonstrate understanding of adaptation of
plants or animals to their way of life.
Achievement objectives:
Understanding of adaptation is demonstrated in relation to one life process over three taxonomic or
functional groups of multi-cellular plants or animals, or across two related life processes within one
taxonomic or functional group.

Selected life process is GAS EXCHANGE. The three taxonomic/functional groups selected are...
o MAMMALS using humans (Homo sapiens) as the example
o FISH using salmon (Oncoryhnchus gorbuscha) as the example
o INSECTS using a tree locust (Anacridium aegyptium) as the example

Skills developed:
Asking questions
Problem solving
Recording observations
Dissection skills
Key

competencies addressed:
Thinking
Using language, symbols, and texts
Managing self
Participating and contributing

Assessment:
Formative assessment: Ample opportunity for formative assessment suggested below in the unit
plan.
Summative assessment: Internally assessed at the end of the topic with a test.
Credits: 3

Unit Plan - Biology 2.3 (AS 91155): Demonstrate understanding of adaptation of plants or
animals to their way of life.
Duration: 15 lessons/3 weeks teaching time not including assessment task. This is only a guide-allow for
flexibility certain topics such as concentration gradients, counter current flow and diffusion (where
understanding is essential to the assessment)
Accompanying Resource: Powerpoint Slideshow Biology 2.3: Diversity of Gas Exchange Systems in
Animals created by Ross Stephen.
Practical Work: Three dissections are suggested so that students have the opportunity to see with their
own eyes the structures and adaptations in each of the three taxonomic groups. A number of other
activities/demonstrations are suggested in the unit plan below.
SOLO Taxonomy: All specific learning outcomes in the unit are linked to SOLO taxonomy. The table below
summarises the indicators of relevant level.

Success criteria classification using SOLO Taxonomy


Symbol

Indicators
State, list, describe, identify, draw

Code
(1)

Explain, convert, summarise, arrange, classify, relate

(2)

Contrast, compare, relate

(3)

Evaluate, compare and contrast, discuss, predict

(4)

Unit Plan - Biology 2.3 (AS 91155): Demonstrate understanding of adaptation of plants or
animals to their way of life.
Learning Outcomes

Key Content

Suggested Resources and


Activities

Lesson 1: Introduction to Gas Exchange


- Write and explain the word
- Introductory exercise to discover what
equation for respiration. (1)
students know about gas exchange

Kahoot, concept cartoons or


student led discussion

- Define breathing, gas


exchange and respiration. (2)

- Explain that living organisms need to respire to


produce energy and link this to why breathing
and gas exchange is required

Demonstration of breathing
using a bell jar apparatus

- Key Definitions: Breathing; respiration;


diffusion; gas exchange

Student Key word list/glossarystudents fill in during topic

- Relate the purpose of gas


exchange to respiration. (3)

- Look at why large organisms need lungs as a


specialised organ for gas exchange (Diffusion is
only effective across small membranes)
Lesson 2: Gas Exchange System Characteristics
- state the different
- Surface Area: larger surface area allows more
characteristics of an efficient
air to come in contact with gas exchange
gas exchange system (2)
surfaces
- Explain how each factor
increases efficiency. (2)

Explain the terms breathing, gas


exchange and respiration and
link them together
Demonstrate relationship of
surface area and efficiency.
Students breath through
different sized straws

- Moisture and permeable membranes

Oxygen solubility curves

- Concentration gradients: Gases prefer to move


down concentration gradients.
o Can also relate to flatulence

Demonstrate using something


that stinks (onions/sulfur) at the
front of the room and allow it to
diffuse.

- Diffusion distance and diffusion rates


Lessons 3-5: The Gas Exchange System of Mammals
-describe the anatomy of the
- Lungs: Why do we have lungs and how do they
human gas exchange system
increase the efficiency of gas exchange in
(1)
mammals.

Brainstorm: Why do we need


lungs?

Unit Plan - Biology 2.3 (AS 91155): Demonstrate understanding of adaptation of plants or
animals to their way of life.
- Identify the need for a gas
exchange system in mammals
(2)
- Identify the adaptations of
mammals that provide it with
the ability to maximize the
opportunity of their habitat
with respect to G.E. (3)
- describe how the gas
exchange surface is made
permeable to oxygen and
carbon dioxide (2)
- describe how diffusion
distance is minimized in
mammals (3)
- explain how a concentration
gradient of the respiratory
gasses is maintained in
mammals (3)

- How do humans breath: Review the breathing


process
o Diaphragm
o Ribs
o Intercostals muscles
- Adaptations: Take a thorough look at each
adaptation and their benefits
o internal system-reduce water loss by
evaporation
o alveoli shape-increase surface area:
volume ratio
o nasal cavity- warms and cleans air
o trachea-cartilage to protect and maintain
the airway
- Diffusion distance: How is it minimised?
o Moisture on the surface
o Permeability of membranes

- Concentration gradients:
o Trachea and physical process of breathing
o Cellular respiration creates a high
concentration of CO2 in the blood
- High CO2 concentration gradient at the lungs
and exchanges CO2 for O2.
Lesson 6: Sheeps Pluck Dissection
- Identify the structures
- Dissection: Sheeps pluck (Ensure technicians
involved in gas exchange (1)
are advised in advance)
o Relate back to the mammalian
- Identify the adaptations of
adaptations previously discussed (pluck is
mammals with respect to gas
very similar to that of human lungs.
exchange. (3)
o Observe visual structures prior to cutting
- Exercise: Mammalian gas exchange system
summary exercise

How do we breath? Review from


previous year

Video, Mammalian gas


exchange worksheet
Describe 3 structures and
explain how each contributes to
effective gas exchange.
Diffusion animation:
http://highered.mheducation.co
m/sites/0072495855/student_vi
ew0/chapter2/animation__how_
diffusion_works.html
Think, pair and share: What do
we breath in? What do we
breath out? Determine the %s of
each gas?

