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1. – 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 9.

Many engineers ---- the thrill of designing a


uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. novel product that then ---- mass production.

1. In the life sciences, biologists need to be more A) are having / is entering


aware of the ---- between science and technology. B) had had / had entered
C) would have / has entered
A) approach B) departure C) complexity D) have had / enters
D) extremity E) gap E) were having / have entered

2. The theory is interesting enough, but is it ----? 10. Over the past eight years, the TES instrument
---- that Martian rocks and sands ---- almost
A) solvable B) expressive C) intensive entirely of volcanic minerals.
D) coherent E) resistant
A) would discover / had been composed
B) has discovered / are composed
3. However incredible we may now find it, C) would discover / were composed
engineers did not ---- welcome the idea of a D) had discovered / had been composed
general purpose microchip. E) was discovering / would be composed

A) instantly B) urgently C) crudely


D) scarcely E) reliably 11. In order ---- a good sheep-shearing robot I had
to understand sheep shearers and the skill of
shearing, as well as the technology ---- in building
4. His efforts to ---- the threat of global warming a robot.
with new forms of energy have been much
appreciated. A) having built / to have been involved
B) building / to be involved
A) excuse B) counter C) pursue C) to build / involved
D) uphold E) deliver D) to be building / involving
E) to have built / having been involved

5. The amount of fish caught did not ---- the


massive increase in vessel tonnage and fishing 12. It is estimated that sulphur pollution costs
effort. China nearly 45 billion dollars each year ---- lost
productivity, health care and damage ---- forests
A) pull through B) make do with and crops.
C) keep pace with D) come across
E) break out of A) from / at B) in / to C) under / of
D) over / through E) by / for

6. Home heating, which ---- less than 7 per cent of


all energy consumed in the US, has had a 13. One of the great advances ---- astronomy ----
commendable efficiency record. the past decade has been the discovery of planets
outside our solar system.
A) accounts for B) comes with C) joins in
D) picks up E) brings out A) of / over B) through /at C) in / to
D) for / by E) with / for

7. For a long time now, biologists ---- that bits of


tissue placed next to each other ----. 14. He realized that the world could run out of key
resources, ---- he was a harsh critic of the
A) had known / may fuse wastefulness of modern industrial society.
B) have known / can fuse
C) knew / had fused A) so that B) whether C) so long as
D) would have known / have fused D) and so E) but
E) know / would have fused
15. ---- the car is equipped with a sophisticated
8. It ---- that Brazil’s new surveillance system ---- a protection system, you know you are fully
useful tool in the protection of the rain forests. protected.

A) may be hoped / would have proved A) Until B) Even if C) Although


B) was hoped / had proved D) So E) Since
C) has been hoped / would prove
D) could be hoped / might have proved
E) is hoped / will prove 16. Certain reactions, ---- catalytic methanation,
appear to stop before they are complete.

A) instead of B) such as C) in place of


D) in case of E) with reference to
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17. Engineering structures must conform ---- to 25. In biology, isolating particular enzymes is a
their type ---- to the laws of physics. tedious process of trial and error ----.

A) not only / but also B) as / as A) though silicon is not the best choice of material
C) more / but D) both / as B) if several hundred steps were involved
E) either / and C) which involves many different experiments
D) until other problems could be eliminated
E) as lab experiments may prove unnecessary
18. The harder a material is, ---- ductile or
workable it tends to be.
26. Just try shooting at bullet-proof glass ----.
A) the most B) as much C) the less
D) more E) so much A) but you can stand a few meters away
B) if you want to be quite sure that it really is bullet
proof
19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada C) while the glass remained unharmed
numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da D) why some gangs have started to fire anti-tank
ifadeyi bulunuz. missiles at armoured cars
E) that it withstood every attack
Natural disturbances, including hurricanes and
earthquakes, have affected coral reefs for millions of
years. They are typically acute but have short-lived 27. The vast oil output of the Caspian must be
(19) ----. Reef areas (20) ---- human influences often piped overland to, say, the Mediterranean, ----.
recover within a few years (21) ---- water and
substratum quality remain high. Indeed, acute natural A) that it is not a landlocked sea
disturbances can actually help (22) ---- diversity on B) if a pipeline is laid across Iran
coral reefs by knocking back dominant species and C) before it can be pumped into tankers
allowing (23) ---- competitive species to re-establish D) which would also pass through Georgia
themselves. E) as a great deal of diplomacy would be required

19.
A) products B) conditions C) concerns 28. Their latest digital radio is supplied with a pair
D) effects E) explanations of active speakers ----.

A) if the number keys have been moved to the sides


20. B) that an FM radio is fitted into its compact
A) down to B) up to C) up against dimensions
D) out of E) away from C) though the screen itself seemed to be touch-
sensitive
D) so you don’t have to plug it into an amplifier
21. E) how the graphic display shows the programme
A) so that B) unless C) though you are listening to
D) if E) whether
29. The engineers ---- took their know-how to
22. Japan and China in the late 19th and early 20th
A) to have maintained B) maintaining centuries.
C) having maintained D) to be maintained
E) to maintain A) that it would be the world’s largest dam
B) who continue to travel around the world
transferring technology
23. C) who had built railroads and dams across America
A) much B) little C) as D) as engineering problems can attract worldwide
D) less E) least interest
E) though the spread of technology is not likely to be
halted
24. – 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde
tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.

24. Battlefield radios may become obsolete ----.

A) if software programmable units take over


B) until they are all built to a common standard
C) when local police and fire departments would
also benefit
D) since other versions had become tailored to their
needs
E) while security features are also innovative

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30. Although global warming was outside the 35. Because each leaf is characteristic of the plant
parameters of their study, ----. on which it grows, ----.

A) countries with high gasoline prices are more A) most leaves are composed of three parts: a
innovative in the field of personal transportation blade, a petiole and a pair of stipules
vehicles B) water loss by evaporation from the leaf’s surface
B) battery-powered electric vehicles would not have is unavoidable
been disregarded C) many plants can be identified by their leaves
C) fossil fuel consumption habits will have to be alone
curtailed D) all parts of a plant can be damaged by air
D) for the present the focus is on the efficient use of pollution, but leaves are particularly susceptible
fossil fuels E) many leaves have special structures through
E) it is nevertheless a fact that should have been which water is literally forced out
faced

36. – 38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye


31. ---- as they are today. anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz.

A) Satellites are providing clear photographs 36. The findings of a ten-year study reveal that
B) The fluctuating magnetic field lies deep in the two species of seahorses have been living in the
centre of Earth waters around Britain without anyone realizing
C) Several other bodies in the solar system they were there.
generate their own magnetic fields
D) Earth’s magnetic poles have not always been A) Đngiltere’nin çevresindeki sularda daha önce
oriented onların orada yaşadığını kimsenin bilmediği iki tür
E) Many intriguing explanations are being put denizatının olduğu on yıllık bir çalışmayla ortaya
forward çıktı.
B) On yıllık bir çalışmanın bulguları Đngiltere’nin
çevresindeki sularda onların orada olduğunu hiç
32. Since mines may have been laid there, ----. kimsenin fark etmediği iki tür denizatının
yaşamakta olduğunu gösteriyor.
A) these fields had not been cultivated C) Đngiltere’nin çevresindeki sularda iki tür
B) large areas of valuable farmland are being denizatının yaşadığını ilk kez ortaya çıkaran on
overgrown by bamboo yıllık çalışma bu türlerin hiç fark edilmediğini
C) immense bamboo thickets would have come into belirtiyor.
being D) On yıllık çalışmanın sonuçlarına göre Đngiltere’nin
D) the costs of restoring farmland to full production çevresindeki sularda hiç kimsenin bilmediği iki tür
have always been high denizatının yaşamakta olduğu bildiriliyor.
E) faster techniques were called for E) Đki tür denizatı hiç kimseye belli etmeden
Đngiltere’nin çevresindeki sularda yaşarken on
yıllık bir çalışma onları ortaya çıkardı.
33. ---- that solar flares triggered geomagnetic
storms.
37. Though stars appear to the eye as single
A) Scientists used to think points of light, very many of them turn out to be
B) The findings were ambiguous double when seen through a telescope.
C) The astronauts were taken by surprise
D) The facts have to be suppressed A) Teleskopla bakıldığında çift ışık olan yıldızların
E) The results of the experiment surprised everyone çoğu göze tek ışık noktası gibi görünür.
B) Çıplak gözle bakıldığında yıldızlar tek ışık noktası
gibi görünür, çoğuna sadece teleskopla
34. ----, though none are yet being grown on a bakıldığında çift olduğu anlaşılabilir.
commercial scale. C) Göze tek ışık noktası gibi görünen yıldızlara
teleskopla bakıldığında çoğunun çift olduğu
A) Conifers are dominant trees in northern latitudes gözlenir.
B) Trees produce copious pollen, which travels up to D) Yıldızlar çıplak gözle bakıldığında tek ışık noktası
16 kilometres gibi algılansa da teleskopla bakıldığında aslında
C) Genetically modified trees have not been planted çift olduğu görülür.
in natural woods and forests E) Her ne kadar yıldızlar göze tek ışık noktası gibi
D) Plants demonstrate a remarkable diversity in görünse de pek çoğunun teleskopla bakıldığında
size, habit and form çift olduğu ortaya çıkar.
E) Genetically modified trees are being developed
for a variety of uses

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38. Entropy is a physical property like temperature 40. Aşağı yukarı aynı büyüklükte ve Güneş’e aynı
and pressure, and measures how close a system uzaklıkta olan Dünya ve Venüs sıklıkla ikiz
has come to reaching stagnant “equilibrium”. gezegenler olarak nitelendirilir.

A) Sıcaklık ve basınç gibi fiziksel bir özellik olan A) It is usual to refer to Earth and Venus as twin
entropi bir sistemin durgun “denge”ye ulaşıp planets as they are almost the same size and
ulaşmadığını ölçer. distance from the Sun.
B) Entropi sıcaklık ve basınç gibi fiziksel bir özelliktir B) Since Earth and Venus are roughly the same size
ve bir sistemin durgun “denge”ye ne kadar and distance from the Sun it is only natural that
ulaştığını ölçer. they should be regarded as twin planets.
C) Bir sistemin durgun “denge”ye ulaşıp ulaşmadığı C) Earth and Venus, being roughly the same size
sıcaklık ve basınç gibi fiziksel bir özellik olan and distance from the Sun, are often regarded as
entropi ile ölçülür. twin planets.
D) Entropi hem sıcaklık ve basınç gibi fiziksel D) It is because they are exactly the same size and
özellikler arasındadır hem de bir sistemin durgun distance from the Sun that Earth and Venus are
“denge”ye ne kadar ulaştığını belirlemede known as the twin planets.
yardımcıdır. E) By the twin planets we mean Earth and Venus
E) Sistemlerin durgun” denge”ye ulaşıp which are nearly the same size and are
ulaşmadığını ölçen entropinin sıcaklık ve equidistant from the Sun.
basınçla ortak olan yanı, fiziksel bir özellik
olmasıdır.
41. Dünyanın iç kısmını araştırma konusunda
uzmanlaşan bilim adamları, uzun süre, Dünya’nın
39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye derin iç kısmındaki hareketin yüzeydeki dikey
anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz. değişimlerin arkasında olduğundan şüphelendiler.

39. Bilim adamları bir büyük depremin, bir A) Scientists who specialize in studying Earth’s
sonrakinin zamanı ve yeri üzerinde kayda değer interior have long suspected that activity deep
bir etkisinin olmadığını düşünürlerdi; fakat son inside Earth is behind vertical changes at the
araştırmalar durumun böyle olmayabileceğine surface.
işaret ediyor. B) Scientists studying Earth’s interior have come to
the conclusion that what goes on deep inside
A) Scientists used to think that there was no Earth affects vertical changes at the surface.
connection between one major earthquake and C) It is generally agreed by scientists studying
subsequent smaller ones, but new studies Earth’s interior that events deep inside Earth’s
suggest there may be. core influence vertical changes at the surface.
B) Formerly scientists thought that one large D) Scientists specializing in the study of Earth’s
earthquake could not possibly affect the timing or interior have long been aware of the fact that
location of the next, but recent research suggests activity deep inside Earth may be responsible for
it may. vertical change at its surface.
C) Contrary to what scientists used to think, recent E) Scientists specializing in happenings deep within
research suggests that a major earthquake may Earth’s core have, for a long time, suspected a
considerably affect the timing and location of relationship between them and vertical changes
subsequent earthquakes. at the surface.
D) Recent research suggests that a major
earthquake may influence the time and place of
subsequent earthquakes though this has not
been the traditional view of scientists.
E) Scientists used to think that one large earthquake
had no notable influence on the timing or location
of the next one but recent research suggests this
may not be the case.

4
42. – 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçanın 45. Isaac Newton presented the earliest scientific
anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek definition of mass in 1687 in his landmark work
cümleyi bulunuz. Principium: “The quantity of matter is the
measure of the same arising from its density and
42. Fragile ecosystems like the Arctic could face bulk conjointly.” That very basic definition was
many more years of contamination from PCBs good enough for Newton and other scientists for
(polychlorinated biphenyls), despite international more than 200 years. ----. In recent years,
treaties banning their use. ----. An estimated 1.3 however, the why of mass has become a research
million tonnes of PCBs were made between the topic in physics.
1930s and 1990s around the world for use in the
manufacture of pesticides, lubricants, and A) The laws of gravity predict that gravity acts on
plastics. But an investigation to determine the fate mass and energy
of these PCBs has failed to locate most of them. B) Most people think they know what mass is, but
actually they understand only a very small part of
A) On the other hand, PCBs may be carried by wind what it entails
to cold countries where they condense out in the C) Fundamental particles have an intrinsic mass
cold air known as their rest mass
B) Indeed, soils in temperate lands have captured D) Energy and mass are related, as described by
most of the PCBs so far released into the Einstein’s famous equation, E=mc2
environment E) They understood that science should proceed
C) On the contrary, PCBs could pose a threat to first by describing how things work and later by
polar bears for years to come understanding why
D) That is the conclusion of a study into the fate of
PCBs manufactured worldwide during much of
the 20th century 46. Can coal ever become a friend of the
E) As a result, urban air contains more PCBs than environment? Coal-fired power stations supply
rural air half the electricity used in many industrial
countries. ----. This, of course, is the most
worrisome of the so-called “greenhouse gases.”
43. The Kavli Foundation’s approach differs from
the increasingly utilitarian focus of most funded A) New ones will have to comply with the Clean Air
research. ----. Kavli opposes this practice for he Act
believes you have to be willing to fund science B) They are, however, responsible for 80% of the
without knowledge of the benefits. power industry’s emissions of carbon dioxide
C) Energy engineers are already talking about
A) To obtain funding from any source, scientists “clean coal” technology
must usually frame their ideas in the context of D) Clean coal means different things to different
studies already completed and short-term impact people
B) Knowledge about materials and processes in the E) Coal treatment and refining processes are rightly
universe could open up benefits that we can’t getting a lot of attention as well
even imagine
C) In fact, the foundation pays for nondirected
research in its three main areas of interest: 47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş
astrophysics, nanoscience and neuroscience bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi
D) It is unrealistic of such agencies to expect these bulunuz.
programmes to deliver useful tools and
applications rapidly 47. Roy: - If you haven’t already read this account
E) The foundation has chosen disciplines that are of Philip Morrison, make sure you do.
already acknowledged as “growth” areas in Michael: - ----
science Roy: - That’s what impressed me most. He made
important contributions in quantum
electrodynamics among other things, and then
44. Traditionally, the study of planet formation has gave courses on physics for poets!
proved frustrating, as astronomers have never
been sure whether their theories apply to other A) Yes, I will. I’ve seen him on TV on several
planetary systems. ----. Now, however, the occasions; he’s both charming and amusing.
observations of debris discs around stars of B) Yes, I intend to. What was it that impressed you?
different masses and ages are helping to place C) I’ve already done so. The range of his interests
our solar system in context. and activities is amazing.
D) Did you realize he was an assembler of the first
A) Some discs look like gigantic versions of the rings atomic bomb?
of Saturn E) Of course. I was his student, you know, at Cornell
B) Most of the discs, however, could not be seen University.
directly
C) What the recent images show is wonderfully
unexpected
D) This is because the solar system is the only
known example of a planetary system
E) The dust particles probably result from collisions
among asteroids

5
48. Gary: - Is this the website you like best when it 51. Larry: - They’re holding a young designers’
comes to scientific news? competition for designing a robot to put out a
Philip: - Yes, I suppose it is. It’s updated weekly house fire.
and well-linked to related websites. Tony: - I think you mean to blow out a candle!
Gary: ---- Larry: - ----
Philip: - That’s hard to say. So many scientific Tony: - But you are right. The final aim is, of
“facts” are being questioned these days. course, to put out house fires.

A) Is it university-owned? A) Well, at this stage, that’s all they’re asking for.


B) Does it keep up with recent developments? B) Do you think they ever will?
C) What’s the level? College stuff? C) That shouldn’t be too difficult. The real problem is
D) From a scientific point of view, how reliable is it? to locate the fire.
E) Does it cover all the sciences? D) If it could set off an alarm even, that would be
useful, wouldn’t it?
E) Once a fire takes hold it becomes a major
49. Brian: - Have you read this book, Water problem.
Follies?
Peter: - No I haven’t; but I’ve heard a lot about it. It
focuses on how much water is being wasted, 52. – 56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla
doesn’t it? okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan
Brian: - ---- cümleyi bulunuz.
Peter: - Good! It’s time someone took a firm stand
against the waste. 52. (I) Computer researchers predict that quantum
computers will become a reality within 10 to 15 years.
A) That’s right. And it’s pretty critical of man for (II) However, these machines pose a security threat,
being so unconcerned about this waste. because their ability to perform many calculations at
B) No. It actually concentrates on ground water. once means they will be able to uncover the
C) Yes. Most people seem to think ground water is encryption keys that are, for practical purposes,
boundless. untraceable by today’s “classical” conventional
D) And the gold-mining industry is attacked for its computers. (III) If that happens, people will be able to
vast “dewatering” operations. tap into cell phone calls. (IV) A quantum computer
E) And the consequences include dry rivers and can represent a 0 and a 1 at the same time in a
land subsidence. quantum bit (called a qubit). (V) Furthermore, secure
e-commerce will be a thing of the past.
50. Sam: - Do you think NASA’s emergency A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
escape plan for space-bound astronauts will
work?
Robert: - That’s hard to say. I suppose really it will 53. (I) Everyone knew that freezing rain could be bad,
depend on the kind of emergency that presents but what the researchers learned was frightening. (II)
itself. All aircraft designers are familiar with the challenge of
Sam: - ---- icing. (III) Manufacturers must demonstrate that their
Robert: - Actually, the colour is a survival feature aircraft are capable of flying safely in cold, wet
too. It makes a search for the crew easier. conditions where they might ice up. (IV) In the US,
those conditions are specified by the Federal Aviation
A) It reminds one of science-fiction films, with Administration’s (FAA) “Appendix C”. (V) This
everything neatly planned. appendix clearly states the kinds of cold weather
B) It seems a bit like a game to me. The suits are a which an aircraft must be able to deal with.
brilliant orange colour.
C) The antigravity suit squeezes the legs to prevent A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
blood from pooling in them.
D) Apparently shuttle bailout is a last resort, to be
used only if landing becomes impossible. 54. (I) Mother Columbian rainbow boas, Epicrates
E) Let’s hope the Challenger catastrophe is not cenchria maurus, have the strange habit of eating
repeated. some of their own young. (II) Now new research
reveals why. (III) Within two weeks, these mothers
regained their lost muscle. (IV) Stillborns and
undeveloped eggs in a clutch, which the mother
consumes soon after laying or giving birth, are rich in
energy and contain a diversity of proteins and
essential nutrients. (V) Therefore, maternal
cannibalism leads to a quick recovery after giving
birth.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

6
55. (I) Nyos is a crater lake formed by a volcanic 58. It is pointed out in the passage that the
eruption roughly five centuries ago. (II) In these lakes diversity of life on Earth ----.
the gas saturates the bottom water. (III) It is one of
many such lakes, found the world over in volcanic A) is far more extensive in temperate climates than
chains (IV) It is, however, one of only two lakes in colder ones
known to have exploded. (V) And when it exploded a B) results from the variety of ways whereby
jet of gas-laden water rose 80 meters high and carbon organisms meet environmental challenges
dioxide filled the air. C) is related to plants rather than other organisms
D) becomes far more apparent in spring than in
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V winter
E) must be maintained through the conservation of
the environment
56. (I) Most of the military robotic systems currently
operating are airborne. (II) This is because robots for
use in a ground war present serious problems as 59. One can understand from the passage that, for
conditions are more complex and less predictable. deciduous trees, the shedding of leaves ----.
(III) The Army’s first ground robots were devoted to
mine-sweeping. (IV) For instance, what works in a A) increases the amount of water loss, which is a
desert will be unsuited to jungles. (V) Similarly, a serious environmental challenge
machine designed for use in cities is unlikely to adapt B) increases their metabolic activity throughout
to mountains. winter
C) is an effective mechanism of resistance to heat
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V D) is a regular metabolic activity which is not related
to environmental conditions
E) is a kind of hibernation that enables them to
57. – 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre survive the cold winter months
cevaplayınız.

How have terrestrial organisms met the environmental 60. It is clear from the passage that, for some
challenges of living on land? Life began in the animals, migration ----.
oceans, but many life forms have since adapted to
terrestrial life in a sea of air. Every single organism A) and hibernation are equally viable options
living on land has to meet the same environmental B) is comparatively easy
challenges: obtaining enough water; preventing C) is indispensable for survival
excessive water loss; getting enough energy; and in D) causes a great deal of energy loss
Polar Regions, tolerating widely varying temperature E) involves various environmental challenges
extremes. How those challenges are met varies from
one organism to another, and in large part explains
the diversity of life encountered on land today. Some
animals avoid colder temperatures by migrating to
warmer climates for the winter, whereas others avoid
the cold by passing the winter in a dormant state
called hibernation. Many plants also spend winter in a
dormant state. The aerial parts of some plants die
during the winter, but the underground parts remain
alive; the following spring they resume metabolic
activity and develop new aerial shoots. Many trees
are deciduous; that is, they shed their leaves for the
duration of their dormancy. Shedding leaves is
actually an adaptation to the “dryness” of winter.
Roots cannot absorb water from ground that is cold or
frozen; by shedding its leaves the plant reduces water
loss during the cold winter months when obtaining
water from the soil is impossible.

57. It is pointed out in the passage that all


terrestrial organisms ----.

A) in warm regions find it very hard to tolerate


extreme temperatures
B) in polar regions live out the winter through
hibernation
C) face the danger of extinction due to
environmental challenges
D) have, one way or another, adapted themselves to
environmental conditions
E) are most adversely affected by excessive water
loss and cold temperatures

7
61. – 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 63. We understand from the passage that the
cevaplayınız. Dutch research centre, the TNO, ----.

Henrik-Jan van Veen has carried out a great deal of A) works in very close association with the Dutch
research into spinning. This is especially true for armed forces
“graveyard spins”, the term for what happens when B) oversees all major research projects being
fighter pilots get so disoriented they miscalculate how carried out in the country
to get their plane back on course. They can end up in C) has put a lot of pressure on van Veen to extend
a dangerous and often fatal spin. Van Veen works at the uses of vibrotactile devices
a research lab run by the Netherlands Organization D) encourages the application of research for the
for Applied Scientific Research, the TNO. The range solving of problems
of research covered by the TNO is vast, and it sees E) puts safety devices high on its list of priorities
itself as a practical problem solver. And for the Dutch
air force, the graveyard spin is certainly a problem
that needs solving. Van Veen’s specialty is 64. It is clear from the passage that van Veen’s
“vibrotactile devices”, which use vibrations to convey immediate purpose in developing the vibrotactile
information. His latest project is a vest studded all vest is to ----.
over with small discs that can each vibrate
independently. In a test room, a pilot is strapped into A) help fighter pilots to calculate their course more
a seat in a “cockpit”. At the push of a button, the lights accurately
go out and the chair starts spinning. After a while the B) warn pilots in advance that a spin is building up
chair is stopped. “He’ll think he’s spinning the other C) help the blind find their way about
way now”, says van Veen. The pilot is told to correct D) make it possible to reduce the amount of fuel
the spin, but instead, he overcorrects massively, and used by aircraft
the chair begins spinning again. In the next test, the E) enable fighter pilots to get over the effects of a
pilot dons van Veen’s vest and is told that the patch of spin and thus, avoid a crash
the vest that is vibrating will indicate the direction he
should force the joystick to correct a spin. This time,
when the chair stops spinning the pilot manages to
keep the seat still. Van Veen thinks the vibrotactile
vest could do more than save the lives of fighter
pilots. He’s now working on linking the system to a
GPS receiver so that tourists in a foreign city or blind
people in an unfamiliar environment can use the vest
to find their way around.

61. It is clear from the passage that the


vibrotactile vest ----.

A) has contributed significantly to environmental


research
B) could be developed to serve a variety of
purposes
C) has been in use in military aviation for many
decades
D) is the product of an expensive research project
undertaken by the Dutch military
E) could be used to transmit secret military
information

62. It is understood from the passage that,


because spins in fighter flights can be fatal, ----.

A) they are referred to as “graveyard spins”


B) van Veen has been testing a number of devices
that could prevent spins
C) the TNO is making spin-prevention devices a
major research project
D) many aircraft have been indefinitely grounded
E) all pilots are required to wear a vibrotactile vest

8
65. – 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 68. It is clear from the passage that, in the past,
cevaplayınız. the church ----.

For almost 200 years, the idea of cosmic events A) regarded global catastrophes as acts of God
affecting life on Earth was viewed as heretical by the B) was particularly interested in the movements of
church, which regarded catastrophe as proof of divine comets
intervention, and as nonsense by the scientific C) consistently banned any research into cosmic
establishment, which dismissed it as superstition. Yet events
in the end, the sheer weight of evidence has swept D) encouraged scientists to find ways of preventing
away all doubt about the reality of global global catastrophes
catastrophes. Attempts to make scientific sense of the E) wished to suppress all thoughts of cosmic events
many legends of global catastrophes date back to the
dawn of modern science itself, in the 17th century.
Following the publication of Newton’s laws of motion
and universal gravitation in 1687, Edmond Halley
decided to apply them to the mystery of comets. By
studying records of their appearance, Halley argued
that the bright comets of 1456, 1531, 1607 and 1682
were in fact one comet, later known as the “Halley”
comet, that followed a vast elliptical orbit around the
Sun in agreement with Newton’s laws. But Halley
noted something else as well: a comet crossing the
orbit of the Earth might one day collide with us with
devastating consequences.

65. According to the passage, Newton’s laws of


motion and gravitation ----.

A) had no impact whatsoever on the rise of modern


science
B) were approached sceptically by Halley and other
contemporary scientists
C) helped Halley to identify the comet that bears his
name
D) convinced Halley that catastrophes were in fact
acts of divine intervention
E) were dismissed right away by the scientific
establishment of his time

66. It is pointed out in the passage that, prior to


the rise of modern science in the 17th century,----.

A) various studies had been made of comets, but


Halley disregarded them all
B) the way people viewed cosmic events varied
greatly
C) all kinds of learning had been subject to the
approval of the church
D) the Earth had experienced several collisions with
cosmic objects
E) attempts had been made to explain certain
catastrophes with reference to gravitational laws

67. We learn from the passage that in the opinion


of Halley, ----.

A) the mystery surrounding comets could never be


cleared up
B) Newton’s laws of motion and gravitation needed
to be further clarified and elaborated
C) the earlier appearances of the comet “Halley” had
not been properly recorded
D) global catastrophes could be prevented through
new scientific developments
E) a comet may, at some point in the future, strike
Earth

9
69. – 72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 72. The passage suggests that the inhabitants of
cevaplayınız. small isolated islands ----.

Except perhaps for some remote island dwellers, A) will be adversely affected if the oceans continue
most people have a natural tendency to view to be polluted
continents as fundamental, permanent and even B) have frequently chosen to live in comparative
characteristic features of Earth. One easily forgets isolation in preference to living in a crowded city
that the world’s continental platforms amount only to C) always demonstrate a keen interest in the solar
scattered and isolated masses on a planet that is system
largely covered by water. But when viewed from D) depend for their living more on the sea than on
space, the correct picture of Earth becomes the land
immediately clear. It is a blue planet. From this E) probably have a better perception of the reality of
perspective it seems quite extraordinary that over its Earth than the majority of us
long history, Earth could manage to hold a small
fraction of its surface always above the sea —
enabling, among other things, human evolution to
proceed on dry land. Is the persistence of high-
standing continents just an accident? How did Earth’s
complicated crust come into existence? Has it been
there all the time, like some primeval icing on a
planetary cake, or has it evolved through the ages?
Such questions engendered debates that divided
scientists for many decades, but the fascinating story
of how the terrestrial surface came to take its present
form is now partly resolved. That understanding
shows, remarkably enough, that the conditions
required to form the continents of Earth may be
unmatched in the rest of the solar system.

69. One important point made in the passage is


that ----.

A) new questions concerning the solar system are


constantly coming to the fore
B) scientists have finally been able to understand
fully the mystery of Earth’s crust
C) people living on remote islands are so cut off
from the rest of the world that they have no idea
about what is happening elsewhere
D) the formation of the continents of Earth may have
no parallel elsewhere in the solar system
E) the growing pollution of the oceans is causing a
great deal of concern among scientists

70. According to the passage, the question of how


Earth’s continents came into being ----.

A) has never attracted much attention


B) has been one of the concerns of space research
and exploration
C) can best be answered through a comprehensive
study of the other planets in the solar system
D) is not likely to be resolved in the near future
E) gave rise to considerable disagreement among
scientists

71. The passage calls Earth the “blue planet” to


underline the fact that ----.

A) the waters of the oceans are crystal clear


B) the geographical features of Earth are not very
distinct when viewed from space
C) many things on Earth are blue
D) there is actually very little land on Earth
E) it is man’s duty to keep the seas clean

10
73. – 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 76. It is clear from the passage that there ----.
cevaplayınız.
A) is an ongoing debate on the uses of ballistic
In his preface to Spaceflight Revolution, David missiles
Ashford recalls how he started his research into B) is some discrepancy between Ashford’s words
rocket motors. As he later explains, these were and his actions
motors that would power a space plane — one that C) is much public support for Ashford’s project
would launch space travelers and satellites cheaply D) are many technological differences between
and reliably into orbit. That was 1961. Ashford admits Ashford’s rocket motors and the conventional
he would probably have taken another job if he’d rockets currently in use
known that, 42 years later, satellites would still be E) is much concern among space scientists,
launched by rockets descended from ballistic missiles. including Ashford, about the ever-growing costs
The technology is there, but political and budgetary of the space programme in general and of shuttle
decisions have so far stopped space planes getting flights in particular
off the ground. But Ashford presents a compelling
argument that a small orbital space plane would cost
relatively little to design and develop — the equivalent
of just two shuttle flights.

73. As we understand from the passage,


Ashford’s space plane project ----.

A) has made space travel extremely cheap and


reliable
B) has been welcomed by political authorities and
received much attention
C) has received no political or financial support
since the early 1960s
D) has been proved faulty in the course of several
trials
E) was originally inspired by ballistic missile
technology

74. According to the passage, Ashford ----.

A) has not yet completed his research into rocket


motors
B) feels that his decades-long work on rocket motors
has been unjustly ignored
C) has written his book Spaceflight Revolution
mainly to criticize politicians
D) has been recognized as a leading scientist in
space research and rocket technology for quite
some time now
E) has proposed a project which can only be
realized if a sizeable budget is available

75. As can be understood from the passage,


Ashford is firmly convinced that ----.

A) the development of a space plane would cost no


more than two shuttle flights
B) politicians and financial authorities need to be
careful about investing money in space projects
C) rockets bear no relation to ballistic missiles
D) there are many people eager to be space
travellers and willing and able to pay a
reasonable fare
E) his work on rocket motors has greatly contributed
to space research

11
77. – 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre TEST BĐTTĐ.
cevaplayınız. CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.

The Wireless Museum has several of the earliest


crystal wireless sets from the 1920s which ran on
electromagnetic waves with no external power
source, and were easily made at home. Valve radios,
which came along in the 1930s, needed electricity to
heat up the valves and the museum has both mains
and battery-powered valve radios on display. The
collection also has some rare wartime civilian
receivers — the only type of valve radio manufactured
during the Second World War. This was by order of
the government, because at this time most
manufacturing was focused on the war effort. There
are also plenty of modern day transistor radios
including a collection of novelty radios dating from the
sixties and seventies.

77. It is pointed out in the passage that, during


World War II, ----.

A) transistor radios began to replace traditional


valve radios
B) the production of wireless sets was almost
entirely for military purposes
C) various types of radios requiring no external
power source were developed
D) the government banned all kinds of civilian
receivers
E) the efficiency of valve radios was upgraded
through the introduction of new designs

78. We learn from the passage that the very early


crystal wireless sets ----.

A) were the models out of which transistor radios


were later developed
B) were manufactured in large quantities before the
arrival of valve radios
C) are among the museum’s most precious exhibits
D) were still in use during World War II, though in
limited numbers
E) were unconnected to an outside power system

79. It is clear from the passage that valve radios ---


-.

A) were still in widespread use in the sixties and


seventies
B) originally operated on electromagnetic waves
C) consumed more electricity than one might expect
D) are of two types: mains and battery-powered
E) were costly products and the government
disapproved of them

80. This passage is concerned with ----.

A) the exhibits of a wireless museum which cover a


considerable variety
B) the government’s war efforts and production
policies regarding radios
C) the technical features of transistor radios
D) the way a valve radio works
E) why the wireless museum was originally set up

12
1. – 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 8. If things ---- according to plan, the book ---- by
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. this time next year.

1. The Maastricht Treaty, which laid down the A) go / will have been published
rules for euro membership, says that B) have gone / would have been published
governments may not have budget ---- of more C) went / was to be published
than 3% of their GDP. D) were going / has been published
E) will go / will be published
A) deficits B) restrictions C) rates
D) allocations E) assets
9. Included with the account of his journey down
the Amazon there ---- engaging stories ---- by the
2. The European Commission is opposed to any unusual people he meets.
--- change in current banking practices.
A) have been / recounting
A) reluctant B) emotional C) relentless B) were / being recounted
D) crucial E) resentful C) are / recounted
D) will be / to have been recounted
E) would be / to be recounted
3. For the information systems to work properly,
you need to ---- the technology to suit the
situation. 10. The US presidential election of 1800 ----
notorious on account of the unforeseen
A) convince B) adjust C) reduce constitutional problems it ----.
D) sustain E) explain
A) is / has presented
B) has been / presented
4. Though it is fashionable to denounce negative C) would be / presents
campaigning, every political expert knows it can D) had been / would present
be ---- effective. E) was / presented

A) defiantly B) suitably C) extremely


D) sensitively E) lately 11. Having found the appropriate archives, it is
now possible ---- with some degree of certainty
what really ----.
5. There were plenty of people willing to ---- the
experiment as the subject, “controlling emotions”, A) reconstructing / happens
attracted them. B) to reconstruct / happened
C) to have reconstructed / has happened
A) fill out B) take part in C) watch out for D) having reconstructed / had happened
D) make do with E) open up E) to be reconstructed / was happening

6. Finally, the commissioners settled on a short, 12. Moreover, ---- its own statutes, the EU itself is
simple, constitutional amendment granting obliged to consult the trade unions ---- a number
Congress the authority to ---- guidelines for of topics.
selecting temporary members in an emergency.
A) under / on B) with / at C) from / for
A) hold up B) bring down C) call out D) on / against E) to / over
D) serve up E) set up
13. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the
7. Some Italian film-makers believe that once opening of formerly closed borders, traders ----
Americans ---- making films in Rome again, local Georgia and Armenia, crossed over the borders ---
films ---- as well. Turkey to make a living.

A) would start / had flourished A) at / with B) of / about


B) have started / will have flourished C) from / to D) between / back
C) will start / are flourishing E) on / towards
D) start / will flourish
E) started / would flourish
14. They are installing a great deal of information
technology, ---- the staff are quite incapable of
using it.

A) owing to B) whenever C) as if
D) even so E) even though

13
15. She can have the job ---- she is willing to work 24. – 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde
on Saturdays. tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.

A) apart from B) owing to C) except 24. Until fairly recently, management could have
D) provided E) whereas bought peace with generous increases in pay, ----.

A) but that is no longer an easy option


16. Middle children are obviously affected by the B) since that was not to be recommended
fact that they never have their parents’ attention C) however ambiguous this had seemed
all to ----. D) as long as the profits would have remained
steady
A) themselves B) each C) itself E) unless fringe benefits were reduced
D) one another E) each other

25. The most stunning recent museums, ----, are


17. Today virtually all country and suburban art objects themselves.
weeklies and small dailies are produced by offset
lithography, a procedure ---- photographs can be A) why they were designed by a Japanese architect
reproduced inexpensively. B) of which the one in Bilbao must be the finest
C) as the Pritzker is architecture’s biggest prize
A) why B) that C) which D) since there were smooth glass and aluminium
D) whether E) by which panels
E) since space and proportion get flawless
Treatment
18. The belief that anyone can aspire to anything
is ---- America’s greatest gifts to the world.
26. Why should astronauts be sent into space ----?
A) as much as B) some of C) one of
D) another E) the other A) so that life on earth will have been improved
B) but the costs involved were especially horrific
C) even if it were no longer dangerous
19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada D) as if no harm would have come of it
numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da E) if there is nothing meaningful for them to do there
ifadeyi bulunuz.

The poet Robert Browning was lucky in his parents. 27. No one event, ----, can reorder politics in a
His father, who (19) ---- in a bank, was a man (20) ---- country as populous as the US.
genuine intelligence, who owned a library of six
thousand volumes and seems (21) ---- them all. His A) as if there had never been a cold war
mother, (22) ---- was a devoutly religious woman, B) whichever appears the more dangerous
gave Browning a tenderness and optimism he would C) however shocking it may be
need (23) ---- in life. D) even if the assassination attempt had succeeded
E) since the impact was felt in far-off places
19.
A) having been employed B) has been employed
C) has employed D) was employed 28. There is a museum in the centre of Bristol ----.
E) will be employed
A) as one wants to spend a pleasant morning there
B) that there are over 150 animal species
20. C) as some of the strangest animals and plants on
A) from B) about C) for earth are to be found there
D) in E) of D) so one could learn more about the natural world
E) which is home to a living rainforest

21.
A) reading B) to read C) to have read 29. ---- who built the world’s first business
D) to be reading E) have read computer.

A) Everyone knows
22. B) It wasn’t to be expected
A) which B) who C) whose C) It came as a surprise
D) that E) whom D) The question was unreasonable
E) We took it for granted

23.
A) never B) hardly C) scarcely
D) frequently E) fairly

14
30. Since he ignores certain fundamental facts 35. ---- before he became a film-maker.
about the past century, ----.
A) The director of the Titanic now plans to make a
A) there will be many different kinds of authoritarian film of the sinking of the Bismarck
leaders B) He is best known as the director of the film
B) the conclusions had been unreliable Titanic
C) good and evil alike have to be judged C) The director of the film Titanic was a scuba diver
D) he presents a distorted picture of reality and wreck diver
E) someone should, nevertheless, still be blamed for D) The film’s director has always been fascinated by
the unjustifiable deaths wrecks
E) He is interested in why the Titanic sank

31. Although conventional IQ tests are good


predictors of college grades, ----. 36. – 38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye
anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz.
A) there are actually very few really exceptional
individuals 36. Charles Dickens is one of the few novelists
B) they are still the best single predictor of overall whose works did not become unpopular after his
success death.
C) they are less valid for predicting later job success
D) some weaker students have become charismatic A) Charles Dickens, ölümünden sonra eserleri
leaders popülerliğini kaybetmeyen birkaç romancıdan
E) brain damage does not necessarily impair certain biridir.
types of intelligence B) Charles Dickens, ölümünden sonra da
popülerliğini koruyan eserler vermiş bir
romancıdır.
32. Because unemployment is rising and wages C) Ünlü bir romancı olan Charles Dickens’in eserleri,
are falling, ----. ölümünden sonra bile popülerliğini
kaybetmemiştir.
A) the government would soon be out-of-favour D) Ölümünden sonra eserleri popülerliğini hep
B) Americans are naturally worried about the state koruyan birkaç romancıdan biri de Charles
of the economy Dickens’tır.
C) the state of panic was regarded as unfounded E) Eserleri, ölümünden sonra bile popülerliğini hiç
D) no one could lose on the stock market kaybetmeyen az sayıdaki romancıdan biri de
E) it would have been a good time to change your Charles Dickens’tır.
car

37. Gorbachev came to power in 1985 in the


33. ---- that it produces national cohesion in the former Soviet Union partly because he was
target countries. promising to make sweeping changes.
A) The single most important effect of terrorism is A) 1985’te eski Sovyetler Birliği’nde köklü
B) The bombing of resorts is a recent development değişiklikler yapmaya söz vermiş olan Gorbachev
C) In a globalized world small groups of people can iktidara getirilmiştir.
cause big trouble B) Eski Sovyetler Birliği’nde 1985’te Gorbachev’in
D) Terrorists are at an inherent disadvantage iktidara gelmesinin nedeni, beklenen köklü
E) Suicide-bomb attacks against ordinary citizens değişikliklerin bir kısmını yapmaya söz vermiş
followed olmasıdır.
C) Gorbachev çok kapsamlı değişiklikler yapmaya
söz verdiği için, Sovyetler Birliği’nde 1985’te
34. Whatever Luhrmann’s New York critics may iktidara getirilmiştir.
think of his new production of La Bohème, ----. D) Gorbachev, kısmen, geniş kapsamlı değişiklikler
yapmaya söz verdiği için, eski Sovyetler
A) people had waited in long queues for last-minute Birliği’nde 1985’te iktidara gelmiştir.
cancellations E) Gorbachev, eski Sovyetler Birliği’nde önemli
B) they claimed to have pursued creative freedom değişiklikler yapmaya söz vererek 1985’te iktidarı
C) the beautiful side of life will have been expressed ele geçirmiştir.
with beautiful music
D) he has certainly breathed new life into this opera
E) opera used to be characterized by unnatural,
alienating conventions

15
38. Many social psychologists have turned their 41. Romantik akımın öncülerinden biri olan Jean-
attention to promoting health practices such as Jacques Rousseau, duyguyu akıldan daha yüksek
avoiding the abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other bir düzeye koymuştur.
substances.
A) Jean-Jacques Rousseau, one of the leaders of
A) Günümüz sosyal psikologları aşırı alkol, tütün ve the Romantic Movement, regarded emotion as
diğer maddelerden kaçınma gibi sağlık more important than reason.
uygulamalarını ilerletmeye çabalıyor. B) Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who was one of the
B) Birçok sosyal psikolog ilgisini aşırı alkol, tütün ve forerunners of the Romantic Movement, put
diğer maddelerden kaçınma gibi sağlık emotion at a higher level than reason.
uygulamalarını ilerletmeye yöneltti. C) Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a forerunner of the
C) Günümüzde, sosyal psikologların çoğu alkol, Romantic Movement and so he rated emotion
tütün ve diğer maddelerden kaçınma gibi sağlık higher than reason.
uygulamalarını ilerletmeyle ilgilenmeye D) Another forerunner of the Romantic Movement
başladılar. was Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and he rated
D) Aşırı alkol, tütün ve diğer maddelerden kaçınma emotion higher than reason.
gibi sağlık uygulamalarını ilerletmeyle ilgilenen E) Since he regarded emotion as higher than reason
birçok sosyal psikolog var. Jean-Jacques Rousseau is recognized as a
E) Aşırı alkol, tütün ve diğer maddelerden kaçınma forerunner of the Romantic Movement.
gibi sağlık uygulamalarını ilerletmekle ilgilenen
sosyal psikolog sayısı artıyor.
42. – 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçanın
anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek
39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye cümleyi bulunuz.
anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.
42. There is something vital, even disturbing;
39. Değişik sektörlerden büyük Avrupa ve Kore about the buildings he has designed. His serene
şirketleri Brezilya’nın daha yoksul olan kuzeydoğu spaces are charged with emotion. ----. And for all
bölgesine yatırım yapmaya karar verdi. its subtlety and silence, his architecture is
dynamic in unaccountable ways – hard as granite,
A) The poorer north eastern region of Brazil is fluid as water and airy as sunlight.
attracting the attention of large European and
Korean companies of various sectors. A) Here there is a shift to a grander and more
B) Some of the large European and Korean transparent space
companies from various sectors are eager to B) All detractors can say is that he is too 20th century
invest in the poor north eastern region of Brazil. C) They blanket your mood the way a great abstract
C) Large European and Korean companies from painting does
various sectors have decided to invest in the D) Above the main gallery, the colours are brighter
poorer north eastern region of Brazil. E) You employ stone, wood and concrete, and with
D) The poor north eastern area of Brazil is attracting these materials you build houses and palaces
investors from various large companies in Europe
and Korea.
E) The poor north eastern part of Brazil would 43. New and exciting links are fast being
benefit from investments made by European and developed between the cities of Europe. In
Korean large companies involved in a variety of France, high-speed trains are providing the links.
fields. ----. These breathe life into regional towns which
have now, for the first time, become accessible in
terms of time and money to millions of other
40. Eğer Asya’daki diğer dev ekonomilerle Europeans.
karşılaştırırsak, Çin’in büyüme hızı istisnai
değildir. A) The river-bank highways south of the river Seine
have been converted into a giant beach
A) Even compared with other giant economies in B) As in the Renaissance-era urban boom, one of
Asia, China’s growth rate hasn’t been the driving forces behind this flowering is art
exceptional. C) The new energy is not confined to Europe’s
B) When we compare China’s growth rate with other capitals
giant economies in Asia, it’s obvious that her D) More far-reaching is the extraordinary network of
economic growth isn’t exceptional. low-cost airlines that have suddenly come into
C) Only when it is compared with that of other giant being
Asian economies does China’s economic growth E) These growing links will accelerate the
rate appear exceptional. disappearance of national boundaries
D) China’s economic growth rate remains
exceptional even when we compare it with that of
other powerful Asian economies.
E) China’s economic growth rate isn’t exceptional if
we compare it with other giant economies in Asia.

16
44. “If you want one year of prosperity, grow 47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş
grain. If you want ten years of prosperity, grow bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi
trees. If you want 100 years of prosperity, grow bulunuz.
people.” ----. It sums up how the entry of China’s
massive labour force into the global economy is 47. Mary: - We ought to go and see this exhibition
bringing prosperity to the nation. of rugs from a village in southern Turkey.
Helen: - Yes; the reviews about them are
A) China certainly has a huge, cheap workforce astonishingly positive.
B) Indeed, China has effectively doubled the global Mary: - ----
labour force Helen: - In a way, that’s true. Certainly all the rugs
C) Actually, China’s growth rate is steadily have been made in the same village.
increasing
D) China is having a dramatic effect on the world A) I don’t really think the exhibition will be as good
economy as they say.
E) This is an old Chinese proverb B) It’s the colours that seem to impress most people,
and they all come from natural dyes.
C) One even says it’s as if there is a whole village of
45. Over the past decade almost everyone tuned artists.
into American popular culture has heard the term D) Many of the designs are traditional, but there are
emotional intelligence. ----. It has been the subject quite a lot of new designs.
of several books, including a best-seller, and of E) They should hold more exhibitions of this kind.
seminars for schools and organizations.

A) Since this is a new concept, it has attracted much 48. Barry: - Have you heard about the fish, black
attention bass, which are killing off Japan’s native fish?
B) What is your EQ? Reg: - No; tell me more.
C) Some of the controversy arises from the fact that Barry: - ----
popular and scientific definitions of emotional Reg: - I can believe it. There are many similar
intelligence differ sharply stories.
D) Despite these difficulties research on emotional
intelligence has continued A) During the 1970s, game fishing became popular
E) As early as the 1930s, psychometricians in Japan.
recognized the possibility that people might have B) They are still hoping to restore the ecological
a social intelligence order.
C) No one knows how they got into the moats of the
palace, but they are there now.
46. There are seven euro banknote D) Well, someone imported some in 1925, and they
denominations, which can be recognized easily by flourished and now they are everywhere.
their look and feel. ----. On the other, they feature E) A large majority were in favour of this large-scale
bridges, signifying co-operation between the effort to exterminate the species.
nations of Europe and the rest of the world.