Dissection
Ensure students are identifying
correct structures and question
them about their function
Summary exercise: Draw, label
and describe the features of
mammalian gas exchange

Unit Plan - Biology 2.3 (AS 91155): Demonstrate understanding of adaptation of plants or
animals to their way of life.
system.
Lessons 7 -8: Gas Exchange in Fish (Salmon Oncorhynchus sp.)
- describe the anatomy of the
- General structure of gas exchange system in
fish (Salmon) gas exchange
fish
system (1)
- Adaptations may include:
- Identify the adaptations of
o Operculum to protect gills
Salmon that provide it with the
o Water movement
ability to maximize the
o Gill structure
opportunity of their habitat
o Filament structure
with respect to G.E. (3)
- Diffusion distance: How is it minimised?
- describe how the gas
o Constant moisture
exchange surface is made
o Lamellae structure
permeable to oxygen and
o Thickness of capillary walls
carbon dioxide (1)

Home and expert groups:


Students provided with
resources to identify
adaptations to fish gas
exchange system

- Refresh concentration gradient


- describe how diffusion
Concentration gradient revision
distance is minimized in Pink
Salmon (2)
Lesson 9: Counter Current Flow
- explain how a concentration
- Describe and illustrate parallel flow
Students to act out parallel flow
gradient of the respiratory
o Show how the concentration gradient
and counter current flow
gasses is maintained in Pink
equalises and stops the diffusion process
Salmon (3)
E-fish-ency joke
- Counter Current Flow: It is a specialised
mechanism but can be regarded as a structure.
Lesson 10: Fish Dissection
*Salmon is very expensive. Try and demonstrate one so there is relevance to the teaching examples. If not, other
fish have the same structures. Ensure technicians are advised in advance
- Identify the structures
- Observe visual structures prior to cutting,
Ensure students are identifying
involved in gas exchange of
provide with magnifying glasses
correct structures and question
fish (1)
them about
- Reiterate the adaptations discussed
- Identify the adaptations of
Summary exercise: Draw, label
fish with respect to gas
- Exercise: Fish gas exchange system summary
and describe the features of fish

Unit Plan - Biology 2.3 (AS 91155): Demonstrate understanding of adaptation of plants or
animals to their way of life.
exchange. (3)

exercise

gas exchange system. (Provide


with template for this
dissection)
Lesson 11-12: Gas Exchange in Insects (Tree Locust Anacridium aegyptium or similar)
- describe the anatomy of the
- Describe the general structures that are
Students draw their own insects
insect G.E. system (1)
involved in Insect gas exchange (tracheal)
system.
- Identify the adaptations of
Insects that provide it with the - Adaptations may include
Summary video: Show relevant
ability to maximize the
o Fluid in the tops of the trachioles
segments of David
opportunity of their habitat
Attenboroughs Private life of
o Ability to open and close spiracles
with respect to G.E. (3)
Insects
o Chitin to prevent collapsing of trachea
o Win movement to optimize air uptake.
- describe how diffusion
distance is minimized in
- Trachiole structure: Permeable and moist
insects (2)
surfaces
- explain how a concentration
gradient of the respiratory
gasses is maintained in
insects. (3)

- Diffusion: Air diffuses straight into the muscle


which means there is no need for a circulatory
system
o
Causes size restriction of insects

- State the reason why insects


dont have a circulatory
system and relate this to their
maximum size. (3)

- Concentration gradient:
o Air sacs beat inside the insect to maintain
constant gradient inside and out the body
o Air influx is maintained by muscular
contractions and also the beating of wings
(for winged insects)

Lesson 13: Insect Dissection


- Identify the structures
- Observe without cutting, the visual
involved in gas exchange of
structures and their adaptations.
insects (1)
- Exercise: Insect gas exchange system summary
- Identify the adaptations of
exercise
insects with respect to gas
exchange. (3)

Label a generalised insect gas


exchange system diagram.
Explain why diffusion is not
adequate and the need for a
tracheal system

Unit Plan - Biology 2.3 (AS 91155): Demonstrate understanding of adaptation of plants or
animals to their way of life.
Lesson 14 -15: Comparison Between the Taxonomic Groups
**These two lessons are reserved for revision of the topic with the aim of drawing together the structure and
adaptations of the gas exchange system across the three taxonomic groups.
- Compare and contrast the
Suggested Questions
During these lessons provide
suitability of each system for
direction only.
the habitat of each animal (3) o Discuss why there is diversity in gas
Pictionary
exchange systems.
- Identify attributes and
o Compare and contrast the G.E. surface in fish
limitations of each system and
Have available a number of
and mammals. Identify the features of each
link to the animals habitat (4)
resources and revision activities
that enable maximum efficiency in water and
that students will engage with.
air
- Suggest the reasons for
o Compare concentration gradients that apply
diversity in gas exchange
Provide exam style questions
to each organism
systems in animals (4)
o Compare and contrast the impact of the G.E.
Revision games where students
System on the potential body size of the
- Show understanding of
come up with their own
animals.
diversity in gas exchange
questions such as snakes and
o Explain why diffusion is adequate for small
systems by linking ideas (4)
ladders, question doom
invertebrates while others such as insects
require a tracheal system.
o Explain how the counter current system in
fish enables them to obtain enough oxygen to
maintain its energy requirements.
o Explain how the structure of the lungs
enables mammals to provide a large, moist
surface area for gas exchange.
o Explain how insects use a combination of
opening and closing of spiracles with body
movements to control to volume of air
entering the tracheal system