A) It is generally agreed that the euro has proved 49. Madge: - I see ski-resort operators are growing
beneficial to businesses active in combating global warming.
B) The eight euro coins have a common side and a Derek: - And so they should be; shorter winters
national side and less snow will hit them hard.
C) Indeed, on January 1st 2002, twelve national Madge: - ----
currencies made way for just one Derek: - I suppose they didn’t want to give the
D) On one side, the bank notes show windows and impression that the sport is endangered.
gateways, symbolizing a spirit of openness
E) Euro banknotes and coins have had a profound A) Then why have they waited so long before taking
impact outside the participating countries any action?
B) But what can they do about it?
C) It seems they are using wind power to run the
lifts.
D) But they are not the only people to be adversely
affected by global warming!
E) The amount of snow we’ve had this winter
doesn’t suggest any global warming!

17
50. Karen: - The one-child-only ruling for couples 53. (I) Archaeologists have to bear in mind some
in China must have brought family life to an end. points when working with early historical
Jennifer: - ---- chronologies. (II) This system can be confirmed and
Karen: - Just think about it. There are no brothers refined using astronomy. (III) The chronological
and sisters, so there are no aunts and uncles, and system requires careful reconstruction, and any list of
no cousins. rulers or kings needs to be reasonably complete. (IV)
Jennifer: - Yes; you’re right. I hadn’t thought about The list, although it may reliably record the number of
the implications. years in each reign, has still to be linked with our own
calendar if it is not to remain merely a “floating
A) Why not? chronology”. (V) The artefacts, features, or structures
B) I don’t see why. to be dated at a particular site have somehow to be
C) And a good thing too. related to the historical chronology, perhaps by their
D) Was the population really growing very fast? association with an inscription referring to the ruler of
E) They can play with the neighbour’s children. the time.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
51. Fred: - Who translated this poem?
James: - I don’t know. It just appeared on my desk.
Why do you ask? 54. (I) Transport yourself back to the early 1960s
Fred: - ---- before the now-famous television series Star Trek first
James: - Then in that case, forget about it. We appeared. (II) At that time, only visionaries would
certainly won’t publish it. have dared imagine that people of the 23rd century
would be learning about the world on huge flat-panel
A) We include a poem most weeks so a lot of video screens and talking to one another across the
people send them to me. width of the planet using wireless devices. (III) Future
B) Because whoever’s done it has missed the point weapons will dispense entirely with the clumsy darts
of the poem completely. and wires. (IV) Yet today these scenes are
C) It’s not so much a translation as an adaptation. I commonplace. (V) So it is fitting that new high-tech
really like it. devices also have similarities with fictional technology
D) It’s not your translation then? as it was first presented on that famous science-
E) I don’t really know. I was interested, that’s all. fiction series.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
52. – 56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla
okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan
cümleyi bulunuz. 55. (I) America, more than any other country, needs a
properly functioning airline system. (II) So it could be
52. (I) The Romantic Age is a term used to describe in the public interest to use taxpayers’ money to help
life and literature in England in the late eighteenth and make the airlines function properly again. (III) The
early nineteenth centuries. (II) Many of the most government had shut down American airspace for
important English writers of the period turned away four days at enormous cost to the carriers. (IV) But
from the values and ideas characteristic of the Age of such support cannot continue for ever. (V) In fact,
Reason toward what they perceived as a more daring, taxpayers are already beginning to complain.
individual and imaginative approach to both literature
and life. (III) In general, they placed the individual A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
rather than society, at the centre of their vision. (IV)
The Industrial Revolution helped make England
prosperous and powerful, but it involved exploitation 56. (I) Writing, at its best, is a lonely life. (II)
of the workers. (V) They tended to be optimists who Organizations for writers may ease the writer’s
believed in the possibility of progress and loneliness, but rarely help him to improve his writing.
improvement for humanity as well as for individuals. (III) Once a writer sheds his loneliness, he may grow
in public stature, but his work often deteriorates. (IV)
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V The writer should always try for something that has
never been done or that others have tried to do and
failed. (V) This is because he needs to do his work
alone, and if he is a good writer, he must face
eternity, or the lack of it, each day.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

18
57. – 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 60. It is clear from the passage that the US
cevaplayınız. judiciary system ----.

The US Supreme Court is not a radical institution, nor A) reflects the opinions of the president
is it likely to become one as a result of any particular B) is well-protected against any kind of extremism
presidential election. The risks for the judiciary in C) consists of the Supreme Court and the various
presidential elections are a lot lower than many lower courts and all act independently of each
people imagine. This is not because there are no other
significant ideological or methodological differences D) takes its character, not from the Supreme Court,
among judges. Differences do exist, and they display but from the federal courts
party affiliation to some extent. And they matter – not E) faces pressure from many quarters
just on public issues such as abortion rights and racial
discrimination but also in those procedures that
actually guide the way lower courts handle a large
variety of legal cases. That said, the courts have
pretty strong institutional defences against radicalism
of any kind. For one thing, the judiciary’s power is
spread among more than 800 federal judges, no one
of whose views matter all that much in the broad
scheme of things. Even on the Supreme Court the
idiosyncrasies or ideological extremism of any one
judge can have only a limited effect. Without four
likeminded judges, his or her views are just noise.

57. It is pointed out in the passage that though


there are differences of opinion within the
judiciary, ----.

A) they play only a very small role in their


deliberations
B) they are far fewer than they used to be
C) these in no way concern party politics
D) it is almost impossible to avoid radicalism
E) this only becomes apparent at election times

58. According to the passage, the Supreme Court


of the US ----.

A) is feared by the lower courts


B) is a breeding ground for radicalism
C) is cut off from the lower courts of justice
D) avoids, as far as possible, public issues like
abortion
E) can only be slightly affected by a presidential
election

59. According to the passage, all rulings of the


Supreme Court ----.

A) are reconsidered after an election


B) can be influenced by the federal judges
C) must have had the support of at least five judges
D) aim at preventing ideological extremism
E) are, to a very large extent, influenced by party
affiliation

19
61. – 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya gore 64. It is clear from the passage that the writer ----.
cevaplayınız.
A) is urging schools to assign more homework to
American schools need more time if they are to teach students of all grades
efficiently. The school year is fixed at or below 180 B) is doubtful about the benefits of homework for
days in all but a handful of states – down from more lower-grade students
than 190 in the late nineteenth century, when C) believes that the school day should be extended
Saturday-morning sessions were common. The D) is opposed to reducing the school year from 190
instructional day is only about six hours, of which to 180 days
much is taken up with non-academic matters. In 1994, E) is convinced of the need for more electives
a national commission calculated that in four years of including physical education
high school a typical American student puts in less
than half as much time on academic subjects as do
students in Japan, France and Germany. Extending
the school day or the school year can get expensive
and complicated, and reducing non-academic
electives and physical education brings complaints
from parents and students alike. But there is one quite
cheap and uncomplicated way to increase study time:
add more homework. You may not be surprised to
learn that homework raises student achievement, at
least in the higher grades. For young children
homework appears not to be particularly helpful. Even
among older students it is hard to be sure of the
extent to which more homework may lead to higher
achievement.

61. We understand from the passage that school


programmes in America ----.

A) are of little concern to the parents, and so they


tend to ignore them
B) are at present being reviewed by a national
commission
C) do not put much emphasis on academic learning
D) are run on similar lines to those in the rest of the
world
E) have been extensively revised since 1994

62. It is pointed out in the passage that in some


countries, like Japan, France and Germany, ----.

A) the school curricula allow roughly equal time for


academic and non-academic subjects
B) the school year is far too long and this makes it
unproductive
C) students are given less homework than their
American counterparts
D) achievement correlates well with the length of the
school day
E) the amount of time students spend on academic
learning far exceeds that spent by American
students

63. According to the passage, any extension of


the instructional day in American schools ----.

A) is not to be recommended on account of the


expenses involved
B) would arouse much discontent among parents
and students
C) needs to be reviewed by a national commission
D) should aim to bring them up to the level of
Japanese schools
E) would have to have the approval of all the states

20
65. – 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 68. The point is made in the passage that, for
cevaplayınız. Leonardo, ----.

During the Renaissance, especially in the sixteenth A) painting provided a greater capacity for artistic
century, it was customary to debate the pre-eminence creativity
of the arts, particularly as between painting and B) Cellini’s understanding of the arts was a grossly
sculpture. The more commonly accepted opinion is distorted one
represented by Benvenuto Cellini, who thought that C) painting came easily, but sculpture offered many
sculpture is eight times as great as any other art challenges
based on drawing, because a statue has eight views D) the practice of any art requires a great deal of
and they must all be equally good. A painting, he said, invention and imagination
is nothing better than the image of a tree, man, or E) the effects of a statue are far more subtle than
other object. In fact, the difference between painting those of a painting
and sculpture is as great as between a shadow and
the object casting it. Leonardo, on the other hand,
thought that painting is superior to sculpture because
it is more intellectual. By this he meant that as a
technique it is infinitely more subtle in the effects that
it can produce, and infinitely wider in the scope it
offers to invention or imagination. Michelangelo, when
the question was referred to him, in his wise and
direct way said that things which have the same end
are themselves the same, and that therefore there
could be no difference between painting and sculpture
except differences due to better judgment and harder
work.

65. We understand from the passage that


Michelangelo’s view concerning the relative
merits of painting and sculpture ----.

A) does not reflect his own position as an artist


B) can be regarded as a humourous attempt to bring
about a peace between Cellini and Leonardo
C) is a light-hearted attempt to avoid the issue
D) is unbiased and favours neither
E) has no relevance outside the Renaissance period

66. As pointed out in the passage, according to


Cellini ----.

A) the generally held belief on the pre-eminence of


the arts was totally unfounded
B) Leonardo’s skills as a painter did not exceed
those of Michelangelo
C) the Renaissance debate on the pre-eminence of
the arts should not be taken seriously
D) the art of the sculptor is less demanding than that
of the painter
E) a painting is inferior to a work of sculpture
because it has no solidity

67. It is clear from the passage that, during the 16th


century, ----.

A) the art of Leonardo was more highly regarded


than that of Cellini
B) there was much discussion as to the hierarchy of
the arts
C) sculptors and painters liked to cooperate on
major projects
D) most artists were both sculptors and painters
E) Leonardo and Michelangelo were keen rivals but
each admired the work of the other

21
69. – 72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 72. It is clear from the passage that, although a
cevaplayınız. very large number of innovations have been
made, ----.
Governments have learned to value innovation these
days for good reason. Far from being simply some A) only a few innovators have received awards for
missing factor in the growth equation, innovation is their work
now recognized as the single most important B) the majority of them have turned out to be
ingredient in any modern economy. It actually economically unfeasible
accounts for more than half of economic growth in C) they have had no significant impact on the world
America and Britain. In short, it is innovation, more economy
than the application of capital or labour that keeps the D) none of them have received any special
world economy going. As a result, economists have recognition
decided that the innovators of the world are due some E) there has been no noticeable improvement in the
special recognition. It is not possible to recognize all human condition anywhere
the countless innovations that have helped to spread
wealth, health and human happiness around the
world. But a handful of people who have made the
biggest contribution to the wealth-creation process in
their own fields over the past few years, have been
nominated for awards.

69. One point made in the passage is that, due to


innumerable innovations, ----.

A) the world economy has acquired a certain level of


uniformity
B) the American economy has under-performed
C) capital has now returned to the fore in economic
policies
D) the quality of human life on earth has greatly
improved
E) countries like Britain have fewer labour problems
than formerly

70. It is pointed out in the passage that


government economic policies ----.

A) rely more and more on the management of the


labour force
B) now take into account the importance of
innovation
C) regard the wealth-creation process as the main
target
D) in Britain have undergone very little change over
many decades
E) throughout the world are undergoing many
changes

71. It is pointed out in the passage that the


American and British economies ----.

A) have been in the forefront in the creation of


wealth
B) have tended to ignore innovations
C) have grown largely on account of innovation
D) have had an adverse effect upon the world’s
growth equation
E) have always been primarily concerned with the
prosperity of their citizens

22
73. – 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 76. According to the passage, a nonprofessional
cevaplayınız. mother’s working conditions ----.

A nonprofessional-class working mother, who has A) are far from satisfactory, and she enjoys no
been forced unwillingly into the labour market, is benefits
oppressed by various unique forces. She is B) are being reviewed with the aim of improving
oppressed by the fact that her work is oftentimes them
physically exhausting, ill-paid, and devoid of benefits C) are no worse than those of other workers
such as health insurance and paid sick leave. She is D) have only recently become difficult
oppressed by the fact that it is impossible to put a E) have received a great of public attention
small child in reliable day-care if you make only a
minimum wage, and she is oppressed by the terrible
child-care options that are available at an inexpensive
rate. She is oppressed by the fact that she has
nothing to fall back on. If she is out of work, and her
child needs a visit to the doctor and antibiotics, she
may not be able to afford those things and will have to
treat her sick child with unprescribed medications,
which themselves are far from cheap.

73. We understand from the passage that a


working mother, without a career, ----.

A) works so that her child can enjoy good day-care


B) is usually granted several fringe benefits
C) rarely stays in her job for a long period
D) faces a very hard life
E) has a great deal of choice in the kind of work she
does

74. It is clear from the passage that, when a


nonprofessional working mother loses her job
----.

A) she may neglect the child but not herself


B) there are always opportunities available on the
labour market
C) and her child gets ill, she probably cannot get
proper medical help
D) she has to be prepared to accept a lower-paid
one
E) she invariably has a great deal of trouble finding
a new one

75. We understand from the passage that very


many nonprofessional working mothers ----.

A) enjoy health insurance which also covers their


children
B) are, on the whole, satisfied with their jobs
C) feel their children are being suitably cared for
D) are paid far more than the recognized minimum
wage
E) only work because they have to work

23
77. – 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 80. Clearly, the passage is mainly concerned with
cevaplayınız. ----.

Because a play presents its action through actors, its A) the techniques a director makes most use of in
impact is direct, immediate, and heightened by the the staging of a play
actor’s skills. Instead of responding to words on a B) the sense of immediacy and the intensity that a
printed page, the spectator sees what is done and well-staged play offers
hears what is said. The experience of the play is C) the role of imagination in prose fiction and drama
registered directly upon his senses. It may therefore D) the question of how a play can best be performed
be fuller and more compact. Where the work of prose E) the relationship between the actors and the writer
fiction may tell us what a character looks like in one of a play
paragraph, how he moves or speaks in a second,
what he says in a third, and how his auditors respond TEST BĐTTĐ.
in a fourth, the acted play presents this material all at CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.
once. Simultaneous impressions are not separated.
Moreover, this experience is interpreted by actors
who may be highly skilled in rendering nuances of
meaning and strong emotion. Through facial
expression, gesture, speech rhythm, and intonation,
they may be able to make a speaker’s words more
expressive than can the reader’s unaided imagination.
Thus, the performance of a play by skilled actors,
expertly directed, gives the playwright a tremendous
source of power.

77. It is clear from the passage that unlike a


staged play, a work of prose fiction ----.

A) mainly focuses on character and action


B) is very effective in arousing the reader’s emotions
C) allows no possibility of multiple interpretation
D) makes much use of various literary devices
E) makes its impact slowly

78. It is emphasized in the passage that the


effectiveness of a play’s action ----.

A) disappears as soon as the performance is over


B) is maintained only temporarily depending on the
audience
C) is largely created through facial expression and
the playwright’s skill
D) is increased both through skilled performance
and through professional direction
E) can be further strengthened through character
analysis

79. It is pointed out in the passage that the


performance of a play on the stage ----.

A) enables the audience to be more closely involved


B) has the same impact on the audience as that of
the printed text
C) depends much more on the director than on the
actors for its success
D) can best be accomplished through close attention
to the playwright’s instructions
E) should not guide the way the audience feels

24
1. – 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 9. Any drug development effort ----
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. neurodegenerative disorders ---- carefully any
possible side effects.
1. In England, the general public’s ---- of medical
advice from the government stems from the fact A) combating / would have examined
that, in the past, such information has often B) to combat / will have to examine
proved vastly inaccurate. C) to have combated / will examine
D) having combated / had examined
A) approval B) inadequacy C) mistrust E) to be combated / would have to examine
D) distraction E) preference
10. Foot massages ---- those who ---- balance
2. Many researchers now focus on poverty and problems.
poor education as explanations for ---- mortality.
A) may have helped / are having
A) probable B) intense C) preventive B) will help / had
D) occasional E) excess C) could help / have
D) have helped / would have
E) would have helped / may have
3. Heart disease, stroke and lung cancer ----
constitute 35 per cent of all deaths in the US.
11. Until quite recently, no one ---- the deadly
A) together B) readily C) exactly germ that causes anthrax ---- outside a living host.
D) fairly E) well
A) had thought / would have thrived
B) thinks / is thriving
4. Controlled diet studies ---- that saturated fat C) has thought / will thrive
increases cholesterol levels. D) would think / had thrived
E) thought / could thrive
A) prescribed B) confirmed C) disturbed
D) regretted E) deduced
12. Bleeding after oral surgery can usually be
stopped ---- keeping steady pressure ---- the
5. The worst fires firemen have to ---- are those surgical site for the first hour.
that emit stifling smoke and noxious gases.
A) for / to B) in / to C) with / up
A) take over B) put over C) fill out D) by / on E) from / of
D) cope with E) pull through
13. As regards breast changes, our definition ----
6. The correct time to start a baby on solid food “normal” varies ---- age and experience.
---- its needs and readiness.
A) of / with B) for / from C) at / over
A) builds up B) depends on C) cares for D) in / for E) with / by
D) puts forward E) slows down
14. Children’s appetites begin to diminish around
7. Most of the world’s population ---- on natural one year, ---- the slowing of growth.
exposure to sunlight ---- adequate vitamin D
nutrition. A) regardless of “ B) in spite of
C) in case of D) consistent with
A) relies / to maintain E) except for
B) has relied / to have maintained
C) used to rely / would have maintained
D) will rely / having maintained 15. Ten per cent of the population is allergic to
E) is relying / to be maintaining thimerosol, ---- the health of millions of babies and
children worldwide is being compromised.

8. Shanghai ---- curb pollution or its citizens ----


rapidly increasing ill health. A) if B) so C) while
D) unless E) which
A) needs to / have faced
B) had to / had faced
C) has to / will have faced 16. In developing countries, ---- nutritional
D) will have to / would face concerns override the risk of HIV transmission,
E) must / will face breastfeeding may still be desirable.

A) where B) what C) that


D) which E) whether

25
17. ---- repairing nerve damage, glia may also be 25. ---- so that future encounters with the same
critical to learning and to forming memories. pathogen are dealt with swiftly.

A) Contrary to B) As regards C) Just as A) Effective vaccines can be prepared in a number


D) As well as E) In spite of of ways
B) Through immunization the body launches an
immune response, and develops memory cells
18. Women are ---- likely ---- men to discuss C) Most vaccines consist of the entire pathogen or
mental health problems with their general practice of a protein from the pathogen
physician. D) Tetanus and botulism vaccines are made from
toxins secreted by the respective pathogens
A) so / much B) also / as C) more / than E) Most persons contract measles or chickenpox
D) too / for E) as / that only once

19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada 26. ---- until James Watson and Francis Crick
numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da proposed a model for its structure that had
ifadeyi bulunuz. extraordinary explanatory power.

For the purpose of diagnosis, analysis and A) Many genes encode proteins that are not
experimentation, academic physicians tend to focus enzymes
on disease at a particular point in time. But disease B) A great deal was known about the physical and
needs (19) ---- as a process that evolves over time chemical properties of DNA
through the (20) ---- of genetic, environmental and C) DNA was not widely accepted as the genetic
lifestyle factors. This view puts a premium (21) ---- material
understanding the complex history of a patient, and it D) DNA is made of two polynucleotide chains
(22) ---- that most disease cannot be tied to a (23) ---- intertwined to form a double helix
cause. E) The idea that genes and enzymes are related in
some way was first clearly stated in 1908
19.
A) to have been treated B) to have treated
C) to treat D) being treated 27. When a coronary artery becomes narrowed,
E) to be treated ----.

A) one of the main jobs of the circulation is to bring


20. oxygen to all the cells of the body
A) availability B) discovery C) interaction B) ischemic heart disease can develop
D) compatibility E) reliability C) arteries that branch off from the aorta conduct
blood to all regions of the body
D) hormones are involved in regulating blood
21. pressure
A) against B) to C) over E) blood vessels carrying oxygen-rich blood are red
D) towards E) on
28. ---- that the proportion of glia to neurons
22. increases greatly as animals move up the
A) conducts B) rejects C) disputes evolutionary ladder.
D) acknowledges E) denies
A) Comparisons of brains reveal
B) This hypothesis has still to be tested
23. C) Neuroscientists are pursuing the enquiry
A) single B) multiple C) reliable D) The capacity for learning is being investigated
D) subsequent E) persistent E) The problem has not been adequately
researched

24. – 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygunşekilde


29. Although nitrous oxide is still in common use
tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
as a general anesthetic, ----.
24. If born at 24 weeks, ----.
A) the operating room became known as the Ether
Dome
A) the fetus grows rapidly during the final trimester B) nitrous oxide and di-ethyl ether are not the same
B) several hormones are involved in initiating the C) ether has not taken its place
birth process D) its reliability is sometimes questioned
C) the brain would begin to send impulses that E) the term “ether” was often used indiscriminately
regulate the functions of some organs during the 19th century
D) the fetus has only about a 50% chance of
surviving
E) the average full-term baby weighs about 3,000
grams and measures about 52 centimetres

26
30. ----, it picks up glucose, amino acids and other 36. – 38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye
nutrients. anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz.

A) As blood flows through capillaries within the wall 36. A striking feature of pregnancy is that blood
of the intestine pressure and peripheral vascular resistance fall
B) Because oxygen-rich blood is supplied to the liver soon after conception.
by the hepatic artery
C) Since the hepatic portal vein delivers nutrients to A) Döllenme sonrası kan basıncının ve peripheral
the liver vasküler direncin düşmesi, gebeliğin diğer bir
D) In case the thrombus blocks a sizable branch of a çarpıcı özelliğidir.
coronary artery B) Döllenmeyi takiben, kan basıncı ve peripheral
E) While liver sinuses merge to form hepatic veins vasküler direncin düşmesi, gebelikle ilgili önemli
bir özelliktir.
C) Gebeliğin bir diğer önemli özelliği, döllenme
31. The “liquid protein” diet, ----, caused deaths in sonucunda, kan basıncının ve periferal vasküler
many users. direncin düşmesidir.
D) Gebeliğin çarpıcı bir özelliği, kan basıncı ve
A) since people like to take supplements peripheral vasküler direncin, döllenmeden hemen
B) which was advocated some years ago for weight sonar düşmesidir.
loss E) Gebeliğin bir başka çarpıcı belirtisi, döllenme olur
C) as athletes require a well-balanced diet olmaz, kan basıncının ve periferal vasküler
D) that the diet is perfectly adequate direncin düşmeye başlamasıdır.
E) unless there had been regular medical
supervision
37. Most people realize the importance of calcium
for bone health, but they underestimate the
32. Studies have shown that people ---- have a importance of vitamin D, which fosters calcium
lower risk of coronary heart disease. absorption.

A) that had developed diabetes A) Đnsanlar kalsiyumun kemik sağlığı için önemini
B) whose intake of unsaturated fats was high bilmelerine rağmen kalsiyumun emilimini
C) since they exercise regularly kolaylaştıran D vitaminini göz ardı ederler.
D) if there is no history of heart disease in the family B) Pek çok insan kalsiyumun kemik sağlığı
E) who replace red meat with chicken and fish üzerindeki etkisinin farkındadır ama kalsiyumun
emilimini güçlendiren D vitamini genellikle
bilinmez.
33. Certain therapies are effective for certain C) Kalsiyumun kemik sağlığı için önemi bilinir, ancak
disorders ----. kalsiyumun emilimini sağlayan D vitamini
önemsenmez.
A) that individuals receiving therapy actually did D) Đnsanlar kalsiyumun kemik sağlığındaki önemini
improve bilmekle beraber kalsiyumun emilimini D
B) which treatment is effective for which problem vitamininin kolaylaştırdığını bilmezler.
C) since one school of therapy emphasizes insight E) Pek çok insan kemik sağlığı için kalsiyumun
D) but are relatively ineffective for others öneminin farkındadır fakat kalsiyum emilimini
E) as these were the untreated control-group güçlendiren D vitamininin önemini küçümser.
patients

38. Recent studies found no link between the risk


34. It now seems that glial cells, ----, may be nearly of developing brain tumour and the amount of
as important as neurons are in the thinking time one has spent using a mobile phone.
process.
A) Son çalışmalarda bir kişide beyin tümörü
A) which have been overlooked for half a century gelişmesi riskiyle, cep telefonu kullanma süresi
B) if the evidence is quite convincing arasındaki ilişki kanıtlanamadı.
C) that they communicate among themselves B) Beyin tümörü gelişmesiyle ilgili son çalışmalarda
D) as research into these cells was abandoned kişilerin cep telefonu kullanması riskli bulunmadı
E) since this affects how the brain performs C) Son çalışmalar beyin tümörü gelişmesi riskiyle,
kişinin cep telefonu kullanarak geçirdiği zaman
arasında bir ilişki bulmadı.
35. The disease is rarely fatal, ----. D) Son araştırmalar cep telefonu kullanılarak
geçirilen zamanın beyin tümörü gelişimine katkısı
A) if it had been promptly diagnosed olmadığı sonucunu buldu.
B) though it may result in paralysis E) Kişinin beyin tümörü geliştirme riskiyle cep
C) unless there was a history of allergies telefonu kullanarak geçirdiği zaman arasındaki
D) since the patient responded well to the treatment ilişki, son araştırma sonuçlarına göre oldukça
E) until proper medical care could be given zayıftır.

27
39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye 42. – 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçanın
anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz. anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek
cümleyi bulunuz.
39. Her ne kadar hücreler çok farklı gibi görünse
de temel özellikleri dikkate değer şekilde 42. Opioid analgesics are very effective in
benzerdir. controlling pain but have many side effects. ----. In
addition, before a long-term use of opioid
A) Cells seem to be extremely diverse, but they all analgesics can be stopped, the dose must be
have similar features. gradually reduced to minimize the development of
B) Although cells may appear to be very diverse, the withdrawal symptoms.
fundamental features are remarkably similar.
C) Even though cells display a great deal of variety, A) Moreover, people with severe pain shouldn’t
fundamentally, they have certain similarities. avoid opioids
D) Cells appear to have much diversity even if B) With time a person using them may need higher
fundamentally they are the same. doses
E) Despite their great variety, cells do have C) AIDS can cause pain as severe and unrelenting
fundamentally similar features. as that of cancer
D) The sustained-release form provides relief for 8
to 12 hours
40. Enzim bozukluklarını içeren yüzlerce insan E) Several types of analgesics can help alleviate
hastalığına gen değişimlerinin neden olduğu pain
anlaşılmıştır.

A) Hundreds of human diseases involving enzyme 43. An organism must divide its energy between
defects have been found to be caused by genetic maintenance, repair and reproduction. ----. As a
mutations. result, organisms face a tough problem: What is
B) It has been established that genetic mutations the best allocation of finite metabolic energy to
have caused hundreds of human diseases maximize reproduction and repair?
including enzyme defects.
C) Genetic mutations have been found to be the A) Actually, some organisms do have unlimited
cause of hundreds of human diseases as well as energy
enzyme defects. B) No creatures are capable of living indefinitely
D) Hundred of human diseases have been found to C) The reproductive life of an organism may be even
result from genetic mutations and enzyme shorter
defects. D) As an organism ages, the problems become less
E) As it is known, hundreds of human diseases have acute
been caused by genetic mutations involving E) Even a well-fed organism has to cope with
enzyme defects. energy limitations

41. Kan basıncı ölçümleri gebelik boyunca normal 44. Breast tumours are usually composed of more
tutulması koşuluyla, yüksek tansiyonlu kadınlar, than one type of cancer. ----. Although scientists
artmış pre-eklampsi riski taşımazlar. know about this phenomenon, it has been difficult
to quantify because pathologists use differing
A) A proper control of blood pressure during diagnostic criteria.
pregnancy enables women with hypertension to
resist any increased risk of pre-eclampsia. A) The latter is much easier to diagnose
B) So long as blood pressure is kept within normal B) In some centres a single pathologist reviews all
limits during pregnancy, women suffering from patient samples
hypertension are immune from the high risk of C) It is hoped that this will enhance patient care
pre-eclampsia. D) This is a problem when the cancers do not all
C) Women, who have hypertension, can overcome respond to the same treatment
the increased risk of pre-eclampsia so long as E) As a result, the stage of the cancer also needs to
their blood pressure measurements remain be considered
stable.
D) Women whose blood pressure is properly
controlled during pregnancy, do not suffer from
hypertension and have no risk of pre-eclampsia.
E) Provided blood pressure measurements are
within normal limits throughout pregnancy,
women with hypertension do not have the
increased risk of pre-eclampsia.

28
45. A patient with Korsakoff’s syndrome reports 48. Alison: - Is it really necessary to give infants so
that he spent the weekend at the beach, when in many vaccines during their first year?
fact he was in the hospital. ----. However, he Pat: - ----
neither notices his amnesia nor questions his own Alison: - Why is that?
story; concerning his own past he doesn’t know Pat: - Because once a child is a year old, many
that he doesn’t know. parents feel that regular visits to a doctor are no
longer necessary.
A) His memory is impaired but he has replaced his
lost history with a story A) I suppose it depends on where you live.
B) Such sincere claims cannot be argued away B) No. But while they are small, they do not object.
C) There is no point in trying to contradict such an C) I think it’s vital. But a lot of pediatricians would
assertion disagree.
D) Similarly, a patient with Anton’s syndrome will D) Let’s hope they don’t introduce any more!
deny his own blindness E) It’s not essential. But it is usually advisable.
E) Actually, the syndrome is a very rare one

49. Amy: - Pat has always wanted to be a nurse


46. Although social and medical interventions and I’m sure she’ll make an excellent one.
have helped people live longer, none of the Lucy: - I’m sure she will. But it’s not an easy
techniques have affected the aging process. ----. profession.
But, there is a change: there are far more 65-year- Amy: - ----
olds today than there used to be because the past Lucy: - Yes; there’s no doubt about that.
century’s efforts reduced early mortality.
A) She says she’d prefer to work in a children’s
A) Fewer young people now die of infectious hospital.
diseases as sanitary conditions have improved B) What does her father think about it?
greatly C) At her age I wanted to be a nurse, didn’t you?
B) This is because people are living longer D) Of course it’s not. But it offers a great deal of job
C) A healthy 65-year-old in 1900 would be physically satisfaction.
indistinguishable from his or her counterpart in E) Even so, I’m sure I’d find the hours quite
2000 unbearable!
D) Improved working conditions have also
contributed, to a noticeable extent, to an
increased life expectancy 50. Paul: - Do you think Clive will agree to have
E) Attention to diet also plays an important role this operation?
Edith: - He already has agreed. We’re both
convinced it is the best course to take.
47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş Paul: - ----
bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi Edith: - Reasonably good. After all he is basically a
bulunuz. very healthy person.

47. Amy: - I suppose Parkinson’s is on the A) Has the surgeon discussed the risks with him?
increase because people are living so much B) What are the chances of its being successful?
longer. C) Does he realize how risky it is?
David: - It’s not as simple as that. Fifty per cent of D) Have you thought about this seriously?
patients acquire it before they are sixty. E) What about getting a second opinion?
Amy: - ----
David: - No, it’s not. Environmental factors seem
to play quite an important role. 51. Mary: - Did you say your daughter was doing
the interior design for a hospital?
A) Do they really? So it’s not simply a condition of Brenda: - Yes, that’s right. They now give a great
old age. deal of importance to the colour schemes and the
B) I didn’t know that. Is there any cure? general use of space in a hospital.
C) Are you sure the condition is reversible? Mary: - ----
D) Among younger patients, is surgical intervention Brenda: - I don’t think it is. The morale of the
recommended? patients has an important role to play in their
E) Let’s hope they’ll soon find new ways of treating recovery.
the condition.
A) Isn’t that rather a waste of public money?
B) Still, most people want to get away as soon as
possible.
C) Yes; I remember reading something to that effect.
D) I’ll be glad when they give up all those white walls,
won’t you?
E) I’ve noticed an improvement in the children’s
wards.

29
52. – 56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla
okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan
cümleyi bulunuz.

52. (I) The statistics are staggering. (II) Since 1981,


an estimated 28 million people have died of AIDS (III)
Today, 42 million men, women and children are
believed to be living with HIV. (IV) What is even more
disturbing, 5 million new infections are occurring each
year. (V) Indeed, vaccines have helped to eradicate
some of the worst diseases of the 20th century.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

53. (I) Dependence on sleep aids and anti-anxiety


drugs decreases alertness and results in slurred
speech, poor coordination, confusion and slowed
breathing. (II) These drugs may make a person
alternately depressed and anxious. (III) Prescription
drugs that can cause dependency are subject to
restrictions (IV) Some people experience memory
loss, faulty judgment, and sudden shifts in their
emotions. (V) Furthermore, older people may even
appear demented.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

54. (I) For a small child it is not obvious which shoe


goes on which foot. (II) The problem of fitting
molecules into biological systems presents a similar
dilemma. (III) In life, and especially in developing
pharmaceuticals, shape matters. (IV) Making pure
left-handed or right-handed drugs is therefore hard.
(V) Using the wrong-shaped molecule to treat a
disease is about as effective as using the wrong key
to get into your house.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

55. (I) Stress can affect our health by leading us to


engage in types of behaviours that undermine the
body’s ability to fight off disease. (II) When we are
feeling stressed, we often do not take proper care of
ourselves. (III) Thus, stressful situations may affect
immune system functioning. (IV) Students, for
instance, who are taking exams, may stay up all night
for several nights in a row. (V) Furthermore, they may
skip meals and snack on junk food.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

56. (I) In any school, in any week of the year a


dyslexic child experiences a huge amount of failure.
(II) Without self-confidence no real progress is
possible. (III) With sequencing difficulties, any form of
writing or maths is going to present severe problems.
(IV) The dyslexic child cannot fail to notice that almost
all the other children can do the work fairly easily. (V)
He therefore concludes that he must be stupid and his
confidence goes.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

30
57. – 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 60. This passage is essentially concerned with ----.
cevaplayınız.
A) various causes of aging
Aging involves multiple harmful biological events that B) the damaging effects induced by aging
accumulate in different tissues over time and C) the significance of biomarkers in measuring the
gradually reduce an organism’s state of maintenance process of aging
and function. Calendar time, however, serves as an D) the role a person’s genes have in the process of
imperfect measurement of the physiological aging
processes involved in aging. We all know individuals E) the need to carry out more research into aging
who are the same chronological age but appear to be
very different when it comes to physiological age.
Rather than counting years — or gray hairs, for that
matter — modern gerontologists turn to biological
markers, or biomarkers, of aging. These physiological
parameters indicate an individual’s functional level
and some biomarkers, such as insulin levels, correlate
with mortality. The presence of such biomarkers
depends indirectly on patterns of gene expression,
which are induced by a variety of internal or external
stimuli.

57. It is pointed out in the passage that the


process of aging ----.

A) can best be determined through biological


markers
B) has a pattern which varies very little among
individuals
C) cannot be clearly understood without taking into
account the graying of a person’s hair
D) is best indicated by the amount of years a person
has lived
E) has an adverse effect on very few functions of an
individual’s body

58. We understand from the passage that


biomarkers ----.

A) do not always produce reliable results in


measuring a person’s biological age
B) are closely related to insulin levels
C) and calendar time must be taken into account in
finding out about a person’s health
D) are of primary importance for gerontologists in
learning about a person’s physical condition
E) can undermine an organism’s state of
maintenance and function

59. It is clear from the passage that as one ages


----.
A) one’s genetic defects become more obvious
B) the body’s ability to maintain itself starts to
deteriorate
C) the physiological processes accurately reflect
chronological time
D) there are functional changes in the body but
these are hard to detect
E) one’s insulin level remains stable

31
61. – 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 64. It can be understood from the passage that not
cevaplayınız. every patient with congestive heart failure ----.

Cardiac transplantation, once considered an A) reports to a cardiologist for treatment


experimental procedure, has emerged as the therapy B) agrees to undergo cardiac transplantation
of choice for many appropriately selected patients C) can qualify for cardiac transplantation
with life-threatening irremediable heart disease. D) is admitted to hospital for diagnosis and
Congestive heart failure (CHF), the primary indication treatment
for cardiac transplantation, is the most commonly E) realizes just how serious the condition is
reported reason for hospital admission. A knowledge
of cardiac transplantation medicine is therefore
important for all physicians, as transplantation should
be considered a therapeutic option for many of these
patients. In the past, post-cardiac transplant care was
largely performed by specialized transplant
physicians, primarily cardiologists and cardiovascular
surgeons. As survival after cardiac transplantation
has improved markedly over the last decade, the
population of patients who are long-term survivors
after heart transplantation has grown. Primary care
physicians, as well as cardiologists not based at
cardiac transplant centres, often assist in the care of
these patients, most often in consultation with cardiac
transplant physicians. In addition, a physician may be
called on to assist in the management and evaluation
of a potential cardiac donor.

61. According to the passage, in recent years ----.

A) almost every patient with heart disease has come


to recognize cardiac transplantation as an
indispensable therapeutic option
B) more and more patients with CHF have chosen to
undergo cardiac transplantation
C) the number of cardiac transplant centres in the
world has increased due to advances in cardiac
transplantation
D) there has been a noticeable improvement in the
survival of post-cardiac transplant patients
E) cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons have
been engaged in extensive research for the
improvement of post-cardiac transplant care

62. We learn from the passage that, to start with,


cardiac transplantation ----.

A) was an experimental procedure rather than a


therapy
B) was carried out on every patient with CHF
C) had a very low success-rate indeed
D) could only be practiced at special cardiac
transplant centres
E) was generally regarded with disapproval in the
medical world

63. It is pointed out in the passage that cardiac


transplant physicians ----.

A) are no longer involved in post-cardiac transplant


care
B) are often assisted in post-cardiac transplant care
by primary care physicians
C) are the only ones qualified to select cardiac
donors
D) are still experimenting in developing an improved
method of cardiac transplantation
E) are primarily affiliated with cardiac transplant
centres outside hospitals

32
65. – 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 68. In this passage, emphasis is put on the fact
cevaplayınız. that ----.

When a patient sees a doctor, the patient is seeking A) some patients are harder to please than others
help –- to regain or retain health. The physician’s task B) a physician is very rarely able to tackle all of the
is to work for the patient’s health. The doctor does so “the five D’s” with any degree of success
by treating disease, by relieving discomfort, by C) a patient’s expectations can very rarely be met
assisting the patient with any disability, by preventing D) a patient’s state of mind can detract from his/her
premature death, and by maximizing contentment. recovery
(Some have summarized these activities as tackling E) a physician’s duties to a patient are wide in range
“the five D’s” of health – disease, discomfort,
disability, death, and dissatisfaction). Often there is
success in all these areas. In the best of
circumstances, the doctor is able to prevent disease
and help the patient remain healthy. In other cases,
disease and death defeat us. In some cases none of
the goals are achieved, but even that outcome must
not stop us from trying. By focusing on the health of
the patient, the doctor tests the myriad activities of
clinical medicine against the health outcome of the
patient.

65. According to the passage, as regards “the five


D’s” of health, ----.

A) a doctor should never admit to failure


B) it is, unfortunately, discomfort that is most
frequently overlooked
C) a doctor’s priority must be the accurate diagnosis
of the disease
D) the psychology of the patient is of paramount
importance
E) a doctor is not likely to achieve success in all
areas, all the time

66. It is stressed in the passage that a patient


seeks medical help ----.

A) either to recover from disease or to maintain


health
B) only when he/she is in acute pain
C) only after a condition has become chronic
D) because friends or family have urged him/her to
do so
E) if there seems to be a serious medical problem
calling for clinical tests

67. We understand from the passage that, in


offering medical help to a patient, the physician
----.

A) needs to know something about the patient’s


medical history
B) also seeks professional self-satisfaction
C) does contribute, to a significant extent, to the
patient’s well-being
D) often feels it is advisable to consult a colleague
and get a second opinion
E) has to take into account the psychological needs
of the patient

33
69. – 72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 71. We learn from the passage that, among the
cevaplayınız. different cancers, lung cancer ----.

Cancer describes a class of diseases characterized A) shows a downward trend in the United States
by the uncontrolled growth of aberrant cells. Cancers B) is the one that most needs to be dealt with
kill by the destructive invasion of normal organs immediately
through direct extension and spread to distant sites C) is the one that most readily yields to treatment
via the blood, lymph, or serosal surfaces. The D) has appeared with increasing frequency over the
abnormal clinical behaviour of cancer cells is often years
mirrored by biologic aberrations such as genetic E) affects as many non-smokers as smokers
mutations, chromosomal translocations, expression of
fetal or other discordant ontologic characteristics, and
the inappropriate secretion of hormones or enzymes. 72. We learn from the passage that cancer cells
All cancers invade or metastasize but each specific ----.
type has unique biologic and clinical features that
must be appreciated for proper diagnosis, treatment A) all present the same clinical features
and study. About 1.2 million new cases of invasive B) can be carried by the blood and spread to distant
cancer are diagnosed each year in the United States, organs
and about 500,000 people die annually of the C) are not necessarily invasive
disease. Cancer is the second most deadly disease D) rarely lead to genetic mutations
and is expected to surpass heart disease early in the E) have not been linked to biologic aberrations
twenty-first century to top that vicious list. Over the
past half century, the frequency of most cancers has
been stable, but some dramatic changes have taken
place. Steady declines in stomach and uterine cancer
have occurred, the latter undoubtedly due to routine
cytologic screening for cervical cancer. The cause of
the decline in stomach cancer is unknown. The most
striking change has been the increases in lung cancer
in both men and women, undoubtedly related to
smoking.

69. It is pointed out in the passage that, over the


next few decades, mortality due to cancer ----.

A) will start to decline as new methods of treatment


are introduced
B) will be higher than the mortality caused by heart
disease
C) will start to threaten younger people
D) will be greatly reduced through an increase in
early diagnosis
E) will increase at an alarming rate as very many
more people are starting to smoke

70. As it is pointed out in the passage, cancer ----.

A) has been on a steady increase since the mid-


twentieth century
B) has caused much higher mortality in the United
States than anywhere else in the world
C) is a disease with a great deal of variety, which
requires different treatments and studies
D) is still a disease much deadlier than heart
disease
E) of the stomach is the one that causes the most
problems

34
73. – 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 75. We understand from the passage that
cevaplayınız. biomedical science ----.

Medicine is not a science, but a profession that A) is quite unrelated to patient-care


encompasses medical science learning as well as B) has only come to be appreciated in recent
personal, humanistic, and professional attributes. decades
Nonetheless, the delivery of Western medicine C) is only fully valued by those involved in serious
depends totally on science and the scientific method. research
Since Flexner issued his famous report on the subject D) is of great importance in really all of a physician’s
in 1910, American medical education has striven to activities
develop a strong scientific base as an integral part of E) bears little relation to other areas of science
medical education at every level: premedical, medical,
residency and continuing medical education.
Biomedical science is fundamental to understanding 76. It is clear that the main aim of the passage is
disease, making diagnoses, applying new therapies to ----.
and appreciating the complexities and opportunities of
new technologies. The process of becoming a A) emphasize that a thorough grounding in science
physician and being committed to lifelong learning is the basis of a good medical education
requires that one possess the scientific base not only B) establish the fact that the acquisition of new
to acquire and appreciate new knowledge but to see knowledge is not as important as finding new
new ways for applying it to patient care as well. The ways to apply it
physician must be able to understand reports of C) explain the controversial uses of biomedical
current research in the medical literature in order to science
grasp and evaluate the newest and latest D) encourage physicians to familiarize themselves
approaches, no matter how complicated the field may with the opportunities offered by new
become. technologies
E) introduce scientists to current research in medical
73. We understand from the passage that, for a literature
physician, ----.

A) it is almost impossible to keep up with recent


developments in medicine
B) it is what he learned during residency that most
influences his approach to his patients
C) medical education is not limited to medical school
and residency, but is actually a process of
lifelong learning
D) new developments outside his own field of
specialization can be ignored
E) the scientific base of his medical knowledge is far
more important than any new technologies and
approaches

74. It is clear from the passage that, as a result of


Flexner’s report, ----.

A) the humanistic aspect of the medical profession


has received much more attention
B) residency has come to the fore in American
medical education
C) the whole system of patient care in American
hospitals has been restructured
D) specialization rather than general medical
practice has become widespread in the United
States
E) medical education in the United States has
undergone a process of transformation

35
77. – 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 79. It is pointed out in the passage that, a
cevaplayınız. reduction of lead in paint and petrol, ----.

In the past, lead poisoning was thought to arise from A) was recommended decades ago but never
pica (abnormal ingestion) among children living in old, enforced
broken-down houses with peeling layers of lead- B) will do little to overcome environmental
based paints. In the past two decades, lead contamination
intoxication has occurred with decreasing frequency. C) will bring substantial benefits to house painters
This may in part be related to less use of lead in paint and those repairing old houses, but to no one
and leaded gasoline; several studies relate else
environmental lead contamination to traffic density D) has produced as many negative results as
patterns. In the United States, hundreds of positive
occupations involve potentially significant exposure. It E) may have contributed to the decrease in cases of
is estimated that more than 800,000 American lead poisoning observed in recent years
workers have potentially significant lead exposure.
Lead and other metal workers or miners, storage
battery workers, and pottery makers are particularly 80. We learn from the passage that, despite its
heavily exposed. Workers in auto manufacturing, ship adverse effects, lead ----.
building, paint manufacture and printing industries are
also at substantial risk, as are house painters and A) is not generally regarded as a dangerous
those who repair old houses. In past centuries lead substance
was added to wine to sweeten it, a deception that was B) is not nearly as poisonous as several other
eventually made punishable by death. Recently, metals
adding lead to various herbal and folk medicines has C) still remains one of the most valuable and
resulted in poisoning. Bullets left in the body can versatile of earth’s metals
result in lead poisoning, especially if a joint is D) is still being used in a great many industries
involved, because synovial fluid appears to be a good E) is only potentially dangerous to children, not to
solvent for lead. The interval between the bullet adults
getting embedded in the body and clinical evidence of
lead poisoning has ranged from 2 days to 40 years. TEST BĐTTĐ.
CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.

77. It is stated in the passage that lead exposure


----.

A) has been recognized by many employers as a


deadly threat to their work force
B) has been increasing at an alarming rate in many
industries in the United States
C) is a very serious concern in various occupations
and industries
D) has led to the introduction of various preventive
measures in certain occupations and industries
E) and its consequences have only recently become
a major concern of clinical research

78. According to the passage, there is scientific


evidence to suggest that ----.

A) a bullet induces lead poisoning as soon as it is


lodged in the body
B) heavy traffic causes lead contamination in the
environment
C) most cases of lead poisoning have resulted from
lead-based paints
D) the risk of lead poisoning is equally likely to occur
in all the different metal industries and
occupations
E) the quality of wines can be improved substantially
through the use of lead chemicals

36
1. – 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 9. Individuals who ---- that animals ---- feelings are
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. usually accused of anthropomorphism, or
ascribing human traits to nonhuman beings.
1. Copper is replacing aluminium in the metal
interconnections on some chips to improve ----. A) had claimed / had
B) claimed / will have
A) creativity B) credibility C) sustainability C) are claiming / would have
D) conductivity E) respectability D) claim / have
E) would claim / must have had

2. It is hoped that these ---- projects will lead to a


better understanding of typhoons and improve 10. The reason why the moon doesn’t orbit the
short-term weather forecasting. Sun is because the Earth is also ---- towards the
Sun, and so the two ---- through space together.
A) defensive B) excessive C) comprehensive
D) regrettable E) forceful A) going to pull / will have been moving
B) having been pulled / moved
C) pulling / were moving
3. Wouldn’t it be wonderful if science and D) to pull / move
scientists were taken more ---- in the political E) being pulled / are moving
process?

A) sullenly B) seriously C) satisfactorily 11. The recovery and identification of plant


D) ingeniously E) pretentiously remains from archaeological contexts are merely
the first steps in a wide-ranging series of research
4. The Sun’s gravitational pull on the moon is issues that ---- up paleoethnobotany, also ---- as
more than twice that ---- by the Earth. archaeobotany.

A) attempted B) undertaken C) magnified A) made / knowing


D) replaced E) exerted B) will make / is known
C) make / known
D) has made / having known
5. A mystery virus has ---- more than 90 per cent E) had made / is to be known
of some bird species in India.

A) found out B) broken through 12. Exploration of the Arctic began with the
C) turned up D) wiped out search ---- the Northwest Passage as a short cut
E) put off ---- the Far East.

A) for / to B) in / in C) by / for
6. The report emphasizes that, due to serious D) on / with E) from / of
acidification in the coastal waters, many marine
organisms have ----.
13. Roger Revelle’s calculations about what
A) died out B) taken off C) used up happens to the carbon dioxide released ---- the
D) run down E) ended up burning of fossil fuels were correct ---- showing
that much of it would end up in the sea.

7. The Proctor Prize ---- annually since 1950 to an A) from / with B) by / in C) to / by


outstanding scientist who ---- known for effective D) in / for E) through / about
communication of complex ideas.

A) was being presented / is being 14. Electromagnetic traps for atomic ions work
B) was presented / had been well for experiments using a small number of ions
C) would be presented / will be ---- they are completely impractical for large-scale
D) had been presented / has been systems.
E) has been presented / is
A) so long as B) now that C) although
D) in case E) whether
8. In their quest to build a computer that ----
advantage of the weirdness of quantum
mechanics, physicists ---- a number of disparate 15. The trend of increasing carbon dioxide in the
technologies. atmosphere is documented by the examination of
air bubbles trapped in glacial ice ---- by direct
A) is taking / will be testing measurements of the atmosphere.
B) will take / are testing
C) must take / had tested A) as well as B) unless C) because of
D) took / have had to test D) also E) whereas
E) had taken / have tested

37
16. Being a scientist does not prevent one from 24. – 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde
participating in other fields of human endeavour, tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
---- being an artist does not prevent one from
practising science. 24. Though there were daunting technical
obstacles about the Channel Tunnel to be
A) so far as B) rather than C) so that overcome, ----.
D) as well as E) just as
A) the bridge has never been completed
B) these are not nearly as worrying as the costs
17. The book adheres ---- closely to a standard involved
chemistry curriculum. C) England and France were eventually linked by an
under-sea railway
A) seldom B) such C) as D) an army of engineers is involved in the project
D) fairly E) enough E) doubts concerning its safety were still being
expressed
18. It was not obvious to scientists what the
solution would be to the cosmic radiation 25. As ships use less fuel than any other form of
astronauts are exposed to; ---- was it obvious that transport, ----.
there would be any solution at all.
A) shipping might have increased rapidly in this
A) either B) so C) and period
D) but E) nor B) the main environmental impact was on marine life
C) shipping companies have adopted new strategies
to reduce fuel costs
19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada D) ships take on a ballast of water in one port
numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da E) they are often regarded as environmentally
ifadeyi bulunuz. friendly

We can certainly hear external sounds while we are


dreaming. Otherwise, a dreamer couldn’t be (19) ---- 26. ---- that seemingly obsolete methods can still
by shouting. Around 40 to 50 per cent (20) ---- dreams work well.
also contain sounds, while touch, smell, taste and
pain are present in a (21) ---- smaller percentage of A) The discovery delighted them
dreams. Sounds occurring near a sleeper (22) ---- is B) The procedures are used for fabricating
already dreaming can be incorporated into the dream. electronic devices
However, the sounds (23) ---- will not cause the C) The problem with copper was
sleeper to dream. D) The lesson to be learned from this positive result
is
19. E) An ingenious solution to the problem emerged
A) ensured B) awakened C) heard
D) embarrassed E) calmed
27. If astronauts have nothing meaningful to do,
----.
20.
A) by B) to C) for A) the two programmes should have been kept quite
D) of E) in separate
B) the programme clearly suffered from
mismanagement
21. C) there is no point in sending them into space
A) too B) more C) much D) they exceeded the estimated cost by several
D) very E) most billion dollars
E) newer proposals may cut the price by half

22.
A) who B) what C) where 28. Once the wind had reached the critical
D) when E) how threshold of 94 miles per hour, ----.

A) the anchor-bolt systems have already weakened


23. B) it took only about 30 seconds for the bridge to
A) which B) themselves C) of whom collapse
D) whatever E) itself C) a basic problem is that of corrosion
D) but the order of collapse was related to the
complex and changing wind directions
E) it is possible to protect structures against the
force of an F-1 tornado

38
29. Unless all countries in the developed world 34. The early Arctic explorers could locate
reduce their fossil fuel consumption drastically, themselves by looking at the stars ----.
----.
A) for the purpose of using the most accurate
A) problems relating to global warming are far too compasses available
numerous B) that they worked out the latitude by using
B) this was not enough to improve fuel efficiency sextants
C) the price of petrol rises steadily C) since longitude is difficult to determine
D) there have been major innovations in personal D) as long as they could determine the exact time
transportation vehicles E) despite matching celestial observations to certain
E) the negative consequences of global warming will points in time
increase

35. Much of the scientific literature on amphibian


30. The search for patterns in the history of life declines focuses on decreases in tropical
builds on the work of generations of countries, ----.
palaeontologists ----.
A) unless larger numbers were involved
A) who went out into the field to dig up fossils B) where losses have been more dramatic
B) that the tools and data are now widely available C) when the imbalance will have to be corrected
C) but the mathematics required was not too D) that organisms may suffer in unpredictable ways
daunting E) which were notorious for fluctuating widely
D) so the database would include 36,000 genera of
marine organisms
E) which caused the extinction of the dinosaurs 36. – 38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye
anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz.

31. ----, scientists can trace their common 36. Chemistry, as a field of study based on
ancestral genetic connections. scientific principles, came into being in the latter
part of the eighteenth century.
A) It is only in the past 20 years, however
B) Whatever tools and cognitive skills the emigrants A) Bilimsel ilkelere dayalı bir çalışma alanı olarak
had taken with them kimya, on sekizinci yüzyılın son bölümünde
C) Though she was not the only woman alive at the ortaya çıkmıştır.
time B) Çok öncelerden beri var olan kimya, on sekizinci
D) When many different populations are studied yüzyılın son bölümünde bilimsel ilkelere dayalı bir
through a comparison of genetic markers çalışma alanı olarak gelişmiştir.
E) Since the only clues were the sparsely scattered C) On sekizinci yüzyılın son bölümüne doğru ortaya
bones and artefacts our ancestors left behind çıkan kimya, bilimsel ilkelere dayalı bir çalışma
alanıdır.
D) Bilimsel ilkelere dayalı bir çalışma alanı olan
32. The discovery of planets outside our solar kimya, on sekizinci yüzyılın son bölümünde
system is of great importance, ----. gelişmesini tamamlamıştır.
E) On sekizinci yüzyılın son bölümünde ortaya çıkan
A) as individual dust particles are so small bilimsel ilkelere dayalı çalışma alanlarından biri
B) because the triangle of light stretches along the kimyadır.
Sun’s path in the sky
C) since it is the first tangible clue that we may not 37. Certain species of bees and ants exist as
be alone in the universe colonies made up of several different individuals,
D) if one can communicate with extraterrestrial each adapted for some particular function.
beings
E) whether similar collections of worlds surround A) Arıların ve karıncaların belirli türleri, çeşitli
other stars in the galaxy bireyleri içeren koloniler oluşturur ve her koloninin
farklı bir göreve uyum sağladığı bilinmektedir.
B) Koloniler halinde yaşayan bazı arı ve karınca
33. Many species of fish are poisonous to eat, ----. türleri, belli bir göreve uyum sağlamış birkaç
bireyden oluşur.
A) which have a fatally poisonous toxin called C) Farklılaşmış bireylerin oluşturduğu koloniler
tetrodoxin halinde varlıklarını sürdüren bazı arı ve karınca
B) but the most poisonous of all are some kinds of türleri, belli işlevlere uyum sağlamıştır.
fish in the Red Sea and Indo-Pacific region D) Belirli özel işlevlere uyum sağlamış olan arıların
C) whereas the fish’s ovaries, intestines and skin ve karıncaların bazı türleri, çok değişik
contain the poison bireylerden oluşan koloniler halinde yaşar.
D) even if less than 0.1 g of the poison is enough to E) Arıların ve karıncaların bazı türleri, her biri belli
kill an adult in as little as 20 minutes bir işleve uyum sağlamış birtakım değişik
E) since some people think they are also delicious bireylerden oluşan koloniler halinde varlıklarını
sürdürür.

39
38. Contrary to popular belief, it is not Earth’s 41. En eski çağlardan beri kullanılmalarına rağmen
magnetic field that shields people on the ground alaşımlar, modern teknolojide hâlâ vazgeçilmez
from cosmic rays, but rather the bulk of the bir yere sahiptir ve bilim adamları özel nitelikli
tmosphere. yeni alaşımlar geliştirmeye devam etmektedir.

A) Yeryüzündeki insanları kozmik ışınlardan A) Although alloys have been used since the earliest
atmosferin değil daha çok yerkürenin manyetik times, they still have an indispensable place in
alanının koruduğu, yaygın bir yanlış inançtır. modern technology, and scientists continue to
B) Halkın inandığından farklı olarak, yeryüzündeki develop new alloys with special properties.
insanları yalnız atmosferin kalınlığı değil B) Alloys have been in use ever since the earliest
yerkürenin manyetik alanı da kozmik ışınlardan times and are still essential for modern
korumaktadır. technology, but scientists are hard at work to
C) Yaygın inancın tersine, yerküre kozmik ışınlardan develop new alloys with special properties.
kendi manyetik alanından çok atmosferin kalınlığı C) Although the use of alloys goes back to the
sayesinde korunabilmektedir. earliest times, scientists still continue to develop
D) Yaygın inancın tersine, yeryüzündeki insanları new alloys with special properties, which have an
kozmik ışınlardan koruyan, yerkürenin manyetik indispensable place in modern technology.
alanı değil daha çok atmosferin kalınlığıdır. D) Even though alloys were used in ancient times, it
E) Yeryüzünü çevreleyen kalın atmosferin yanı sıra is in modern technology that they have been
yerin manyetik alanının da insanları kozmik most indispensable and, therefore, scientists
ışınlardan koruduğuna yaygın olarak continue to work for the development of new
inanılmaktadır. alloys with special properties.
E) Alloys have continuously been in use since
ancient times and are still of essential importance
39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye for modern technology despite the fact that
anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz. 39. scientists continue to develop new alloys with
Ateşin keşfinden sonra, insanlar, yüksek special properties.
sıcaklıklara mâruz kalan belirli kayalar ve
minerallerde değişiklikler fark etmeye başladılar.
42. – 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçanın
A) Following the discovery of fire, people noticed anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek
that, under high temperatures, certain changes in cümleyi bulunuz.
rocks and minerals began.
B) After the discovery of fire, people began to notice 42. Engineers are problem solvers. ----. A child
changes in certain rocks and minerals exposed to playing with building blocks who learns how to
high temperatures. construct a taller structure is doing engineering. A
C) When fire was discovered, it was noticed that, secretary who stabilizes a wobbly desk by
because of high temperature, certain changes inserting a piece of cardboard under the short leg
began to take place in rocks and minerals. has engineered a solution to the problem.
D) With the discovery of fire, man became aware of
certain changes which began to take place in A) Certainly, engineers benefit from scientific theory
rocks and minerals due to high temperatures. B) Early in human history, there were no formal
E) After fire was discovered, human beings became schools to teach engineering
aware that, due to high temperatures, certain C) This approach resulted in some remarkable
rocks and minerals began to change. accomplishments
D) In a sense, all humans are engineers
E) Sometimes a solution is required before the
40. Bilgisayarların enerji ihtiyacını azaltmaya theory can catch up to the practice
yönelik stratejilerin bazıları, otomobillerde yakıt
tasarrufunu sağlamak için alınan önlemlere
benzemektedir. 43. Gecko lizards can run up a wall or across a
ceiling with ease because of their remarkable
A) In order to provide fuel efficiency in automobiles, toes. But gecko toes aren’t sticky in the usual
some of the solutions recommended for reducing way, like duct tape or Post-it notes. ----.
the energy needs of computers are being
implemented. A) In spite of this, the ability of geckos to stick to
B) One of the best strategies for reducing the surfaces has attracted scientific scrutiny since the
energy needs of computers has been taken from time of Aristotle
the measures often used to ensure fuel efficiency B) Instead, gecko toes have a combination of
in automobiles. structures that act together as a smarter adhesive
C) Some of the strategies for reducing the energy C) Hence, it is not surprising that scientists are trying
demands of computers are similar to measures to create artificial, geckolike adhesives
taken to ensure the fuel economy of automobiles. D) The theory that gecko toe pads act as suction
D) In order to reduce the energy needs of cups has since been disproven
computers, certain strategies resembling the E) A gecko can stop itself by re-attaching its toes to
measures recommended to provide fuel passing leaves or branches
efficiency in automobiles are being used.
E) The energy needs of computers can easily be
reduced by implementing some of the strategies
recommended for providing fuel efficiency in
automobiles.
40
44. ----. The dimension of length may be described 47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş
by units of metres, feet, inches, and so forth. bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi
Thus, dimension is an abstract idea, whereas unit bulunuz.
is more specific.
47.
A) The metre is currently defined by the distance Michelle: - It says here that the Russian Space
light traverses in a given length of time Agency has developed a new alternative to
B) Any measuring system must establish base units NASA’s space shuttle.
from which all other units are derived Don: - ----
C) For units of measure to be useful, they must be Michelle: - Kliper, and it seems that it has gained a
standardized so that business transactions are lot of interest from the European Space Agency
unambiguous and Japan.
D) The metre was first defined in 1793 by dividing Don: - Well, let’s hope they get enough money to
the “quadrant of meridian” into 10 million parts get it off the ground.
E) The distinction between dimension and unit is
best understood by example A) Well it’s high time somebody did so.
B) Oh? What’s it called? Has it drawn any scientific
attention?
45. If you have ever burned your finger on a metal C) I wonder if it will be reliable.
pot while waiting for the water in it to boil, you D) Is it as complex as the space shuttle?
know that water heats up much more slowly than E) Really? Will it be able to be re-launched like the
metal. In fact, because of hydrogen bonding, shuttle is?
water has a better ability to resist temperature
change than most other substances. ----.
48.
A) Because of this property, Earth’s giant water Andrew: - This book is about the early history of
supply moderates temperatures, keeping them the computer and the Internet.
within limits that permit life Mark: - ----
B) Temperature and heat are related, but different Andrew: - Actually it is. It places them firmly into
C) Another way water moderates temperatures is by the social background of the period.
evaporative cooling
D) At 66% of your body weight, water helps A) Weren’t early computers more or less
moderate your internal temperature typewriters?
E) Water must absorb an unusually large amount of B) Obviously, much research has gone into it.
heat in order to vaporize because its hydrogen C) All I know about early computers is that they were
bonds tend to hold the molecules in place incredibly large.
D) That doesn’t sound very interesting to me!
E) It’s hard to imagine life without either of them,
46. Replication is not the only way to improve isn’t it?
accuracy in scientific experimentation. ----.
Blocking is a method of experimental design that
reduces the effects of chance errors; modelling, 49.
on the other hand, is much less familiar to Pam: - I can’t understand how anyone could ever
practicing scientists. dream of constructing a bridge to join so distant
an island to the mainland.
A) Accordingly, most scientists try to develop new Sarah: - ----
and more reliable methods Pam: - Really? What?
B) Scientific data always contain a mixture of signal Sarah: - One day, roughly 150 children were
and noise; the scientist’s job is to find the signal drowned when the boat taking them to school was
C) Two other strategies, called blocking and wrecked by storms.
modelling, can provide at least one replication’s
worth of accuracy at almost no cost A) It must have cost those who designed it a lot of
D) Replication is one of the finest ideas in the history sleepless nights!
of science, but it faces a severe law of B) The length is one problem; the weight a more
diminishing returns serious one.
E) Scientists prefer an average of two replicates to a C) It makes one wonder if anything is impossible!
single unreplicated observation because the D) It’s an amazing engineering achievement!
former is likely to be more accurate E) They had a very compelling reason for doing so.

41
50. 54. (I) In his article “The Future Doesn’t Need Us”, the
Alan: - From music sets to cell phones they’re scientist Bill Joy describes advances in three fields:
making everything smaller and smaller. But how? genetic engineering, nanotechnology and robotics. (II)
Joe: - It’s partly due to miniaturized electronics, The first has created the possibility of gene therapy
but they’re making the motors smaller, too. that could bring diseases like cancer under control.
Alan: - ---- (III) These technological advances carry a strong
Joe: - No; the physics principles remain the same. potential for improving our quality of life in the not-too-
The key is design and manufacturing ingenuity. distant future. (IV) The second refers to technologies
that manipulate matter on the extremely small scale of
A) Are the new, smaller motors very different from nanometres, allowing the creation of novel plant
earlier ones? species or new viruses. (V) Finally, robotics will
B) Is it true that MP3 players usually have two eventually raise the possibility of intelligent and self-
motors? replicating machines that are barely distinguishable
C) Do they still turn on small ball or cylinder from humans.
bearings?
D) Well, what’s happening to the prices? A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
E) Everything is becoming so small that we shall
soon be unable to find anything!
55. (I) With shipping predicted to increase threefold
within the next 30 years, there are plans for a
51. zeroemissions ferry. (II) It will catch the wind through
Hector: - This article talks about a double-blind computer-controlled sails covered by solar cells to
test for new medication. generate extra electricity. (III) The vessel will have a
Val: - ---- main hull surrounded by four side hulls, cutting drag.
Hector: - Well, it refers to a type of scientific (IV) This will also eliminate the need for ballast water,
testing in which neither the subjects nor the which can have a negative environmental impact. (V)
experimenters know the makeup of the test and Shipping is one of the cheaper ways of transporting
control group during the actual course of the goods across the vast oceans of our planet.
experiments.
Val: - I guess that’s the best way to prevent A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
anyone affecting the outcome of the experiment.

A) I’ve already read it. 56. (I) The narwhale has an eight-foot-long spiraled
B) Did you enjoy reading it? tooth that makes it resemble a unicorn of the sea. (II)
C) What kind of medication? Some thought that the whale used it to break arctic
D) I think all medication should be thoroughly tested ice; others theorized that it served as a weapon in
before doctors prescribe it. male fights. (III) Narwhales typically live for 40 to 50
E) What does that mean? years, and seldom leave their arctic habitat. (IV) The
tooth, in fact, may be a giant sensor for navigating
and hunting. (V) It appears capable of detecting
52. – 56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla changes in water temperature, pressure, and particle
okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan gradients linked with salinity and prey.
cümleyi bulunuz.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
52. (I) With the advent of relativity theory, the physicist
Max Born was the first to develop a relativistic theory
of the rigid electron. (II) The theory brought him into
contact with Albert Einstein, first in 1909 and later
during World War I. (III) He and Einstein were to
remain close friends. (IV) Studies in nuclear physics
have had a pattern of staggering progress. (V) Their
correspondence is one of the treasures of 20thcentury
history.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

53. (I) A compound is a substance containing two or


more elements in a fixed ratio. (II) The smallest unit of
an element having all the characteristics of that
element is an atom. (III) They are much more
common than pure elements in nature. (IV) In fact,
few elements exist in a pure state in nature. (V) Many
compounds consist of only two elements; for nstance,
table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) has an equal
number of parts of the elements sodium and chlorine.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

42
57. – 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 60. When humans and fruit flies are compared
cevaplayınız. genetically, it is seen that ----.

Over billions of years, life has evolved into a A) there are no similarities between them at all
spectacular diversity of forms – more than a million B) there are many differences which still require
species presently exist. For each, the source of its further explanation
uniqueness is the particular combination of proteins C) human disease genes do not affect fruit flies
found within its cells. Yet in the midst of this diversity, when implanted into them
the similarities between living things are profound. For D) fruit flies are much more prone to suffer from
example, although the fruit fly genome encodes about disease
14,000 different proteins, and humans have two to E) several of their proteins display the same pattern
three times that number, many proteins are still of arrangement and function
recognizably similar in sequence and task, reflecting
their common ancestry. In fact, when scientists have
put human disease genes into flies, they often cause
the same symptoms in the insects as they do in
people. Furthermore, addition of a normal human
gene can sometimes compensate for the deletion of
the same gene from the fly.

57. It is understood from the passage that ----.

A) the proteins encoded in the human genome and


that of the fruit fly bear many similarities
B) all human genes cause disease symptoms in flies
C) humans have the same number of proteins in
their genome as fruit flies
D) humans and fruit flies have no similarities in their
genomes
E) humans and fruit flies are the only species with
innumerable proteins in their genomes

58. It is pointed out in the passage that ----.

A) there are no similarities at all between different


species
B) the combinations of proteins in living beings have
yet to be fully identified
C) the cause of the variety between species cannot
be understood
D) the evolution of life on earth has taken a very,
very long period of time
E) the various species do not share a common
origin

59. It is emphasized in the passage that ----.

A) the huge diversity between the species is rarely


due to the process of evolution
B) species on earth show a great deal of diversity,
but, at the same time, remarkable genetic
resemblance
C) the idea that human genes can be implanted into
flies has aroused much controversy among
scientists
D) the symptoms caused by disease genes can
hardly be specified at first glance
E) the variety of proteins in the fruit fly genome still
needs to be thoroughly explored

43
61. – 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 64. One can conclude from the passage that
cevaplayınız. carbon dioxide ----.

Carbon dioxide (CO2), like water and most other pure A) changes into a series of states only when it is
substances, exists in solid, liquid, and gaseous states subjected to unusual levels of pressure
and can undergo changes from one state to another. B) is the most common substance used in the
Solid CO2, however, has an interesting property: at production of dry ice
normal pressures, it passes directly to the gaseous C) requires very high pressure in order to change
state without first melting to the liquid state. This from one state to another
property, together with the fact that this change D) is a substance which, similar to water, can be
occurs at -78°C, makes solid CO2 useful for keeping found in three different states
materials very cold. Because solid CO2 cools other E) must be stored and used at very low
objects and does not leave a liquid residue, it is called temperatures
“dry ice”. As for liquid CO2, it is obtained by putting
carbon dioxide gas under pressure. When liquid CO2
evaporates, it absorbs large quantities of heat, cooling
as low as -57°C. Because of this property, it is often
used as a refrigerant. If the compressed gas from the
evaporating CO2 liquid is allowed to expand through a
valve, the rapidly cooled vapour forms solid carbon
dioxide “snow”. This CO2 snow is compacted into
blocks and is the source of dry ice.

61. It is understood from the passage that liquid


carbon dioxide ----.

A) does not exist at normal pressures, but becomes


available by pressurizing CO2 gas
B) changes into the gaseous state at temperatures
ranging from -57°C to -78°C
C) does not have as many different uses as the
other states of CO2 have
D) is used widely in obtaining solid carbon dioxide
under high pressure
E) never stays stable but soon changes into the
solid state

62. It is clear from the passage that solid carbon


dioxide “snow” ----.

A) is the only form that solid CO2 usually takes under


normal pressures
B) is very effective in refrigeration if it is used in
large quantities
C) has almost the same properties as dry ice
although it leaves liquid residue on objects,
making it a poor regrigerant
D) is formed when the compressed gas obtained
from the evaporation of liquid CO2 expands and,
hence, rapidly cools
E) turns into liquid CO2 when it absorbs heat and,
consequently, melts

63. According to the passage, solid carbon


dioxide ----.

A) differs from liquid carbon dioxide in that it has a


less significant cooling effect
B) changes right away into the gaseous state at
-78°C, without first melting into the liquid form
C) absorbs more heat than the liquid and gaseous
forms
D) is the most common form carbon dioxide takes as
a substance
E) has a wide range of properties that make it
suitable for various uses

44
65. – 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 68. It is clear from the passage that ----.
cevaplayınız.
A) the food stored in seeds can serve to germinate
The primary means of reproduction and dispersal for plants, but not to nourish animals
Earth’s most successful plants is seeds, which B) seeds and seed plants have been intimately
develop from the female gametophyte and its connected with the development of human
associated tissues. Seed plants show the greatest civilization
evolutionary complexity in the plant kingdom and are C) plants coming from seeds are more commonly
the dominant plants in most terrestrial environments. found than those coming from spores
Seeds are reproductively superior to spores for three D) flowering plants are extremely diverse
main reasons. First, a seed contains a multicellular, E) the ovules contained in some seeds are
well-developed young plant with embryonic root, protected while those in others are not
stem, and leaves already formed, whereas a spore is
a single cell. Second, a seed contains a food supply.
After germination, the plant embryo is nourished by
food stored in the seed until it becomes selfsufficient.
Because a spore is a single cell, few food reserves
exist for the plant that develops from a spore. Third, a
seed is protected by a resistant seed coat. Like
spores, seeds can live for extended periods of time at
reduced rates of metabolism, germinating when
conditions become favourable.

65. It can be understood from the passage that


----.

A) seeds cannot be dispersed as easily as spores


B) spores, like seeds, develop from a plant’s female
gametophyte and its associated tissues
C) spores contain an adequate food supply within
their single cell
D) spores are a better method of plant reproduction
than seeds
E) seeds are much more complex in structure than
spores

66. The passage, as a whole, ----.

A) shows the superiority of seeds to spores as a


reproductive method for plants
B) focuses on spores and their advantages as a
reproductive method for plants
C) describes the evolutionary complexity of seeds
D) stresses the similarities between seeds and
spores
E) explains the differences in nourishment between
seeds and spores

67. One similarity between spores and seeds


pointed out in the passage is that ----.

A) both of them are self-sufficient


B) they can both stay alive for a very long time,
waiting for a good time to germinate
C) their plants both thrive in terrestrial environments
D) they are both protected by a hard covering
E) they both have multicellular structures

45
69. – 72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 72. It is clear from the passage that any
cevaplayınız. information physics reveals about our universe
cannot be valid ----.
The most common view among scientists is that
mathematics and physics are quite different. Physics A) as it is impossible for every scientist to agree to it
describes the universe and depends on experiment B) so long as it is not explained mathematically
and observation. The particular laws that govern our C) since it is not always proved logically
universe, such as Newton’s laws of motion, must be D) unless it is confirmed through experiment and
determined empirically and then asserted like axioms observation
that cannot be logically proved, merely verified. E) because the methods used for verification are
Mathematics, on the other hand, is somehow often controversial
independent of the universe. Results and theorems,
such as the properties of the integers and real
numbers, do not depend in any way on the particular
nature of reality in which we find ourselves.
Mathematical truths would be true in any universe.

69. It is suggested in the passage that, unlike


mathematics, physics ----.

A) makes much use of logic in order to reach a


conclusion
B) formulates laws that need not be verified by
experimentation
C) has undergone much development since
Newton’s time
D) is essentially concerned with the world of matter
E) states facts about the universe that are taken for
granted

70. We understand from the passage that, for


most scientists, ----.

A) logical reasoning is as essential as experiment


and observation in any scientific study
B) mathematics and physics are the two fields of
science which have similar scientific concerns
and are, hence, interdependent
C) mathematics, like physics, is also indispensable
for a scientific study of the universe
D) the Newtonian laws have completely altered
man’s perception of the universe
E) physics is essentially empirical, whereas
mathematics is not

71. As pointed out in the passage, the idea that


mathematics and physics differ from each other
----.

A) has often been queried and debated since


Newton
B) is accepted by most scientists
C) has only recently been accepted by the scientific
community
D) is evidence of a prevailing prejudice among
mathematicians and physicists
E) was originally put forward by Newton after he
formulated his laws of motion

46
73. – 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 76. The passage makes it clear that NASA wants
cevaplayınız. to return astronauts to the moon ----.

The entire future of human space exploration rests on A) to protect it from further damage from comet and
a patch of lunar ice. For the past two years NASA has meteorite impacts
focused on designing a new crew vehicle and launch B) for a full exploration of atomic hydrogen in the
system that could return astronauts to the moon by lunar soil
2018. The agency’s ultimate goal is to establish a C) in order to build a permanent base there for
permanent lunar base and use it for a human mission space exploration
to Mars. But the grand plan depends on a risky D) so that they can bring the ice found there back to
prediction that NASA will find water ice in a Earth
permanently shadowed crater basin at one of the E) despite the fact that the lunar surface has frigid
moon’s poles. Plentiful ice deposits would be an asset temperatures
for lunar colonists, who could use the water for life
support or convert it to hydrogen and oxygen rocket
fuel. And two orbiters sent to the moon in the 1990s,
Clementine and Lunar Prospector, found evidence of
ice in perpetually shadowed polar areas where
consistently frigid temperatures would preserve the
water carried to the moon by comet and meteorite
impacts. But some scientists have disputed
Clementine’s radar data, and the anomalous neutron
emissions observed by Lunar Prospector could have
been caused by atomic hydrogen in the lunar soil
instead of ice.

73. It can be understood from the passage that


some scientists ----.

A) think that human space exploration should not


continue
B) want to send two orbiters to the moon, called
Clementine and Lunar Prospector
C) disagree with the evidence that seems to show
the existence of water ice on the moon
D) do not believe that comets and meteorites could
possibly have carried water to the moon
E) maintain that a human mission to Mars could not
be successfully launched from the moon

74. According to the passage, in order for humans


to live permanently on the moon, ----.

A) the frigid polar areas would first need to be


artificially heated
B) NASA needs to first prove the existence of water
ice there
C) NASA must first prepare a human mission to
Mars
D) NASA must remove the plentiful ice deposits at
the poles
E) water must be carried there by the two orbiters,
Clementine and Lunar Prospector

75. It is pointed out in the passage that


Clementine and Lunar Prospector ----.

A) were used to establish a permanent lunar base


B) tried to preserve the water carried to the moon by
comet and meteorite impacts
C) will be used as crew vehicles to transport
astronauts to the moon
D) returned faulty data during their exploration of the
moon’s polar regions
E) have, according to some scientists, discovered
traces of ice in the polar areas of the moon

47
77. – 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 80. It is clear from the passage that the
cevaplayınız. researchers from Duke University ----.

Despite bacteria’s presence in all parts of the planet, A) do not plan to do any more research into
their diversity in the world’s soils is poorly understood. bacterial diversity
To better understand what makes the organisms B) were more interested in the American Southwest
thrive, Duke University researchers trekked far and than in the Amazon basin
wide to collect a few centimetres of dirt as samples C) have largely focused on the types of bacteria
from 98 locations across North and South America, found in acidic soil
then analyzed each sample for genetic variation. To D) have carried out their fieldwork to throw light
their surprise, the strongest predictor of high diversity upon the causes of bacterial diversity
was neutral pH. The acidic soil of the Peruvian E) had difficulty in trekking during their search
Amazon, for example, harboured far fewer bacterial
species than did the neutral dirt of the arid American
Southwest. “There are a lot of variables that didn’t TEST BĐTTĐ.
turn out to be very important,” says the researcher CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.
Robert Jackson, who adds that a more complete
search for different habitats might turn up other
stimulators of diversity, such as carbon abundance.

77. According to the passage, scientists were


surprised that ----.

A) they had to trek to so many different areas to


conduct their research into bacterial species
diversity
B) carbon abundance was revealed to be the most
important predictor of diversity of bacterial
species
C) bacteria is present in all parts of the planet
D) the arid American Southwest is home to many
more species of bacteria than the lush Peruvian
Amazon
E) they would have to perform more complete
research in the future

78. It is understood from the passage that further


research must be carried out ----.

A) because the previous research was not


conducted properly
B) in order to find other indicators of diversity in
bacterial species
C) so that all the bacterial species of North and
South America can be identified
D) to determine exactly the genetic variations of
bacterial species
E) so that scientists can increase the diversity of
bacterial species

79. The passage points out that the best


conditions for diversity of bacteria species ----.

A) so far seem to exist in soil having a neutral pH


B) were found in the Peruvian Amazon region
C) have not yet been discovered
D) have now been fully researched
E) are found in a few centimetres of dirt

48
1. – 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 8. It ---- true that property prices in Ireland and
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. Spain ---- by 208 and 150 per cent, respectively,
since 1997.
1. In the 1990s the Belgian government was
involved in numerous scandals that contaminated A) may be / would increase
it with a reputation for incompetence and ----. B) has been / had increased
C) was / increased
A) participation B) despair C) corruption D) could be / would have increased
D) dislike E) certainty E) is / have increased

2. Queen Mary’s attempts to restore Catholicism 9. In Mozambique, the 1992 peace accord that ----
to England during her reign (1553-1558) resulted 15 years of civil war ---- a blanket amnesty for all
in ---- turmoil and much bloodshed. those who had committed war crimes.

A) internal B) reasonable C) stable A) has ended / had mandated


D) arrogant E) versatile B) had ended / would have mandated
C) ended / mandated
D) ends / will mandate
3. In spite of the widespread effects of Christianity E) could have ended / has mandated
on the Anglo-Saxons, they clung ---- to many of
the superstitions and customs from their pagan
past. 10. Many observers predict that as China ---- to
open itself, state control ----.
A) hardly B) firmly C) rapidly
D) fairly E) urgently A) has continued / had eased
B) continues / will ease
C) continued / could have eased
4. In 1968, Bermuda, which used to be a British D) will continue / has eased
colony, was ---- a new constitution and autonomy E) had continued / may have eased
except for foreign relations, defence and internal
security.
11. Although archaeological exploration of Tibet
A) leased B) exploited C) appropriated ----, evidence of civilization in the region ---- back
D) granted E) abolished to at least 4000 B.C.

A) was limited / will have to date


5. The trouble with golf as a hobby is that it ---- too B) is limited / had dated
much of one’s time. C) had been limited / has dated
D) has been limited / dates
A) turns over B) looks for C) gives up E) will be limited / must have dated
D) puts out E) takes up
12. Economists take pride ---- the sophisticated
6. The Council of Europe, the continent’s oldest statistical techniques ---- which they rely to
political organization, was ---- in 1949 to defend, analyze phenomena such as growth rates,
among other things, human rights and the rule of inflation, unemployment, trade and fiscal
law. practices.

A) set up B) pulled through C) set aside A) at / for B) about / from


D) put up E) made out C) over / by D) out of / through
E) in / on

7. The EU ---- that the establishment of the


International Criminal Court ---- a milestone 13. Much can be learned from a study ---- two
achievement in global human rights protection. Medicare bills that are currently working their way
---- Congress.
A) believed / may have represented
B) had believed / has represented A) in / at B) for / into C) to / over
C) has believed / represented D) of / through E) from / for
D) believes / represents
E) would have believed / had represented
14. ---- demand grows for graduate business
degrees, schools are offering their students more
options regarding the length and content of their
programmes.

A) If B) As C) Unless
D) Once E) Whenever

49
15. For more than a decade, economists have 19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada
maintained ---- the dollar was too expensive and numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da
its devaluation was unavoidable. ifadeyi bulunuz.

A) whereas B) because C) that The European Parliament is comprised of 626


D) since E) as members. It (19) ---- significantly stronger since its
inception. (20) ----, the Parliament was simply an
advisory body, but its responsibilities were widened
16. Designed as a palace and fortress for the (21) ---- the Single European Act and Treaty of the
Moorish monarchs of Granada, the Alhambra is European Union of 1993. Three major responsibilities
surrounded by a heavily fortified wall ---- a mile in of the Parliament are legislative power, control over
perimetre. the budget and supervision of executive (22) ----. The
European Commission (23) ---- community legislation
A) except for B) apart from C) just as to the Parliament. The Parliament must approve the
D) so long as E) more than legislation before submitting it to the Council for
adoption.
17. In Renaissance England, though the European 19.
influence was strong ---- poetry was concerned, A) became B) had become
the native drama continued to develop and gain C) has become D) would become
popularity. E) becomes
A) as well as B) in that C) so that
D) as far as E) in case 20.
A) Further B) Consequently C) Occasionally
D) Initially E) Accordingly
18. The Symbolists explored the subtle changes in
the human psyche and conveyed them through
symbol and metaphor ---- by direct statement. 21.
A) on B) at C) over
A) including B) rather than C) not so much as D) in E) through
D) such as E) as if

22.
A) decisions B) reasons C) obstacles
D) results E) commodities

23.
A) determines B) requires C) presents
D) recognizes E) approves

24. – 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde


tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.

24. As he grew older, ----.

A) he grew less active and less dogmatic


B) he’ll start to interfere less with the affairs of the
company
C) he’s not grown any wiser
D) he now seems determined to assert his authority
E) the more he plays the role of the big
businessman

25. Although Russia’s space technology is


simpler than that of NASA in the US, ----.

A) the Shuttle is grounded for repairs


B) it stil manages to work reliably
C) subsequent flights ran smoothly
D) more than one flight had ended in disaster
E) another one has flown more than 100 missions

50
26. ---- as long as the economy was good and the 31. The European Central Bank can’t raise rates
US remained strong abroad. ----.

A) The American people seem to have ignored A) just as they would have benefited Europe’s
Clinton’s weaknesses in character during his largest economies
presidency B) because the Eurozone’s two largest economies,
B) Clinton became the second president in France and Germany, need lower interest rates
American history to be impeached to spur growth
C) Clinton made history by becoming the first US C) since the European countries were particularly
president to testify in front of a grand jury scared of an approaching crash
D) In the second year of his presidency, Clinton D) while, in Spain, interest rates on mortgages were
faced persistent troubles on the domestic front almost zero
E) Clinton’s overall popularity among Americans E) so long as real estate in Ireland and Spain had
remained high been overvalued by 15 and 13 per cent
respectively

27. ---- that the Celts once dominated the breadth


of Europe from the Black Sea to the Atlantic. 32. ----, Afghanistan is still a country on edge.

A) They will consult little known historians A) As the UN Security Council passed two
B) Some archaeological clues had been discovered resolutions in 1999 and 2000, demanding the
C) The whole question may have sparked an Taliban cease their support for terrorism
academic debate B) Unless President Hamid Karzai had an army of
D) Most of us are unaware of the fact 20,000
E) Most historians will have denied C) Since 50 per cent of voters braved threats of
insurgent attacks to vote in the September
parliamentary elections
28. ---- since the break-up of the Soviet Union. D) Ever since the Taliban seized control of Kabul in
September 1996
A) Millions of Ukrainians have gone abroad in E) Four years after the US and its allies ousted the
search of a living Taliban from power
B) Ukrainian migrants often took on menial jobs
C) Many Ukrainian women had been tempted
overseas by promises of glamorous careers 33. ----, he was well-read in both Latin and Greek,
D) There were Ukrainian immigrants in Western and excelled in swimming and boxing.
Europe working on farms
E) From time to time Ukraine felt threatened A) When Lord Byron entered Cambridge at the age
politically of 17
B) However eager Lord Byron may have been to
fight for the oppressed
29. ---- where you can read a book or meet with C) Since Lord Byron had left England in 1816, never
friends. to return
D) Because, to his contemporaries, Lord Byron
A) Security at the new art museum is provided by seemed more a colourful and scandalous
young artists personality than he was a poet
B) In Paris’ new contemporary art space, the Palais E) As Lord Byron was a fiery rebel, an idealist and a
de Tokyo, there is a salon conventional aristocrat
C) The new contemporary museum is being built for
the French collector François Pinault
D) None of the French contemporary artists enjoys 34. The aid package offered by the G8 may be
international prominence wasted ----.
E) France never paid much attention to its own
contemporary artists, beginning with the A) so the G8 summit in 2005 promised 100 per cent
19thcentury impressionists debt relief to an initial group of 14 countries
B) if the rich world’s governments made expansive
promises about fostering development in Africa
30. The UN insists ----. C) although it had not brought about a significant
transfer of resources
A) even though China’s economic growth must have D) unless there are improvements in the
had a perverse effect on democratization management of public spending in sub-Saharan
B) because China had underinvested in crucial Africa
social services, especially education and public E) but most aid is now conditional on good
health governance and structural reform in sub-
C) that China is under an unconditional obligation to Saharan Africa
prohibit torture and ill-treatment
D) as Korea’s political system is more likely to
experience decay than democracy
E) since civil wars have devastated African
economies, leaving millions dead and millions
more displaced

51
35. Market research worldwide shows that football 38. Undoubtedly, some intelligence services in the
has attracted millions in some countries ----. world know where every single high-ranking
member of the largest terrorist groups is.
A) that there is also a desire for football in China
and Japan A) Dünyadaki en büyük istihbarat örgütleri, bazı
B) where until a few years ago people were not terörist gruplarının üst düzey üyelerinin nerede
interested in it olduğunu kuşkusuz biliyordur.
C) which football is starting to compete with baseball B) Kuşkusuz, bazı istihbarat örgütleri en büyük
in the USA terrorist gruplarının her bir üst düzey üyesinin
D) who will be able to enjoy a fascinating battle in dünyanın neresinde olduğunu bilmek istiyordur.
Europe for the Champions’ League C) Kuşkusuz, en büyük terörist gruplarının üst düzey
E) unless football enters people’s homes through üyelerinin bulunduğu yer dünyadaki bütün
different media, but above all through television istihbarat örgütlerince bilinmektedir.
D) Kuşkusuz, dünyada, bazı terörist gruplarının her
bir üst düzey üyesinin nerede olduğu büyük
36. – 38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye istihbarat örgütlerince bilinmektedir.
anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz. 36. E) Kuşkusuz, dünyadaki bazı istihbarat örgütleri en
Before privatization, Russia’s oil and steel büyük terörist gruplarının her bir üst düzey
companies were thoroughly criminalized, and üyesinin nerede olduğunu bilmektedir.
output fell day by day.

A) Özelleştirme öncesi, Rusya’da yasadışı işlere 39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye
bulaşan petrol ve çelik şirketleri üretimin her gün anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz. 39.
biraz daha düşmesine yol açtı. Önemli olan, siyasi liderlerin uygun gördükleri
B) Özelleştirmeden önce, Rus petrol ve çelik gibi harcama yapmada özgür olup olmadıkları
şirketlerinin tümünde pek çok kanunsuzluk vardı değil, yetkilerine ilişkin sınırların var olup
ve günlük üretimleri giderek düşüyordu. olmadığıdır.
C) Özelleştirmeden önce, Rusya’nın petrol ve çelik
şirketleri tamamen yasadışı işlere giriştiler ve A) The important thing is whether political leaders
üretim günden güne düştü. have freedom to spend as they wish, not whether
D) Rusya’nın petrol ve çelik şirketleri, özelleştirme their powers are limited.
öncesi üretimlerini düşürmüş ve pek çok yasadışı B) Important political leaders are free to spend as
uygulamalarda bulunmuştu. they think fit, but there are limits to their powers.
E) Rus petrol ve çelik şirketlerinde özelleştirmeden C) It is whether political leaders have limited powers,
önce üretim giderek düşüyor ve pek çok not whether they are able to spend money on
kanunsuzluk oluyordu. their own projects, which is important.
D) What is important is not whether political leaders
are free to spend as they see fit, but whether
37. Speaking for 25 nations and bringing together limits exist on their powers.
their considerable voice and influence, the E) Whether political leaders are important or not and
European Union is a leader in global efforts to whether they are free or not to spend as they see
protect human rights. fit, they must be subject to limitations regarding
their powers.
A) Avrupa Birliği, 25 ulus adına konuşmaktadır ve
onların güçlü sesini ve nüfuzunu birleştirerek
insane haklarını korumaya yönelik küresel 40. Çoğu Fransız siyasetçi, Avrupa Birliği
girişimlerin lideri durumuna gelmiştir. Anayasası’nın halk tarafından ezici bir şekilde
B) 25 ulus adına konuşan ve onların güçlü sesini ve reddedileceğini sanmıyordu.
nüfuzunu birleştiren Avrupa Birliği, insan haklarını
koruma amaçlı küresel çabaların bir lideridir. A) The politicians, most of whom were French, were
C) Đnsan haklarını korumaya yönelik küresel not expecting the European Union Constitution to
girişimlerin bir lideri olan Avrupa Birliği, 25 ulus be so overwhelmingly rejected by the people.
adına konuşmaktadır ve onların güçlü sesi ile B) Most French politicians did not think that the
nüfuzunu birleştirmektedir. European Union Constitution would be
D) 25 ulus adına konuşan Avrupa Birliği, onların overwhelmingly rejected by the people.
güçlü sesini ve nüfuzunu birleştirdiği için insane C) The fact that the European Union Constitution
haklarını korumaya yönelik küresel çabalarda was overwhelmingly rejected by the people
lider rolü oynayabilmektedir. surprised most French politicians.
E) Avrupa Birliği, 25 ulus adına konuşma yetkisiyle D) Some French politicians supposed that the
onların güçlü sesini ve nüfuzunu birleştirerek, European Union Constitution would be
insane haklarını korumayı amaçlayan küresel overwhelmingly rejected by the people.
çabalarda bir lider olmuştur. E) The firm rejection of the European Union
Constitution by French politicians came as a
surprise to the people.

52
41. Ukrayna, anayasaya dayalı demokrasi kurma 44. A few years ago the price of a set of
yönünde sağladığı ilerlemeye karşılık olarak, Encyclopaedia Britannica was $1,600. ----. Why did
1995’te Avrupa Konseyi’ne kabul edildi. the price drop to such a great extent?

A) Ukraine, having made considerable progress A) An encyclopaedia is an information good, and its
towards establishing a constitutionally-based production involves collecting information and
democracy, was accepted into the Council of packaging it for use by consumers
Europe in 1995. B) Now you can get a CD version of the
B) Because it had made tremendous progress on its encyclopaedia, along with a dictionary, thesaurus
path to a constitutionally-based democracy, and world atlas, for as little as $80
Ukraine was accepted into the Council of Europe C) The cost of compiling the information for the first
in 1995. copy of an encyclopaedia is huge
C) Ukraine made tremendous progress towards D) The move from book-form encyclopaedias to
establishing a constitutionally-based democracy digital ones decreased the cost of production
after being accepted into the Council of Europe in E) The cost of reproducing the encyclopaedia in
1995. digital format is small
D) Before its acceptance into the Council of Europe
in 1995, Ukraine had already made recognizable
progress towards establishing a 45. Many emergencies begin ambiguously, and it
constitutionallybased democracy. is difficult to understand the difference between,
E) Ukraine was accepted into the Council of Europe for example, a man who is drunk and one who is
in 1995, in recognition of the progress the country ill. ----. What you are likely to see, of course, are
had made towards establishing a constitutionally- other people who, for the same reasons, are also
based democracy. acting as if nothing is wrong.

A) One common way to deal with such dilemmas is


42. – 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçanın to postpone action, to act as if nothing is wrong,
anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek and to look around to see how others are
cümleyi bulunuz. reacting
B) We have all heard about crowds panicking
42. At any point in time, some regions of a country because each person leads everybody else to
may experience difficulties while others prosper. overreact
For example, high oil prices will simultaneously C) It was also difficult to tell whether a woman was
benefit oil producers in Texas, but hurt being threatened by a stranger or arguing with
businesses and consumers in northern states like her husband
Vermont that rely heavily on natural gas for D) Despite this fact, we cannot tell at first glance
heating. ----. whether what we see is smoke from a fire or just
steam pouring out of the window
A) Likewise, recessions can affect different parts of E) We would have been embarrassed if we had
the country in different ways reacted as if the situation were an emergency
B) When unemployment is low, firms compete for when it actually was not
workers and wages rise sharply
C) Low employment and high employment have
somewhat different effects on wages 46. Psychologists argue over whether language
D) As a consequence, the greater the differences in influences how people think, but it could affect
unemployment across regions, the higher the half of what they see. The view from the right eye
natural rate of unemployment will be in the is processed in the brain’s left hemisphere, which
country as a whole also seems to handle language. Researchers have
E) What this means is that even if the total found that native English speakers, who have
unemployment rate in the country is fairly normal, separate words for blue and green, are faster at
inflation can still occur distinguishing between these colours when they
appear within their right visual field, in contrast to
people whose language uses the same word to
43. It is straightforward, in principle, to determine indicate either colour. ----.
who is employed: ----. What is more difficult is to
distinguish between those who are unemployed A) Scientists planned to continue the research on
and those who are not in the labour force. these same lines using different colours
B) Most of the world’s languages use a single word
A) These two groups have very different to mean both blue and green
characteristics C) Investigators tested how well the right and left
B) The unemployed are those individuals who do fields of view distinguish between the colours
not currently have a job, but who are actively known in English as blue and green
looking for work D) This leads scientists to question the reason why,
C) The unemployed and employed comprise the in some languages, there is no differentiation
labour force between the two colours
D) Just count the people who are working E) This suggests that for English speakers,
E) That person is classified as not being in the language influences the visual discrimination
labour force between the colours blue and green

53
47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş 50.
bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi Robert: - Have you seen the French documentary
bulunuz. film March of the Penguins?
Cherie: - ----
47. Robert: - Yes, and I’ve read an article that says that
Publisher: - Academics like to write about it was also really difficult to film because of the
Shakespeare’s plays, you know. rough terrain and the harsh climate.
Bookseller: - ---- Cherie: - Shall we go see it this evening?
Publisher: - What is the public interested in reading
then? A) No, I haven’t.
Bookseller: - Biographies. They want to learn about B) Yes, I have.
his life. C) Not yet, but I’ve heard it’s really fascinating.
D) How much does it cost these days to see a film?
A) That makes sense. Tell me more. E) I don’t think it’s playing in cinemas any longer.
B) I’m sure they do. It earns them a lot of money.
C) Why is that? They don’t sell well, do they?
D) I know they do. But that’s not what the public 51.
wants. John: - It says here that there are some really good
E) Do you publish many of them? plays and musicals on Broadway this season.
Daniel: - ----
John: - Well, instead of mostly revivals of old plays
48. and Andrew Lloyd Webber musicals, they’ve got
Ron: - Why don’t we take a trip this summer? some really great new dramas and musical
Susan: - Oh yes, I’d very much like to visit my comedies.
friend Colleen in Chicago. Daniel: - Let me have a look at that article – maybe
Ron: - ---- we’ll find some that we want to see.
Susan: - So there’ll be plenty for you to do while
Colleen and I are chatting and catching up on old A) Oh? What’s the difference between this season
times. and last season?
B) How long have you been so interested in
A) Have you really? Why didn’t you say so sooner? Broadway theatre, anyway?
B) And I know that the city has become a great C) Too bad we don’t live near New York City.
place for cultural activities. D) Let’s call our friends and see if they want to go
C) Oh, no. Not Colleen! and see something.
D) But there’s nothing to do or see in Chicago! E) I like films better than theatre.
E) Let’s call and book a flight right away! And what
about dates? Shall we say mid-July onwards?
52. – 56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla
okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan
49. cümleyi bulunuz.
Mary: - Have you heard the news that Colombia’s
cocaine production has been reduced by onethird 52. (I) The face of education is changing rapidly as a
to one-half? direct result of innovative computer technology. (II)
Roy: - No. How did they manage to do that? Gone are the days of studying repetitive grammar
Mary: - The Colombian government used airplanes exercises from an old copy of A First Aid In English,
to spray weed-killer on areas they suspected were while chalk dust floats in the air. (III) Teachers are
being used to grow coca plants. becoming weary of teaching the same subjects in the
Roy: - ---- same way year after year. (IV) The students of today
are more likely to find themselves in front of a
A) Wow, that should reduce the amount of cocaine computer screen than a black board. (V) As the tools
available on the market, and raise the price as of education change, so does the nature of learning
well. and acquisition of knowledge.
B) Who is the president of Colombia?
C) Would you like to visit Colombia? A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
D) Did you know that Colombia has a large wildlife
refuge that has many species of animals and
plants not found anywhere else on earth? 53. (I) Because a play is written to be performed, it
E) They are still having trouble with guerrilla forces uses certain conventions you do not encounter in
and land mines in Colombia, according to this short stories. (II) It contains stage directions that tell
article. the actors how to speak and how to move upon the
stage. (III) Most of the story is presented through
dialogue, the words the characters speak. (IV) When
you read a play do you try to imagine how it would
appear on stage? (V) In addition, it is divided into
short units of action called “scenes” and larger ones
called “acts”.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

54
54. (I) Labour unions arose in the late 1800s and
early 1900s largely in response to the awful working
conditions in factories. (II) Unions try to increase the
wages of their members in three ways. (III) In garment
factories, iron plants and textile mills, labourers
worked about 14 hours per day, seven days a week.
(IV) The long workweek was not new to those who
had worked on farms, but the working conditions
were. (V) Men, women and children as young as 5
operated clattering machinery so dangerous that
many workers lost their sight, hearing and limbs.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

55. (I) After World War II, rock music quickly


captivated audiences, especially young audiences,
around the world. (II) It articulated an entire
generation’s frustrations with the traditions and values
of the society of that day. (III) It even influenced hair
styles, dress, language and political and social
behaviour. (IV) Rock is believed to have got its name
from the fifties blues song “There is Good Rocking
Tonight”. (V) Further, it created international heroes
like the Beatles, inspired numerous films and
mushroomed into a multibillion-dollar industry.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

56. (I) In November 1859, British biologist Charles R.


Darwin published one of the most important and
controversial books ever written. (II) Entitled On the
Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection,
Darwin’s book was an immediate bestseller. (III)
Darwin’s second point was to propose a mechanism
for evolution. (IV) This book soon made his name
almost synonymous with the concept of evolution. (V)
For this reason, Darwin stands out in history with
people like Newton and Einstein, scientists who
synthesized ideas with great explanatory power.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

55
57. – 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 60. According to the passage, the reason that 5-
cevaplayınız. yearolds say that there are more checkers in a
straight row than in a cluster with the same
The young child’s reliance on visual impressions is number is that they ----.
made clear by an experiment on the conservation of
number. If two rows of checkers are matched one for A) are trying to confuse the experimenter
one against each other, young children will say, B) become confused when the experimenter moves
correctly, that the rows have the same number of the checkers
checkers. If the checkers in one row are brought C) have a counting ability on the same level with
closer together to form a cluster, 5-year-olds say there that of older children
are now more checkers in the straight row – even D) depend on the outward appearance of things to
though no checkers have been removed. The visual understand them
impression of a long row of checkers overrides the E) are frustrated with the experiment and unwilling
numerical equality that was obvious when the to carry on
checkers appeared in matching rows. In contrast, 7-
year-olds assume that if the number of objects was
equal before, it must remain equal. At this age,
numerical equality has become more significant than
visual impression.

57. The passage is mainly concerned with ----.

A) differences in counting ability between 5- and 7-


year-old children
B) the game of checkers
C) the fact that older children are better at playing
checkers than younger children
D) an incorrect assumption made by most 7-
yearolds
E) differences in perception between older and
younger children

58. It can be inferred from the passage that, while


very small children depend more on what they see
to form a concept of their environment, older
children ----.

A) depend more on their intellect


B) never make a mistake when counting objects
C) know that the experimenters are trying to trick
them
D) are more interested in their friends
E) have a better understanding of games

59. By the words “conservation of number” in the


passage is meant ----.

A) numbers should be used sparingly so as not to


run out of them
B) even when the members of a group move their
places, the number of the members remains
constant
C) every child should learn how to play checkers
D) when the members of a group move their places,
the number of members may change
E) the visual impression of a long row of checkers
taking precedence over numerical equality, at
least for very young children

56
61. – 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 64. It can be understood from the passage that
cevaplayınız. although Kitty Genovese cried out for help when
she was attacked, ----.
In 1964, Kitty Genovese was murdered outside her
home in New York City late at night. She fought back, A) the police arrived too late to help
and the murder took over half an hour. At least 38 B) the American public disregarded the incident
neighbours heard her screams for help, but nobody C) none of her neighbours helped her
came to her aid. No one even called the police. The D) her neighbours put themselves in danger trying to
American public was horrified by this incident, and help her
social psychologists began to investigate the causes E) her neighbours had to appear in court because
of what at first was termed “bystander apathy”. Their they did nothing to help her
work showed that “apathy” was not a very accurate
term, however. It is not simple indifference that
prevents bystanders from intervening in emergencies.
First, there are realistic deterrents such as physical
danger. Second, getting involved may mean lengthy
court appearances or other entanglements. Third,
emergencies are unpredictable and require quick,
unplanned action; few of us are prepared for such
situations. Finally, one risks making a fool of oneself
by misinterpreting a situation as an emergency when
it is not. Researchers concluded that “the bystander to
an emergency situation is in an unenviable position. It
is perhaps surprising that anyone should intervene at
all”.

61. According to the passage, Kitty Genovese’s


murder is an example of what was at first called
----.

A) a realistic deterrent
B) quick, unplanned action
C) court entanglements
D) misinterpretation of a situation
E) bystander apathy

62. It is clear from the passage that ----.

A) whenever a person tries to offer help in an


emergency, other bystanders will think he is
foolish
B) all people intervening in emergencies must testify
in court
C) the American public likes to get involved in
emergencies
D) there are so many obstacles to intervening in an
emergency that most people are unwilling to do
so
E) simple indifference prevents most bystanders
from intervening in emergencies

63. According to the passage, one thing that


prevents witnesses from getting involved in
emergencies is ----.

A) the fact that they are too busy


B) their distrust of the legal system
C) their surprise and horror at the incident
D) their fear of the police
E) the possibility of physical harm

57
65. – 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 67. It is clear from the passage that the new towns
cevaplayınız. and residential areas built after World War II in
Europe ----.
During the “hunger winter” of 1944 in Amsterdam,
over 20,000 people died of starvation. Many of the A) were the work of a very talented group of young
city’s trees were cut down, and the interiors of architects
abandoned buildings broken up for fuel. When peace B) immediately became popular and have remained
came, this once most beautiful and urbane of cities so to this day
was in urgent need of large-scale reconstruction. In C) became the most beautiful areas in and around
the years following the end of World War II in Europe, the cities
modern architecture had an unprecedented D) failed to provide a sense of community for the
opportunity to demonstrate a socially minded, urban residents
style. The consensus today is that in most places it E) had playgrounds designed by van Eyck
failed. The young Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck was
one of the earliest critics of the mechanistic approach
taken by his modernist colleagues to urban 68. According to the passage, Aldo van Eyck ----.
reconstruction. The failure of architecture and
planning to recreate forms of urban community and A) approved of the mechanistic design approach of
solidarity has become a problem in post-war Europe, his modernist colleagues
as so many acclaimed housing estates, new towns, or B) thought that many post-war residential areas
newly designed urban quarters, around Europe, have deserved acclaim
been troubled by vandalism, disrepair and C) viewed the post-war period as an opportunity to
abandonment. Van Eyck saw this coming. In 1947 at display his design ability
the age of 28, he went to work for the Office for Public D) thought the post-war period was a good
Works in Amsterdam and, as his first project, built a opportunity to destroy older buildings and design
small playground. This was in line with his belief that modern cities
by promoting and shaping the daily “encounter” or E) believed that urban architecture had the power to
“inbetween-ness” of social space, architecture could create a sense of solidarity and trust in a city’s
humanize cities and create public trust. residents

65. We understand from the passage that, in the


late 1940s, Europe was in need of massive
reconstruction due to ----.

A) the destruction caused by World War II


B) the mechanistic approach taken by post-war
architects to urban reconstruction
C) vandalism, disrepair and abandonment of
property
D) the unprecedented opportunity to demonstrate a
socially minded, urban style
E) the failure of modern architecture

66. It is stated in the passage that although ----, it


was mostly unable to do so.

A) a small playground was the first project designed


by van Eyck while at the Office for Public Works
in Amsterdam
B) modern European architecture had a chance
after World War II to create an attractive new
style in cities
C) post-war architecture in Europe was greatly
influenced by the ideas of Aldo van Eyck
D) Amsterdam suffered major destruction during
World War II
E) post-World War II architecture in Europe took a
mechanistic approach

58
69. – 72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya gore 72. As is understood from the passage, in the
cevaplayınız. past, football was not a good example of
globalization because ----.
Not long ago, football was not a good example of
globalization. The labour market in international club A) there weren’t many national football clubs playing
football was highly protected. National leagues like internationally
Italy’s Serie A and Spain’s La Liga imposed quotas on B) most players didn’t want to leave their native
their teams, allowing them to import only a limited country
number of players. Some teams could have only two C) most teams weren’t allowed to have many foreign
foreign players on the field. This arrangement, players
however, began to crumble in 1995, when the D) the number of clubs throughout Europe was
European court ruled that the difference of treatment limited
of nationals from other EU countries was E) foreign players could not cross the borders to
anticonstitutional. This permitted players to move play in other countries
freely within the EU, and made the club teams much
more multi-national. Now it is not unusual for a
majority of the players on a successful league team to
be foreign nationals.

69. It can be understood from the passage that the


quotas imposed in the past by national leagues
----.
A) pushed their teams toward a more global
approach
B) allowed many foreign nationals to enter the
labour market
C) created a closed labour market in international
club football
D) were approved by the European court
E) made the club teams quite multi-national

70. An example of football’s globalization given in


the passage is ----.

A) the large number of foreign players on many


teams today
B) the ruling by the European court in 1995
C) the quotas that many national leagues still
impose on their teams
D) that the Italian teams exchange their players
more frequently than the other teams do
E) that the number of football teams in the EU
countries has increased since 1995

71. According to the passage, the European court


ruling of 1995 ----.

A) created a new constitution


B) resulted in a complete reorganisation of the
European football leagues
C) restricted the number of foreign players a team
could import
D) made mandatory the inclusion of at least two
foreign players from outside the EU on every
national team
E) made it illegal for EU teams to refuse to employ
foreign players simply because they were foreign

59
73. – 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 76. It can be inferred from the passage that Beers’
cevaplayınız. desire to educate people about mental health
resulted from ----.
Despite various scientific advances, in the early
1900s the public still did not understand mental illness A) the improvements he saw taking place in mental
and viewed mental hospitals and their inmates with hospitals
fear and horror. Clifford Beers undertook the task of B) his three-year confinement in mental hospitals
educating the public about mental health. As a young C) his having been chained for long periods of time
man, Beers developed a bipolar disorder and was D) his reading of the book A Mind That Found Itself
confined for 3 years in several private and state E) various scientific advances
hospitals. Although chains and other methods of
torture had been abandoned long before, the
straitjacket was still widely used to restrain excited
patients. Lack of funds made the average state
mental hospital – with its overcrowded wards, poor
food, and unsympathetic attendants – a far from
pleasant place to live. After his recovery, Beers wrote
about his experiences in the now-famous book A
Mind That Found Itself (1908), which aroused
considerable public interest. Beers worked
ceaselessly to educate the public about mental illness
and helped to organize the National Committee for
Mental Hygiene. In 1950, this organization joined with
two related groups to form the National Association
for Mental Health. The mental hygiene movement
played an invaluable role in stimulating the
organization of child-guidance clinics and community
mental health centres to aid in the prevention and
treatment of mental disorders.

73. According to the passage, Clifford Beers’


book, A Mind That Found Itself, ----.

A) became popular when it was published, but is not


popular anymore
B) concentrates on the better aspects of life in a
mental hospital
C) did not gain much popularity among the public
D) did little to inform the public about what went on
inside mental hospitals
E) made people more interested in mental health
than they had previously been

74. It can be understood from the passage that, in


the early 1900s, people feared mental hospitals
and mental patients due to ----.

A) their lack of education about mental health


B) the torture and chains that were still in constant
use to cure mental illness
C) the book Clifford Beers had written about his
experiences in mental hospitals
D) the work of the National Committee for Mental
Hygiene
E) the inmates who had escaped from the hospitals

75. It is pointed out in the passage that the part


played by the mental hygiene movement in
founding centres for child guidance and mental
health was ----.

A) unwanted
B) minimal
C) not at all helpful
D) extremely important
E) short-lived

60
77. – 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 80. This passage is mainly concerned with ----.
cevaplayınız.
A) the illegal construction of a new archaeological
Each year in the touristic town of Agrigento, Sicily, park in Agrigento, Sicily
hundreds of illegally-built houses are bulldozed by the B) the beautiful ancient temples found in Agrigento,
local government. New construction in Agrigento, Sicily
home to many ancient temples which tourists come to C) the pollution of the archaeological park in
see, has been banned since 1968. In spite of this, Agrigento, Sicily, which began in 1968
hundreds of new and half-built houses can be seen in D) the reasons why illegal construction is still
the hills surrounding the archaeological park. Not only continuing in Agrigento, Sicily
do these buildings spoil the landscape, but many are E) the problem of illegally-built houses in Agrigento,
also unsafe and unsanitary. Some of the people living Sicily
in these buildings pour sewage into the sea and pile
garbage on roadsides since their houses are illegal TEST BĐTTĐ.
and they aren’t allowed to use the city sewage system CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.
and garbage service. Several of these houses are
also built on dangerous cliffs, sites that would never
be allowed by Italy’s strict building codes.

77. It is made clear in the passage that pouring


sewage into the sea and piling garbage on
roadsides are examples of ----.

A) the reason these houses are built in the hills


B) compliance with Italy’s strict building codes
C) why the illegally-built houses in Agrigento are
unsanitary
D) the beautification of Agrigento’s archaeological
park
E) a protest against the Italian government

78. According to the passage, the building


prohibition in Agrigento, Sicily, ----.

A) has meant that no new houses have been built


there since 1968
B) has not put a stop to the building of new houses
C) has meant that there are no houses on the
surrounding hills
D) has caused the destruction of many ancient
temples
E) has led to the strict control of new construction

79. It can be inferred from the passage that the


local government in Agrigento, Sicily, does not
want new houses to be built near the
archaeological park because ----.

A) the local government wants to use the land to


build houses for its officials
B) the local government cannot collect taxes from
the owners of these houses as they are built on
public land
C) there is no water, sewage or garbage service
available near the temples
D) new houses spoil the landscape around the
ancient temples
E) the local government is planning to build several
new hotels for tourists on the land

61
1. – 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 9. Rising health insurance costs and harsh social
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. stigmas ---- many employers to overlook workers’
mental health needs, but ignoring the problem ----
1. The ---- of wasting in people with AIDS is similar more than addressing it.
to that seen in people who die from starvation.
A) will cause / had cost
A) degree B) solution C) cure B) cause / will have cost
D) reversal E) relief C) are causing / may have cost
D) caused / has cost
E) have caused / should have cost
2. Only a few foods supply ---- amounts of vitamin
D, notably those derived from animals.
10. Various agencies ---- to keep pesticide use
A) decisive B) significant C) compulsive within safe limits, and most consumers feel they
D) previous E) alien ---- on them.

A) were set up / have depended


3. By protecting the global community from B) have been set up / can depend
infection before it strikes, one can ---- save C) would be set up / were depending
millions of lives. D) are being set up / must have depended
E) would have been set up / must depend
A) precisely B) crucially C) potentially
D) preferably E) forcefully
11. Doctors who had been studying longevity ----
an assortment of genes that ---- life span in
4. Normal dietary iron intake cannot usually ---- for different organisms.
iron loss from chronic bleeding.
A) will identify / had influenced
A) compensate B) account C) request B) have identified / will be influencing
D) ensure E) exchange C) identified / will have influenced
D) had identified / could influence
E) identify / could have influenced
5. Recent findings answer key questions about
how tumour cells ---- residence in other parts of
the body. 12. An intracerebral haemorrhage begins abruptly
---- a headache, followed ---- signs of steadily
A) cut down B) pull up C) slow down increasing neurologic losses.
D) wait for E) take up
A) at / through B) from / in C) after / on
D) in / up E) with / by
6. When a tissue is injured, a rapid chain of events
---- the production of fibrin, a stringy, insoluble
mass of protein fibers that forms a clot from liquid 13. ---- anxiety, depression is the most common
blood. psychiatric disorder and typically begins ---- the
20s, 30s or 40s.
A) holds up B) makes up C) breaks down
D) leads to E) puts out A) In / through B) Over / during C) After / in
D) Through / by E) By / for

7. Migraine-patients who go untreated for too long


---- structural changes in their brains, so they ---- 14. Elastin and collagen are proteins ---- form the
proper therapy. spongy material that lies under our skin and gives
it bounce and flexibility.
A) are incurring / insisted on
B) incurred / would insist on A) in which B) which C) whose
C) incur / used to insist on D) whichever E) whatever
D) must incur / would have insisted on
E) may incur / should insist on
15. ---- our bodies are exposed to cold, their first
rule of survival is to maintain the brain and
8. Japanese researchers ---- that tomato juice ---- internal organs at a temperature of 37°C.
prevent emphysema, a smoking-related lung
disease. A) Since B) Although C) When
D) Just as E) Until
A) will say / may have helped
B) said / will have helped
C) say / had helped 16. Any injury forceful ---- to fracture the jaw may
D) have said / could help also injure the cervical vertebrae.
E) had said / will help
A) so as B) as if C) even
D) too E) enough
62
17. According to Vietnamese researchers, the bird 24. – 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde
flu virus may have affected hundreds of people, tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
who have not ---- been diagnosed.
24. Whereas extra training may not accelerate
A) also B) or C) so children’s motor development, ----.
D) yet E) just
A) some of them were then given extra stimulation
B) infants deprived of physical stimulation would
18. Is yawning contagious and, if so, are some of have delayed motor development
us ---- prone to “catching” a yawn ---- others? C) these are the ones who do not have the
opportunity to move about
A) more / than B) not only / but also D) some amount of practice is necessary for
C) either / or D) so / that development to occur normally
E) both / and E) there had been several techniques for comparing
the effects of maturation and learning

19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada


numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da 25. ----, which is why it is vital to ensure that it is
ifadeyi bulunuz. healthy.

Light exercise helps to keep brains healthy, at least in A) The liver is located under the ribs on the
rats. University of Florida scientists (19) ---- active and righthand side of the body
sedentary rats, then examined samples (20) ---- their B) Formerly, the liver received little attention
brain tissue. The active animals had less of the C) Liver surgery today has advanced enormously
oxidative damage that had been thought to result from D) The truth is that the liver, as a hard-working
aging and to cause (21) ---- types of mental illness. organ, has always received a great deal of
Mild exercise was enough; the healthier rats had medical attention
access to a spinning wheel, which they used (22) ---- E) The liver is involved in more than 500 body
every day, although they were not forced to do so. functions, from detoxification to hormone balance
The sedentary rats (23) ---- no source of exercise.

19. 26. Many people think that if they have a good


A) tracking B) tracked night’s sleep, ----.
C) will be tracking D) will have tracked
E) track A) they will wake up without an alarm and feel
rested and refreshed
B) sleeping seven hours a night is associated with
20. the lowest mortality risk
A) of B) to C) for C) they are usually drowsy early in the morning even
D) through E) by after a full night’s sleep
D) they would have had no trouble remaining awake
during the day
21. E) medications for insomnia can’t be effective,
A) applicable B) supplementary compared with nonpharmacological approaches
C) healthy D) reasonable
E) various
27. When glucose or fatty acids are limited, ----.

22. A) each antibody is designed to destroy just one


A) hardly B) occasionally C) completely invader
D) abominably E) enviously B) cells are forced to use amino acids for energy
and glucose
C) plant proteins are of lower quality than animal
23. proteins
A) having B) have C) had D) the body would have no storage site for extra
D) have had E) will have had amino acids
E) in a normal, healthy individual, most diseases
never have a chance to get started

63
28. Although some studies have found 33. People with anorexia nervosa imagine that
lowcarbohydrate diets to be effective, ----. they are themselves fat, ----.

A) the obesity epidemic has fueled explosive growth A) even when they are dangerously underweight
in the weight loss industry B) but among female athletes, anorexia nervosa
B) Americans spend as much as $15 billion a year may be as high as 66 per cent
on low-carbohydrate aids and foods C) because family conflicts often play an important
C) few doctors will have recommended role in the development of anorexia nervosa
lowcarbohydrate diets as a healthy way to weight D) as their first dietary objective is to stop weight
loss loss
D) others have found that they offer only short-lived E) although starvation brings other physical
benefits problems such as anaemia and impaired immune
E) weight loss schemes have focused on reduced response
intake of carbohydrates

34. Psychophysiological disorders are physical


29. ---- since it can have an overall negative disorders ----.
impact on a person’s life.
A) since doctors estimate that emotional stress
A) There was a feeling of inadequacy among the plays an important role in some medical problems
team members B) but research in psychophysiology has focused on
B) AIDS may cause depression indirectly such illnesses as asthma and hypertension
C) He began to feel the work was too stressful C) which refer to relationships between specific
D) She put off going to a doctor about the lump illnesses and characteristic attitudes
E) Some people are more ambitious than others D) though researchers have focused on ulcers,
colitis and rheumatoid arthritis
E) in which emotions are believed to play a central
30. Laxatives provide an example ----. role

A) of how drugs can interfere with nutrient 35. Haematocrit is commonly used to diagnose
absorption iron deficiency ----.
B) if they are taken daily over a long period of time
C) when the acidity of the digestive tract was A) in case anemia is characterized by a reduced
affected number of red blood cells
D) since the rate of absorption was excessive B) even though it is an inconclusive measure of iron
E) that stimulate the secretion of digestive juices status
C) even if low haemoglobin values signal depleted
iron stores
31. Symptoms, ----, are similar in viral and D) so long as the body cannot synthesize
bacterial pharyngitis. haemoglobin
E) in view of the fact that other tests are more
A) when gargling can relieve throat discomfort specific in detecting early deficiencies
B) since the mucous membrane may be inflamed
C) if there was a high white blood cell count
D) though the cause is usually viral 36. – 38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye
E) which include a sore throat and pain in anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz.
swallowing
36. Owing to infertility treatments, the percentage
of twin births in the US has nearly doubled in the
32. Anthropometric surveys in the US and Europe past 20 years.
have shown that short people tend to
overestimate their stature ----. A) Son 20 yılda sayısı ikiye katlanan kısırlık
tedavileri nedeniyle, ABD’de ikiz doğum oranı çok
A) but body image is a person’s mental picture of arttı.
their physical appearance B) ABD’de kısırlık tedavisinde son 20 yılda görülen
B) which took more effort for their height and weight artış, ikiz doğum oranını iki kattan fazla yükseltti.
C) while heavy people often underestimate their C) Kısırlık tedavilerindeki hemen hemen 20 yıl süren
weight artış, ABD’de ikiz doğum oranının ikiye
D) so some individuals perceive themselves as katlanmasına neden oldu.
having lost almost no weight D) Kısırlık tedavilerinden dolayı, ABD’de ikiz doğum
E) since this mental image affects lifestyle behaviour oranı son 20 yılda hemen hemen ikiye katlandı.
E) ABD’de giderek yaygınlaşan kısırlık tedavileri,
son 20 yılda ikiz doğum oranının ikiye
katlanmasına neden oldu.

64
37. Alcohol was used for centuries as an 39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye
anaesthetic, but it was difficult to determine the anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.
correct dosage because doctors could never be
sure how much would be fatal. 39. Tek bir sperm yumurtaya girer girmez, ikinci
bir spermin girmesini engelleyen iki tepki oluşur.
A) Alkol yüzyıllar boyunca anestetik olarak
kullanılmıştır, ancak doğru dozu belirlemek zordu A) When a sperm gets into the egg, the entry of a
çünkü doktorlar ne kadarının öldürücü second sperm should be prevented through two
olacağından asla emin olamıyorlardı. reactions.
B) Yüzyıllar boyunca anestetik olarak kullanılan B) As soon as one sperm enters the egg, two
alkolün doğru dozunu belirlemek çok zordu çünkü reactions occur that prevent a second sperm from
doktorlar ne kadarının öldürücü olacağını asla entering.
bilemiyorlardı. C) Upon the entry of one sperm into the egg, two
C) Yüzyıllar boyunca doktorlar, ne kadarının reactions take place so that the entry of a second
öldürücü olacağını belirlemede zorlanmalarına sperm may be prevented.
rağmen alkolü anestetik olarak kullanmışlardır. D) Just as a sperm enters an egg, two reactions
D) Alkol doktorlar tarafından ne kadarının öldürücü usually occur which aim at preventing a second
olduğunu belirlemedeki zorluklara rağmen sperm from entering.
yüzyıllardır kullanılıyor. E) It is known that two reactions occur for the
E) Alkol yüzyıllar boyunca anestetik olarak prevention of a second sperm’s entry.
kullanılmıştır, fakat doktorların doğru dozu
belirlemesi çok zordu çünkü ne kadarının
öldürücü olabileceğini kimse asla bilemiyordu. 40. Çinko, çeşitli metabolik süreçlerde yer alan
madensel enzimler dahil vücuttaki pek çok
proteinin çalışmasını destekler.
38. Health information on product packages must
emphasize the importance of the total diet and not A) Zinc supports the work of numerous proteins in
exaggerate the role of a particular food in disease the body, including the metalloenzymes, which
prevention. are involved in a variety of metabolic processes.
B) The work of proteins in various parts of the body
A) Ürün paketlerinin üzerindeki sağlık bilgileri diyetin is supported by zinc which also affects the
tümünün önemini yeterince vurgulamıyor ve metalloenzymes that are related to metabolic
genellikle, belirgin bir gıdanın hastalık önleyici functions.
işlevi abartılıyor. C) The work of many proteins in the body and also
B) Ürün paketlerinin üzerindeki sağlık bilgileri ne the metalloenzymes supporting many different
diyetin tümünün önemini küçümsemeli ne de bir metabolic processes interact with zinc.
gıdanın hastalık önlemedeki rolünü abartmalıdır. D) Zinc supports not only the work of several
C) Ürün paketlerinin üzerindeki sağlık bilgileri diyetin proteins in the body but also the metalloenzymes
tümünün önemini vurgulamalı ve belirli bir which play a useful role in various metabolic
gıdanın hastalık önlemedeki rolünü actions.
abartmamalıdır. E) The work of all the proteins in the body as well as
D) Belirli bir gıdanın hastalık önlemedeki rolü the metalloenzymes associated with many
abartılmamalıdır ve ürün paketlerinin üzerinde different metabolic actions, are supported by
diyetin sağlık açısından bir bütün olarak önemli zinc.
olduğu vurgulanmalıdır.
E) Ürün paketlerinin üzerindeki hastalık önleme
konusundaki bilgiler diyetin tümünün önemini göz 41. Pek çok insan, egzersiz yapmanın daha çok
ardı etmemeli ve o ürünün sağlık açısından yemelerine neden olacağını sanır, oysa bu,
önemini abartmamalıdır. tümüyle doğru değildir.

A) Most people are convinced that, should they


exercise, they will eat more, but this is not true at
all.
B) Many people think that exercising will make them
eat more, but this is not entirely true.
C) A lot of people are of the opinion that, through
exercising, they will start to eat much more even
though this is not absolutely correct.
D) A number of people claim that exercising will
make them eat more although this is not the
case.
E) Several people imagine that too much exercising
will lead to too much eating, but this is not quite
correct.

65
42. – 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçanın 45. Most researchers believe sleep has some sort
anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek of critical maintenance or restorative effect on
cümleyi bulunuz. neural tissue. ----. It has been found that in some
birds, therefore, only half the brain rests at once.
42. Health food stores and popular magazine The other half stays alert, and the eye it controls
articles advertise a variety of protein stays open against potential risk.
supplements, and people take these supplements
for many different reasons. ----. Dieters take them A) No one is sure why animals sleep
to maintain their bodies’ protein while losing B) Humans are frequently subjected to situations
weight. Women take them to strengthen their where they need to decide when and how much
fingernails. to sleep
C) But this unconscious state has a cost: it makes
A) The “liquid protein” diet, advocated some years animals vulnerable to predators
ago for weight loss, caused deaths in many users D) The first two or three hours of deep sleep seem
B) Protein and amino acid supplements don’t work to be the most vital for humans
these miracles E) The list includes pigeons, ducks, domestic
C) Athletes do not need protein supplements chickens and a few other birds
because muscle work builds muscle
D) Protein supplements are expensive and less
completely digested than protein-rich foods 46. Broken spirits, not bones, may be the worst
E) Athletes take them to build muscle result of falling down. Many older people fall, but
for some, the experience makes them so afraid of
toppling again that their mind impairs their ability
43. Short-term memory actually stores material to walk without trembling or losing balance. ----.
that is needed for short time periods, and it serves
as a work space for mental computation. ----. That A) For example, physicians should encourage
is, information may reside in short-term memory patients who have fallen to walk again
while it is being encoded or transferred into B) Physicians are encouraged to ask patients about
longterm memory. recent falls
C) Similarly, physicians should not assume that
A) Another possible function is that short-term every older person who falls has a neurological
memory may be a way-station to long-term problem
memory D) Thus, they quickly make themselves dependent
B) Some of the best support for these ideas comes on canes or wheelchairs
from experiments on free recall E) This woman was misdiagnosed and was
C) People have other, more effective ways of prescribed medication for Parkinson’s disease
encoding information in long-term memory
D) At the time of recall the last few words presented
are still likely to be in short-term memory 47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş
E) However, the special memory for language bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi
seems limited to relatively simple sentences bulunuz.

47.
44. The chronic overarousal caused by chronic Alice: - What did you think of the Pelé film?
stressors may contribute to coronary heart Polly: - What struck me was that when he joined
disease (CHD). CHD occurs when the blood his first team he was 17 but looked like a 14-year
vessels that supply the heart muscles are old.
narrowed or closed, blocking the flow of oxygen Alice: - ----
and nutrients to the heart. ----. When oxygen to the Polly: - And that of parasites too.
heart is completely blocked, it can cause a
myocardial infarction. A) In fact, he always was small.
B) That was the result of malnutrition, poor kid.
A) CHD is a leading cause of death and chronic C) It shocked me to learn that until that time he had
illness in the US never had a pair of sports shoes.
B) This can lead to pain, called angina pectoris, that D) Right. And had various health problems,
radiates across the chest and arm including malnutrition.
C) People in high-stress jobs are at increased risk E) I hated the way other teams turned against him.
for CHD
D) High family demands, in addition to a stressful
job, can adversely affect a woman’s
cardiovascular health
E) The physiological response that the body
experiences in the face of a stressor may have a
direct, negative effect on physical health

66
48. 51.
Bill: - Have you read this study linking restless leg Dr. Raymond: - The survey indicates that, in many
syndrome in children to iron deficiency? countries around the world, a great majority of
Debbie: - ---- women breastfeed their newborns.
Bill: - That’s right; many of the children suffering Dr. Simpson: - That may be true; however, in other
from the disease have a parent affected with it, parts of the world, formula-feeding is more
usually the mother. popular than breastfeeding.
Dr. Raymond: - ----
A) Yes, I do. I think it’s a very important study, don’t Dr. Simpson: - No doubt about it. Yet, on the other
you agree? hand, there are valid reasons for not reastfeeding.
B) But I hear that it’s the first study of the disease
involving such a large group of children as A) Actually, I attach as much importance to
subjects. formulafeeding as to breastfeeding.
C) Sure I have; but I think the conclusions presented B) I certainly believe that parents in today’s society
about the genetic factor may be premature. have to coordinate work and family.
D) Not yet; what does it say? C) It is a fact that women throughout the world know
E) Of course I have; the study also mentions that very little about breastfeeding, and they ought to
family history of the disease may be a factor. be advised by health care professionals.
D) I know; still, breastfeeding offers many health
benefits to both mother and infant.
49. E) Clearly, educating fathers could change attitudes
Annie: - I’m really having a problem with my and promote both breastfeeding and
exercise program. After I finish exercising, I have formulafeeding.
trouble breathing and my chest gets tight.
Sue: - Why don’t you see an allergist? It sounds
like asthma. 52. – 56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla
Annie: - ---- okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan
Sue: - Still, you should see a doctor to get proper cümleyi bulunuz.
diagnosis and treatment.
52. (I) At one time, scientists believed aging to be not
A) What should I do if I have an asthma attack? just deterioration but an active continuation of an
B) Are you sure? What are the symptoms of organism’s genetically programmed development. (II)
asthma? Once an individual achieved maturity, “aging genes”
C) Asthma? What a relief. I thought I had a heart began to direct its progress toward the grave. (III) If
problem. they remain active long enough, they can also
D) I went to the doctor yesterday to get it checked dramatically enhance the organism’s health and
out. extend its life span. (IV) This idea has been
E) Do you know any websites where I can get more discredited, and conventional wisdom now holds that
information? aging really is just wearing out over time because the
body’s normal maintenance and repair mechanisms
simply wane. (V) Evolutionary natural selection, the
50. logic goes, has no reason to keep these mechanisms
Nancy: - My doctor just told me that he wants me working once an organism has passed its
to have a bronchoscope! Doesn’t that involve a reproductive age.
biopsy?
Chuck: - Not necessarily. It may just mean that he A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
needs to have a look inside the airways in your
lungs.
Nancy: - ---- 53. (I) All children are naturally active. (II) If a child is
Chuck: - Well, maybe he wants to finally determine inactive for a long period of time, he or she must be
the cause of your recurring cough and breathing checked by a doctor to determine whether there is a
problem. problem. (III) However, many become overly active
when, for instance, they are anticipating a birthday
A) Actually, in recent weeks, my husband has also party. (IV) Still, such behaviour is markedly different
been coughing a great deal. from true hyperactivity. (V) Hyperactive children have
B) What for? trouble sleeping, they cannot sit still and they act
C) Well I don’t want to have it done. impulsively.
D) Have you ever had the procedure?
E) Will it hurt? A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

67
54. (I) Why do some people eat sweet or fatty foods 57. According to the passage, one of the problems
when they’ve heard bad news or feel depressed? (II) caused by Woo Suk Hwang’s false
A study of the link between chronic stress and over- announcements of cloning embryonic stem cells
ating has found that long-term stress overstimulates is that ----.
the adrenal system. (III) The consumption of sugar
and fat counters that response by producing a feeling A) the public may no longer trust scientists to
of calm. (IV) Most people enjoy eating a meal conduct ESC research in an ethical manner
together with friends or family. (V) Besides the B) ESC research has become less promising today
immediate effects of fats and sugar, there is a feeling than it was in the past
of comfort caused by eating many of these foods. C) political problems with ESC research now exist
where none had existed previously
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V D) ESCs will now probably never be derived from
cloned human embryos
E) scientists in other fields than ESC research may
55. (I) In half of the 23 developing countries, citizens feel that they, too, can falsify their research
and officials interviewed considered corruption in the findings to gain recognition
health sector to be a major problem. (II) Many even
identified health as the most corrupt sector in the
government. (III) The solution is to enforce existing 58. It can be concluded from the passage that,
rules and hold managers more accountable. (IV) during the past two years, ----.
Systematic audits, clear contracting rules, and
adequate oversight can help prevent corruption in the A) Woo Suk Hwang has done much to further the
sector. (V) In the developing world, going to public effort of ESC research
health clinics means long waits and large gaps B) no further ESC research has been conducted
between diagnosis and treatment. C) ESC research has taken a lot of time and money
D) many revolutionary treatments have been
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V developed as a result of ESC research
E) it has been thought that ESC research had made
further progress than it actually had
56. (I) Combat stress may arise when an event,
situation or condition in a fighting zone requires a
soldier to alter his or her behaviour in response to 59. It can be inferred from the passage that when
new demand. (II) As a result, certain situations could Woo Suk Hwang announced that he had cloned
have placed so much strain on an individual that he or human embryonic stem cells, ----.
she could not maintain a normal level of functioning.
(III) This change in behaviour typically presents A) it caused much excitement in the scientific world
cognitive, physiological and emotional challenges. B) he became a much-respected scientist, and
(IV) Such stress is a normal and expected experience remains so to this day
for deployed personnel, and the vast majority of C) the results were immediately discredited by other
soldiers manage it effectively. (V) Many actually scientists
perform better under reasonable levels of stress. D) ESCs had already been derived from cloned
human embryos
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V E) his findings were independently confirmed by
other researchers

57. – 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 60. We understand from the passage that the
cevaplayınız. majority of scientists in the field of embryonic
stem cell research ----.
Few recent papers in biology have received as much
praise as Woo Suk Hwang’s 2004 and 2005 A) did not feel professionally embarrassed by Woo
announcements of cloning human embryonic stem Suk Hwang’s lie
cells – or fallen as fast into disrepute with the B) were surprised when Woo Suk Hwang’s findings
discovery that they were rank fakes. Embryonic stem were proven to be fake
cell (ESC) research is no less promising today than it C) think that Woo Suk Hwang’s false claims prove
was before Hwang’s deceit was revealed; most that ESC research can never be conducted
investigators continue to believe that it will eventually ethically
yield revolutionary medical treatments. The fact that D) believe that they must deliver results quickly,
no one has yet derived ESCs from cloned human even if they have to falsify them to do so
embryos simply means that the science is less E) are of the belief that, in the end, ESC research
advanced than has been supposed over the past two will provide surprising new medical therapies
years. Still, Hwang has badly undermined the
reputation of a field that already has more than its
share of political and public relations problems. Some
longtime opponents of ESC research will undoubtedly
argue that Hwang’s lies only prove that the
investigators cannot be trusted to conduct their work
ethically, and the public may believe them.

68
61. – 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 64. It can be understood from the passage that
cevaplayınız. some mental health professionals believe that ----.

The increasing visibility of homeless mentally ill A) mentally ill individuals should be moved out of
individuals, particularly in large cities, has aroused large cities into the countryside
public concern and prompted a move toward B) the legal system should be changed to allow
reinstitutionalization. However, an important ethical preventive detention of homeless mentally ill
issue is involved. If such people are not readjusting to individuals
society, should they be involuntarily committed to a C) the best way to protect society is to help the
mental hospital? One of the most cherished civil rights mentally ill readjust to mental hospitals
in a democratic society is the right to liberty. It is D) mentally ill individuals should be
essential that any action toward commitment reinstitutionalized only if there is a potential for
safeguard this right. Some experts believe that legal them to harm others
action is warranted only if a person is potentially E) all mentally ill individuals should be in institutions,
dangerous to others. The rare, but highly publicized, even if they may not commit a dangerous act
occasions when a mentally ill person experiencing a
psychotic episode attacks an innocent bystander have
generated fears for public safety. But dangerousness
is difficult to predict. Studies have shown that mental
health professionals are poor at predicting whether a
person will commit a dangerous act. Moreover, the
legal system is designed to protect people from
preventive detention.

61. The passage is mainly concerned with ----.

A) the ethical question of whether it is right to move


homeless mentally ill people into mental hospitals
against their will
B) the dangers of releasing mental patients back
into society
C) the difficulty that mental health professionals
have in predicting violent behaviour in mentally ill
patients
D) the fact that the legal system is designed to
protect people from preventive detention
E) the psychotic episodes experienced by some
mentally ill individuals

62. It is pointed out in the passage that it may be


difficult to involuntarily reinstitutionalize mental
patients who have been released into society
because ----.

A) they may suffer a psychotic episode


B) they may be dangerous to themselves or others
C) the legal system was made to protect people’s
freedom
D) they are not able to readjust to living in society
E) it is first necessary to apprehend and sedate
them

63. The passage makes it clear that the public,


particularly in large cities, ----.

A) believes that homeless mentally ill individuals


should be reinstitutionalized only if they have
previously attacked someone
B) fears being attacked by a homeless mentally ill
person having a psychotic episode
C) wants to help homeless mentally ill individuals
readjust to society
D) fears that they themselves may become mentally
ill if they are approached by a mentally ill
individual
E) thinks that it is wrong to hospitalize any person
against his will

69
65. – 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 67. One example given in the passage of the type
cevaplayınız. of drug that could be developed using Riek’s fibril
model is ----.
Researchers are a step closer to understanding how
Alzheimer’s disease takes shape – literally. A sign of A) a drug that destroys the amyloid protein in the
Alzheimer’s is the presence of protein aggregates in final stages of becoming a fibril
the brain known as plaques. They are made up of B) one containing molecules that bond with proteins
various lengths and conformations of the beta amyloid in the brain, thus preventing fibril formation
protein. The proteins link end to end, forming long, C) one that makes the molecules in the brain’s
threadlike structures called fibrils. Now biologist protein aggregates extremely sticky
Roland Riek and his colleagues have constructed a D) a drug that will show scientists the structure of
three-dimensional model of the fibrils based on their other variations of the amyloid protein
own experiments and earlier data published by E) one that will encourage protein bonding in the
others. Riek says the model will help investigators to brain, and therefore promote fibril formation
understand protein structure, which could lead to
better targeted drugs. For example, molecules could
be engineered to act as protein binding partners, thus 68. It is pointed out in the passage that the
interfering with fibril formation. Such a sticky molecule existence of plaques in the brain ----.
could also be used to diagnose the disease early. The
model work might lend insight to other neurological A) is an indicator of Alzheimer’s disease
disorders that involve fibril formation, such as B) results from the conditions created by
Parkinson’s disease. Riek says his group will extend Parkinson’s disease
the three-dimensional work to other variations of the C) shows that no further research into protein
amyloid protein, because it undergoes many aggregates in the brain is necessary
conformational changes on its way to forming a fibril. D) has been proven by the research of Riek and his
“We need to try to trap them in these intermediate colleagues
states”, he explains. E) comes from a drug that interferes with fibril
formation
65. We understand from the passage that Roland
Riek’s model of fibrils ----.

A) has already been extended to include other


variations of the amyloid protein
B) has brought scientists no nearer to a cure for
Alzheimer’s disease
C) may be used to better understand other
neurological disorders involving fibril formation
D) has made Alzheimer’s a fully curable disease
E) is based entirely on research undertaken by his
colleagues

66. According to the passage, Riek and his


colleagues plan to do more research on the
amyloid protein because ----.

A) they want to determine the changes that take


place during fibril formation
B) their model does not fully represent fibrils as they
exist in a patient’s brain
C) there are questions about their previous research
D) it is such a sticky molecule that it is difficult to
work with
E) it is made up of various lengths and
conformations of plaques

70
69. – 72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 71. The main idea of the passage is that ----.
cevaplayınız.
A) most people fear bats as they are nocturnal
Bats are creatures of the night that are commonly animals
held in fear. At first glance, those fears might seem to B) bats cannot be infected with a virus without
have some medical justification. Long known as immediately suffering any symptoms
vectors for rabies, it is now thought that bats may be C) SARS and other deadly new viruses may have
the origin of some of the most deadly emerging their origins in bats
viruses, including SARS. From research with other D) bats are often kept nearby other animals in Asian
viruses, virologist Linfa Wang of the Australian Animal live-animal markets
Health Laboratory knew bats could get chronic E) virologist Linfa Wang did research on 408 wild
infections from viruses while not getting sick, making bats from China
them ideal carriers for disease. Bats, civets and a
menagerie of other animals were often found caged
near one another in live-animal markets in Asia. So 72. The passage points out that although bats
Wang hypothesized that bats might harbour SARS as have long been understood to be carriers of
well. Wang and his colleagues analyzed blood, throat rabies, ----.
and faecal swabs from 408 wild bats from China.
Genetic analysis revealed five bats, which A) the ones having close contact with humans do
represented three of nine species of horseshoe bats not carry the disease
tested, possessed viruses closely related to SARS. B) there is not much risk of transfer of this disease
They reported last September that the genetic to humans
variation within those coronaviruses was far greater C) they were tested for the disease anyway
than that seen in human or civet SARS. Therefore, D) they have not until recently been thought to be
bats, probably having lived longer with the diseases, carriers of SARS
may be the origin of the coronaviruses seen in other E) they have never undergone genetic analysis to
species. reveal other diseases in their bodies

69. We understand from the passage that since


bats can get chronic infections from viruses
without getting sick, ----.

A) they are not thought to be dangerous to humans


and other animals
B) they must have a well-developed immune system
C) people have a great fear of becoming infected
from them
D) they are perfect hosts for disease
E) their blood and faeces carry no sign of infection,
either

70. According to the passage, Linfa Wang’s study


of wild Chinese bats ----.

A) showed that the coronaviruses carried by some


of the bats had a much greater genetic variation
than seen in human SARS
B) revealed that the bats, while chronically infected
with viruses other than SARS, did not become ill
or suffer from any symptoms
C) has aroused a great deal of controversy among
flu specialists
D) proved that the SARS virus carried by the bats
was the same as that found in civets
E) sparked a movement to reform the live-animal
markets in Asia

71
73. – 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 76. We learn from the passage that, as Lustig
cevaplayınız. discovered during her study, unlike the elderly,
the young adults ----.
Much work on aging brains has focused on their
failings, but a new study looks at how they succeed. A) used certain regions of their brain for certain
In a University of Michigan at Ann Arbor report on tasks
which brain regions respond to challenging tasks, B) always tended to avoid challenging situations
researchers found that aging brains function C) showed no great deal of difference between
differently than young brains. Cindy Lustig of Ann tackling easy and difficult mental tasks
Arbor used functional magnetic resonance imaging to D) used all the parts of their brain in responding to
observe the brains of young adults (aged 18 to 30) every mental task
and seniors (65 to 92) as they tackled simple and E) were more interested in the performance of their
difficult mental exercises. For the easy tasks, brain brain than in the causes of mental failure
activity was very similar, but tougher challenges
prompted differences. The seniors activated several
frontal brain regions that the young adults did not. In
addition, the younger people “turned off” parts of the
brain not used during the tasks, but the elders kept
those regions active. Lustig concludes that “older
adults’ brains can indeed rise to the challenge, at
least in some situations, but they may do so
differently”.

73. According to the passage, Lustig’s study


shows that ----.

A) young and aging brains show little difference in


function when they are dealing with simple tasks
B) aging brains cannot cope with a wide range of
tasks, whether simple or challenging
C) young people use their brain capacity much more
fully than elders
D) the reasons why aging brains fail in their activities
are varied and need to be specified
E) various mental exercises can delay the aging of
the brain

74. It is clear from the passage that Lustig’s


principal aim in conducting the study was ----.

A) to determine whether elderly people show the


same reaction when they are faced with a difficult
or an easy situation
B) to carry out her research on a group of young
and elderly people associated with the University
of Michigan at Ann Arbor
C) to understand the difference in how young and
old people use their brain to deal with both simple
and difficult tasks
D) to formulate a series of mental exercises suitable
for her use of magnetic resonance imaging
E) to discover the causes of aging brain failures

75. It is pointed out in the passage that elderly


people ----.

A) perform far better than young people in all kinds


of mental activities
B) use more of the different parts of their brain to
deal with difficult mental tasks than young people
do
C) ought to be always encouraged to do mental
exercises
D) should try hard to improve their mental capacity
and do well in challenging situations
E) have aroused Lustig’s interest and fully
collaborated with her in her research

72
77. – 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 79. We learn from the passage that a patient with a
cevaplayınız. score in the high 20s on the Hamilton Depression
Rating Scale ----.
Treating depression could change significantly
following the results of a small Canadian clinical trial A) can easily be treated through medication or talk
that ended in 2005. The procedure used in the study therapy
freed several patients from heavy depression that had B) is rated as the most serious case of depression
resisted medication, talk therapy and even C) experiences negligible activity in the subgenual
electroconvulsive (shock) treatment. Study co-author cingulate
Helen S. Mayberg cautions that any trial so small D) is not considered suitable for the new clinical trial
– just six patients – must be considered provisional. E) usually resists medication and, hence, becomes
Yet four of the six subjects felt dramatic and lasting a hopeless case
effects. University of Toronto neurosurgeon Andres
Lozano implanted battery-powered, pacemakerlike
devices underneath a patient’s clavicle, then ran 80. One can see from the passage that the clinical
flexible, hair-thin electrodes to the subgenual trial undertaken by the Mayberg team ----.
cingulate, a well-buried cortical area that Mayberg
had previously found active in depressive or sad A) is only experimental and needs to be further
states. The electrodes delivered pulses of four volts, tested
130 times a second. Mayberg hypothesized that in B) has completely revealed the secrets of the
badly depressed patients the subgenual cingulated subgenual cingulate
acts like a switch left open, allowing depressive C) has so far received minimal attention in Canada
circuits to fire more than is necessary. Her results D) did not produce positive results for the subjects of
suggest that the regular stimulation might moderate the trial
that activity. In 2005, after a year of living with the E) has been going on for over a decade, producing
continuous impulses, the four patients had lowered its positive results only recently
their scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale
from the soul-deadening high 20s to between one and
eight – quite healthy.
TEST BĐTTĐ.
77. As one understands from the passage, with CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.
their clinical trial, Mayberg and her colleagues ----.

A) have concluded that stimulation of the subgenual


cingulate has no effect on depressed patients
B) have conclusively established that depressed
patients can best be treated through the use of
pacemakerlike devices
C) have demonstrated that electroconvulsive
treatment of depressed patients is still the most
effective method
D) have shown that the Hamilton Depression Rating
Scale needs to be re-arranged
E) seem to have made a promising breakthrough in
the therapy of depression

78. It is clear from the passage that, for Mayberg,


----.

A) in a state of depression, the subgenual


cingulated in the brain is affected
B) the results of the clinical trial have aroused much
controversy in the medical world
C) the experiment carried out on four patients has
already transformed the treatment of depression
D) Lozano’s work involves a very complicated
process and needs to be further improved
E) the University of Toronto neurosurgeons, like
Lozano, have always contributed significantly to
the search for effective methods of treatment in
cases of depression

73
1. – 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 7. Some evolutionary biologists argue that if the
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. clock of evolution ---- to the beginning and
allowed to run again to the present day, the
1. Marine biodiversity ensures that ecosystems resulting animals on Earth ---- very different from
recover relatively quickly after an accidental or the ones we know now.
natural ----.
A) has been rewound / would have been
A) disturbance B) hesitation B) is rewound / will be
C) encouragement D) dedication C) might be rewound / will have been
E) spectacle D) had been rewound / had been
E) could be rewound / might be

2. According to kinetic theory, the absolute


temperature of a gas is directly ---- to the average 8. Scientists who ---- alert the world to the
kinetic energy of the molecules. existence of a hole in the stratospheric ozone
layer recently reported that this feature of the
A) experimental B) fundamental atmosphere ---- widening soon.
C) negligible D) proportional
E) exceptional A) help / would stop
B) have helped / might have stopped
C) helped / may stop
3. At times during the last Ice Age the North D) will help / might stop
Atlantic thermohaline circulation was ---- weaker E) had helped / has stopped
than it is today.

A) pleasantly B) rarely 9. Meteorites ---- the best available record of the


C) considerably D) directly chemical and physical processes that ---- during
E) fully the first million years of our solar system’s
history.

4. In the 1940s, computer pioneer Konrad Zuse A) provide / occurred


began to ---- that the universe might be nothing B) are providing / have occurred
but a giant computer continually executing formal C) had provided / occurred
rules to compute its own evolution. D) could provide / would occur
E) provided / might occur
A) denounce B) pressurize
C) empower D) evade
E) speculate 10. Today one third of the carbon dioxide (CO )
2
given off by burning fossil fuels ---- the oceans,
thus ---- their naturally alkaline pH.
5. In recent years, carbon dioxide (CO ), a
2
naturally occurring greenhouse gas, has been ---- A) is entering / reduces
as a result of activities such as the burning of B) enters / reducing
fossil fuels and deforestation. C) had entered / will reduce
D) will enter / reduced
A) setting out B) building up E) would enter / having reduced
C) going out D) coming in
E) reaching up
11. Until recently, some scientists ---- that many
individuals of the same species ---- specific tasks
6. The movement of electrons within better than the same number of individuals from
electromagnetic waves ---- some of the wave’s different species.
energy, affecting the properties of the wave and
how it travels. A) will think / are performing
B) were thinking / will perform
A) tells off B) puts in C) think / ought to perform
C) finds out D) uses up D) had thought / would be performing
E) goes around E) thought / could perform

12. Archaeological records show evidence ----


local plants being used as medicine ---- ancient
Egyptian and Stone Age times.

A) about / at B) of / in
C) with / by D) from / for
E) on / to

74
13. The Weddell seal can swim under the ice ---- a 19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada
depth of 500 metres ---- more than an hour without numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da
coming up for air. ifadeyi bulunuz.
A) to / between B) in / during
C) at / for D) on / through Among the earliest events in fruit fly development are
E) with / about those that determine which end of the egg cell will
become the head and which end will become the tail.
14. ---- providing energy, proteins provide the raw These events (19) ---- in the ovaries of the mother fly
materials for building the body’s tissues and and involve communication between an unfertilized
regulating its many activities. egg cell and the cells next to it. One of the first genes
activated in the egg cell produces a protein that
A) According to B) As regards leaves the egg cell and signals neighbouring follicle
C) Despite D) In addition to cells. Then these follicle cells (20) ---- to turn on
E) Contrary to genes for other proteins, which signal back to the egg
cell. One of the egg cell’s responses is to localize a
specific type of mRNA at one end of the cell. This
15. The theory posits that Earth’s climate changes RNA marks the end of the egg (21) ---- the fly’s head
---- cyclic variations in the way it orbits the sun. will develop, and thus defines the fly’s head-to-tail
axis. (22) ----, other egg cell genes direct the
A) in place of B) in case of positioning (23) ---- the top-to-bottom and side-to-side
C) so as to D) in view of axes.
E) as a result of

19.
16. Life on Earth would be impossible without A) instruct B) dispel C) embrace
water, ---- all life forms, from bacteria to plants D) identify E) occur
and animals, contain it.
A) since B) even so
C) unless D) that 20.
E) when A) will be stimulated B) stimulate
C) are stimulated D) have been stimulated
E) are stimulating
17. Obtaining nutrients is of ---- vital importance
---- both individual organisms and ecosystems are
structured around the central theme of nutrition, 21.
the process of taking in and using food. A) who B) what C) whom
D) where E) how
A) more / than B) such / that
C) so / as D) much / like
E) either / or 22.
A) On the contrary B) Similarly
C) Nevertheless D) Despite this
18. Butterflies have some characteristics that are E) As a result
---- for professional scientists to understand ----
amateur enthusiasts.
23.
A) easier / than B) the easiest / as A) behind B) to C) about
C) as easy / so D) so easy / that D) of E) at
E) easiest / like

24. – 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde


tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.

24. Long before Linnaeus established his system


th
for naming plants in the 18 century, ----.

A) around the world, orchids have long been


symbols of fertility and potency as in the Greek
legend of Orchis
B) the common names of flowers should be highly
evocative or imaginative
C) early attempts at growing orchids had consisted
of placing plants in pots filled with a thick mixture
of rotting wood and leaves
D) many Amazonian orchids are referred to locally
as “monkey love-potions”
E) people throughout the world called plants by their
own inventive names

75
25. While air quality may improve with increased 29. ---- because at these speeds they can propel
biofuel use, ----. the car without using engine power.

A) water quality can suffer due to over-use of A) The two-mode hybrid systems contain two
fertilizers and overdrawn water supplies electric motors surrounding two planetary gear
B) worldwide ethanol demand has pushed up the sets
cost of corn by 25% and sugar by 100% B) At higher velocities, engine power is required
C) meanwhile, fuel crops had increased in value C) The systems can deliver continuous power in the
D) the energy balance of today’s ethanol is positive required amounts
E) 75 million gallons of biodiesel and 4 billion D) Single-mode hybrid automobile systems are more
gallons of ethanol were made last year fuel-efficient at lower speeds
E) Two-mode systems switch between modes
without the driver realizing it
26. When sunlight hits a raindrop, ----.

A) a ray of sunlight actually consists of a mixture of 30. Biological psychology is interdisciplinary by


differently-coloured light nature ----.
B) a typical raindrop is spherical in shape
C) the rainbow is actually a circle which is centered A) now that about half the people who have
on the point that is directly opposite the sun from advanced degrees in psychology will work in
the observer colleges and universities
D) there is a reduction in its speed and this causes B) if our treatment of consciousness reflected both
the light to bend the biological and cognitive perspectives
E) refraction is the bending of light as it passes from C) since it seeks to establish relationships between
one medium to another psychological processes and biological ones
D) just as biological researchers have often
attempted to explain psychological principles in
27. Having taken in more carbohydrates than it terms of biological ones
needs, ----. E) and so cognitive science and cultural psychology
are further examples of this phenomenon
A) sugar can contribute to nutrient deficiencies only
by displacing nutrients
B) the body uses glucose to meet its energy 31. Most viruses cannot survive very long outside
requirements, fills its glycogen stores to capacity, a living host cell, ----.
and may still have some left over
C) researchers agree that unusually high doses of A) although temperate bacteriophages do not
refined sugar can alter blood lipids to favour heart always destroy their hosts
disease B) but the type of attachment proteins on the
D) high-fibre foods not only add bulk to the diet, but surface of a virus determines what type of cell it
are economical and nutritious can infect
E) a high-fat diet raises the risks of heart disease, C) since viruses have several ways to penetrate
some types of cancer, hypertension, diabetes animal cells
and obesity D) so their survival depends to a great extent on
their being transmitted from animal to animal
E) yet under a microscope, most bacteria appear
28. ----, yet the “software programmes”, or genes, similar in size and form
inside our bodies have not changed much in
thousands of years.
32. ----, it is now actually quite a simple matter to
A) Computer software has come down in price by make electrons oppose the “push” of applied
half annually electric and magnetic fields.
B) There is a gene that tells fat cells to hold on to
every calorie in order to protect the body during A) Although this process might have seemed
periods of starvation impossible in the past
C) Scientists are researching new methods to B) Rather than the wave reacting to an individual
overcome the difficulties of gene therapy molecule
D) A human gene is composed of two sets of 23 C) Whether there is a collective response of milions
chromosomes of molecules
E) Our computers and other electronic devices D) Because one wants to understand how negative
typically have their software updated every few refraction can arise
months E) Since much remains to be done to turn such
visions into reality

76
33. Physical activity limits the rise in blood 37. The fact that the majority of the scientific
glucose that would normally occur after a meal world subscribes to a particular view does not
----. make it absolutely right.

A) but aerobic exercise is typically recommended for A) Belirli bir görüş mutlak doğru olmasa da bilim
people who want to lose weight dünyasında çoğunluk tarafından benimsenmiş
B) since research is ongoing in this area olabilir.
C) whereas it takes weeks to months of aerobic B) Bilim dünyasında çoğunluğun aynı görüşe sahip
training to improve physical fitness olması, bu görüşün mutlaka doğru olduğu
D) that it will be required only under certain specific anlamına gelmez.
conditions C) Bilim dünyasının çoğunluğu belirli bir görüşü
E) by making insulin work better in moving glucose mutlak doğru kabul etmiş olsa da gerçek bunun
into muscle tam tersi olabilir.
D) Bilim dünyasının çoğunluğunun belirli bir görüşü
kabul etmesi, bu görüşü mutlak doğru kılmaz.
34. ----, astronomers want to take pictures of E) Belirli bir görüş bilim dünyasında çoğunlukla
galaxies of various ages from infancy to maturity. benimsenmiş olsa bile, mutlaka doğru
olmayabilir.
A) Because Hubble has taken long exposures of
small patches of sky
B) In order to get an idea of what the Milky Way 38. Even if all fossil-fuel power stations worldwide
might have looked like in the past were switched off tomorrow, global temperatures
C) Even though old galaxies were smaller in size would continue to rise for another fifty years.
and more irregular in shape than modern ones
D) As one would expect, if today’s galaxies formed A) Fosil yakıta dayanan enerji santralleri tüm
from the union of several smaller ones dünyada durdurulsa bile küresel sıcaklıkların
E) If the rate of star formation reached its peak hızla artması sorunu en az bir elli yıl daha
around seven billion years ago çözülemeyecektir.
B) Tüm dünyadaki fosil yakıtla çalışan enerji
santralleri yarın kapatılsa bile, bu durum küresel
35. RNA interference, ----, can turn specific genes sıcaklığın artmasını elli yıl daha durduramaz.
off. C) Eğer fosil yakıtlı enerji santralleri tüm dünyada
hemen kapatılabilse, küresel sıcaklık ancak elli yıl
A) that a new technology could be developed daha yükselmeye devam eder.
B) whose ability to understand the brain was D) Fosil yakıt kullanan enerji santralleri yarın tüm
accelerating dünyada kapatılsaydı, küresel sıcaklığın artması
C) just as hypertension in animals is common sadece elli yıl sürerdi.
D) in that nanoparticles can latch onto cancer cells E) Dünyadaki tüm fosil yakıtlı enerji santralleri yarın
E) which scientists have only recently begun to devreden çıkarılsa bile, küresel sıcaklıklar bir elli
understand yıl daha yükselmeye devam edecektir.

36. – 38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye 39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye
anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz. anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.

36. Most scientists are of the opinion that 39. Darwin’in ileri sürmüş olduğu başlıca
hurricane Katrina, which caused colossal damage düşünceler, bilimdeki pek çok kavram gibi, eski
to the coastal areas of Louisiana in America, was Yunanlılara kadar izlenebilir.
clearly linked with global warming.
A) The main ideas Darwin advanced, like many
A) Pek çok bilim adamı, Amerika’da Louisiana sahil concepts in science, can be traced back to the
bölgelerinde büyük tahribata yol açan Katrina ancient Greeks.
kasırgasının, küresel ısınmanın bir sonucu B) Similar to many concepts in science, the majority
olduğu görüşünü benimsemektedir. of ideas put forward by Darwin are often
B) Çoğu bilim adamı, Amerika’da Louisiana’nın attributed to the ancient Greeks.
C) sahil bölgelerinde çok büyük hasara neden olan C) Like a number of scientific concepts, most of the
Katrina kasırgasının, küresel ısınmayla açıkça ideas suggested by Darwin may have been
bağlantılı olduğu görüşündedir. derived from the ancient Greeks.
D) Pek çok bilim adamına göre küresel ısınmayla D) Many ideas advanced by Darwin can, like the
açıkça bağlantılı olan Katrina kasırgası, majority of concepts in science, be related to the
Amerika’da Louisiana kıyılarında çok büyük ancient Greeks.
tahribata yol açmıştır. E) Like a lot of ideas in science, a great majority of
E) Çoğu bilim adamına göre küresel ısınmayla kesin concepts developed by Darwin are referred to in
ilişkisi olan Katrina kasırgası, en korkunç etkisini the works of the ancient Greeks.
Amerika’nın Louisiana sahillerinde göstermiştir.
F) Birçok bilim adamı, küresel ısınmadan
kaynaklanan kasırgaların Amerika’da
Louisiana’nın sahil bölgelerini vuran Katrina gibi,
büyük hasarlara neden olacağını düşünmektedir.

77
40. Tür olarak varlığımızı sürdürmemiz toprağa 42. – 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parça-da
bağlıdır; ancak erozyon ve kimyasal kirlilik, bu anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirile-bilecek
yaşamsal kaynağı tüm dünyada tehdit etmektedir. cümleyi bulunuz.

A) Erosion and chemical pollution throughout the 42. Hippopotamuses can be irritable and
world threaten our survival as a species, which aggressive when it comes to defending their
depends on soil as a vital resource. territory and their young. ----. They have trampled
B) Soil is indispensable for our survival, and yet this or gored people who came too near, dragged
resource of vital importance is threatened by them into lakes, tipped over their boats, and bitten
erosion and chemical pollution worldwide. off their heads.
C) For our survival as a species, we especially
depend on soil, and yet this important resource is A) Hippos are led by dominant males, which can
threatened worldwide by erosion and chemical weigh 6,000 pounds or more
pollution. B) Agricultural irrigation systems and other
D) Our survival as a species depends on soil, and developments have depleted the hippos’ wetland,
yet erosion and chemical pollution threaten this river and lake habitats
vital resource throughout the world. C) Although hippos occasionally fight with
E) Throughout the world, erosion and chemical crocodiles, a growing number of their attacks are
pollution threaten soil, which, as a vital resource, on humans
is indispensable for our survival. D) A decade ago there were about 160,000 hippos
in Africa, but the population has dwindled to
between 125,000 and 148,000 today
41. Đki galaksinin çarpışması, evrenin kütlesine E) In countries beset by civil unrest, where people
hükmettiği sanılan görünmez kara maddenin are hungry and desperate, hippos are hunted for
bugüne kadar elde edilen en iyi kanıtını sağlar. their meat
A) Following the collision of two galaxies, there
appears the best evidence so far known of the 43. The historian G. Sarton said that the
invisible dark matter which is believed to pervade development of mathematics is unknown to the
the mass of the universe. general public. ----. Cayley’s seminal
B) The collision of two galaxies provides the best investigations of matrix algebra were crucial for
evidence yet obtained of the invisible dark matter the development of linear algebra. The terms
assumed to dominate the mass of the universe. matrix, determinant and Jacobian, familiar to most
C) The only evidence so far of the invisible dark science students, were invented by Slyvester.
matter thought to penetrate the mass of the
universe is provided by the collision of two A) Cayley was a Trinity College fellow at Cambridge
galaxies. for a few years until he married
D) It is from the collision of two galaxies that the best B) It isn’t clear when they met, but by 1847 they
evidence yet of the invisible dark matter which is were corresponding to share thoughts about
assumed to hold together the mass of the mathematics
universe has been obtained. C) Each had triumphed on the University of
E) The invisible dark matter which is thought to Cambridge’s fearsome Tripos examinations
dominate the mass of the universe is best D) Certainly very few have ever heard of A. Cayley
understood through the evidence provided by the or J.J. Slyvester, two of the most prolific
collision of two galaxies. mathematicians of the Victorian era
E) J.J. Slyvester was not only a mathematician but
also an enthusiastic poet who called himself the
“mathematical Adam”

44. ----? The answer to that question can range


from days to months to decades on the one
extreme and from centuries to millenia, and
possibly even longer depending on such diverse
and interrelated factors as design, construction
and maintenance.

A) How old is the world-famous Brooklyn Bridge


B) Can a bridge possibly be designed to last a
century
C) How long did London’s Millennium Bridge stay
open
D) The Tacoma Narrows Bridge lasted only four
months before it fell to the wind, didn’t it
E) How long can a bridge last

78
45. Detecting a virus on any nanosize particle 48.
usually means fixing it to a substrate or attaching Tim: - Did you know that NASA is going to send
a fluorescent probe to it, neither of which is another manned mission to upgrade and repair
practical for detecting particles in real time. ----. the Hubble space telescope?
The system splits a laser beam in two, sending Max: - Oh? I thought that, after the 2003 Columbia
one half to a sample. When the light hits a small shuttle disaster, they were going to send manned
particle, it is reflected back and recombined with spacecraft only to the International Space Station.
the reserved half of the laser beam, producing a Tim: - ----
detectable interference pattern only when a Max: - I hope NASA’s taking the proper
moving particle is present. precautions this time.

A) The method works because it relies on the light’s A) The space telescope is deteriorating because of
amplitude rather than its intensity dust and radiation.
B) The investigators have so far detected single B) Well, NASA changed its mind because a robotic
particles as small as seven nanometres across mission has turned out to be impossible.
C) Now physicists have assembled a simple system C) Hubble was first launched into space in 1990. Did
for doing just that you know that?
D) A substrate is a substance that reacts when it D) I learned from this article that Edwin Hubble was
comes into contact with a particular enzyme the first astronomer to describe the expansion of
E) Amplitude is the square root of intensity the universe.
E) The Hubble telescope has sent back thousands
of valuable images. I think it’s worth the mission,
46. Why do young chameleons prefer to stay don’t you?
close to the ground? In a recent study published
in Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology,
biologists argue that cannibalism in the common 49.
chameleon has resulted in a habitat shift. ----. Mary: - I watched a news report this evening about
Juvenile chameleons tend to stay in low grasses, a man who had started many forest fires.
whereas adults make better use of their Investigators were able to find him by examining
anatomical gifts by living primarily in trees. the areas where the fires had started.
Paul: - ----
A) That is, as individuals develop, their choice of Mary: - No; they looked very carefully, sometimes
habitat changes with a magnifying glass or metal detector, to find
B) With its prehensile tail and strong, opposing toes, the match or other agent that had been used to
the common chameleon is a natural climber set the fire, and then they traced it back to the
C) Young chameleons showed little change in person. It almost always works.
behaviour when with other juveniles
D) The biologists placed a one-way mirror between A) Have you ever been near a forest fire when it
an adult and a juvenile, so that the adult could was burning?
see the juvenile but not the other way round B) A fire last August nearly burnt up my aunt’s home
E) Whether an attack was likely when there was in California. I hope they catch whoever set that
close contact between the generations was also fire, too.
tested C) How could they possibly have done that? Weren’t
all the clues burnt up in the fire?
D) How could they find the place where the fire had
47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş started?
bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi E) I think people should be very careful with
bulunuz. matches or cigarettes when they are in the forest.

47.
Maeve: - l learned today that there are actually two 50.
types of synapses in an animal’s nervous system. Carol: - Do you know what makes birds’ vision
Charles: - ---- better than ours?
Maeve: - Which type transmits signals faster? Mike: - ----
Charles: - The second, because it sends signals Carol: - Why do they have that ability when
directly, without using a neurotransmitter. humans don’t?
Mike: - I think it’s because early mammals were
A) Oh, really? I only know of one type. active at night, when there’s no ultraviolet light
B) Most people have only heard of chemical from the sun, and so they lost the ability, but birds
synapses. didn’t.
C) Electrical synapses were first found in crayfish in
1957. A) It’s partly because they can see ultraviolet light
D) Yes, chemical and electrical synapses. wavelengths, while humans can’t.
E) Synapses send information from the nervous B) They need to see better in order to determine the
system to the brain, and vice versa. health of a potential mate.
C) It’s impossible for humans to know what birds’
perception of colours is actually like.
D) I think their vision is always strengthened by
ultraviolet light.
E) Insects can also see ultraviolet wavelengths.

79
51. 55. (I) Plant biologists estimate that 25-50% of all
Brenda: - Have you heard of the new Internet plant species are polyploids, that is, having three or
technology that allows people to conduct a search more sets of chromosomes. (II) Hybridization between
for information by entering a photo taken with a two species accounts for most of this polyploidy,
mobile telephone into the search engine? perhaps because the unusually diverse assortment of
Ryan: - ---- genes a hybrid inherits from parents of different
Brenda: - Well, for example, sending a photo of a species can be advantageous. (III) Many of the plants
nearby landmark building might give you a street we grow for food are polyploids, including oats,
map of the area. potatoes, bananas, plums, apples and wheat. (IV)
Ryan: - That would be useful if you were lost in a Cotton, also a polyploid, is the source of one of the
foreign city. world’s most popular clothing fibres. (V) Cotton thread
is made from the long white plumes that extend from
A) I can barely use my mobile to call someone, let the seeds of the plant.
alone to send a picture over the Internet!
B) Who told you that? A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
C) What good would that be?
D) Oh, another new technology.
E) Don’t believe everything you read or see on the 56. (I) Migration is a very precise evolutionary
television. adaptation to seasonal changes, but the benefits of
migration are not without cost. (II) Many weeks may
be spent each year on energy-demanding journeys.
52. – 56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla (III) Some animals may become lost or die along the
okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan way. (IV) Green turtles migrate more than 2,000
cümleyi bulunuz. kilometres across open ocean between their feeding
area off the coast of Brazil and their nesting place on
52. (I) Are humans the only primates that cry? (II) The Ascension Island. (V) And migrating individuals are
answer depends on how you define “crying”. (III) If it often at greater risk from predators in unfamiliar
is defined as tears coming from the eyes, then the areas.
answer is yes. (IV) Others take a conservative stance
and say that it is too difficult to tell whether or not non- A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
human primates have feelings. (V) However, if crying
is vocalization that occurs under the conditions of
distress, then you can find crying in almost all
primates.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

53. (I) Vertebrate skeletons must be both rigid and


strong. (II) However, there are disadvantages to
having grossly under- or overbuilt bones. (III) Animals
have to balance the needs for strength and stability
against the cost of producing, maintaining and
manufacturing a heavier skeleton. (IV) Consequently,
skeletal size tends to match mechanical requirements
closely. (V) Indeed, limb-bone fractures are relatively
rare.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

54. (I) The world’s coral reefs are in trouble. (II)


According to an international consortium of scientists
and volunteers, only 30 per cent of reefs are healthy
now. (III) Modern coral reefs as we know them have
been accumulating since the Holocene Epoch 10,000
years ago. (IV) US government agencies,
conservation organizations and other scientists echo
the point. (V) A few go so far as to say that coral reefs
in some areas may be doomed.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

80
57. – 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 59. According to the passage, the lack of
cevaplayınız. subsequent chromosomal damage in mice
brought into the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone from
During our visit in the summer of 1994 to the radiation-free areas proves that ----.
Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, a region within a 30 km
radius of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, we A) mammals can suffer the effects of radiation and
were amazed by the diversity of mammals living in the still carry a normal embryo
shadow of the ruined reactor only eight years after the B) the radiation found in the mice native to the
meltdown. During our excursion through the woods, Exclusion Zone had compounded with each new
we trapped some of the local mice for examination in generation
a makeshift laboratory. We were surprised to find that, C) the mice native to the Exclusion Zone had,
although each mouse registered unprecedented actually, not developed their immunity to radiation
levels of radiation in its bones and muscles, all the after the explosion occurred
animals seemed physically normal, and many of the D) unprecedented levels of radiation in an animal’s
females were carrying normal-looking embryos. We tissues always signal extensive chromosomal
found that the mice did not have any obvious damage
chromosomal damage. We wondered whether the E) trapping animals is a difficult task, best left to
absence of injury could be explained by some sort of hunters native to the area
adaptive change, perhaps a more efficient DNA-repair
mechanism, after many prior generations had been
exposed to radiation. But when we transplanted wild 60. We understand from the passage that, on their
mice from uncontaminated regions into cages in the visit to the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, the
Exclusion Zone and then examined their scientists ----.
chromosomes, they were likewise unaffected by the
radiation. In at least this respect, the mice seemed to A) did not expect to find animals that were physically
have a natural “immunity” to harm from radiation. normal
B) themselves began to suffer from exposure to high
57. We see from the passage that the scientists levels of radiation
who visited the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone in 1994 C) mainly wanted to observe the effects of the
concluded that ----. reactor’s meltdown on the surrounding plant life
D) transported mice from the Exclusion Zone to an
A) all mice appear to have inborn protection against uncontaminated area to see if their radiation
the harmful effects of radiation levels would decrease
B) only the mice born in the Exclusion Zone were E) were surprised to find that animals in the
immune to the chromosomal damage caused by Exclusion Zone did not look the same as animals
high levels of radiation from outside the Exclusion Zone
C) mice certainly have better-developed DNA-repair
mechanisms than other animals
D) the meltdown of the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl
caused greater than usual diversity among the
mammals living nearby
E) their makeshift laboratory did not produce valid
results for their experiments with the mice

58. It is clear from the passage that the mice


native to the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone ----.

A) had suffered extensive chromosomal damage


B) were found to have very high radiation levels in
their bodies
C) were not affected by the radiation as much as the
mice which had been brought in from outside the
Exclusion Zone
D) were not put in cages by the scientists studying
them
E) showed less genetic diversity than mice from
other areas

81
61. – 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 63. It is pointed out in the passage that, since
cevaplayınız. there may be more ice on one part of the moon’s
surface than on another, ----.
In an attempt to settle the question of whether ice
exists on the moon, NASA plans to launch the Lunar A) a battery-powered vehicle is an essential part of
Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in 2008. Travelling in the probe
a polar orbit only 50 kilometres above the moon’s B) facilities which will examine the ice must be built
surface, the probe will focus a high-resolution neutron near larger ice patches
sensor on the suspected ice deposits to determine C) the search there for ice is expensive and
their precise locations. But because the ice is controversial
probably buried and mixed with lunar dirt, NASA will D) it is essential to test for ice in several different
also need to land a probe to dig up and analyze soil areas
samples. This mission, scheduled for 2011, is a E) it will not be possible to use the ice for future
challenging one because instruments operating in space exploration
shadowed areas cannot use solar power. The craft
could land at a sunlit site and send a battery-powered
vehicle into a dark crater, but the batteries would 64. We see from the passage that the main
quickly die. A radioisotope thermal generator could problem of landing a probe on the moon to test
provide electricity using heat from plutonium decay, for ice in shadowed areas is ----.
but NASA is leaning against this option because it is
expensive and controversial. Another idea under A) that the public is not interested in the project
consideration is sending a probe that could hop from B) the hard, rocky surface of the moon
place to place on the lunar surface by restarting its C) lack of government funding for the project
landing rockets, lifting the craft to 100 metres above D) the extremely cold temperatures the probe would
its original landing site and moving it to another spot have to work in
in the crater basin to hunt for ice. Investigating more E) that it would not be able to use solar power
than one site is crucial because the ice may be
unevenly distributed. Yet another alternative would be
to fire ground-penetrating instruments at several
places in the shadowed basin, either from a lander at
the crater’s rim or from an orbiting craft.

61. It is clear from the passage that ----.

A) firing ground-penetrating instruments at the moon


could upset the balance of its surface
B) there are several options for producing a probe
that could work in the shadowed areas of the
moon
C) NASA will use plutonium decay to provide power
for its newest landing probe
D) the spacecraft that NASA wants to send to the
moon will probably never actually be
manufactured
E) NASA plans only to send a probe to orbit the
moon, not to land on it

62. We understand from the passage that, as part


of an effort to prove the existence of ice on the
moon, NASA ----.

A) will make no use of high-resolution radio


telescopes
B) is currently observing the moon from Earth
C) is planning to send one spacecraft to orbit the
moon and another to land there
D) is going to send a landing craft that will rely solely
on solar power
E) has already sent a spacecraft there to take
pictures

82
65. – 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 68. lt is understood from the passage that adult
cevaplayınız. stem cells ----.

Stem cells, unlike all other cells in the body, can copy A) have been manipulated by scientists in order to
themselves indefinitely. So-called adult stem cells are produce new organs
found in many parts of the body, constantly B) are not as well-understood as other types of cells
rejuvenating the brain, remodeling arteries so blood in our bodies
can bypass clogs, and growing new skin to heal C) are always actively engaged in our bodies
wounds. However, adult stem cells have more limited D) will someday be used to regenerate whole
power than embryonic stem cells, which can turn into organs
any type of cell in the body. Indeed, scientists are E) can turn into any other cell type
hoping that embryonic stem cells could be turned into
neurons to fix damaged brains, cardiac cells to repair
damaged hearts, or pancreatic cells to create insulin
for people with diabetes. Maybe they could even be
used to regenerate whole organs. To date, scientists
worldwide have made more than 100 different human
embryonic cell lines. Still, the existing lines have
serious limitations. Most have been grown on a lattice
of mouse embryonic skin cells for support.
Consequently, the human embryonic cells are
contaminated by mouse cells, and though they’re still
useful for research, they cannot at present be used to
develop therapies for humans.

65. According to the passage, the main problem


with the currently existing embryonic stem cell
lines is ----.

A) the fact that they could be turned into neurons


B) the lack of diversity between the different lines
C) that there are not enough of them to develop
therapies useful for treating human diseases
D) that they are contaminated by the mouse cells
upon which they have been grown
E) that they do not produce reliable research results

66. As regards the therapeutic possibilities, the


passage emphasizes the advantages of ----.

A) developing human embryonic stem cells based


on mouse cells
B) embryonic stem cells over adult stem cells
C) human embryonic stem cells over mouse
embryonic skin cells
D) man-made embryonic stem cell lines
E) adult stem cells when used to rejuvenate the
blood

67. We see from the passage that embryonic stem


cells ----.

A) are far less versatile than adult stem cells


B) hold no possibility of being used to cure disease
C) in the past were able to treat illnesses, but cannot
be used for this purpose today
D) might, in the future, be used to treat humans with
damaged brains or hearts
E) cannot reproduce themselves, unlike adult stem
cells

83
69. – 72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 72. It can be inferred from the passage that ----.
cevaplayınız.
A) atmospheric methane is produced only by human
The concentrations of methane (CH4) and carbon activity
B) the greenhouse effect of methane is not as
dioxide (CO2) gases in the atmosphere have both widely-known as that of carbon dioxide
risen dramatically since the start of the Industrial C) scientists expect atmospheric methane levels to
Revolution. However, unlike its more familiar continue rising
greenhouse-gas cousin, atmospheric methane has D) deforestation contributes to increasing
recently stopped increasing in abundance. This atmospheric methane levels
development wasn’t entirely unanticipated, given that E) carbon dioxide is not as important as methane in
the rate of increase has been slowing for at least a terms of causing global warming
quarter-century. The recent stabilization of methane
levels is something that some scientists are trying
very hard to explain. Methane has many sources.
Some are natural, such as wetlands and plants, and
some are the consequences of modern society, such
as landfills and wastewater treatment. Methane is
destroyed principally by its reaction with the hydroxyl
radical (OH) in the lower atmosphere. One theory
about the stabilization of methane levels is that
deforestation has reduced the number of plants
contributing to atmospheric methane. Another idea is
that an increase in the prevalence of tropical
thunderstorms may have raised the amounts of the
various nitrogen oxides high in the atmosphere.
There, these gases have the side effect of boosting
the production of OH, which in turn acts to destroy
methane.

69. It is pointed out in the passage that methane in


the atmosphere is destroyed primarily by ----.

A) the interventions of scientists


B) the presence of carbon dioxide gas
C) wetlands and plants
D) contact with OH, the hydroxyl radical
E) the Industrial Revolution

70. According to the passage, although


atmospheric carbon dioxide levels continue to
rise, ----.

A) atmospheric methane levels are no longer rising


B) an increase in tropical thunderstorms may reduce
these carbon dioxide levels
C) this rise is expected to level out some time in the
next quarter-century
D) scientists are trying very hard to explain this
increase
E) they are not evenly distributed

71. We understand from the passage that landfills


and wastewater treatment facilities are examples
of ----.

A) natural sources of carbon dioxide


B) ways to boost the production of OH in the
atmosphere
C) man-made sources of methane
D) high levels of atmospheric methane
E) the recent stabilization of methane levels

84
73. – 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 76. According to the passage, the main proof
cevaplayınız. given by Luís and Walter Alvarez of a giant meteor
impact that could have destroyed the dinasours
In 1980, the physicist Luís Alvarez and his son Walter was ----.
advanced a startling theory about the demise of the
dinosaurs: that it was caused by forces that came A) the fossil-rich rock of the late Cretaceous period
from beyond this world. They hypothesized that B) a great cloud of dust surrounding Earth
perhaps a meteor impact had ended the age of the C) the 112-mile-wide crater they had discovered
dinosaurs. The primary evidence was that in soil core D) an enormous fireball in the stratosphere
samples taken in locations around the globe, iridium, E) the presence of iridium in soil all over the world
a substance very rare on Earth but prevalent on
asteroids, had been found in a thin layer of clay
separating the fossil-rich rock of the late Cretaceous
period (the end of the dinosaur age) and the sparsely
fossiled rock of the Tertiary period that followed. The
Alvarezes hypothesized that a very large
extraterrestrial object had slammed into the planet,
sending an enormous fireball into the stratosphere,
along with vast amounts of debris. A great cloud of
dust enshrouded Earth, blocking sunlight for months,
even years, and plants and animals perished in the
ensuing cold and dark. When the dust finally settled
back to Earth, it formed the telltale worldwide layer of
iridium in the clay. The scientific world was not
impressed by the theory. Indeed, some scientists
scoffed at the Alvarezes’ hypothesis, but in 1990
scientists realized that a crater of 112 miles in
diametre in Mexico and dated at 65 million years old
might be evidence that the dinosaurs had indeed died
out due to the effects of a giant meteor.

73. It is clear from the passage that, when the


Alvarezes advanced their meteor-impact theory,
----.

A) their focus was mostly on the Tertiary period


B) it was not a surprising idea
C) they didn’t make use of core samples
D) few scientists believed them
E) there were vast amounts of debris in the
stratosphere

74. It is pointed out in the passage that the cloud


of dust caused by the supposed meteor impact
----.

A) caused the fossils of that period to be particularly


easy to extract
B) poisoned the plants and animals living on Earth
at that time
C) made the Earth dark and cold for a very long
time, causing plants and animals to die
D) did not contain iridium
E) formed a very large crater in Mexico when it
settled

75. We understand from the passage that, by the


time of the Tertiary period, ----.

A) the dinosaurs had died out


B) forces from beyond this world had invaded the
planet
C) the dust from the meteor impact had still not
settled
D) fossils were well-preserved
E) the age of the dinosaurs was thriving

85
77. – 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 80. It is clear from the passage that ----.
cevaplayınız.
A) Mount Vesuvius is a dying volcano which will
Mount Vesuvius in southern Italy is actually a volcano someday cease to erupt
inside the exploded skeleton of an older volcano. B) the Mediterranean Sea is part of the European
Looked at from above, the remaining ridge of a much continental plate
larger volcano can be seen on the north side. This C) the European continental plate will one day
older volcano had probably erupted violently long completely cover the African one
before human settlement. Southern Italy is unstable D) 3.5 million Italians lost their lives in Vesuvius’s
ground. The African continental plate, on which most last eruption
of the Mediterranean Sea rests, is actually diving E) there was once a much larger volcano where
beneath the European plate. That kind of Mount Vesuvius is today
underground collision produces molten rock, or
magma, rich in volatile gases such as sulfur dioxide.
Under pressure underground, these gases stay
dissolved. But when the magma rises to the surface,
the gases are released. Accordingly, when volcanoes
like Vesuvius erupt, they tend to erupt explosively. To
this day, in fact, Vesuvius remains one of the world’s
most dangerous volcanoes; some 3.5 million Italians
live in its shadow. Although monitoring devices are in
place to warn of the volcano’s activity, if there were a
major eruption with little warning, there could be a
tremendous loss of life.

77. We see from the passage that although Mount


Vesuvius is a very dangerous volcano ----.

A) it is safe to live nearby because of the monitoring


devices that warn of the volcano’s activity
B) many people still live nearby
C) it is more dangerous than the older volcano that
used to be in its place
D) it does not result from an underground collision of
continental plates
E) its eruption would never result in people’s deaths

78. We can understand from the passage that the


pushing of the African continental plate beneath
the European continental plate ----.

A) does not create magma containing sulfur dioxide


and other unstable gases
B) is the result of volcanic activity such as we see in
Southern Italy
C) makes Southern Italy a region prone to volcanic
eruptions
D) has made Northern Africa a “hot spot” for
volcanic activity
E) means that the Mediterranean Sea is slowly
widening

79. We understand from the passage that Mount


Vesuvius’s eruptions are usually very explosive
because of ----.

A) the exploded skeleton of an older volcano within


which it is located
B) the strong skeletal structure of the volcano
C) its proximity to a large body of water
D) the unstable gases released when the volcano’s
magma reaches the surface of the Earth
E) the monitoring devices placed near the volcano

86
th
1. – 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 9. It ---- until the 17 century that military leaders
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. began to realize that stress on soldiers ---- a
profound influence on the success of military
1. In their ---- to overcome the anti-social effects of operations.
modern architecture, architects have directed
their attention to more informal settlements. A) had not been / is having
B) is not / has
A) avoidance B) condition C) attempt C) was not / could have
D) involvement E) development D) has not been / had
E) may not be / must have

2. Much of our knowledge of the ---- lives of the


ancient Romans has been derived from the 10. A deeply hypnotized subject ---- to initiate
excavations at Pompeii and nearby Herculaneum. activity and would rather wait for the hypnotist ----
something to do.
A) pretentious B) daily C) complete
D) convenient E) extensive A) does not like / to suggest
B) had not liked / suggesting
C) did not like / should suggest
3. The growing closeness between China and the D) may not like / has suggested
Gulf nations has not gone unnoticed in the rest of E) will not like / to be suggesting
the world, most ---- in the US.

A) similarly B) vaguely C) relatively 11. Ever since James R. Flynn ---- his startling
D) equally E) notably results, psychologists and educators ---- to figure
out whether people really are getting smarter.

4. Language learning can ---- in interesting ways A) has published / had struggled
across different societies and cultural settings. B) published / have struggled
C) had published / will struggle
A) divide B) distract C) vary D) was publishing / had been struggling
D) tend E) dismay E) publishes / are struggling

5. As a family we are used to moving from one 12. Two factors that contribute ---- the Eastern
part of the country to another, and we usually ---- Sierra’s wildflower diversity are its local habitat
pretty quickly in each new home. diversity and the fact that it is the meeting point ---
- three floristic regions.
A) run through B) move round C) turn down
D) come through E) settle down A) over / from B) for / in C) into / at
D) on / about E) to / for

6. The EU recognizes that progress on human


rights around the world ---- the cooperation and 13. ---- the same time as modern humans pushed
collaboration of many groups and individuals. into Europe, some of the same group that had
paused ---- the Middle East spread east into
A) gets into B) makes up C) takes off Central Asia.
D) depends on E) puts off
A) Of / for B) About / in C) With / at
D) During / to E) On / through
7. If they ---- us their plans at the beginning, these
problems ---- us now.
14. Research evidence suggests that, in their
A) showed / would not have been worrying games, girls show preference for home-centered
B) had shown / would not be worrying interests ---- boys are drawn to more naughty and
C) show / will not be worrying dangerous themes and plots.
D) have shown / could not be worrying
E) will show / may not be worrying A) unless B) when C) as though
D) whereas E) now that

8. Most physical anthropologists ---- that modern


human abilities ---- present since the emergence 15. ---- winemaking in France dates back to pre-
of Homo sapiens some 40,000-100,000 years ago. Roman times it was the Romans who spread the
practice.
A) will agree / would be A) Although B) Until C) If
B) could agree / are D) Whether E) In that
C) have agreed / were
D) agree / have been
E) had agreed / must be

87
16. ---- regulate the life of a society, general and 24. – 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde
legal rules are set down in written form by the tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
highest legislative authority of a country.
24. Although the pace of progress in Latin
A) Due to B) In order to America and the Caribbean over the past two
C) With reference to D) Contrary to decades has been impressive, ----.
E) With regard to
A) there remain tremendous development needs in
the region, resulting from poverty and inequality
17. The Mann-Whitney test is a procedure used in B) the EU works with Latin American and Caribbean
nonparametric statistics to determine ---- the nations to advance these goals
means of two populations are equal. C) since 2000, the European Investment Bank has
financed €1.3 billion in projects in the region
A) so far as B) so long as C) while D) Europe and Latin America share historic and
D) since E) whether cultural ties stretching back over 500 years
E) the European Commission Humanitarian Aid
Office has funded disaster relief operations in the
18. France is a large country and, although it has region
over 56 million inhabitants, is ---- densely
populated ---- most of its western European
neighbours. 25. Once rarely found in newsrooms, ----.

A) so / that B) more / as C) less / than A) each radio and television station and daily
D) either / or E) not only / but newspaper will have subscribed to one or more
wire services
B) the news editor will also assign headline sizes to
19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada be written on the various stories as they are
numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da edited throughout the night
ifadeyi bulunuz. C) a very small newspaper or radio station may have
a reporting staff consisting of one or two persons
A market economy provides plenty of opportunities to D) the reporter’s task could have been to present
people, but there are risks. Your level of success in a information, not to pass judgment on it
market economy – how much income you earn and E) women now comprise about half of the news-
how much wealth you accumulate – will depend on editorial staffs of America’s daily newspapers
your innate intelligence (19) ---- your efforts. But there
is also an element of luck: Your fate (20) ---- affected
by where you were born, what occupation you 26. As most of the archaeological and
choose, and your genetic makeup and health. There paleontological records consist of bones, ----.
are also chance events, such as natural disasters and
human accidents, that can affect your (21) ----. Given A) people often think of the human skeleton as a
the uncertainty of market economics, most symbol of death
governments have a “social safety net” (22) ---- B) skeletal remains form the basis for most of what
provides for citizens who do not succeed in the we know about human ancestors and our
market economy. The safety net includes evolution
programmes that redistribute income from the rich to C) the pace of skeletal weakening has accelerated
the poor and (23) ---- programmes of support. over the past few millenia
D) it is undoubtedly true that bone resists
19. decomposition better than flesh
A) owing to B) in case of C) by means of E) the bones of modern humans are, on average,
D) as well as E) on behalf of more slender than those of our ancestors

20.
A) was B) is 27. While some of the tapestries at the exhibition
C) had been D) would have been are representations of local life, ----.
E) should have been
A) they were created by individuals without any
21. formal art training
A) account B) demand C) prosperity B) few observers appreciated the colour or the
D) requirement E) schedule creativity of the abstract designs
C) others depict fruit, flowers, trees and the like
22. D) one wonders whether they have taken up to 18
A) what B) of which C) when months to complete
D) that E) wherever E) the exhibition itself will continue until the end of
the year
23.
A) one another B) other C) another
D) each other E) every other

88
28. ---- if it is faced with American-inspired 32. In Britain last year, there were about 5.5
international sanctions. million residents born outside the country, ----.

A) Iran has threatened to disrupt oil supplies A) whatever one means by Britishness, citizenship
B) Tehran would probably have found considerable and integration
foreign support B) since the government denies migrants free
C) Iran’s use of the “oil weapon” in the past had English lessons
serious economic consequences around the C) of whom only about 60 per cent were citizens
globe D) although many migrants work in situations that
D) The Iranians have developed a petro-euro only require their native language
system for oil trading E) while British customs and institutions help people
E) The likelihood of Tehran taking action to to integrate
undermine the US economy has grown stronger

33. Classical musical literacy in much of Europe


29. Though there has been significant today is in decline ----.
improvement in the growth of Africa’s gross
domestic product in recent years, ----. A) because its theory remains far behind the
realities of contemporary music practice
A) inflation eased to single digits, from 10.6% to B) whether the musical world has changed
8.4%, in the previous year C) even though new technology has also affected
B) macroeconomic conditions in the region the music itself
continued to improve in 2006 D) when hundreds of thousands of musicians form
C) the report suggests concrete approaches for amateur symphony orchestras and chamber
employment-based poverty reduction music groups
programmes E) though many countries were giving considerable
D) poverty remains higher there than in other encouragement to young conductors and
developing regions composers
E) West Africa has the lowest unemployment rate of
all
34. The public may be interested in whom
ministers have lunch with, ----
30. ----, the actual pace of change in these
countries has been disappointingly slow. A) regardless of the fact that civil servants are
always at the heart of public decision-making.
A) Since most of the sub-Saharan African countries B) even though the contribution of civil servants to
have good governance policy-making was decreasing in recent years.
B) Even though many sub-Saharan African C) and what are the benefits of greater openness for
governments say they support structural reforms a democratic political system?
C) Unless firmer action is taken against corruption in D) but is it in the public interest for the day-to-day
sub-Saharan Africa activities of ministers to be fully disclosed?
D) In order to improve the management of public E) even if most senior civil servants get paid more
spending in sub-Saharan African countries than academics.
E) In spite of the IMF’s demand that countries at a
similar stage of development should receive
equal treatment 35. It is generally felt that members of the white
working class in Britain express racist sentiments
----.
31. France’s biggest problem is mass
unemployment, ----. A) or there may be disagreements and tensions
between different groups of people
A) since students are protesting against a new, B) since they are the people most directly affected
more flexible job contract by Asian immigration
B) if employers transform permanent jobs into less C) if the class hierarchy is internalized by each
secure ones member of society
C) which had been outside the control of the D) unless they want to be respected on their own
government for at least two decades terms
D) as long as the government continues to support E) whether or not they have control over their own
the heavily-protected high-level workers lives
E) which has continued for more than two decades

89
38. Although the British gained control of the
36. – 38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye Alabama region in 1763 with the Treaty of Paris,
anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz. they had to cede almost all of the region to the US
and Spain after the American Revolution.
36. With the exception of its southwest, a large
part of Afghanistan is covered by high snow- A) 1763 Paris Antlaşması’yla Alabama bölgesinin
capped mountains and divided by deep valleys. kontrolü Đngilizlere geçti; ancak, Amerikan
Devrimi’nden sonra bölgenin tümü Birleşik
A) Afganistan’ın güneybatısı hariç büyük bir bölü- Devletlere ve Đspanya’ya bırakıldı.
mü, zirveleri karla örtülü yüksek dağlarla kaplıdır B) Đngilizler, 1763 Paris Antlaşması’yla kontrolünü
ve derin vadilerle bölünmüştür. ele geçirdikleri Alabama bölgesinin hâkimiyetini,
B) Afganistan’ın birçok bölgesinde olduğu gibi Amerikan Devrimi’nden sonra, Birleşik Devletlere
güneybatısında da karla kaplı yüksek dağlar ve ve Đspanya’ya bırakmak zorunda kaldılar.
derin vadiler büyük bir yer tutar. C) 1763 Paris Antlaşması’ndan sonra Birleşik
C) Afganistan’da güneybatı kesimler dışındaki Devletler ile Đspanya’nın hakimiyeti altında olan
bölgelerin çoğunu, karlı yüksek dağlar kaplar ve Alabama bölgesinin kontrolü daha önceden
derin vadiler böler. Đngilizlerin elindeydi; ancak, bu durum sadece
D) Karlı yüksek dağlar ve derin vadiler, güneybatısı Amerikan Devrimi’ne kadar sürdü.
dışında Afganistan’ın büyük bir bölümünü kaplar. D) Alabama bölgesinin kontrolü 1763’te imzalanan
E) Afganistan, güneybatısının büyük bir bölümü Paris Antlaşması’yla tümüyle Đngilizlere geçmiştir;
dışında, tepeleri karlı yüksek dağlarla ve boydan fakat bölgeye Amerikan Devrimi sonrasında
boya uzanan derin vadilerle kaplıdır. Birleşik Devletler ve Đspanya hakim olmuştur.
E) Đngilizler 1763’te Paris Antlaşması’yla Alabama
bölgesinin kontrolünü ele geçirmelerine rağmen,
37. The writers of the Romantic movement Amerikan Devrimi’nden sonra bölgenin hemen
generally regarded humans as inherently good hemen tümünü Birleşik Devletlere ve Đspanya’ya
but corrupted by society and its institutions. bırakmak zorunda kaldılar.

A) Romantik akımın yazarları, çoğunlukla, doğuştan


iyi olan insanın toplumdaki kurumlar tarafından 39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye
bozulduğunu kabul ederler. anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.
B) Romantik akımın yazarları, insanların doğuştan
iyi olduğunu ancak toplumun kurumlarının 39. 2000 seçimlerinden sonra Başkan George W.
genellikle onları değiştirdiğini benimsemişlerdir. Bush her ne kadar ülke içi sorunlara odaklanmış
C) Romantik akım yazarlarının, tüm insanların olarak Beyaz Saray’a gelmişse de kısa sürede,
doğuştan genellikle iyi olmalarına rağmen, toplum dikkatini dış konulara çevirmek zorunda kaldı.
ve kurumları yüzünden bozulduklarını kabul
ettiklerine inanılmıştır. A) Although, after the 2000 election, President
D) Romantik akım yazarları, genellikle, insanları George W. Bush came into the White House
doğuştan iyi fakat toplum ve kurumları tarafından focused on domestic issues, he was soon forced
bozulmuş olarak görmüşlerdir. to turn his attention to foreign affairs.
E) Romantik akım yazarlarına göre, insanlar doğuş- B) Following the 2000 election, President George
tan iyidir, fakat genellikle toplum ve kurumları ta- W. Bush came into the White House with a full
rafından bozulmuştur. awareness of domestic problems but, within a
short time, he had to focus his attention on
international issues.
C) After the 2000 election, when President George
W. Bush entered the White House primarily
concerned with domestic matters, his attention
was immediately focused on foreign affairs.
D) Even if, after the 2000 election, President George
W. Bush began his tenure in the White House
thoroughly aware of domestic affairs, his
attention soon turned to international matters.
E) A short time after the 2000 election, President
George W. Bush began to focus his attention on
foreign issues, although he had come into the
White House mainly concerned with domestic
affairs.

90
40. 100 yaş ve üzerinde olan insanlar, Amerikan 42. – 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçada
nüfusunun en hızlı artan yaş gruplarından birini anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek
temsil etmektedir. cümleyi bulunuz.

A) The fastest-growing age group of the American 42. Isaac Newton and Francis Bacon were
population is represented by people living to age considered by their contemporaries to be
100 and beyond. ornaments of the English humanities, and many
B) People living to age 100 and beyond is known as whom we now call scientists were called “natural
the fastest-growing age group of the American philosophers” in their day. ----. According to the
population. Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest use of the
C) It is known that people living to age 100 and term was in 1840.
beyond are one of the fastest-growing age
groups of the American population. A) Inspired by the example of the University of
D) It is in the American population that the group of Berlin, other institutions of learning were
people living to age 100 and beyond is growing beginning to detach themselves from theology
the fastest. and classics and devote themselves to research
E) People living to age 100 and beyond represent B) Sigmund Freud considered himself a “biologist of
one of the fastest-growing age groups of the the mind”
American population. C) Charles Darwin was a man driven to explain his
ideas in rational terms
th
41. Vietnam ile Amerika Birleşik Devletleri D) The term “scientist” was only invented in the 19
arasındaki savaşta en vahşi çarpışma, 1968 century as a kind of counterpart to the term
başlarında, Tet olarak bilinen Vietnam Yeni Yılı “artist”
sırasında ol-muştur. E) Human life was illuminated by being compared to
a chariot pulled by two horses of different
A) The bloodiest fighting in the Vietnam-United temperaments, a flowing stream, or the task of
States of America war took place during the pushing a stone up a hill
Vietnamese New Year known as Tet, in 1968.
B) During the war between Vietnam and the United
43. The low-tax, high-income countries are mostly
States of America, it was early in 1968, the time
English-speaking ones that share a direct,
of the Vietnamese New Year known as Tet, that th
the fiercest battle was fought. historical lineage with 19 century Britain. ----. The
C) In the war between Vietnam and the United high-tax, high-income states are the Nordic social
States of America, the most savage fighting democracies, notably Denmark, Finland, Sweden
occurred early in 1968, during the Vietnamese and Norway, which have been governed by social
New Year, known as Tet. democratic parties for much or all of the post-
D) Throughout the war between Vietnam and the World War II era. They combine a healthy respect
United States of America, the most dangerous of for market forces with a strong commitment to
the battles fought was the one early in 1968, anti-poverty programmes.
during the Vietnamese New Year known as Tet.
E) In the war between Vietnam and the United A) Unemployment rates are roughly the same in
States of America, the fighting occurring early in both groups
1968, during the Vietnamese New Year known as B) These countries include Australia, Canada,
Tet, was quite terrible. Ireland, New Zealand, the UK and the US
C) All of them, but especially Sweden and Finland,
have taken to the sweeping revolution in
information and communications technology
D) One of the great challenges of sustainable
development is to combine society’s desire for
economic prosperity and social security
E) The US spends less than most other rich
countries on social services for the poor and
disabled

91
44. As you may have seen in a museum, men and 47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş
women have grown taller and heavier in the last bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi
300 years. ----. Body weights are also substantially bulunuz.
higher today. The average weight of English
males in their thirties was about 60 kg in 1790 – 47.
20% below today’s average. Benjamin: - Have you ever heard of a “cargo cult”?
Adam: - ----
A) Not only did lower food supplies lead to smaller Benjamin: - It happens when a person from an
physical stature, but they also led to a higher economically-developed country goes to a place
incidence of chronic disease that is completely isolated from the outside world.
B) A typical Frenchman in his thirties at that time The people there see all the things the foreigner
weighed only 50 kg brings, and start to treat the foreigner as a god.
C) As an example, an average male adult today is at
approximately 1.75 m tall, which is nearly 12 cm A) No. You tell me.
taller than the typical Englishman in the late B) No, is it something about world travel?
eighteenth century C) What did you say?
D) Robert Fogel from the University of Chicago D) Who came up with that term?
estimated that the chronic malnutrition caused by E) I don’t want to hear about it.
limited food supplies at those times limited labour
productivity
E) Economic growth increased food supplies, 48.
enabling workers to become more productive and Frank: - Do you know which country has the most
increase gross domestic product even more tourists each year?
Tom: - ----
Frank: - No, it’s France, but the US takes in more
45. A number of globalization issues involving money from tourism than any other country.
children require our thoughtful consideration and
action. ----. These children and their families A) No, I don’t.
represent a challenge to educators because of B) I should think it must be Italy.
cultural and language barriers. C) There is fierce competition among countries, isn’t
there?
A) A great challenge in the twenty-first century is D) Where do you like to travel?
how to enrich or give positive content to the E) Portugal is the country I am most interested in.
process of globalization
B) The effects of globalization are seen over a wide
spectrum of our lives, including children’s play 49.
and people’s beliefs and attitudes about it Barry: - It says in this newspaper article that, in the
C) One can judge the quality of a nation by the year 2000, almost 40% of all traffic fatalities in the
willingness of its citizens to care about other US were alcohol-related.
people’s children Jean: - ----
D) An educational consequence of globalization Barry: - Yes. The percentage has dropped from
facing many teachers of young children in the US 51% in 1987.
and elsewhere is the growing number of recent Jean: - That’s an improvement, then.
immigrant children in classrooms
E) Conditions are being created so that more and A) What do you think about this topic?
more people will come to have both a global B) People shouldn’t drink alcohol and then drive.
identity and a local identity (one’s own cultural C) I think they need better public transportation
reference group) in the twenty-first century systems in US cities.
D) Is that a change from previous years?
E) Were intoxicated pedestrians also included in the
46. After earning his degree, John M. Keynes survey?
became a civil servant, taking a job with the India
Office in Whitehall, London. ----. With the onset of
World War I, Keynes returned to government
employment, this time in the Treasury.

A) Between the wars, Keynes wrote his most


famous work: The General Theory of
Employment, Interest and Money
B) After World War I, he attended the Versailles
Peace Conference
C) His book, The Economic Consequences of the
Peace, condemned the Versailles Peace Treaty
and its negotiators
D) His wife, a Russian ballerina, was very active in
promoting the arts
E) After a while, he returned to Cambridge, where
he taught economics at the University

92
50. 54. (I) In the last decade, improvements in the
Alex: - This article claims that, within the next ten effectiveness of organ transplants have increased the
years, the economies of developing countries will demand for used human organs. (II) Each year,
grow extensively. thousands of Americans will die waiting for
Jeannette: - Yes, I’ve read it. I don’t think the replacement kidneys, hearts and lungs. (III) Because
economies will grow only because of foreign or the supply has not increased along with demand,
domestic investment, however. however, there are shortages of transplantable
Alex: - ---- organs. (IV) In a normal market, the price would rise
Jeannette: - They’ll grow because most of the poor to eliminate the shortage, but because it is illegal to
people in those countries will finally have enough buy and sell human organs, there is no pricing
money to start spending it. mechanism to close the gap between the quantity
supplied and the quantity demanded. (V) This gap in
A) How do you know? the organ-transplant system has led Nobel-winning
B) Then what is it that will cause the growth? economist Gary Becker to suggest monetary
C) I don’t agree with the article, do you? incentives for organ donors.
D) Who wrote this article, anyway?
E) What do you think will happen? A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

51. 55. (I) Oil wealth in Venezuela has given rise to grand
Anna: - With global warming seeming to become a aspirations ever since 1922, when a blowout of oil
reality, tourist destinations are changing. sprayed “black rain” over the small town of Cabimas.
Peter: - ---- (II) By 1928, Venezuela had become the world’s
Anna: - Well, the most popular places formerly largest oil exporter, with Venezuelans of all classes
have become too hot for most tourists, so they’re acquiring costly Yanqui tastes. (III) In recent surveys,
choosing cooler spots. a majority of Venezuelans said they had benefitted
Peter: - Then the traditional tourist spots probably from government spending on food and health care
stand to lose income. as well as on education. (IV) In 1976, the government
nationalized its subsoil wealth, and high oil prices and
A) What can we do to stop the trend? stable politics increased the national living standard.
B) Oh, are people going to Antarctica to see the ice (V) But by 1980, oil prices began to fall, and hard
before it melts? times followed, making life difficult for most
C) I don’t believe that the earth is really warming up. Venezuelans.
D) Do you think this will affect Turkey’s economy?
E) Really? In what way? A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

52. – 56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla 56. (I) The 26.2-mile footrace known as the Last
okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan Marathon takes place every other February on King
cümleyi bulunuz. George Island, about 2,000 miles from the South
Pole. (II) Some 600 scientists and support workers
52. (I) During the 1990s, the Japanese economy was live here in the summer conducting meteorological
in a prolonged recession. (II) Economists and and wildlife studies. (III) The race was founded in
journalists put forward many different ideas to try to 1955 by Thom Gilligan, a marathoner from Boston.
jump-start the economy. (III) This is an example, (IV) The participants, ranging in age from 18 to 71
although an unusual one, of government fiscal policy. years old and hailing from 15 countries, are
(IV) One suggestion was that the Japanese competitive runners as well as casual joggers. (V) All
government should issue everyone a certificate the participants, however, possess the “three D’s”
entitling each person to the equivalent, in yen, of some runners jokingly say are necessary to complete
$200. (V) However, these yen certificates would only a marathon: desire, discipline and dementia.
be valid for purchases for one month.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

53. (I) Folk ballads were songs sung by the common


people of England. (II) Their origins remain a mystery.
(III) Most seem to have been composed between
1200 and 1500, and while there has been much
argument, no one is exactly sure how they were
created. (IV) The ballad form does not allow elaborate
detail in plot, setting or character. (V) Present-day
theories suggest that many were invented by local
minstrels, descendants of the Anglo-Saxons, who
entertained the humble people of a village by making
up songs.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

93
57. – 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 59. One understands from the passage that
cevaplayınız. Pompeii ----.

The Roman city of Pompeii in A.D. 79 was a thriving A) was the only Roman city famous for its taverns
provincial centre, a few miles from the Bay of Naples, and shopping centres
with a population of between 10,000 and 20,000 B) was one of the Roman centres for the slave trade
people. Its narrow streets, made narrower by street C) had a very efficient water system
vendors and shops with cloth awnings for shade, D) was the second largest city in the Roman Empire
were full of shoppers, tavern-goers, slaves, and E) had been destroyed by volcanic eruptions several
vacationers from the North. A huge new aqueduct times before A.D. 79
supplied running water from the Lower Apennine
mountains, which flowed from fountains throughout
the city, even in private homes. But the key to 60. According to the passage, what geologist
Pompeii’s prosperity, and that of smaller settlements Philip Janey is actually saying in the part quoted
nearby like Oplontis and Terzigna, was the region’s is that ----.
rich black earth provided by Mount Vesuvius’ volcanic
eruptions. “One of the ironies of volcanoes is that they A) the city of Pompeii should have been founded on
tend to produce very fertile soils, and that tends to the other side of the Bay of Naples
tempt people to live around them”, says geologist B) volcanic terrain is most suitable for people to
Philip Janey. Had Roman knowledge in the summer settle and live on
of A.D. 79 been less mythological and more C) people always prefer to settle in volcanic areas
geological, the Pompeiians might have recognized the since they believe the land there is more fertile
danger signs from Mount Vesuvius and escaped the D) the Pompeiians knew that the area around Mount
volcanic eruption that was to follow. Vesuvius was not a safe place to settle in, but
they settled there anyway
57. According to the passage, in A.D. 79, there E) people attracted by the fertile lands around
had been some geological indications that ----. volcanoes prefer to live there, ignoring the
dangers of a volcanic eruption
A) Mount Vesuvius was about to erupt, but the
people of Pompeii failed to understand them
B) the Bay of Naples posed a serious danger to the
city of Pompeii, but it was ignored by the
Pompeiians
C) the area in which the city of Pompeii was situated
was becoming less and less fertile
D) the water resources in the Lower Apennine
mountains were no longer adequate to supply
water to the city of Pompeii
E) Oplontis and Terzigna, the settlements near
Pompeii, were not safe to live in and, therefore,
had to be evacuated

58. It is emphasized in the passage that the


economic well-being of Pompeii ----.

A) reached its climax in A.D. 79, the year in which


there was a sharp increase in its population
B) primarily depended on the commercial activities
of its people as well as holidaymakers from the
North
C) attracted all kinds of people with money, who
crowded its streets and led a carefree life
D) was essentially related to the fertility of its land,
which was due to the volcanic eruptions of Mount
Vesuvius
E) was the outcome of its exploitation of the
settlements around it such as Oplontis and
Terzigna

94
61. – 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 64. It is clear from the passage that, in his
cevaplayınız. paintings, Cézanne ----.

Artist Paul Cézanne wanted to make paint “bleed”. A) developed a completely new style which was
The old masters, he said, painted warmblooded flesh imitated by his contemporaries
and made the trees look warm and alive, and he B) was influenced, to a great extent, by the French
would too. He wanted to capture “the green odour” of Impressionists
his Provence fields and “the perfume of marble from C) used daring techniques to produce his likenesses
Saint-Victoire”, the mountain that was the subject of of the fields of Provence
so many of his paintings. He was bold, spreading and D) attached more importance to the depiction of the
slapping paint onto his still-lifes with a palette knife. “I human body than the natural landscape
will astonish Paris with an apple”, he boasted. In the E) almost always depicted Paris and its
years when his friends Manet, Monet, Pissarro and surroundings
Renoir were finally gaining acceptance, Cézanne
worked furiously and mostly in isolation, ridiculed by
critics and mocked by the public, sometimes tearing
up his own canvases. He wanted more than the quick
impressions of the Impressionists, and devoted
himself to studying the natural world. He called
himself a “slave to nature”, but he knew that he could
never completely capture the natural landscape on
canvas.

61. It is stated in the passage that, as a painter,


Cézanne ----.

A) wasn’t able to depict nature in his works as fully


or as vividly as he would have liked to
B) achieved far more popularity in art circles than his
contemporaries
C) dismissed the old masters as only artists whose
style was old-fashioned
D) was interested more in the representation of still
life than in the depiction of landscape and natural
scenes
E) was noted for his quiet personality and refined
manners

62. According to the passage, Cézanne’s style of


painting ----.

A) was widely acclaimed by art critics and the public


B) mainly derived from the views held by his friends
Manet, Monet, Pissarro and Renoir
C) was achieved by copying the works of the old
masters whom he studied
D) differed significantly from that of his fellow artists
E) had a great influence on his contemporaries and
their work

63. It is pointed out in the passage that the world


of nature ----.

A) appealed to Cézanne so powerfully that it


became the main focus of his art
B) depicted by Manet and the other Impressionists
failed to appeal to the public
C) was most successfully represented by Cézanne
in all of his works
D) meant for Cézanne only different shades of
colours and nothing else
E) was understood by Cézanne as a reference to
environmental issues

95
65. – 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 67. It is pointed out in the passage that the
cevaplayınız. Angolan government ----.

Angola’s emergence as a serious player in the global A) is working on multi-billion dollar deepwater
oil sector has been underlined by the publication of its investment programmes to be implemented in
latest production figures. After several years of slow 2008
output growth, the fruits of the multi-billion dollar B) feels that its 2008 oil production target may not
deepwater investment programme are finally feeding be realized due to the high costs of deepwater
through. Thus, production reached 1.3 million barrels investments
a day during the final quarter of 2005. With the new C) is resolved to challenge only Libya for oil
deepwater fields now coming into production, the leadership in Africa
government’s target of producing 2 million barrels a D) has invested huge sums for the production of oil
day by 2008 now seems eminently within reach. In from its deepwater fields
the meantime, official Angolan government figures E) announced that it has published its oil figures in
indicate that oil production averaged 1.25 million order to prove to the world that it is a serious
barrels a day during the course of 2005, a steep jump player in the global oil sector
on the year before. In addition, the government’s
estimate of proven oil reserves has finally been
increased from 5.4 billion barrels to 12.4 billion 68. It is pointed out in the passage that, according
barrels. This shows that, as sub-Saharan Africa’s to the Angolan government, ----.
second biggest oil producer after Nigeria, Angola is in
an excellent position to overtake countries such as A) the country’s verified oil reserves are more than
Libya and Algeria in the table of oil powers on the twice the original estimate
continent as a whole. B) the country owns the largest and most productive
deepwater oil fields in sub-Saharan Africa
65. It is suggested in the passage that, with its C) Angola has already become the largest oil
rich oil reserves and rapidly increasing oil producer in all of Africa
production, Angola ----. D) after 2008, Nigeria and other oil producing
countries in Africa will no longer be major players
A) has become one of the major oil powers in Africa in the global oil sector
B) has already completely left behind such major oil E) the country’s deepwater oil reserves have finally
producers as Nigeria, Libya and Algeria been verified but are too costly to be exploited
C) has emerged as a threat in sub-Saharan Africa
as well as the global oil sector
D) can be regarded as a long-time constructive
player in the African oil league
E) has always been in fierce competition with
Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries

66. One understands from the passage that


Angola’s previously poor oil output ----.

A) can only be improved through the exploitation of


its deepwater reserves
B) has improved dramatically and reached a record
level in 2005
C) is related to Nigeria’s dominant position in the
sub-Saharan oil sector
D) prevents it from competing efficiently with other
oil producing countries
E) does not make it a current major player in the
global oil sector

96
69. – 72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 71. It is stated in the passage that, a case in an
cevaplayınız. international criminal court today ----.

Supporters of today’s international criminal tribunals A) may not always be conducted within the context
say that their work builds on the post-World War II of civilian law
tribunals in Nuremberg and, to a lesser degree, B) has far-reaching positive political and social
Tokyo. As a matter of legal doctrine, that is true. The consequences
category of “crimes against humanity”, for example, C) is not necessarily concerned with crimes against
was developed at Nuremberg and is now a central humanity
element in many prosecutions. But there is a critical D) can continue for many years before being
difference between now and then. The courts in finalized
Nuremberg and Tokyo were part of a broader political E) can be conducted at a lower cost
project that aimed to rehabilitate Germany and Japan,
respectively, both socially and economically, not
simply to try guilt or innocence or hand out harsh 72. One understands from the passage that
punishments. These were military courts that people put on trial at an international criminal
operated with military efficiency, and the Allies could court today ----.
then focus fully on the reconstruction of these
countries. Yet, the international courts for the former A) usually complain about protracted proceedings
Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and the new International and excessive expenses
Criminal Court (ICC) in the Hague, on the other hand, B) always deny that they have committed crimes
operate under civilian law and provide generous against humanity
protection to defendants. The result is a ballooning of C) are given extensive rights to defend themselves
the court timelines and costs. For instance, it took the D) are invariably found guilty and, therefore, given
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 10 harsh punishments
years to complete the same number of trials that E) only remain on trial for, at most, one year
Nuremberg conducted in less than a year. Indeed, it is
clear that, because of their protracted proceedings
and excessive costs, today’s war crimes trials cannot
serve the decisive political and social function that
Nuremberg did.

69. It is argued in the passage that today’s


international criminal courts ----.

A) were originally established in Nuremberg and


Tokyo for the trial of war crimes committed during
World War II
B) have no correlation whatsoever with the
principles of the Nuremberg trials
C) follow a punitive policy and recognize no right of
appeal for defendants
D) are costly, time-consuming and lacking in
efficiency
E) have been set up only for the trial of specific
crimes and are to be abolished in due course

70. It is stressed in the passage that the


Nuremberg and Tokyo trials ----.

A) were not interested in what is today termed


“crimes against humanity”
B) were conducted in accordance with the
provisions of both military and civilian law
C) involved both prolonged and extremely
complicated proceedings
D) were mainly confined to war crimes with the
single aim of handing out harsh punishments
E) made up the first stage of a broader policy which
aimed for the reconstruction of Germany and
Japan

97
73. – 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 76. It is pointed out in the passage that girls ----.
cevaplayınız.
A) never fail in their determination to excel over
The ability to deal with numbers and mathematical boys in mathematics
concepts reveals an interesting pattern of differences B) begin to use numbers before boys do
between girls and boys. Girls usually begin counting C) are relatively more conscious than boys as
before boys. Throughout the primary-school years regards their sex differences
and middle school, girls are better at computational D) always use mathematical concepts as efficiently
problems, whereas boys do better with math- as boys in solving problems
reasoning problems. During this period, girls also tend E) in the long run perform much better than boys in
to get higher grades. By high school, however, boys all aspects of mathematics
begin to perform better, especially at the higher levels
of ability. Some psychologists believe this advantage
is genetic, but others think that it may derive, in part,
from males’ use of more effective strategies and their
lower level of anxiety when approaching mathematics
problems. It has also been suggested that the sex
differences come about to some degree because girls
view math as a male activity (and, therefore, have
less interest in it) and because some parents and
teachers offer greater encouragement to males in this
area. Some studies support this analysis, but others
do not. In this area, too, biological and socialization
factors probably combine to produce the observed
differences.

73. The author thinks that differences between


girls and boys ----.

A) can be observed only through their approach to


mathematics
B) have concerned psychologists far more than their
performance at school
C) is a subject that has attracted a great deal of
attention in recent years from psychologists
D) remain constant throughout their school years
E) may be attributed to the joint effect of their
biological nature and social environment

74. It is suggested in the passage that boys ----.

A) are never influenced by their social environment


in their attitude towards mathematics
B) are always discouraged when they are faced with
a mathematical problem
C) are genetically far more motivated towards
mathematics than girls
D) are more successful than girls at primary level in
dealing with mathematical problems which
require reasoning
E) usually rely on their parents and teachers in
solving all kinds of mathematical problems

75. One learns from the passage that, according


to one view, the sex difference between boys and
girls ----.

A) has been categorically ruled out by all


psychologists as an important factor in learning
mathematics
B) ought to be taken into consideration by parents
and teachers
C) is negligible at the high school level
D) cannot be a significant factor in their performance
at high school
E) does have some effect on their mathematical
performance

98
77. – 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 80. It is pointed out in the passage that, after the
cevaplayınız. introduction of the printing press, a reader’s easy
access to books ----.
The printing press was first introduced into England
by William Caxton in the last quarter of the fifteenth A) contributed enormously to the development of
century. During his earlier travels in Europe, he had different types of literature in fifteenth-century
seen the newly invented system of printing from England
moveable type in Germany. He set up his own press B) was hindered by the fact that books were hardly
in London in 1476. This initiated a major change in affordable
English literature. Now books did not have to be C) was what the London book publishers primarily
laboriously copied by hand. Soon, they would become cared about
relatively cheap. With books easily obtainable, more D) made storytelling obsolete and, hence, angered
people could learn to read, and more books would be the storytellers of the time
produced. The experience of literature would soon E) enabled the individual to share the thoughts and
shift from the breathless group of listeners gathered in experiences of another person through the
a hall or around a fire, hearing an old tale told once printed page
more, to the solitary individual, alone with the
thoughts and feelings of another person speaking TEST BĐTTĐ.
from the printed page. CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.

77. It is asserted in the passage that the


introduction of the printing press into England ----.

A) made book production easy but caused a major


increase in their prices
B) caused the complete disappearance of oral
literature
C) was too late to have any constructive effect on
social and literary life
D) aroused a great deal of objection from copyists
and booksellers
E) had a very significant impact on people’s
relationship with literature

78. One understands from the passage that, with


the printing press, ----.

A) Caxton soon caught the attention of the general


public and was much respected
B) Caxton was able to produce a lot of books and
make a huge profit from their sale
C) London came to be a major centre of book
production in the fifteenth century
D) the number of books produced increased greatly
and to the benefit of the reading public
E) booksellers in London began to compete with
each other fiercely

79. It is clear from the passage that Caxton’s


interest in the printing press ----.

A) was originally aroused when he was visiting


Germany
B) had always been strong ever since his early
years
C) was essentially related to his desire to make a lot
of profit from book production
D) was the main motive for his journey to Germany
E) became stronger as more and more people were
learning to read

99
1. – 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 8. Alcohol ---- every organ of the body, but the
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. most dramatic evidence of its disruptive
behaviour ---- in the liver.
1. The ---- of lactose intolerance varies widely
among ethnic groups, indicating that the trait is A) affected / has appeared
genetically determined. B) affects / appears
C) is affecting / appeared
A) conversion B) prevalence C) recession D) had affected / would appear
D) notice E) supply E) has affected / had appeared

2. Some evidence suggests that weight training 9. Although constipation usually ---- lifestyle
can raise HDL if undertaken regularly, but habits, in some cases it may be a side effect of
frequent and sustained aerobic activity may be medication or may reflect a medical problem such
more ---- in lowering LDL and raising HDL. as tumours that ---- the passage of waste.

A) tentative B) irrelevant C) factual A) had reflected / obstruct


D) effective E) protective B) has reflected / obstructed
C) reflected / had obstructed
D) will reflect / have obstructed
3. The army psychologists ---- initiated treatment, E) reflects / are obstructing
and so he soon regained his confidence as a
soldier. 10. Indeed, some studies ---- that taking the
A) promptly B) vaguely C) obviously glycemic effect into account in meal planning ----
D) reluctantly E) imminently a practical way to improve glucose control.

A) have shown / is B) show / was


4. Red blood cells contain haemoglobin, which C) had shown / had been D) showed / will be
enables them to carry oxygen from the lungs and - E) could show / has been
--- it to all parts of the body.
11. Of every 10,000 children born in the US,
A) contribute B) organize C) deliver almost 7 ---- from health problems because their
D) transform E) guide mothers ---- alcohol during pregnancy.

A) suffered / have consumed


5. When someone chokes on food, it is because B) were suffering / consume
the food has slipped into the air passage and ---- C) had suffered / were consuming
breathing. D) will have suffered / will consume
E) suffer / consumed
A) given in B) kept on C) set out
D) switched off E) cut off
12. People who wish to improve their athletic
performance need to be aware that it can be
6. The vitamin portion of a coenzyme allows a achieved ---- physical conditioning combined ----
chemical reaction to ----, while the remaining high energy food intakes.
portion of the coenzyme binds to the enzyme.
A) by / with B) with / for C) in / by
A) put on B) get off C) catch up D) through / to E) of / into
D) take place E) settle down
13. Almost 2 million people die ---- tuberculosis
7. In a study carried out over a period of six (TB) each year, mostly in developing countries
months, researchers ---- that smoking ---- far more lacking access ---- fast, accurate testing
heart attacks than haemochromatosis. technology.

A) have found / had caused A) from / at B) about / with C) of / to


B) had found / has caused D) by / in E) with / through
C) found / caused
D) find / could have caused
E) would have found / causes 14. ---- the body has manufactured antibodies
against a particular antigen (such as the measles
virus), it remembers how to make them the next
time it is attacked by the same antigen.

A) Until B) Once C) Unless


D) Even though E) Whereas

100
15. Some researchers believe schizophrenia is a 19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada
single disorder, ---- others believe it is a syndrome numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da
based on numerous underlying diseases. ifadeyi bulunuz.

A) if B) since C) even so Older people suffer more broken bones than younger
D) while E) unless people because the mass and strength of bones
decrease with age. There is no single reason why this
occurs, or why some individuals and populations are
16. Anyone who wonders ---- the newborn baby more (19) ---- than others. Like other complex traits,
senses touch or experiences pain should watch age-related changes in bones result (20) ----
the baby’s reaction to a heel prick for a blood interactions between environmental and genetic
sample. factors. Scientists have linked changes in bone
strength to (21) ---- in physical activity, the levels of
A) whereby B) whether C) until dietary calcium and vitamin D, and alcohol and
D) in case E) what tobacco use. However, among (22) ----, physical
activity is the variable (23) ---- likely to account for the
geographic heterogeneity in the incidence of
17. Water, indispensable and abundant, provides fractures.
the environment ---- nearly all the body’s internal
activities are conducted. 19.
A) considerate B) equal C) sensible
A) in which B) whose C) wherever D) negligible E) vulnerable
D) by what E) however
20.
A) to B) of C) from
18. Certain plants can help some conditions more D) over E) at
effectively than medical drugs, and with
significantly ---- side-effects. 21.
A) circulations B) settlements C) variations
A) little B) more C) much D) tendencies E) similarities
D) fewer E) any
22.
A) these B) that C) which
D) whom E) this

23.
A) how B) as C) such
D) so E) most

24. – 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde


tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.

24. Although AIDS still has no cure, ----.

A) the devastating effects of HIV infection seemed


unstoppable
B) remarkable progress has been made in
understanding and treating HIV infection
C) a specific dietary strategy for the treatment of the
disease has not been devised
D) the severity of wasting may determine the
duration of survival
E) the causes of malnutrition and wasting in HIV
infection are related to the disease itself

25. If a child has the potential for cardiovascular


disease, ----.

A) this article focuses on efforts to prevent childhood


obesity and cardiovascular disease
B) most people consider cardiovascular disease to
be an adult disease
C) obesity in children affects these changes
D) poor health choices, such as poor diet, will cause
the disease itself to develop
E) questions arose about the extent to which
genetics is involved in the risk of cardiovascular
disease

101
26. By comparing urinary creatinine excretion to 30. Imitation is a very important means ----.
standards for sex and height, ---- if muscle mass
is adequate or depleted. A) that the mirror neuron system serves as a bridge
in this process
A) it is concluded B) though Iacoboni and his group used functional
B) it has been understood magnetic resonance imaging to observe the
C) one can determine brains of human subjects
D) the physician can assume C) in which both activities triggered the inferior
E) we are convinced frontal gyrus of the brain
D) from which scientists can derive evidence about
gene function
27. Just as the human mind allows a person to E) by which we learn and transmit skills, language
develop a concept of intellectual self, ----. and culture

A) each cell in a person’s body has molecules on its


surface that are unique to that specific person 31. Most researchers find the new method of
B) the function of the immune system is to defend generating human embryonic stem cells
the body against invaders promising, ----.
C) virtually any organ can be attacked by the
immune system, including the kidneys, lungs, A) even if they held the possibility of regenerating
heart and brain body parts
D) the immune system provides a concept of B) as it might lead to new and possibly better stem-
biological self cell lines
E) the immune system is composed of cells and C) so that stem cells can become any other kind of
soluble substances cell
D) if this had led to healthier children
E) since this procedure was introduced more than a
28. Once people have been diagnosed with decade ago
cancer, ----.

A) therapists could have used relaxation methods to 32. ----, analysts had to rely on a more primitive
assist them in coping with some of the negative urine screen for this purpose.
aspects of cancer treatments
B) they can affect their survival time by adapting a A) Unless drugs opened the way to a better system
“fighting spirit”, having strong emotional and B) Although an athlete could beat the test by
social support or attending group counselling ingesting artificial testosterone throughout the
sessions testing period
C) attempts by their partners to protect them from C) If later screens for testosterone levels matched
the reality of their illness were not helpful the preliminary results
D) at least half of those treated with chemotherapy D) Only if the body were able to make testosterone
had experienced nausea, fatigue, depression, from an artificial compound
sleep problems and loss of appetite E) Before the carbon isotope radio (CIR) urine test
E) family history and ethnic background are factors became standard protocol for testing athletes for
in many types of cancer doping

29. Because the visual system is not well- 33. The vast majority of smoking-related cancer
developed at birth, ----. deaths are from lung cancer ----.

A) newborn babies’ ability to change focus is limited A) although smoking may also be responsible for
and they are very nearsighted deaths from cancers of the lip, pharynx,
B) a nearsighted adult with 20/30 vision will be able pancreas, trachea and kidney
to see at 20 feet B) because the rate of smoking in the US has slowly
C) newborn infants can distinguish the sound of the declined since the mid-1960s, especially among
human voice from other sounds men
D) developmental psychologists would have C) but weight gain would have been quite modest
designed some ingenious procedures to study for most people who had stopped smoking
the mental capacities of young infants D) if group counselling had been successful in
E) parents noticed with delight that the baby had helping people to quit smoking
begun to make eye contact E) even if many nonsmokers find the smoke of
others to be a nuisance and even irritating to their
eyes and nose

102
34. A person with leukemia has an unusually high 37. People who do not consume milk products or
number of leukocytes, ----. other calcium-rich foods that provide even half of
the recommended calcium amount may benefit
A) since it is usually fatal unless treated from calcium supplements.
B) although cancerous cells grow uncontrollably
C) most of which do not function normally A) Süt ürünleri ya da kalsiyum yönünden zengin
D) that is, cancer of the white blood cells diğer besinleri tüketmeyenler önerilen kalsiyum
E) whereas, in some cases, they do not respond to miktarının ancak yarısını alabildiklerinden
the standard treatments kalsiyum desteğinden yararlanabilirler.
B) Tavsiye edilen kalsiyum miktarının yarısını bile
karşılayacak miktarda süt ürünleri ya da kalsiyum
35. Hypnosis was first used as a surgical bakımından zengin diğer besinleri tüketme-yen
anaesthetic in India in 1845, ----. insanlar kalsiyum desteğinden yararlanabilirler.
C) Tavsiye edilen kalsiyum miktarının yarısını
A) if doctors had used hypnosis for patients who are karşılayacak kadar kalsiyum desteğinden
allergic to anesthetics yararlanan insanlar süt ürünleri ve kalsiyum
B) since hypnotized patients will recover more yönünden zengin diğer besinleri tüketmeyebilirler.
quickly, with less pain and with fewer side effects D) Önerilen kalsiyum miktarının yarısını karşılasa da
C) although hypnosis as an alternative to sedation is kalsiyum desteğinden yararlanan insanlar süt
making a comeback in the operating room ürünleri ve kalsiyum bakımından zengin diğer
D) but it was quickly abandoned with the besinleri de tüketmelidirler.
introduction of ether the following year E) Kalsiyum desteğinden yararlanan insanlar,
E) even if studies using advanced scanning tavsiye edilen kalsiyum miktarının ancak yarısını
technology have shed new light on how hypnosis karşılayabilecek miktarda süt ürünleri ya da
works to block pain kalsiyum bakımından zengin diğer besinleri
tüketenlerdir.

36. – 38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye


anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz. 38. If a person has a family history of a certain
disease, it is a powerful indicator of his/her
36. Although many forms of therapy have been tendency to contract that disease.
tried, none has been able to prevent the disease
from progressing. A) Bir hastalığın aile içindeki öyküsü, kişinin bu
hastalığa yakalanma eğilimini ortaya koyan en
A) Pek çok tedavi biçimi denenmiş olmasına güçlü belirtidir.
rağmen, hiçbiri hastalığın ilerlemesini B) Bir ailedeki bireylerin hastalık öyküleri, o ailedeki
engelleyememiştir. bireylerin hastalığa yakalanma eğilimini ortaya
B) Uygulanan tedavi yöntemlerinden hiçbiri hasta- koyar.
lığın ağırlaşmasını engelleyemedi. C) Kişinin belirli bir hastalığa yakalanma eğilimi, en
C) Pek çok tedavi yöntemi var, ancak hiçbiri hasta- doğru biçimde, ailesinin hastalık öyküsünden
lığın ilerlemesini tam olarak durduramıyor. belirlenebilir.
D) Farklı bir tedavi yöntemi bulunsa da hastalığın D) Kişinin belirli bir hastalığa yakalanma eğiliminin
yayılması hiçbir zaman engellenemez. en güçlü belirtisi, o hastalığın aile öyküsüdür.
E) Hastalığın ilerlemesini durdurmak için bazı tedavi E) Kişinin belirli bir hastalıkla ilgili aile öyküsü varsa
biçimleri denenmesine rağmen başarılı bu, onun o hastalığa yakalanma eğiliminin güçlü
olunamadı. bir göstergesidir.

103
39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye 41. Mikroskop altında incelenmek üzere iğne ile
anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz. alınmış karaciğer dokusu örneği içeren karaciğer
biyopsisi, vakaların yalnızca % 75’i kadarında
39. Yıllarca, gelişmiş pek çok ülkede başlıca ölüm tanıyı doğrular.
nedeni, genellikle kardiyovasküler hastalıklar
olarak bilinen kalp ve damar hastalıkları olmuştur. A) A liver biopsy, which is carried out by the removal
with a needle of a sample of liver tissue for
A) Over the years, it has generally been known that microscopic examination, is indispensable for a
among the major causes of death in most reliable diagnosis in 75% of cases.
developed countries is cardiovascular disease, B) About 75% of cases can be definitively
which refers to diseases of the heart and blood diagnosed through a liver biopsy, which involves
vessels. the removal by needle of a sample of liver tissue
B) Generally, diseases of the heart and blood for examination under a microscope.
vessels, which for many years were known as C) The diagnosis of about 75% of cases can be
cardiovascular disease, have been among the confirmed through a liver biopsy, which is
main causes of death in various developed performed with the removal of a sample of liver
countries. tissue for microscopic examination.
C) Cardiovascular disease, which as a whole D) A liver biopsy, in which a sample of liver tissue is
includes the major diseases of the heart and removed by needle for examination under a
blood vessels, has over the years been the usual microscope, confirms the diagnosis in only about
cause of death in a number of developed 75% of cases.
countries. E) In about 75% of cases, the diagnosis is
D) For years, the major cause of death in many confirmed by means of a liver biopsy, which is
developed countries has been diseases of the performed by removing with a needle a sample of
heart and blood vessels, generally known as liver tissue for examination.
cardiovascular disease.
E) Numerous diseases of the heart and blood
vessels, which are as a whole called 42. – 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçada
cardiovascular disease, have for years been the anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirile-bilecek
most common cause of death in developed cümleyi bulunuz.
countries.
42. Alcohol is rich in energy (7 kcalories per
gram), but, as in pure sugar or fat, the kcalories
40. Yiyeceklerdeki iyot miktarı değişkendir ve are empty of nutrients. ----. This means that the
genellikle, bitkilerin yetiştiği veya hayvanların more alcohol people drink, the less likely it is that
üzerinde otladığı topraktaki miktarı yansıtır. they will eat enough food to obtain adequate
nutrients.
A) The amount of iodine contained in foods varies
significantly and depends on the amount in the A) Thus, the more kcalories provided by alcohol, the
soil, needed for the growth of plants or the less nutritious food is normally eaten
grazing of animals. B) Alcohol in heavy doses is not efficiently
B) Foods contain various amounts of iodine, and metabolized, generating more heat than fat
these are usually related to the amount in the soil C) Most dramatic, however, is alcohol’s effect on the
used for plant cultivation and animal grazing. B vitamin folate
C) The amount of iodine in foods is variable and D) The combination of poor folate status and alcohol
generally reflects the amount in the soil in which consumption has, as a result, been implicated in
plants are grown or on which animals graze. promoting colorectal cancer
D) The soil in which plants are grown or on which E) Generally, moderate drinkers consume alcohol as
animals graze usually contains the same amount added energy – on top of their normal food intake
of iodine as found in various foods.
E) The amount of iodine which is contained in the
soil used for the cultivation of plants or the 43. The pharmaceutical industry is particularly
grazing of animals is, on the whole, reflected by interested in new substances that could mask
the amount of iodine in foods. unpleasant flavours. ----. And chronically ill
people, such as AIDS patients, who have to force
down many unpleasant tablets daily, would
greatly appreciate more agreeable formulations.

A) Such a quality might prove undesirable for


sweets or soda
B) The idea of a bitter-blocker has still to be tested
C) Flavour-optimized drugs would be especially
valuable for treating children, who often refuse to
swallow nasty-tasting syrups
D) Nutritionists want to know how much these
choices could affect the health of individuals
E) Widespread use could possibly undermine a
natural protective function

104
44. The main diagnostic signs of autism are social 47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş
isolation, lack of eye contact, poor language bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi
capacity and absence of empathy. ----. Many bulunuz.
people with autism, for instance, have trouble
understanding metaphors; they also have
difficulty mimicking other people’s actions. 47.
Margaret: - Have you read this article about the
A) It would be premature to conclude that damage 1987 nuclear contamination incident in Goiânia,
to the cerebellum is the sole cause of the Brazil?
disorder Henry: - ----
B) Other, less well-known symptoms, however, are Margaret: - Well, apparently some people found an
also commonly evident abandoned radiation-therapy machine and opened
C) Some researchers posit that the main it up. Many people were contaminated and 4
abnormality in autism is a deficit in the ability to eventually died.
construct “a theory of other minds” Henry: - That’s terrible! The machine should have
D) Certain brain cells are often referred to as motor- been disposed of safely.
command neurons
E) Still, children with autism do have characteristic A) Why did you read the article?
abnormalities in the cerebellum B) Not yet. Is it worth reading?
C) Yes, it’s terrible, isn’t it?
D) What do you think about it?
45. A pregnant woman should participate in “low- E) No, what happened?
impact” activities and avoid sports in which she
might fall or be hit by other people or objects. ----.
Swimming is also ideal because it allows the body 48.
to remain cool and move freely with the water’s Bill: - I read today about a new type of stent used
support. to widen a patient’s artery.
Jen: - ----
A) It also maintains the habits that help a woman Bill: - It releases a drug into the artery over several
lose excess weight and get back into shape after weeks which prevents excess build-up of fibrous
the birth tissue, reducing the further narrowing of the
B) In general, the more weight a woman gains artery.
beyond what she needs for pregnancy, the more Jen: - That sounds like a promising development.
she will retain
C) Women who begin their pregnancy at a healthy A) I think many doctors are too quick to insert stents.
weight need to gain about 30 pounds, which They should first try medication to reduce
covers the growth and development of the clogging in the patient’s arteries.
placenta, uterus, blood, breasts and infant B) How does it differ from other stents?
D) Several of these guidelines have been aimed at C) Doctors say that coronary stents have
preventing dehydration revolutionized patient care.
E) For example, a daily walk is always beneficial D) Patients with clogged coronary arteries always
used to undergo bypass surgery.
E) Have you ever recommended this procedure?
46. The liver has primary responsibility for
detoxifying alcohol. ----. Cancer is more likely to
occur in cirrhotic livers than in healthy ones, but 49.
alcohol abusers are likely to die of a variety of Tracy: - Here’s an article about a drug trial that
causes before liver cancer develops. went badly wrong. After testing a drug on
monkeys and obtaining the desired result,
A) An excessive intake of alcohol often leads to researchers went ahead and did a trial on six
cirrhosis of the liver, a degenerative disease that human volunteers. Now they’re all in intensive
limits the organ’s effectiveness care, and one of them is in a coma!
B) This evidence indicates that high levels of alcohol June: - ----
consumption are related to various kinds of Tracy: - I think it’s because the humans’ cells
cancer reacted differently with the drug than the
C) For cancers of all sites, alcohol is not as strong a monkeys’ cells.
risk factor as either smoking or an imprudent diet
D) Recent research has found a synergistic effect A) The researchers should release the clinical data
between alcohol and tobacco so that other researchers can benefit from their
E) Pancreatic cancer has a special affinity to alcohol mistake.
consumption B) Researchers should be more careful when
testing new drugs on humans.
C) What do you think will happen to him?
D) I wonder why the drug didn’t work in the
volunteers in the same way it had worked in the
monkeys?
E) Researchers hoped that the drug would be
capable of activating immune cells other
antibody-drugs could not activate.

105
50. 54. (I) Most people believe that some drugs are
Fran: - ---- acceptable and even desirable because of the
Jim: - Why are these studies so important? medical benefits they confer. (II) But all psychoactive
Fran: - Well, scientists are comparing drugs – drugs that cross the blood-brain barrier and
monozygotic (identical) twins with dizygotic alter mental functioning – are potentially harmful to
(fraternal) twins to see if their traits or behaviour health. (III) Even drugs that are not psychoactive have
are influenced more by their genes or their the potential for unpleasant side effects. (IV) For a
environment. time, cocaine was used as an anaesthetic for surgery,
especially eye surgery. (V) For example,
A) According to a recent study, fraternal twins are antihistamines may cause confusion, dizziness, dry
no more similar than any two biological siblings. mouth and blurred vision.
B) In the study, it has been suggested that the IQ
scores of two identical twins are usually more A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
closely related than those of two fraternal twins.
C) There are lots of studies recently being carried
out on twins. 55. (I) Antibiotics are drugs that disable or kill
D) One can conclude from this study that fraternal infectious microorganisms. (II) However, for nearly
twins share an environment as similar as that of every antibiotic that has been developed, a resistant
identical twins. strain of bacterium has appeared within a few
E) That particular study concentrated on identical decades. (III) Penicillin, for example, was originally
twins. isolated from a mold and has been widely prescribed
since the 1940s. (IV) A revolution in human health
rapidly followed its introduction, rendering many
51. previously fatal diseases easily curable (such as strep
Art: - Did you know that as many as 235,000 throat and surgical infections). (V) During the 1950s,
hospital patients in the US die unneccessarily some doctors even predicted the end of human
each year? infectious diseases altogether.
Ed: - ----
Art: - About 45 per cent of the deaths are due to A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
medical errors, and the rest are because of
adverse reactions to medication.
56. (I) Of all the things we feel, none captures our
A) When are you going to begin your residency? attention like pain. (II) We may sometimes be
B) I don’t believe it. Where did you read that? unconcerned about other experiences but it is hard to
C) That must result in a lot of malpractice lawsuits. ignore the experience of pain. (III) Yet for all the
D) I think there must be some sort of mistake in that discomfort it causes, we would be at risk if we had no
article. sense of pain. (IV) For instance, it would be difficult
E) That’s a staggering number! What causes them? for children to learn not to touch a hot stove, or to stop
chewing their tongues. (V) These receptors are
neurons with specialized free nerve endings.
52. – 56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla
okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
cümleyi bulunuz.

52. (I) According to a recent study, depressed white


girls are more likely to grow out of their problems than
black girls are. (II) White teens become less
depressed as they approach early adulthood. (III)
Factors such as social class and parental separation
should not be overlooked. (IV) The depression rate
among blacks, however, remains steady. (V) This
appears to be largely the result of poorer health care
and lack of insurance.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

53. (I) According to recent data, doctors sometimes


misdiagnose migraines as “sinus headaches”. (II)
Migraines are an inherited form of recurring
headaches. (III) This confusion in diagnosis occurs
because neurons in the brain stem can activate the
sinuses during a migraine, causing them to secrete a
clear fluid. (IV) Yet this discharge differs from the
cloudy fluid produced by a sinus infection. (V)
Therefore, it is advisable for doctors to consider
migraines more seriously and to look for clear nasal
secretions as symptoms.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

106
57. – 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 60. It is clearly emphasized in the passage that
cevaplayınız. several important bodily functions ----.

The most common cause of cyanide poisoning is A) are severely impaired as a result of cyanide
smoke inhalation. A source to the public is acetonitrile poisoning
in the form of artificial fingernail remover. Cyanide B) can be weakened through intravenous
poisoning produces cellular hypoxia by binding with administration of sodium thiosulphate
the ferric iron of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase, C) can be undermined by rhodanese unless an
disrupting the electron transport chain and the ability antidote is administered
of cells to use oxygen. Patients who inhale cyanide D) depend, to a large extent, on the presence of
may rapidly develop coma, shock, seizures, lactic thiocyanate in the blood
acidosis, and respiratory and cardiac arrest. Mild E) are not affected by cellular hypoxia or the
exposures following smoke inhalation are now being disruption of the electron transport chain
described. Diagnosis may be difficult in these
patients, and emergency administration of an antidote
may be lifesaving. Patients with smoke inhalation who
show evidence of lactic acidosis should be suspected
of cyanide poisoning. The body has a natural enzyme,
called “rhodanese”, which can complex cyanide and
sulphur to form mildly toxic thiocyanate. Intravenous
administration of sodium thiosulphate provides the
sulphur necessary to produce thiocyanate and is
relatively safe. Sodium nitrite may also be
administered, but its use is reserved for the most
critical cases only, because it causes hypertension
and methemoglobinemia.

57. It is pointed out in the passage that cyanide


poisoning ----.

A) results solely from the use of some cosmetics


such as artificial fingernail remover
B) can be diagnosed very easily, but its treatment
takes a long time
C) has the potential to quickly lead to some very
serious complications
D) has no effect whatsoever on cells and their
functions
E) is rarely related to smoke inhalation

58. According to the passage, in very severe


cases of cyanide poisoning, ----.

A) administration of sodium nitrite may be


recommended
B) hypertension and methemoglobinemia cannot be
avoided
C) various kinds of antidotes can be administered
but few are reliable
D) patients should be put under constant
observation to control lactic acidosis
E) the use of sodium thiosulphate should be
completely ruled out

59. It is suggested in the passage that lactic


acidosis in patients suffering from smoke
inhalation ----.

A) is the most common cause of cyanide poisoning


B) can be eliminated through the enzyme called
“rhodanese”
C) can cause the formation of toxic thiocyanate in
the body
D) is one of the indicators of cyanide poisoning
E) should not be taken as evidence of cyanide
poisoning

107
61. – 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 64. We see from the passage that meningitis may
cevaplayınız. be caused by ----.

When doctors suspect meningitis, they must quickly A) different antibiotics


determine whether it is from a bacterial, viral, fungal, B) cerebrospinal fluid
or other type of infection or from irritation caused by C) a spinal tap
something other than an infection (for example, a D) the blood-sugar level
chemical). The possible causes are many, and the E) an infection or an irritation
treatment differs for each. The test usually used to
diagnose meningitis and determine its cause is the
spinal tap, or lumbar puncture. A thin needle is
inserted between two bones in the lower spinal
column to withdraw a sample of cerebrospinal fluid
from an area just below the spinal cord. The doctor
then examines the fluid for bacteria under a
microscope and sends a sample of it to the laboratory
to be cultured and identified. The bacteria can be
tested for susceptibility to treatment with different
antibiotics. The sugar level, an increase in protein,
and the number and type of white blood cells in the
fluid also help determine the type of infection.

61. It is mentioned in the passage that the fluid


obtained from a lumbar puncture ----.

A) always contains elevated levels of protein and


white blood cells
B) is different from that obtained during a spinal tap
C) is examined carefully to help understand the
cause of the meningitis
D) is not helpful in deciding on methods of treatment
for meningitis
E) is not a common diagnostic test for meningitis

62. It is clear from the passage that, for testing


purposes, a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid
----.

A) can be removed from low down in the spinal


column
B) is not enough for an accurate diagnosis of
meningitis
C) can be extracted once meningitis has been
diagnosed
D) should be taken but this will have no influence on
the choice of antibiotic to be used
E) should be examined only if an increase in the
protein levels is suspected

63. It is pointed out in the passage that, since the


causes of meningitis are varied, ----.

A) any kind of antibiotic may be used to treat any


case of meningitis
B) the treatments must also vary
C) it is virtually impossible to track down the cause
in any one instance
D) irritation caused by a chemical is the most likely
E) the type of white blood cell determines the choice
of antibiotic

108
65. – 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 68. It can be understood from the passage that, as
cevaplayınız. the concentration gradient between the blood and
dialyzing fluid is reduced, ----.
In dialysis with an artificial kidney, the rate of
movement of solute across the dialyzing membrane A) the maximum rate of transfer occurs
depends on four variables: the concentration gradient B) the membrane slowly becomes more permeable
of the solute between the blood and the dialyzing to the solute
fluid, the permeability of the membrane to the solute, C) the diffusion of solute across the membrane
the surface area of the membrane, and the length of slows down
time that the blood and fluid remain in contact with the D) the transfer of blood and fluid across the
membrane. Thus, the maximum rate of solute transfer membrane is optimized
occurs initially when the concentration gradient is E) an artificial kidney must be used to keep the
greatest (when dialysis is begun) and slows down as patient healthy
the concentration gradient is dissipated. In a flowing
system such as haemodialysis, in which blood and
dialysate fluid flow through an artificial kidney, the
dissipation of the concentration gradient can be
reduced, and diffusion of solute across the membrane
can be optimized by increasing the flow rate of either
or both the blood and dialyzing fluid.

65. According to the passage, solute transfer in


dialysis is faster ----.

A) than the natural kidney function


B) when the concentration gradient between the
blood and dialyzing fluid is dissipated
C) when the patient’s own kidney is used
D) at the beginning of the process
E) when dialysis is prolonged

66. We see from the passage that the permeability


of the membrane to the solute ----.

A) is the most important of the variables mentioned


B) is one of the variables that affects the speed of
dialysis
C) decreases as the surface area of the membrane
decreases
D) is not a factor in haemodialysis
E) is greater initially and then decreases as dialysis
continues

67. It is clear from the passage that increasing the


flow rate of blood through the artificial kidney is
----.

A) a good way to increase the length of time the


blood and fluid are in contact with the membrane
B) not a practical option in dialysis
C) only achieved when certain pre-conditions are
met
D) one of the ways in which dialysis can be made
more efficient
E) better than raising the rate of flow of the dialyzing
fluid

109
69. – 72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 72. We see from the passage that, when the lateral
cevaplayınız. hypothalamic area of an animal’s brain is
damaged, the animal ----.
Stimulation of several areas of the hypothalamus in
the brain causes an animal to experience extreme A) cannot control its activities
hunger, a voracious appetite, and an intense desire to B) may starve to death
search for food. The area most associated with C) becomes overactive
hunger is the lateral hypothalamic area. Damage to D) is in danger of also losing the ventromedial
this area sometimes causes the animal to lose desire nucleus
for food, sometimes causing lethal starvation. On the E) loses all sensitivity to stimulation of the brain
other hand, a centre in the hypothalamus that
opposes the desire for food, called the satiety centre,
is located in the ventromedial nucleus. When this
centre is stimulated electrically, an animal that is
eating food suddenly stops eating and shows
complete indifference to food. However, if this area is
destroyed bilaterally, the animal cannot be satiated;
instead, its hypothalamic hunger centres become
overactive, so that it has a voracious appetite,
resulting in tremendous obesity.

69. It is pointed out in the passage that the satiety


centre, when stimulated, causes an animal to ----.

A) lose interest in eating


B) have a voracious appetite
C) have an overactive hunger centre
D) have an intense desire to search for food
E) connect this stimulation directly with hunger

70. The topic of this passage is ----.

A) the effect of the destruction of the main areas of


the brain
B) the effect of brain damage on the choice of food
C) changes in the lateral hypothalamic area of the
brain resulting from starvation
D) the stimulation of different areas of the brain
E) the hypothalamus and its relation to appetite

71. According to the passage, obesity in animals


can be caused by ----.

A) stimulation of the ventromedial nucleus in the


hypothalamus
B) a damaged lateral hypothalamic area
C) irreparable bilateral damage to the ventromedial
nucleus
D) over-stimulation of the satiety centre
E) the easy availability of food

110
73. – 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 76. It is mentioned in the passage that the alveoli,
cevaplayınız. alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and respiratory
bronchioles ----.
The ultimate importance of the pulmonary ventilatory
system is to continually renew the air in the gas A) occasionally renew the air in the gas exchange
exchange areas of the lungs, where the air is in areas of the lungs
proximity to pulmonary blood. These areas include B) are the parts of the lungs that are closest to
the alveoli, alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and pulmonary blood
respiratory bronchioles. However, during normal quiet C) do not receive any of the inspired air during quiet
respiration, the volume of air is only enough to fill the respiration
respiratory passageways down as far as the terminal D) are part of the dead space of the respiratory
bronchioles, with only a small portion of the inspired system
air actually flowing all the way to the alveoli. Some of E) are outside the gas exchange areas of the lungs
the molecules in the inspired air travel the final short
distance to the alveoli through diffusion, but most
never reach the gas exchange areas of the lungs,
instead going to fill respiratory passages where gas
exchange does not occur, such as the nose, pharynx
and trachea. This air is called dead space air because
it is not useful for the gas exchange process; the
respiratory passages where no gas exchange takes
place are called dead space. On expiration, the air in
the dead space is expired first, before any of the air
from the alveoli reaches the atmosphere. Therefore,
the dead space does not aid in removal of the
expiratory gases from the lungs.

73. It is clearly pointed out in the passage that


only a small amount of the air inspired during
normal respiration ----.

A) reaches the atmosphere


B) is expired before the next breath is taken
C) is called dead space air
D) stays in the nose, pharynx and trachea
E) ever reaches the gas exchange areas of the
lungs

74. According to the passage, dead space air ----.

A) aids the gas exchange process tremendously


B) is the last to reach the atmosphere during
expiration
C) flows all the way to the alveoli through diffusion
D) does not help in the expiration of gases from the
lungs
E) is of ultimate importance in the pulmonary
ventilatory system

75. It can be understood from the passage that the


main function of the pulmonary ventilatory system
is to provide ----.

A) clean air to the pulmonary blood


B) dead space air to the gas exchange areas of the
lungs
C) gas exchange in the dead space areas
D) atmospheric air during expiration
E) clean air to the nose, pharynx and trachea

111
77. – 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 80. According to the passage, 40 to 100 million
cevaplayınız. people worldwide ----.

Virologist Robert Webster thinks that the H5N1 strain A) transmit flu viruses to other people every year
of the avian influenza virus poses the most serious B) have already died from the H5N1 strain
public health threat since the Spanish flu pandemic of C) are currently infected with the H5N1 avian virus
1918, which killed an estimated 40 million to 100 D) were threatened by the Spanish flu pandemic
million people worldwide. Although the H5N1 strain E) died from the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918
has so far shown no signs that it has acquired the
ability to transmit easily from person to person,
Webster says that it is only a matter of time before it TEST BĐTTĐ.
does. For that to happen, Webster and others believe CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.
that a version of the human flu virus, which is easily
transmittable between people, and the H5N1 avian
virus would have to infect the same mammalian cell at
the same time and re-combine their DNA. If H5N1
picks up those genes from the human flu virus that
enable it to spread from person to person, Webster
says that virtually nobody will have immunity to it, and
many deaths may ensue.

77. We see from the passage that although the


H5N1 strain of the avian flu virus is not easily
transmitted from person to person at present, ----.

A) the human flu virus is also not easily


transmittable between people
B) neither was the Spanish flu virus in 1918
C) it will probably acquire the ability to do so in the
near future
D) most people already have immunity to it
E) it is not a serious public health threat

78. It is clear from the passage that if the human


flu virus and the H5N1 strain were to infect the
same mammalian cell at the same time, ----.

A) the H5N1 strain would probably gain the ability to


spread between people
B) mammals would become immune to both flu
strains
C) this could prove dangerous but will almost
certainly never happen
D) it would pose no danger to the public
E) the H5N1 strain would be destroyed

79. As we can infer from the passage, virologist


Robert Webster thinks that ----.

A) most humans are immune to the H5N1 avian


influenza strain as it exists at present
B) the H5N1 strain is unlikely ever to be transmitted
between humans
C) the H5N1 strain and the human flu virus could
never combine to create a stronger virus
D) the avian influenza virus will soon pose a huge
threat to humans
E) many human deaths could result from a
resurgence of the Spanish flu

112
8. Cosmologists are addressing some of the
1. – 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere fundamental questions that people ---- to resolve
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. over the centuries through philosophical thinking,
but they ---- this based on systematic observation
1. The greatest ---- to the spread of nuclear and quantitative methodology.
technology and nuclear power reactors to
developing countries is that it will increase the A) would attempt / have done
risks of nuclear weapons proliferation. B) attempt / will do
C) may attempt / did
A) obligation B) contribution C) solution D) attempted / should do
D) condition E) objection E) have attempted / are doing

2. A combination of factors made the 1984


accident in a storage tank at a Union Carbide 9. The shuttle ---- the atmosphere at precisely 38°
plant in India almost ----. for heat shields below the fuselage and the wings
---- the craft from heat damage.
A) crucial B) inevitable C) vulnerable
D) bearable E) permanent A) must re-enter / to protect
B) has re-entered / having protected
C) re-entered / to have protected
3. In the opinion of most scientists, engineering D) re-enters / to be protecting
does not ---- offer universally acceptable E) should re-enter / to have been protecting
solutions.

A) randomly B) previously C) necessarily 10. From the year 1665, when Robert Hooke ----
D) excessively E) extremely cells, until the middle of the twentieth century,
biologists ---- only light microscopes for viewing
cells.
4. Scientists suggest that huge amounts of
greenhouse gases will be ---- into the atmosphere A) used to discover / could have had
if rising temperatures cause the Arctic permafrost B) had discovered / would have
to melt. C) discovered / had
D) has discovered / have had
A) produced B) accelerated C) disrupted E) could discover / have
D) released E) joined
11. Sea bindweed Calystegia soldanella ---- a
5. Several research groups have been racing to fleshyleaved cousin of the more widespread,
---- how to regenerate hair cells. whiteflowered hedge bindweed (C. sepium) that
---- fences and hedges everywhere in the summer.
A) figure out B) go for C) connect with
D) set up E) make up A) might be / had clothed
B) is / clothes
C) should be / has clothed
6. An important aspect of the application of D) could be / would have clothed
mathematics is that different ways of making E) was / can clothe
mathematical sense of everyday questions ----
different answers.
12. In February 1996, ---- a meeting in Bermuda,
A) keep up B) bring over C) lead to international partners in the Human Genome
D) show off E) find out Project agreed to formalize the conditions of data
access, including release of the sequence into
public databases ---- 24 hours.
7. Earthquake rupture ---- to occur by enlargement
of a crack, but more recent observations ---- a A) at / within B) from / in C) in / by
“pulse-like” mode of rupture enlargement. D) during / to E) on / through

A) had been thought / would be indicated


B) can be thought / had indicated 13. The United States government is about to start
C) was thought / will have indicated monitoring the air ---- major cities for biological
D) has been thought / indicate weapons ---- looking for bacteria and viruses in
E) must be thought / may have indicated the air filtres that now monitor pollution.

. A) of / on B) at / towards C) out of / with


D) in / by E) from / through

113
14. Comets are thought to have changed very little 19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada
over the last 4 billion years, ---- their composition numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da
should hold clues to the origin of the solar ifadeyi bulunuz.
system.
Names and numbers were causing trouble long
A) but B) whereas C) just as before the Internet age. Biology had a naming crisis in
D) in that E) so the 17th and 18th centuries. The problem wasn’t so
much a shortage of names but an excess of (19) ----.
Plants and animals (20) ---- by many different names
15. Robots will never be much good at household in different places. Then came the great reform of
tasks such as pouring coffee or polishing shoes Carolus Linnaeus and his system of Latin binomials,
---- they can calculate their position accurately. (21) ---- each organism by genus and species. The
new scheme revolutionized taxonomy, not because
A) since B) when C) unless there is any magic in Latin or in two-part names, but
D) so that E) in case because Linnaeus and his (22) ---- laboured to
preserve a strict one-to-one mapping between names
and organisms. Official codes of nomenclature
16. About half of all women over 65 years of age continue to enforce this rule – one name, one species
take some type of nutrition supplement, ---- only – although rooting out synonyms and homonyms is a
about one-fifth of older men do. (23) ---- struggle.

A) before B) because C) that is 19.


D) while E) despite A) them B) that C) theirs
D) those E) themselves
17. Coal produces ---- CO2 per energy unit ---- any
other fossil fuel. 20.
A) were to be known B) would be known
A) also / as B) more / than C) such / that C) are known D) were known
D) either / or E) so / as E) will be known

18. Every rock, ---- copper-veined, silver-clad, or 21.


black-glazed, tells a story about the Earth as a A) to have been identifying
whole. B) identified
C) to have identified
A) both B) also C) whether D) to be identifying
D) all E) that E) identifying

22.
A) participants B) followers C) occupants
D) suppliers E) practitioners

23.
A) constant B) primary C) rapid
D) similar E) partial

24. – 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde


tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.

24. Shortly after the Golden Gate Bridge was


opened, ----.

A) some aesthetic and artistic concerns may have


dominated the visual design of the bridge
B) it has been an enormously successful bridge by
most aesthetic and functional criteria
C) its roadway proved to be overly flexible under
certain wind conditions
D) the design of the bridge’s towers was tested on
scale models, and construction of the bridge
started
E) a number of such structures were acting similarly

114
25. ----, yet relatively few have been identified in 30. Our eyes can detect photons, the smallest
modern organisms. quantum unit of an electromagnetic wave, ----.

A) Scientists hypothesize that the human hepatitis A) whose frequencies lie in the narrow visible range
delta virus (HDV) arose from a ribozyme B) in which the human retina has more “pixels” than
B) The CPEB3 ribozyme is structurally and a consumer digital camera
biochemically related to human hepatitis C) that it increases our knowledge of the structure of
deltavirus (HDV) ribozymes atoms
C) This ribozyme occurs exclusively in mammals D) because scientists have lacked a detector able to
D) The selection had yielded several ribozymes see an individual photon
E) Ribozymes are thought to have played a pivotal E) if a revolution in photon detection is now under
role in the early evolution of life way

26. Should the cabin pressure somehow be lost, 31. Abnormally heavy and early rainfall in the
----. Sudan caused the River Nile to overflow in 2007,
----.
A) the oxygen canisters located above the
passenger seats in a plane provide oxygen to the A) so global land surface temperatures in January
passengers through masks and April had reached the highest levels ever
B) the oxygen-generator canisters must be replaced recorded for those months
periodically to ensure that they will operate B) because the first documented tropical cyclone in
properly when needed the Arabian Sea hit Oman and Iran, causing 50
C) the oxygen canister contains a core of sodium deaths
chlorate, which is activated by a small explosive C) but in May, ocean waves up to 5 metres high
charge swamped parts of the Maldive Islands
D) the airline maintenance rules made it clear that a D) unless other extreme weather events include the
bright yellow safety cap must be installed on the summer heatweave in southeastern Europe
oxygen canisters E) while unusually heavy snowfall affected South
E) a small explosion was initiated when a passenger Africa and parts of South America
pulled the oxygen mask toward herself

32. ALH84001 is one of several meteorites that are


27. ---- when they are exposed to higher than generally acknowledged to have come from Mars
normal temperatures. ----.

A) Recent climate warming is associated with A) when it is named for the place in Antarctica (Allan
genetic change Hills) and the year (1984) it was found
B) Recent global warming might already be driving B) because they contain trapped gases that match
such changes the Martian atmosphere
C) Researchers compiled data on chromosomal C) while geologists at NASA discovered in the rock
polymorphism covering periods of 13 to 46 years a variety of surprising characteristics at a
D) Some organisms undergo genetic change microscopic level
E) Weather records for the same periods and D) where it turned out to be the oldest known rock
locations are studied from any planet
E) so that the findings were based on meticulous
studies and the papers of scientists at NASA
28. ---- as to why human mental capacities are so
much greater than those of chimpanzees.
33. Until fairly recently, we viewed the ocean as a
A) Two scientists recently reported bountiful, virtually limitless resource, ----.
B) Scientists have always suspected
C) Researchers have found a clue A) so many countries are also taking steps to
D) The newly adopted scheme also includes a third restore and conserve wetlands
category B) unless we are now seeing the effects of our
E) Such a decision was reached after days of disregard for marine communities
debate C) yet seafood would become less plentiful
D) and we have harvested the ocean heavily and
used it as a dumping ground for wastes
29. Although stem cells are found in many E) regardless of the fact that laws in many countries
tissues, ----. now prohibit disposal of sewage and other
wastes at sea
A) they have great potential to treat diseases
B) the most promising ones seem to be those in
bone marrow
C) specialists have been very enthusiastic
D) special staining techniques revealed that the cells
were indeed dividing
E) the results of that study have yet to be
announced

115
34. In the Pacific Ocean, the analogue of the Gulf 38. Meteorites provide the best available data
Stream Current in the Atlantic is the Kuroshio about the chemical and physical processes that
Current, ----. occurred during the first few million years of our
solar system’s history.
A) which flows north along the coast of Asia to the
east coast of Japan A) Güneş sistemimizin tarihinde, ilk birkaç milyon yıl
B) as it flows northeast across the Atlantic from its içinde ortaya çıkmış olan kimyasal ve fiziksel
source in the Gulf of Mexico oluşumlara ilişkin elde edilebilen en iyi veriler
C) so the Gulf Stream Current indeed contributes to göktaşlarında bulunmaktadır.
Europe’s warmth B) Güneş sistemimizin başlangıcındaki birkaç milyon
D) where it transports no heat to locations on the yıl içinde meydana gelmiş kimyasal ve fiziksel
eastern side of the Pacific süreçlerle ilgili kullanılabilir verilerin en iyileri
E) but ocean currents do little to warm the region göktaşlarından elde edilmiştir.
C) Göktaşlarının sağladığı veriler, güneş sistemimizin
tarihinin ilk birkaç milyon yıllık sürecindeki kimyasal ve
35. Researchers have found that the DNA in fiziksel oluşumları anlayabilmemize en büyük katkıyı
bacteria deteriorates sharply after about 1.1 sağlamıştır.
million years, ----. D) Güneş sistemimizin ilk birkaç milyon yıllık tarihinde
meydana gelen kimyasal ve fiziksel süreçlerle ilgili
A) whereas the DNA of the average bacterium has verilerin en güvenilir olanları göktaşlarından
about 3 million units sağlanmıştır.
B) which consisted of just 210 units linked together E) Göktaşları, güneş sistemimizin tarihinin ilk birkaç
C) after which the size of the DNA gets cut in half milyon yılında meydana gelmiş olan kimyasal ve
D) but older microorganisms didn’t perform as well fiziksel süreçler hakkında mevcut en iyi verileri sağlar.
E) and some of the oldest microorganisms were
watched for as long as a year 39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye
anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.

36. – 38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye 39. Bilim adamlarına göre, atmosfere yayılmakta
anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz. olan atık gazlar nedeniyle dünyadaki iklimler daha
sıcak bir hale gelmiştir.
36. Scientists tell us that 90 per cent of all matter
in the universe consists of hydrogen. A) Scientists claim that so much waste gas has
been spread into the atmosphere that the
A) Bilim adamlarının bize söylediğine göre, hidrojen climates in the world have become increasingly
içeren maddeler evrendeki tüm maddelerin yüzde warm.
90’ını oluşturmaktadır. B) As scientists have pointed out, due to waste
B) Bilim adamları bize, evrendeki tüm maddelerin gases that pollute the atmosphere, the world’s
yüzde 90’ının hidrojen içerdiğini söylemektedir. climate has become much warmer.
C) Hidrojenin evrendeki tüm maddelerin yüzde 90’ını C) According to scientists, the climates in the world
oluşturduğu, bize bilim adamlarınca söylenen bir have become warmer because of waste gases
gerçektir. that are spreading into the atmosphere.
D) Bilim adamlarının bize söylediği gibi, hidrojen, D) For scientists, the atmosphere has been so
evrendeki maddelerin yüzde 90’ında polluted by waste gases that the climates in the
bulunmaktadır. world have already become much warmer.
E) Bilim adamları, hidrojenin, evrendeki tüm E) As far as scientists are concerned, the world’s
maddelerin yüzde 90’ını oluşturduğunu söylüyor. climate has become extremely warm owing to
waste gases in the atmosphere.

37. Inventions of modern science are no longer


the creations of a single person, as they were in
the past.

A) Çağdaş bilimin buluşları, artık, geçmişte olduğu


gibi tek bir kişinin yaratıları değildir.
B) Çağımızda bilimsel buluşlar, geçmişte olduğunun
tersine, bir kişinin yaratıcılığına
dayanmamaktadır.
C) Çağdaş bilimde artık, geçmişte olduğu gibi, tek
kişinin yaratıcılığına dayanan buluşlara
rastlanmamaktadır.
D) Çağdaş bilimle ortaya konan buluşlar, geçmişten
farklı olarak, birden çok kişinin ortaya koyduğu
yaratılardır.
E) Geçmişteki buluşlar, çağdaş bilimdekilerin
tersine, bir tek kişinin yaratılarıydı.

116
40. Evrenin sakinleri olarak, ışığın ilk kaynağının 42. – 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçada
nasıl oluştuğunu, hayatın nasıl meydana geldiğini anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek
ve bu çok büyük boşlukta akıllı varlıklar olarak cümleyi bulunuz.
bizim yalnız olup olmadığımızı merak etmekten
kendimizi alamayız. 42. Engineers are hired by clients (and employers)
specifically for their specialized expertise. ----.
A) How the first light was formed, how life started, Therefore, engineers have ethical obligations to
and whether we are the only intelligent beings in their clients, because the client often cannot
this huge emptiness are the questions that, as assess the quality of the engineer’s technical
inhabitants of the universe, we cannot keep advice. These obligations are part of engineering
ourselves from asking. ethics, the set of behavioural standards that all
B) As inhabitants of the universe, we cannot help engineers are expected to follow.
wondering how the first source of light formed,
how life came into existence and whether we are A) Civil engineering is generally considered the
alone as intelligent beings in this vast emptiness. oldest engineering discipline
C) As this universe’s only intelligent inhabitants, it is B) Successful teamwork results in accomplishments
up to us to ask questions such as how the first larger than those that can be produced by
light source was formed, how life on Earth individual team members
started, and how we came to inhabit a tiny planet C) Generally, the client knows less about the subject
in this vast emptiness. than the engineer
D) As inhabitants of this universe, we cannot help D) Biochemical engineers combine biological
asking such pressing questions as how the first processes with traditional chemical engineering
light source was formed, how life started, and to produce foods and pharmaceuticals and to
whether there are other intelligent beings living in treat wastes
this vast emptiness. E) An engineer does not need to have a licence to
E) Being inhabitants of the vast emptiness that is practise engineering, but those who do may have
our universe, we cannot help wondering how light more career opportunities
was formed, how life started, and whether we are
quite alone as intelligent beings in the universe.
43. An athlete’s body must be heavier for its
height than a nonathlete’s body because the
41. ABD Ticaret Bakanlığı, hassas teknolojik athlete’s bones and muscles are denser. ----.
bilgilere ulaşımı sınırlandırmaya ilişkin However, this is not true. Weight standards that
politikaların gözden geçirilmesi gerekip may be appropriate for others are inappropriate
gerekmediğini incelemek üzere bir grup uzmanı for athletes. Therefore, measures such as fatfold
görevlendirmiştir. tests yield more useful information about body
composition.
A) A group of experts commissioned by the US
Department of Commerce are examining how the A) When athletes consult standard weight-forheight
policies concerning limited access to sensitive tables and see that they are on the heavy side,
technological information should be reformulated. they may mistakenly believe that they are too fat
B) A group of experts have been appointed by the B) The increasing incidence of abnormal eating
US Department of Commerce to review the habits among athletes, especially young women,
policies that limit access to confidental is causing concern
technological information. C) Athletes are particularly likely to develop eating
C) The US Department of Commerce has recruited disorders
a group of experts to find out to what extent the D) They fail to realize that the loss of lean tissue that
policies for the limitation of access to delicate accompanies energy restriction actually impairs
technological information can be revised. their physical performance
D) The US Department of Commerce has E) Male athletes, especially wrestlers and gymnasts,
commissioned a group of experts to examine are affected by these disorders as well, but
whether policies on limiting access to sensitive research shows that females have a greater
technological information should be reviewed. tendency
E) The policies on limited access to confidental
technological information are being reviewed by a
group of experts, appointed by the US
Department of Commerce.

117
44. Thanks to their status as one of the world’s 46. Seismologists have struggled for years to find
top predators, great whites are among the best a reliable earthquake predictor. Could balls of
known sharks on Earth, yet essentially nothing is light in the sky preceding quakes hold the key?
known about their mating habits. That could soon The US Federal Emergency Management Agency
change, as researchers have discovered a remote (FEMA) has begun asking that very question. ----.
spot in the North Pacific Ocean that may be a Thus, they have funded NASA to study
mating ground for great whites, according to a earthquake lights using weather satellites and the
recent study. ----. But, as scientists have MODIS research satellite during the past few
explained, the theory that the area is a feeding years.
ground for great whites may be incorrect.
A) In 1999, floating balls of light in the sky were
A) It’s not an area that a shark would logically go to broadcast on Turkish television, reportedly
from California to find something to eat filmed the night before the earthquake in Đzmit
B) At first, scientists nicknamed the region, 1,553 B) In 1968, the first photographs of “earthquake
miles west of the Baja Peninsula, the “great white lights” were taken by Yutaka Yasui of the
café” because they suspected sharks could be Kakioka Magnetic Observatory
going there to feed C) The main problem facing FEMA is that
C) The sharks migrate long distances seasonally earthquake lights still don’t have an accepted
from the coast of California to Hawaii and to the scientific explanation
offshore area D) Most earthquakes occur at plate boundaries,
D) On average, the sharks dive every 10 minutes, where one plate slides beneath another
325 metres down, perhaps to sniff for mates, hundreds of kilometres below the Earth’s
whose scent could be detected at a certain level surface
of depth E) Mainstream geologists had dismissed these
E) Sharks gather at marine mammal habitats in earlier claims as coincidental
California during autumn and winter months,
feeding on the abundant elephant seals and
other prey before migrating to the offshore waters 47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş
bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi
bulunuz.
45. The dark side of nanotechnology is the
nightmare possibility that “nano-robots” could be 47.
programmed to turn everything on Earth into Sarah: - Have you ever thought about how
more nano-robots. ----. Some researchers, paleontologists name the new fossils they find?
however, say that while they also have some They don’t only give the fossils a boring,
worries about nanotechnology, they don’t want it descriptive name in Latin.
banned because its benefits outweigh its risks. Laura: - ----
Sarah: - Well, in this article it says that one
A) R. Smalley discovered the three-dimensional paleontologist named a newly discovered type of
nanoscale carbon cages called fullerenes dinosaur fossil gojirasaurus after the original
B) E. Drexler says he invented the word Japanese name for Godzilla!
“nanotechnology” Laura: - That’s funny! I wonder if they’ll name any
C) The inventors of nanotechnology were awarded a fossils after King Kong.
Nobel Prize
D) In 1990, a team of scientists found they could use A) I have a cousin who’s studying paleontology; why
a scanning tunnelling microscope to drag don’t we ask him?
individual atoms of xenon over the surface of a B) Certainly. There are rules for how new species
crystal of nickel and fossils must be named.
E) There are other fears, such as nanoscale C) Well, they surely have a catalogue of names they
particles creating unforeseen toxic hazards can use for every fossil they discover.
D) Oh, really? What kinds of names do they give
them, then?
E) Paleontologists have a sense of humour, too!

118
48. 51. Keith: - It looks like more and more countries in
Lisa: - What are you reading? the EU are turning to wind power for their energy.
Andy: - A book about caterpillars in the Costa Cherie: - ----
Rican tropical forests. Did you know that there’s Keith: - Actually it’s not, because sometimes the
one type of caterpillar that looks like a snake’s wind turbines are built without proper planning,
head? and this affects the surrounding environment
Lisa: - ---- negatively.
Andy: - I should imagine, only to scare away Cherie: - Oh, I wasn’t aware of that.
predators.
A) I think a combination of wind and solar power
A) Looking at caterpillars always makes me feel like would be best.
I’ve got one crawling up my arm! B) I think that’s very good. Yes?
B) How strange. I wonder why? C) What’s your opinion of wind power?
C) I don’t know why this type of caterpillar lives in a D) I thought wind turbines couldn’t generate enough
tropical forest. power to make a difference.
D) How interesting. Does the book mention other E) Do you think wind power will help reduce carbon
types? emissions?
E) Why did the writer choose to focus on only the
forests in Costa Rica?
52. – 56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla
okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan
49. cümleyi bulunuz.
Kathy: - I went to a lecture yesterday given by a
microbiologist. He focused on bacteria caught in 52. (I) When their nuclear fuel is exhausted, stars die,
Antarctic ice millions of years ago, and stressed and the residual iron core collapses on itself. (II) The
their importance in understanding how life on outcome of a star’s death depends on mass,
Earth works over long periods of time. however. (III) Stars with between 10 and 20 times the
Bruce: - ---- mass of the Sun collapse in a spectacular explosion
Kathy: - He said that life on Earth consists mostly known as a supernova, leaving behind a neutron star,
of microbes, and they can adapt to every possible whereas those larger than 20 solar masses implode
environment. to form black holes in a hypernova. (IV) In both cases,
Bruce: - That sounds interesting. Did he suggest copious bursts of neutrinos are released along with
any reading material on the subject? optical, x-ray and gamma radiation. (V) Recent
studies indicate that some massive stars may be
A) What is the lecturer’s special area of study within rotating only slowly or not at all.
the field of microbiology?
B) Did you ask him any questions after the lecture? A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
C) I find microbiology incredibly interesting; don’t
you?
D) Who else attended the lecture besides you? 53. (I) Since the cloned-sheep Dolly’s birth,
E) How can anything so tiny have an influnce on the researchers have cloned many other mammals,
planet as a whole? Amazing. Anything else? including mice, cats, horses, cows and pigs. (II) Such
reproductive cloning has many potential applications.
(III) Their most advanced embryo, however, had
50. stopped growing at about six cells, and their intention
Terry: - Did you know that scientists have found was solely to harvest embryonic stem cells. (IV) By
perfectly preserved comet dust in the ice in using genetically engineered donor nuclei, geneticists
Antarctica? can study the effects of changing single genes or
Lynne: - ---- combinations of genes. (V) And in the future,
Terry: - Yes, it is. The samples found previously in biologists may routinely produce genetically identical
Antarctica and in Greenland had been compacted animals for experimentation, a potential benefit to
and changed by the ice around them, but these genetics research.
new samples haven’t.
Lynne: - Then their larger size and good condition A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
must make them easier to analyse.

A) That’s nothing new! Don’t you think?


B) Are the dust samples taken from a comet’s tail by
spacecraft similar to this?
C) Where in Antarctica was the dust discovered?
D) It must have been difficult for the scientists to
locate the dust.
E) That was Jean Duprat’s study, wasn’t it?

119
54. (I) The algal ancestors of plants may have 57. As one understands from the passage, when
carpeted moist fringes of lakes or coastal salt the ultimate version of the weedkilling robot
marshes over 500 million years ago. (II) Both groups comes into use, ----.
have similar microscopic structures for making their
cellulose cell walls and a similar mechanism for A) there will be no need for the use of herbicides
forming the cell plate that divides the cytoplasm since weeds will simply be pulled out by the robot
during cell division. (III) These shallow-water habitats B) herbicides will no longer be used anywhere in the
were subject to occasional drying, and natural world
selection would have favoured algae that could C) the American type of weedkilling robots will still
survive periodic droughts. (IV) Some species be used since they are very efficient
accumulated adaptations that enabled them to live D) farmers will be able to upgrade their spraying
permanently above the water line. (V) The modern- techniques in order to kill the weeds among their
day green alga Coleochaete may resemble an early crops
plant ancestor, and it grows at the edges of lakes as E) many of the environmental problems farmers face
disk-like, multicellular colonies. will be solved much more efficiently

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
58. It is clear from the passage that robots used in
the United States for weedkilling ----.
55. (I) Humans have a long history of studying,
appreciating, and using animal diversity, but A) are a technological challenge that farmers in
classifying a new animal isn’t always easy. (II) Denmark and the United States face
Imagine you were the first European zoologist to B) were first invented and widely used by farmers in
encounter a strange animal in Australia that has the the United States
following physical features. (III) It has a bill and C) will never be useful for improving traditional
webbed feet similar to a duck’s, but the rest of its furry spraying techniques
body looks very much like that of a muskrat or other D) are convenient for use only on railways and
aquatic rodent, and it lays eggs. (IV) Unlike the rest of airport runways rather than in farming areas
the world, Australia has relatively few placental E) are being developed and tested in Denmark
mammals. (V) How would you classify it?

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V 59. It is implied in the passage that herbicides


used for weedkilling ----.

56. (I) Reefs are under attack from all sides. (II) Coral A) have certainly done much damage to the
reefs are one of the oldest and most diverse environment in Denmark
ecosystems on Earth. (III) Hurricanes and tsunamis B) can be most effective if they are sprayed along
can cause injuries that take decades for a reef to with fertilizer
repair naturally. (IV) Meanwhile, destructive fishing C) are more commonly preferred in the United
practices, pollution, ships running aground and States than in Denmark
climate change pose an even more serious threat. (V) D) cause no environmental damage if applied only in
A report issued by the UN Environment Programme small amounts
warned that 30 per cent of the world’s coral reefs are E) are poisonous and, therefore, threaten the
either already dead or seriously damaged. environment

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
60. As is clear from the passage, the type of robot
currently under trial in Denmark ----.
57. – 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre
cevaplayınız. A) is actually adaptable to all kinds of agricultural
purposes
Robots make unlikely green warriors, but they could B) has been regarded by farmers as a major step
soon be doing their bit for the environment. Trials of a forward in agricultural technology
Danish robot that maps the position of weeds growing C) identifies the weeds among crops but does not
among crops suggest that herbicide use could be pluck them
reduced by 70 per cent if farmers used it to adopt D) has been copied from the type which is used in
more selective spraying techniques. Actually, the the United States and is far more efficient
robot drives across fields scanning the ground for any E) is not able to tell the difference between different
weeds and noting their positions. A later version will plant species
be able to kill the weeds too by applying a few drops
of herbicide. But the longer-term goal is to avoid
herbicides altogether by having the robot pluck the
weeds out of the ground rather than poisoning them.
Although weedkilling robots have already been put to
work in the United States, they cannot be used for
agricultural purposes because they do not distinguish
between plant species and tend to treat anything
green as a weed. Instead, they are used to clear
unwanted plants from railways and airport runways.

120
61. – 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 64. It is clear from the passage that Seversky’s
cevaplayınız. original plan for in-flight refuelling ----.

The first documented scheme for in-flight refueling A) was perceived as a threat by the Russian
came from a young Russian aviator named Alexander government
de Seversky. His father owned a plane and taught B) involved the transfer of fuel from one airborne
him to fly when he was in his early teens. In 1917, aircraft to another by means of a hose
when he was 23, Seversky proposed a method for C) gave him a clear advantage when he was
extending flight: One plane could carry extra fuel and applying for work in the United States
deliver it to another through a hose. After the Russian D) was inspired by his aeronautical studies in
Revolution, Russia’s new Bolshevik government sent America
him to the United States to study aircraft design, and E) was completely revised, following suggestions
he stayed there when political developments made from the US War Department
his return to Russia dangerous. He got a job as an
aeronautical engineer for the US War Department and
was awarded the world’s first patent for air-to-air
refuelling, in which large fuel tankers would supply
fuel to fighter aircraft while in flight. Seversky went on
to a distinguished career in airplane design and
achieved perhaps his greatest fame as the author of
the influential 1942 book Victory through Air Power.
He never put his refueling plan into action, though,
and other aviators later came up with ideas of their
own.

61. One understands from the passage that


although Alexander de Seversky was the owner of
the first patent for in-flight refuelling ----.

A) the US War Department was uninterested in his


plans
B) his true passion was always flying, which he
learned as a teenager
C) Russia’s Bolshevik government did not support
his schemes
D) his plans were never implemented
E) other inventors made use of his ideas on aircraft
design

62. We see from the passage that Seversky’s 1942


book Victory through Air Power ----.

A) made him more famous than his ideas for inflight


refuelling
B) was extremely unpopular in Bolshevik Russia
C) was used as a training manual by the US War
Department
D) extensively detailed his plans for in-flight
refuelling
E) remained unpublished at the time of his death

63. According to the passage, Seversky was


unable to return to Russia due to ----.

A) his employment as an aeronautical engineer for


the US War Department
B) the dangers of international travel at the time
C) changes in the political situation there
D) the fact that he was an extremely popular aircraft
designer
E) the political nature of the book he published in
1942

121
65. – 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 67. As pointed out in the passage, the United
cevaplayınız. States ----.

One of the most pressing international priorities is to A) is so worried about the dissemination of nuclear
control the dissemination of nuclear materials that materials that it is making every effort to isolate
could be used in attacks by terrorists or rogue states. rogue states
Nuclear materials contain unstable isotopes, which B) has started taking technological precautions
emit x-rays and gamma rays. The characteristic along its Canadian and Mexican borders to
energies of these photons provide a fingerprint control the entry of nuclear materials into the
revealing which radioactive isotopes are present. country
Unfortunately, some isotopes that occur in benign C) is confident that the only type of atomic bomb
applications emit gamma rays with energies that are terrorists or rogue states can build will be no
very similar to those emitted by materials used in better than a Hiroshima-style one
weapons, which leads to ambiguous identifications D) strongly maintains that nuclear materials should
and false alarms. This problem has been worrying the be used only in useful and benign applications
United States, which is installing thousands of E) claims that the nuclear materials used in
radiation portal monitors to detect the gamma rays weapons are controlled strictly to prevent any
emitted by nuclear materials carried by vehicles leakage
crossing the Canadian and Mexican borders. One of
the worst fears of the authorities is that terrorists
might smuggle highly-enriched uranium into the 68. As one understands from the passage, the
country to build a crude Hiroshima-style atomic bomb. kind of radioactive isotopes present in nuclear
materials are ----.

65. The point is made in the passage that an issue A) more useful for weapons than for any other
of extremely compelling urgency in the world ----. purpose
B) only revealed when they are activated for any
A) is to ensure that nuclear materials are used not in use
weapons but in benign applications C) those which mostly emit a large amount of
B) has been the international threat posed against gamma rays
the United States by terrorists and rogue states D) identified by the energies typical of their nature
C) is to make sure that nuclear energy facilities are E) those that emit far more energy if uranium is
much safer and more reliable than ever highly enriched
D) has been to find out how rogue states have come
to possess highly-enriched uranium
E) is the prevention of the spread of nuclear
materials, serving the aims of terrorists and rogue
states

66. It is clearly pointed out in the passage that it is


very hard to ----.

A) reach an international understanding that the


dissemination of nuclear materials must be fully
controlled
B) trace how highly-enriched uranium can be
smuggled and marketed internationally
C) distinguish between gamma rays emitted by
nuclear materials used for constructive or
destructive purposes
D) force rogue states to give up their efforts to
develop nuclear weapons
E) identify all radioactive isotopes that emit x-rays
and gamma rays

122
69. – 72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 71. It is pointed out in the passage that as the
cevaplayınız. number of recyclings increases ----.

The world now recycles just over 50 per cent of the A) the dependence on wood fibres will no longer be
paper it uses. Reprocessing plants are being necessary
established in most countries. However, trees will B) less and less pure pulp will be used in the paper
never be fully spared because of the use of wood industry
fibres themselves. Pure pulp is rich in water, which C) the problem of adhesives becomes less and less
provides for ample hydrogen bonding that holds fibres serious and urgent
together when made into paper. But each time a fibre D) the cost of reprocessing is reduced to a viable
is cleaned, de-inked and dried in a reprocessing plant, level
only 80 per cent of the bonds are recovered. After E) the ability of a fibre to make strong bonds
four or five recyclings, a fibre can no longer make decreases
strong enough bonds. Engineers can do little that is
economically viable to overcome this physical
limitation, so they focus on reducing the cost of 72. It is pointed out in the passage that engineers
reprocessing fresher fibres. One main challenge is in the paper industry ----.
finding a better way to neutralize “stickies”, which is
the mess of adhesives from stamps, labels, seals, A) do not regard “stickies” in waste paper as a
tape, magazine spines and various other sources, serious challenge
that jam the machinery. The industry has been B) have made a breakthough in strengthening the
working for a decade to find a chemical process that bonding capacity of recycled fibres
will break down stickies, but no full solution has been C) are mostly interested in reducing the cost of
found yet. reprocessing the fresher fibres found in waste
paper
69. According to the passage, in the recycling of D) do not consider the recycling of waste paper to
waste paper, ----. be a viable way of making profit
E) maintain that wood fibres make better paper
A) engineers have developed a chemical process to although it can cost much more
get rid of adhesives
B) it is essential that, among other chemical
procedures, de-inking is first to be completed to
enable fibres to bond strongly
C) there is actually no need to depend on pure pulp
since the fibres are adequately bonded
D) various countries have developed new
techniques except for an effective solution for the
removal of “stickies”
E) one serious and costly handicap is the problem of
adhesives that get stuck in the machines

70. It is maintained in the passage that although


more than 50 per cent of paper used is recycled
----.

A) there is still much dependence in the paper


industry on the use of wood pulp
B) the world’s paper industry is still in its early
stages and needs to upgrade itself in terms of
efficiency and cost
C) most countries regard this as minimal and,
therefore, encourage the establishment of more
paper plants
D) this is not enough to save forests from total
destruction due to widespread exploitation
E) engineers are working hard to develop new
technologies in order to increase the amount to
80 per cent

123
73. – 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 76. In this passage, the writer ----.
cevaplayınız.
A) gives an account of the benefits that convection
Mount Everest is the highest mountain on Earth streams provide to the Hawaiian Islands
above sea level, but it is not the world’s tallest. That B) describes in detail the movements and effects of
honour goes to the Hawaiian volcano Mauna Kea. the tectonic plates under the Pacific Ocean
When measured from its base on the Pacific Ocean C) gives information about how Mount Everest was
floor, it is about 1,000 metres taller than Mount formed
Everest. Mauna Kea is part of a 5,600-kilometre-long D) explains how the volcanic chain extending across
chain of volcanoes stretching westward from the main the Pacific Ocean was formed
Hawaiian island. This volcanic chain is formed by E) states that different types of volcanoes will
small convection streams called “hot spots”, just continue to form across the Pacific Ocean
below the Earth’s crust, where magma rises from the
hotter parts of the mantle, the region between the
crust and the core of the earth. These hot spots melt
sections of the tectonic plates moving above them,
causing magma and bits of the molten plate to erupt
onto the sea floor. Over time, the lava accumulates,
forming a mountain that rises above sea level. The
moving tectonic plates carry the newly-formed
mountain away from its original location, as newer
volcanoes continue to form in the same spot.

73. One understands from the passage that, as


much of Mauna Kea is below sea level, ----.

A) nobody knows how high it actually is since it


cannot be measured precisely
B) it looks lower than Mount Everest, but in fact, it is
not when measured from its bottom
C) its volcanic activity is actually much more
extensive than is generally thought
D) the process of its geological formation is only
now being revealed scientifically
E) the so-called “hot spots” on the ocean floor
continue to add lava to its base

74. It is clear from the passage that the tectonic


plates in the Pacific Ocean ----.

A) move constantly and, thus, undermine the


formation of a volcanic chain in the region
B) prevent the formation of convection streams that
cause eruptions on the ocean floor
C) are so thick that the so-called “hot spots” have no
physical effect on them
D) play a part in the formation of volcanic chains on
the ocean floor
E) cover the mantle so well that no eruption of
magma can take place on the ocean floor

75. According to the passage, the lava which


erupts onto the Pacific Ocean floor ----.

A) mainly consists of magma but also includes small


pieces of the molten tectonic plate
B) is constantly dispersed in all directions because
of the movements of the tectonic plates
C) soon forms a chain of mountains that are
relatively high but hardly rise above sea level
D) flows from newly-formed mountains such as the
Hawaiian volcano Mauna Kea
E) can cover a very large area that may extend for
thousands of kilometres in all directions

124
77. – 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 80. As one learns from the passage, pallasites and
cevaplayınız. mesosiderites ----.

Meteorites offer glimpses of the earliest stages of A) have their origins in various disrupted asteroids
planetary formation. Stony-iron meterorites come in including the asteroid Vesta
two main classes: pallasites and mesosiderites, and it B) provide us full knowledge of how planets were
was previously thought they may have had similar formed in the early solar system
origins. A new study, however, has revealed that their C) are the two major groups of meteorites that have
oxygen isotope properties differ and that they come a stony-iron nature
from distinct places. Accordingly, the characteristics of D) played a formative role in planetary enlargement
mesosiderites suggest they came from the third in the early solar system
largest asteroid, Vesta, which is the target of the E) have always remained a scientific mystery, which
NASA Dawn Mission. On the other hand, pallasites NASA is trying to unravel
are made of mixed core-mantle material from a
disrupted asteroid, indicating that extensive asteroid
deformation was an integral part of planetary TEST BĐTTĐ.
enlargement in the early solar system. CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.

77. According to the passage, while scientists


think they know the asteroid from which
mesosiderites came, ----.

A) its oxygen isotope properties need to be fully


studied and explained
B) the original asteroid with which pallasites are
associated is not named
C) its characteristics are only now being revealed in
a series of new studies
D) there are conflicting views among scientists as
regards pallasites
E) the NASA Dawn Mission has not yet established
its position in the solar system

78. As one understands from the passage,


meteorites ----.

A) are scientifically useful because through them is


partially revealed the very early development of
planets
B) have been the major target of the NASA Dawn
Mission, which is primarily concerned with
planetary formation
C) are made up of the material that has come from
disrupted asteroids such as the asteroid called
Vesta
D) are known as either pallasites or mesosiderites,
both of which have the same physical properties
E) clearly show that, in the early solar system, every
asteroid underwent a process of structural
disruption

79. As is pointed out in the passage, the growth of


planets in the early solar system ----.

A) can only be understood through a close study of


mesosiderites rather than pallasites
B) was mainly due to the oxygen isotope properties
of certain meteorites
C) depended on mixed core-mantle material from
disrupted asteroids
D) was essentially influenced by Vesta, which is the
third largest asteroid
E) was closely connected with the large-scale
deformation of asteroids

125
1. – 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 8. In 1972, two collective burials ---- under an
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. overhanging rock at Qilakitsoq, a small Inuit
settlement on the west coast of Greenland, ---- to
1. Foreshadowing is an established literary ---- about A.D. 1475.
that adds layers of meaning to events or details in
films and literary works. A) are discovered / dated
B) were discovered / dating
A) reference B) indication C) device C) have been discovered / having dated
D) deception E) appreciation D) had been discovered / having been dated
E) were being discovered / having to be dated

2. Due to its geographical position, ---- historical


heritage, and strategic importance, Strasbourg 9. In 1989, Jennifer Johnson of Sanford, Florida,
was chosen as a seat for various European ---- the first woman ---- of transferring cocaine to
institutions. her unborn baby through the umbilical cord.

A) familiar B) rich C) fluent A) was becoming / having been convicted


D) elective E) subsequent B) has become / to convict
C) would become / to be convicting
D) became / to be convicted
3. The endlessly flat landscape and thousands of E) had become / convicting
miles of well-maintained cycle tracks make
cycling an ---- popular activity in the Netherlands.
10. Smoking ---- in almost all segments of the
A) additionally B) effectively C) ultimately American population, so that, in various polls, 60
D) extremely E) accurately to 65% of Americans ---- non-smokers today.

A) declines / may have been


4. The search for truth ---- rational guidelines, and, B) has declined / are
though some of our subjects may lie on the outer C) had declined / would be
limits of scientific research, we examine them D) could have declined / will be
through science’s lens. E) declined / were

A) demands B) relates C) reaches


D) orders E) establishes 11. If a new environmental or safety rule ---- in the
auto industry, executives warn that the company
---- money.
5. The term “geography” ---- the English language
in the 16th century from Latin and ultimately A) were to be proposed / had lost
Greek, at the time when European navigators were B) had been proposed / would have lost
beginning to explore Africa and the New World. C) will be proposed / is going to lose
D) were proposed / should lose
A) broke into B) turned out C) carried away E) is proposed / will lose
D) went on E) came into
12. Tibetan monks, who are experts ----
6. If this business goes on in such an awful way, it meditation, rid themselves of negativity ----
will ---- hundreds of unemployed. augmenting the brain’s gamma waves, which can
be measured in a lab.
A) do without B) hang around with
C) end up with D) go up against A) of / from B) on / about C) for / through
E) make out for D) in / by E) at / towards

7. Although there ---- some growth in the non-oil 13. One can see ---- a glance why small children
sector, Nigeria ---- dangerously reliant on are immediately attracted ---- these noisy,
hydrocarbon revenues. colourful toys.

A) has been / remains A) at / to B) in / by C) with / for


B) had been / would remain D) by / with E) of / to
C) was / would have remained
D) must be / has remained
E) is / had remained 14. Children can benefit from their experiences ----
they retain information from these experiences
over time.

A) that B) even though C) so long as


D) so E) while

126
15. ---- fiction gives something more than 19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada
pleasure, it hardly justifies itself as a subject of numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da
study. ifadeyi bulunuz.

A) Because B) Unless C) When Statutes are usually framed in more or less general
D) If E) After terms, and, in order to apply these general terms to
particular cases, interpretation becomes necessary.
(19) ---- the famous Byzantine Emperor Justinian but
16. ---- the average education level of the women also the framers of the Prussian and Napoleonic
in the United States is higher than that of their Codes (20) ---- to take away this power of
male counterparts, they are highly concentrated in interpretation from the judiciary. But these efforts and
underpaid and menial jobs. similar ones all failed because interpretation is (21) ---
whenever a written formula has to be applied to a
A) Although B) Now that C) Until particular case. When interpreting the meaning of a
D) As if E) In case legal rule, the judge must first discover the true facts
of the case before him, and secondly, he must find
out (22) ---- the legislator intended him to do (23) ----
17. Despite the passage of a decade since its the existing circumstances.
opening, the Maritime Museum in Istanbul
remains undeservedly little-known today ---- a lack 19.
of publicity. A) Not only B) Even if C) The more
D) Both E) As
A) instead of B) in spite of C) contrary to
D) as to E) owing to
20.
A) may have attempted
18. ---- in France, where it was a pleasure strictly B) attempted
limited to the aristocracy, in the British Isles C) are attempting
drinking chocolate was made available to the D) have been attempting
middle classes from the outset. E) could have been attempted
A) Except B) Rather C) Unlike
D) Just as E) Besides 21.
A) influential B) incomparable C) impressive
D) plausible E) unavoidable

22.
A) that B) which C) why
D) what E) whoever

23.
A) after B) towards C) on
D) over E) under

24. – 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde


tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.

24. ----, but he had a reputation for blurring the


line between fact and fiction.

A) In the early twentieth century, some Americans


were still hunting whales much as they had in
Herman Melville’s day
B) For “Moby-Dick”, Herman Melville drew on
scientific, historical, and journalistic accounts of
whales
C) Once a whale washed ashore, it was bound to
end up as someone’s property
D) Whales entered early American law through the
question of who owned them when
E) There is no shortage of whaling histories for a
Melville aficionado to turn to

127
25. Whenever attitude researchers ask 29. As most businesses in Southeast Asia have
participants questions, ----. remained as family enterprises and not attained a
global dimension, ----.
A) researchers would have probably needed to
demonstrate that the scientific benefits of the A) in the wake of the 1997 financial crisis, Southeast
research outweighed the possible ethical costs Asia had been overtaken by China and India
B) this is especially so when a person’s attitude runs B) some are being left behind by foreign businesses
counter to a prevailing norm C) across Southeast Asia, the impact of the 1997
C) researchers have devised several techniques to crisis was closely related with the degree of
overcome such problems corruption in the banking system
D) the techniques often raised questions about D) today, South Korea and Taiwan are four times
research ethics, especially if participants did not richer than Malaysia and ten times richer than
know their attitudes were being measured Indonesia
E) there is the possibility that participants will be E) compared with other regions of the world, Asia’s
reluctant to reveal their true feelings income gap is slowly decreasing

26. Thanks to the popularity of nature 30. In a recently published paper, it is pointed out
documentaries on TV, ----. that China has produced much of the world’s rice
for many decades, ----.
A) many observers have noted high biological
productivity around seamounts and islands A) but in these rice paddies, nitrogen-based fertilizer
B) biologists know much less about the migration of has, to a large extent, replaced animal manure
marine species B) so it is another change in agricultural practice
C) the healthy populations of pelagic fish are in a that has the unintended side benefit of reducing
worldwide decline because of over-harvesting methane emissions
D) there has been an increase of environmental C) what is more, these rice farmers are using less
awareness among people from all walks of life water than they did before
E) in Africa every year, hundreds of thousands of D) yet for the past 30 years, the area devoted to rice
wildebeests and zebras leave their traditional agriculture there has fallen from about 37 million
habitats to avoid the dry season hectares to about 27 million
E) and this change in how rice is grown in China
reduces the amount of methane given off
27. ----, whose drums marked the hours of the
emperor’s day.
31. One of the first questions the archaeologist
A) Most Chinese emperors in the past led a must face ---- is to decide the cause of death.
prosperous life
B) In Beijing, during imperial times, no structure was A) since the area has been explored for remains
permitted to be taller than the Drum Tower B) whatever happens to bones between the time
C) The female members of the imperial family in they are deposited and dug up
China were not allowed to take an interest in the C) on which a great deal of work is currently
affairs of the State focussed
D) Of the numerous gardens within the Forbidden D) even though few scholars went further than
City, the Imperial Garden is the most accessible labelling animals as either wild or domestic
E) The Forbidden City in modern Beijing has been E) when he or she is interpreting animal remains
extensively renovated and, thus, made more
attractive for visitors
32. In 1993, the philanthropist Henry Buhl bought
a rare gelatin-silver print of a Stieglitz photograph
28. If teamwork were taught along with reading, of Georgia O’Keeffe’s hands, ----.
writing and mathematics, ----.
A) which was the beginning of a collection he
A) some of the research in this area would centre on continued to amass over the years
bad behaviours that degrade a team’s B) if he would have had over a thousand images of
performance hands
B) it is only after a great tragedy or triumph that the C) so the Guggenheim is exhibiting more than a
importance of teamwork is drawn into the hundred and seventy of them
spotlight D) when it is an interesting way to contemplate the
C) there would be enormous benefits to students history of photography, among other things
and society alike E) and they include a shot by Robert Capa and a
D) a crucial question that should be asked before portrait of Nusch Eluard by Dora Maar
putting a team together is whether you need one
at all
E) a successful team would deal with its members
who do not contribute anything to the group

128
33. Muğla has always preserved its traditional 36. – 38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye
cultural fabric, ----. anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz.

A) if you’d like to take a journey through its history 36. Due to high fertility and the high number of
B) yet it constitutes a unique model for Turkish young people in the population, the proportion of
traditional architecture adolescents in the total global population is likely
C) although the luxury tourist centres that surround it to increase in the coming years.
have not
D) so it has links to resort towns such as Bodrum, A) Doğurganlık oranı ve genç nüfusun sayısı dikkate
Köyceğiz, and Marmaris alındığında, ergenlerin toplam küresel nüfus
E) because it started to urbanize rapidly with the içindeki oranının önümüzdeki yıllarda artma
founding of Muğla University olasılığı oldukça yüksektir.
B) Yüksek doğurganlık ve nüfus içindeki gençlerin
yüksek sayısı nedeniyle, toplam küresel nüfusta
34. Hierapolis was a famous spa in Roman times ergenlerin oranı, gelecek yıllarda muhtemelen
----. artacaktır.
C) Ergenlerin toplam küresel nüfus içindeki oranının
A) since the founder of the city was the emperor önümüzdeki yıllarda artması, yüksek
Antiochus ll of the Seleucid dynasty doğurganlığa ve nüfus içindeki genç sayısının
B) when it was founded in the second quarter of the yükselmesine bağlıdır.
3rd century B.C. D) Yüksek doğurganlığın ve nüfustaki gençlerin
C) because the only shrines that remain today are a yüksek sayısının sonucu olarak, gelecek yıllarda,
temple of Apollo and the cave-sanctuary of Pluto toplam küresel nüfus içinde ergen oranı giderek
D) just as Pamukkale is today yükselecektir.
E) even if these date from the Hellenistic period E) Yüksek doğurganlığa ve genç nüfusun artışına
bağlı olarak, yetişkinlerin toplam küresel nüfus
içindeki oranı, gelecek yıllarda kademeli bir
35. In the 1950s, particularly in the Unites States, şekilde yükselecektir.
logistics as a business concept began to gain
ground ----.
37. It has been estimated that the number of
A) whereas the need for expert logisticians became tourists visiting China will grow by the end of this
imperative decade to about 50 million.
B) that it was a branch of military science
C) because businesses expanded and reached out A) On yıl sonra, Çin’i ziyaret eden turist sayısında
both to far-flung markets and sources of meydana gelecek artışın 50 milyonun üstünde
materials, creating complex supply chains olacağı hesaplanmaktadır.
D) when the world of commerce as we know it today B) Önümüzdeki on yılın içinde, Çin’i ziyaret eden
would have been impossible without the logistics turist sayısındaki artışın aşağı yukarı 50 milyon
industry olacağı tahmin ediliyor.
E) in that logistics companies have become more C) Tahmin edileceği gibi, bu on yılın sonunda, Çin’I
sophisticated with today’s increasing ziyaret eden turist sayısı artarak yaklaşık 50
globalization milyonu bulacaktır.
D) Çin’i ziyaret eden turist sayısındaki artışın 50
milyona ulaşmasının yaklaşık on yılı bulacağı
tahmin ediliyor.
E) Çin’i ziyaret eden turist sayısının bu on yılın
sonuna kadar yaklaşık 50 milyona yükseleceği
tahmin edilmektedir.

129
38. All oil-producing African countries have 40. Đspanya’da on dokuzuncu yüzyıl sonları,
agreed in principle to set aside a certain yaygın siyasal yolsuzluklara bir tepki olarak
percentage of the revenues they earn from oil gelişen anarşizmle birlikte ulusal bir çöküş
exports in order to establish a common dönemiydi.
investment fund.
A) The later decades of the nineteenth century in
A) Petrol ihracatından sağladıkları gelirlerin belirli bir Spain were a period of national decline as well as
yüzdesini ayırarak ortak yatırım fonu kurmayı anarchism, which emerged as a reaction against
amaçlayan tüm petrol üreten Afrika ülkeleri ilke extensive political malpractice.
anlaşmasına varmışlardır. B) The late nineteenth century in Spain was a period
B) Ortak bir yatırım fonu oluşturmak için, petrol of national decline, along with anarchism
üreten Afrika ülkelerinin tümü, ilke olarak, petrol developing as a response to widespread political
ihracatından sağladıkları gelirlerle belirli bir corruption.
oranda katkı yapma konusunda anlaşmaya C) As a response to extreme political decadence,
varmışlardır. anarchism developed in Spain in the late
C) Belirli bir oranın üzerinde petrol üreten Afrika nineteenth century, which was a period of
ülkeleri, petrol ihracatından elde edilen gelirlerle national decline.
ortak yatırım fonu oluşturmak için ilke D) Anarchism in Spain came into being in the late
anlaşmasına varmış bulunuyorlar. nineteenth century, also known as a period of
D) Petrol üreten tüm Afrika ülkeleri, ortak bir yatırım national decline, as a response to widespread
fonu kurmak amacıyla, petrol ihracatından elde corruption in politics.
ettikleri gelirlerin belirli bir yüzdesini ayırmak için E) The end of the late nineteenth century in Spain
ilke olarak anlaşmışlardır. marked a period of national decline, which was
E) Petrol üreten Afrika ülkelerinin tümü, petrol also noted for anarchism developing as a
ihracatından elde ettikleri gelirlerin belirli bir struggle against extreme political corruption.
yüzdesini ayırarak ortak bir yatırım fonu
oluşturma ilkesinde de anlaştılar.
41. Öteki Avrupalılara kıyasla, Almanların daha
uzun yıllık tatilleri olduğu ve yurt dışı gezilere
39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye daha çok para harcadıkları bir gerçektir.
anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.
A) It is true that, compared with other Europeans,
39. 930’dan Norveç’le birleştiği 1262’ye kadar the Germans have longer annual holidays and
bağımsız bir cumhuriyet olan Đzlanda, spend more money on foreign travel.
bağımsızlığını 1944 yılında geri kazandı. B) It is admitted that, comparatively, the Germans
enjoy longer annual holidays than other
A) Though an independent republic since 930, Europeans and save a lot of money for their
Iceland was taken over by Norway in 1262 and foreign travels.
only regained its independence in 1944. C) The fact that, unlike other Europeans, the
B) Iceland, annexed by Norway in 1262, had been Germans are entitled to longer holidays each
an independent republic since 930, and became year and put aside more money for their travels
independent again only in 1944. abroad is undeniable.
C) Iceland had been an independent republic D) Truly, contrary to other Europeans, the German
between 930 and 1262 when it was invaded by people tend to have longer annual holidays and
Norway, becoming a republic again in 1944. are prepared to spend more money on their
D) Before it united with Norway in 1262, Iceland travels abroad.
had, as it is today and has been since 1944, E) When the Germans are compared with other
been an independent republic since 930. Europeans, it is clear that their annual holidays
E) Iceland, which was an independent republic from are longer and the money they spend for their
930 to 1262 when it joined with Norway, regained travels abroad is much more.
its independence in 1944.

130
42. – 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçada 44. Photo interpretation in archaeology is the
anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek process by which features photographed from the
cümleyi bulunuz. air, such as soil-marks, are analyzed in order to
deduce the types of archaeological structures
42. Unlike wine, whisky does not change after it causing them. ----. Such plans may guide
has been bottled. ----. The first rule to respect is to excavation to key points in a structure, place field-
keep whisky bottles upright so that the alcohol is collected data in context, or themselves be used
not in contact with the cork. It should also be kept as the starting point for new research.
away from all sources of heat in order to avoid
drying out the cork, which would allow air to get A) Archaeologists may use aircraft to search the
into the bottle. ground for traces of former sites in the landscape
B) Given that the visibility of features varies from
A) Keeping a young whisky in a bottle and putting year to year, photos taken over several years
an old whisky in a decanter combines aesthetic need to be studied to compile an accurate plan
pleasure with the joy of tasting C) The aerial photograph also highlights an
B) One question which is often asked, and over interesting earlier feature: a shallow Neolithic
which whisky lovers are divided, concerns ditch running across the middle of the fort
whether or not to use a decanter D) Soil marks may reveal the presence of varied
C) However, it is advisable to take some precautions ditches, banks or foundations
to assure its longevity E) Those who take and use aerial photographs must
D) The Classic Malts Collection owes its understand the means by which the evidence is
considerable success since its launch in 1988 as made visible in order to determine the type of
much to the quality of the whisky as to the feature that has been recorded
excellent design of the six bottles that make up
the range
E) Marketing and design have revolutionized the 45. Near-death experiences are relatively
whisky industry, especially the manufacture of stereotyped in format. ----. They often describe
containers sensations like “floating” or “flying”. These
experiences can also cause fear or a feeling of
detachment, but they are usually described as
43. The scientific study of facial expression has intensely “real” – not at all like a dream or a
largely focused on the way in which facial hallucination.
expressions communicate emotions. ----. In fact,
subsequent research generally identified six basic A) People who have had such experiences say that
emotions (happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, they seemed to be no longer in their own body
disgust and anger) and their related facial but outside it, looking down on themselves from
expressions, from which more complex or two or three metres above
blended emotions are derived. B) Survivors of these experiences may, weeks later,
experience a surge of emotionality, as if emotions
A) In this respect, Darwin suggested that there are of every sort were being stimulated or released
only a small number of universal emotions and C) Sometimes, near-death experiences are followed
that these are associated with universal facial by a sudden onset of musical or artistic interest
expressions D) Tony Cicoria reported seeing a bluish-white light
B) Similarly, tears are an acceptable display of that surrounded him and having a sense of
sadness at a funeral but not on hearing ecstacy
disappointing news in a business setting E) Similar near-death experiences have often been
C) These rules exist because of the important described by people who have been, or believed
communicative function of facial expressions themselves to be, in great danger
D) People from a variety of Western, Asian and tribal
cultures were remarkably accurate in identifying
the six emotions
E) For instance, the expression of emotion is
encouraged for women in Mediterranean cultures
but is discouraged for men in northern European
and Asian cultures

131
46. Adults who abuse children were almost always 49.
abused themselves, but not all people who were Della: - Did you know that Eugene O’Neill was the
abused during childhood become abusers. ----. son of a Shakespearean actor?
However, children who do not form such Hector: - ----
relationships are at high risk to become abusers Della: - That’s right. Instead, he started acting in
themselves. plays where he could make more money, and
Eugene spent his first seven years travelling with
A) Biological fathers are much more likely than him while he was acting in such a play.
mothers to abuse their children Hector: - I suppose that had an effect on the plays
B) These children often grow to adulthood that Eugene O’Neill would write in the future.
displaying aggressive behaviours, lacking the
ability to adequately express emotions, and A) No, I didn’t. Did Eugene O’Neill act as well?
having inadequate cognitive and problem-solving B) And he had a long and distinguished
skills Shakespearean career.
C) Older children and adolescents are even more C) Didn’t he have a brother who died at the age of
likely to be witnesses and victims of such two?
violence D) Yes, but didn’t his father give up acting
D) Many have experiences that compensate for the Shakespeare?
abuse, forming relationships that allow them to E) He won the Pulitzer Prize a year after his death,
feel valued and safe in some ways and grow up for Long Day’s Journey into Night.
to become good parents
E) School-age children and adolescents who are
abused may exhibit symptoms of 50.
psychopathology or behaviour disorders Marian: - Do you remember China’s “one child”
policy, where each family was allowed to produce
only one child in order to reduce the country’s
47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş population?
bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi Helen: - Yes, of course I do. The policy has created
bulunuz. a huge imbalance in the male-to-female
population ratio, due to the fact that many couples
47. abort their female foetuses.
Steve: - It’s clear that, during his time in office, Marian: - ----
former US President John F. Kennedy inspired Helen: - It did, but only recently, and many couples
many people to enter public service. are still doing it even though it’s against the law.
Gary: - ----
Steve: - Actually, some people think that his A) I think that abortion should be allowed only in
extramarital affairs and his elegant style made him medical emergencies.
more interesting, so that people wanted to follow B) How can they bring themselves to do that?
his call to serve their country. C) Why don’t they want to have a girl?
Gary: - You may be right about that. D) Didn’t the couples think before deciding to have a
child?
A) What about his contribution to American civil E) But I thought the Chinese government made
rights? abortion illegal.
B) I’ve read he was a near-professional level golfer,
but didn’t want the public to know it.
C) I think the public loved his wife Jackie as much as 51.
the president himself, didn’t they? Geneveive: - Did you know that nuclear weapons
D) There’s no strong evidence that he was are regularly transported by truck to inspection
assassinated as the result of a conspiracy. facilities in the US and the UK?
E) But what about his reputation as a wealthy Carl: - ----
womanizer? Didn’t that work against him? Geneveive: - Yes; it’s extremely dangerous. If there
were a traffic accident and some of the weapons
were to explode, many people would die.
48. Carl: - I suppose the trucks would also be a target
Geri: - Did you know that there’s a new kind of test for terrorist attacks, wouldn’t they?
that shows us our true ideas about certain topics?
Alfred: - ---- A) Isn’t that a bit risky?
Geri: - It’s more than that; this test can show us B) Why do they do that?
opinions and prejudices that we didn’t even know C) What is your opinion of this practice?
we had! D) I don’t support the idea of nuclear weapons,
Alfred: - Well, it sounds interesting. Where did you anyway.
find this test? E) Can’t the weapons inspectors travel instead of
transporting the weapons?
A) What’s the test called?
B) Oh, you mean like a personality test?
C) How do you know that the test is reliable?
D) Have you taken the test yet? What were the
results like?
E) You’re really interested in this kind of thing, aren’t
you?

132
52. – 56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla 56. (I) In the film Amistad, Steven Spielberg
okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan expresses his outrage at the institution of slavery. (II)
cümleyi bulunuz. That is, he makes something that enables the film
audience to feel the same kind of outrage toward
52. (I) Why do people pursue self-esteem? (II) Most slavery that he feels. (III) Clearly, the artist at the start
people would answer that having self-esteem makes felt deeply about slavery. (IV) He then set out to give
you feel good. (III) They found that participants who to his audience a similar feeling. (V) On the contrary,
had their self-esteem raised had lower psychological these configurations stimulate differing emotional
arousal and reported less anxiety. (IV) There is states in the audience.
probably a grain of truth here, but on the other hand,
there are causality issues to be addressed. (V) So A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
actually, rather than self-esteem producing
happiness, feeling happy may inflate self-esteem.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

53. (I) A longstanding issue in European prehistory is


that of the so-called megalithic monuments. (II)
Similarly, in the 19th century, megaliths were seen as
the work of a single group of people, who had
migrated to western Europe. (III) These are
impressive prehistoric structures built of large stones.
(IV) In general, the stones are arranged to form a
single chamber, buried under a mound of earth and
entered from one side, and the chambers may be
large with a long entrance passage. (V) Human
remains and artifacts are usually found within these
structures, and it is clear that most served as
collective burial chambers, i.e., tombs for several
people.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

54. (I) Why is it important for engineering students to


study engineering ethics? (II) Several notorious cases
that have received a great deal of media attention in
the past few years have led engineers to gain an
increased sense of their professional responsibilities.
(III) Most engineers are, on the whole, motivated by
the size and social impact of their projects. (IV) These
cases have led to an awareness of the importance of
ethics within the engineering profession as engineers
realize how their technical work has far-reaching
impacts on society. (V) Indeed, the work of engineers
has always affected public health and safety and
influenced business practices and even politics in
society.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

55. (I) Good reading involves criticism, for choice


necessitates judgement. (II) In a good story every
element works with every other element for the
accomplishment of the central purpose. (III) Yet there
are no easy rules for literary judgement. (IV) Such
judgement depends ultimately on our perceptivity,
intelligence, and experience. (V) It is a product of how
much and how alertly we have lived and how much
and how well we have read.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

133
57. – 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 60. As can be understood from the passage, the
cevaplayınız. laws of a country, ----.

We commonly speak of both law and laws, and these A) though varied and numerous, embody a common
terms, though not used with precision, point to two goal for the country’s peace and prosperity
different aspects under which legal science may be B) which lawyers are expected to interpret precisely,
approached. The laws of a country are thought of as indicate the efficiency of the legal system
separate, distinct, individual rules; the law of a C) whether understood properly or misinterpreted,
country, however much we may analyse it into are necessary for the well-being of society
separate rules, is something more than the mere sum D) which can also be understood accurately by
of such rules. It is, rather, a whole, a system which laymen, are seldom related to each other
orders our conduct and in which the separate rules E) though separate and distinct from each other, are
have their place and their relation to each other and to essentially interrelated
the whole. Moreover, it is never completely exhausted
by any analysis, however far the analysis may be
pushed, and however much the analysis may be
necessary to our understanding of the whole. Thus,
each rule which we call a law is part of the whole we
call the law. Lawyers generally speak of law; laymen
more often of laws.

57. It is pointed out in the passage that, in legal


science, the term “law” ----.

A) is very ambiguous and cannot be clearly defined


due to the variety of meanings it has
B) signifies a whole which, as a system, embodies
all the separate rules referred to as laws
C) refers to the different aspects of a country’s legal
system and, hence, is difficult to explain
D) has always been controversial and, therefore,
cannot be interpreted accurately
E) has a limited meaning that does not deserve any
analysis or understanding

58. As regards the use of the terms “law” and


“laws”, the writer claims that ----.

A) there needs to be a common approach among


the lawyers of a country
B) lawyers and the people outside the legal
profession share the same view
C) each country has a different approach because of
its distinct legal system
D) it is not lawyers but laymen who need to be more
precise
E) there is not much clarity since both terms are
often confused

59. As is emphasized in the passage, there can be


no limit to ----.

A) the political laws that constitute the totality of a


country’s legal system
B) the number of the laws in a country that are
distinct from each other
C) an analysis of a country’s law, however extensive
the analysis may be
D) what meanings and interpretations laymen can
make of the laws of a country
E) the variety of laws that can be included within the
law of a country

134
61. – 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 63. It is suggested in the passage that although
cevaplayınız. Barrett’s book was published four years after its
initial planning in 2003, ----.
Four years ago in 2003, when Paul Barrett first began
planning an ambitious book on Muslims in America, A) it has captured the attention of the reading public
who would have thought that the topic would still be of due to the events that took place during this
such urgent interest by the time it was published early period
this year? But, if anything, intervening events have B) the facts that it relayed about Muslims in America
made Barrett’s exploration of American Muslims more had already been revealed to the reading public
timely and important than ever. With the United States C) the war in Iraq was deliberately excluded from it
even more deeply embroiled in warfare in Iraq and because of the uncertainty about the outcome
Afghanistan, with sectarian conflict exploding within D) its predictions about the consequences of the
the Muslim world, with tensions high among Muslim American involvement in the Middle East were
populations in Europe, and with relations strained proven by the developments during this period
between some leaders of the Christian and Islamic E) it dwelt solely on a comparison of Christianity and
religions, readers need as much information as they Islam, leaving out a number of other important
can get about Islam and its adherents. In his book, current issues
Barrett notes that, despite being targets of suspicion
in the wake of the attacks of September 11, Muslims
in America, as a group, offer a perfect illustration of 64. According to the passage, there are several
old-fashioned American assimilation. Overall, they are reasons ----.
prosperous, well-educated, politically active, and
successful in business and the professions. A) why the relations between the Christian and
Muslim leaders in Europe have been broken
61. It is clear from the passage that Paul Barrett’s B) that can be put forward for the American
book ----. involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan
C) for the sectarian conflicts that are taking place in
A) presents a socially, politically and economically Iraq and elsewhere in the Muslim world
very positive picture of Muslims in America D) why readers should be attracted by any study,
B) focuses completely on the political achievements such as Barrett’s, related to Islam and Muslims
of Muslims in America E) for the war in Iraq, which has already increased
C) seems to present a somewhat cynical view of the tensions between the United States and Europe
way of life of American Muslims
D) is mainly concerned with how the wars in Iraq
and Afghanistan have affected American Muslims
E) has failed to arouse any significant interest
among American Muslim readers

62. As one understands from the passage, in the


aftermath of September 11, Muslims in America
----.

A) experienced a wide range of economic handicaps


and political setbacks
B) formed a group that ambitiously pursued their
professional objectives
C) began to resist full assimilation into American
society and culture
D) began, according to Barrett, to be regarded as
potentially dangerous
E) were involved in sectarian conflicts that divided
them politically

135
65. – 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 68. The point is made in the passage that
cevaplayınız. Kierkegaard ----.

Kierkegaard was one of the most original thinkers of A) approved of certain metaphysical arguments
the nineteenth century in Europe. He wrote widely on concerning the relation of thought to existence
religious, philosophical, and literary themes. However, B) relied heavily on Kant and Hegel for the
his peculiar manner of presenting some of his leading development of his own philosophy
ideas initially obscured their fundamental significance. C) was a thinker, some of whose ideas were
He developed his views in strong opposition to unusual for his time
prevailing opinions, such as certain metaphysical D) clearly defined what existentialism meant for a full
claims about the relation of thought to existence. He understanding of human existence
reacted against the ethical and religious theories of E) benefited a great deal from the philosophical
Kant and Hegel. Moreover, he opposed the doctrines legacy of his predecessors
and ideas which were being advanced by some of his
contemporaries like Feuerbach and Marx. His
discussion of the human condition, which emphasizes
the significance of individual choice, has arguably
been his most striking philosophical legacy,
particularly for the growth of existentialism.

65. It is clear from the passage that, in view of his


focus on the question of individual choice,
Kierkegaard can be regarded as ----.

A) the only thinker in the nineteenth century who


was concerned with metaphysical matters
B) a follower of Kant and Hegel, whose ethical and
religious ideas inspired him greatly
C) the philosopher who led the way for the
development of existentialist philosophy
D) the philosopher who explained the religious and
philosophical aspects of human existence
E) a major thinker who influenced his
contemporaries, including Feuerbach and Marx

66. It is pointed out in the passage that much of


Kierkegaard’s most striking writings ----.

A) restate the views and theories which prevailed


and were commonly shared in his time
B) were based on the ethical and religious theories
that had been formulated during earlier centuries
C) were widely read and discussed by his
contemporaries in Europe in the nineteenth
century
D) are limited to topics related to religion and
philosophy
E) deal with the idea of individual choice

67. It is suggested in the passage that because


Kierkegaard expressed his major ideas in an
unusual personal way, ----.

A) their essential importance was not recognized at


first
B) he was widely appreciated and fully understood
by his contemporaries
C) he immediately became famous as a philosopher
in nineteenth-century Europe
D) they were very influential on other philosophers,
including Feuerbach and Marx
E) most thinkers in Europe sensed that he was
formulating a new philosophy

136
69. – 72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 72. The writer states that the customs, values, and
cevaplayınız. beliefs of a society ----.

We have all heard people from other countries A) may have some impact on its educational system
described in very general terms. For instance, it has B) are a poor guide to the nature of that society
been said that “Germans work hard” and “Americans C) should be excluded from its political system
are friendly”. Such generalizations or stereotypes are D) must always uphold the role of women in that
very crude, and common sense tells us that not all society
Germans work hard and not all Americans are E) are among the elements that make up its culture
friendly. At the same time, there appears to be some
truth in these generalizations since people from
different countries share different characteristics.
What these crude statements acknowledge, however,
is that people from different countries have distinctive
cultures and social customs. A society’s culture
includes its customs, values, beliefs, ideas and the
artifacts it produces. Attitudes towards such things as
work, leisure, wealth, the role of women, and the
value of education in one society’s culture might be
significantly different from the attitudes and values
found in another society’s culture. This is also the
case regarding attitudes found in different countries
towards politics and the political system.

69. It is stressed in the passage that each country


----.

A) attaches much importance to its own social


customs and educational system
B) has developed a political system which may differ
from its social and cultural values
C) can be identified through its people’s attitudes
towards other countries and peoples
D) has its own special characteristics and, hence, is
culturally and politically unlike the others
E) shares with other countries a wide variety of
values and attitudes

70. In the passage, the writer points out that while


on the one hand, describing other countries or
peoples in general terms may be misleading, on
the other, ----.

A) generalizations of this kind may be true to some


extent
B) one must make an effort to appreciate and
understand their culture
C) it is important for us to have a friendly attitude
towards them
D) we must do our best to ignore the differences
among them
E) such generalizations are useful especially in
understanding the value of education

71. The writer suggests that political attitudes ----.

A) in a country are fundamentally influenced by


education
B) vary greatly from country to country
C) in a society have nothing to do with its cultural
values
D) towards women in society must be constructive
E) in a country cannot be differentiated from the
attitudes towards work and leisure

137
73. – 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 75. The writer asserts in the passage that the
cevaplayınız. demographic and territorial size of the British
Empire ----.
The way in which British people view Britain’s role in
the world is still influenced by its past. Today Britain is A) remained unchanged right into the 1960s, when
an important regional power, but in the recent past it some colonies began to gain their independence
was a world power. Until World War II, Britain ruled B) was the cause of much hostility from Germany
the largest empire that the world has ever known. and other European countries
Incredible as it may seem today, during the 1920s, C) led American leaders into thinking that Germany
almost one-fifth of the world’s population lived under was not a major force in world politics
British rule. But the empire disappeared rapidly during D) was an indication of the fact that Britain had a
the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s as the colonies that had large number of colonies seeking independence
made up the empire gained their independence. In E) was so vast that no other empire in world history
the aftermath of the empire, British leaders were not was ever a match for it
very successful in adapting to play a much smaller
part in world affairs. However, Britain’s allies made it
clear that they no longer saw Britain as a major force 76. In the passage, the writer ----.
in world politics. The “special relationship” which was
said to exist between Britain and the United States A) depicts a very distorted picture of Britain’s
weakened as other European countries, particularly colonies in their struggle for independence
Germany, recovered after World War II. So, whereas B) points to the fact that Britain is still an important
London had been recognized by American leaders as European power
the “capital” of Europe during the 1940s and the C) explains how American political leaders
1950s, Bonn was seen as the new capital of Europe deliberately undermined Britain’s relations with
during the 1960s. Germany
D) approves the political strategies formulated by
British leaders in the aftermath of World War II
73. The point is made in the passage that, during E) discusses the economic reasons for the decline
the period following World War II, ----. of the British empire

A) London and Bonn were equally regarded by the


world as the major political centres of Europe
B) the American attitude towards Britain was still
one of admiration and strong cooperation
C) the Americans followed a policy of neutrality
towards Britain and Germany
D) Britain lost the empire and so ceased to be a
leading power in the world
E) Britain and the United States formulated a set of
new policies to strengthen their relationship

74. The writer claims that British people ----.

A) do not share the policies adopted by other


European countries towards the United States
B) attach great importance to relations with the
United States
C) think of Britain’s place in world politics today in
terms of their imperial past
D) still regard the former colonies, along with the
United States, as their lasting and strongest allies
E) no longer think that the political legacy of their
empire has any significance whatsoever

138
77. – 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 79. It is emphasized in the passage that although
cevaplayınız. investors are excited by the stock market
situation in emerging markets, they ----.
Developing markets, historically the domain of
hyperinflation and political manipulation, now enjoy A) are always prepared for a risk of hyperinflation
high surpluses, thanks to record commodity prices which could send stock prices tumbling
and severe fiscal discipline. Since 2001 these B) know that these markets now represent a quarter
economies have achieved three times the average of global output
annual per-capita economic growth of their developed C) must be aware of the fact that these markets can
counterparts and now represent a quarter of global be risky since they are potentially very fragile
output. Stocks in emerging markets are causing much D) feel that severe fiscal discipline introduced by
excitement among investors. However, too much governments puts their investments at high risk
excitement invites peril. Emerging markets have E) are very critical of governments’ meddling with
undeniably changed in the past decade, but lately companies and neighbouring countries
they are looking overgrown, and even a minor crisis
could send them tumbling. And while the potential
triggers for a fall have changed, they are still there. As 80. According to the passage, as the economic
economies in the developing world get stronger, strength of the developing world increases, one of
governments are getting more assertive and meddling the drawbacks this leads to is that ----.
with both companies and neighbouring countries,
increasing political risk. A) prices of commodities and stocks reach higher
levels, opening the way to hyperinflation and
77. It is clear from the passage that, over the last political manipulation
few years, ----. B) governments begin to interfere in the affairs of
their neighbours and, hence, may cause political
A) the economies of the developed countries have risk
had so much growth that its effects on emerging C) governments get into fierce competition with each
markets have been harmful other in order to double their share in global
B) stock prices in emerging markets have been output
relatively stable due to very harsh fiscal D) investors begin to be seriously concerned about
measures introduced by governments the future of stock and commodity prices
C) inflation rates in the developing world have E) the annual per-capita growth slows down owing
shown an upward trend because of political to high surpluses and record commodity prices
manipulation and poor economic performance
D) emerging economies have performed so well that
their growth has been much higher than the TEST BĐTTĐ.
growth achieved by the developed world CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.
E) governments of developing economies have
taken every measure in order to avoid the kind of
political crisis that may trigger an economic
collapse

78. As one learns from the passage, despite their


current economic success, ----.

A) emerging markets are not trusted by companies


since there is always the possibility of political
manipulation
B) developing economies are still far from
overcoming hyperinflation
C) governments in the developing world have
maintained their fight against hyperinflation
D) developed economies remain unconcerned about
the potential of a severe crisis
E) the countries in the developing world have
traditionally suffered from hyperinflation

139
1. – 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 8. During pregnancy, lead ingested by the mother
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. ---- across the placenta, ---- severe damage on the
developing foetal nervous system.
1. Damage to the liver is the main health ---- for
long-term heavy drinkers. A) has moved / to have inflicted
B) moves / inflicting
A) consideration B) conclusion C) attentiveness C) had moved / having inflicted
D) examination E) regulation D) would move / to be inflicted
E) moved / having been inflicted

2. Health risks from pesticide exposure are


probably small for healthy adults, but children, the 9. The first evidence that there are genetic factors
elderly, and people with compromised immune in smoking ---- in the 1950s from studies which ----
systems may be ---- to some types of pesticide that identical twins tended to be more similar in
poisoning. their choice to smoke or not than did fraternal
twins.
A) hostile B) substantial C) severe
D) reversible E) vulnerable A) could appear / would indicate
B) has appeared / had indicated
C) had appeared / have indicated
3. The amount of alcoholic drinks a person can D) would appear / were indicating
consume safely is ---- individual, depending on E) appeared / indicated
genetics, health condition, sex, body composition,
age, and family history.
10. In an article published in 1990, scientists of
A) violently B) worthily C) offensively the National Institute of Medical Research ----
D) highly E) loudly more than 300 biological theories that ---- to
account for senescence – the progressive and
general deterioration that accompanies aging in
4. For people who have a family history of a humans.
genetic disorder but no symptoms, a predictive
test can help ---- a person’s risk for developing the A) were reviewing / attempted
disorder in the future. B) have reviewed / should attempt
C) reviewed / had attempted
A) sustain B) remove C) determine D) would review / have attempted
D) arouse E) represent E) may have reviewed / attempt

5. If adenosine triphosphate (ATP) supply does 11. If she ---- energy-spending activities into her
not ---- demand, muscle contraction ceases. daily routine when she was younger, she ---- a
weightcontrol programme today.
A) make up for B) keep up with C) account for
D) run out of E) give up A) could incorporate / doesn’t have to attend
B) incorporated / didn’t have to attend
C) would incorporate / wouldn’t have had to attend
6. A wise vegetarian does not solely ---- the D) had incorporated / wouldn’t have to attend
products made of textured vegetable protein, but E) was able to incorporate / hadn’t had to attend
learns to use a variety of whole foods instead.

A) set out B) take along C) draw up 12. ---- 1992 and 1998, total lung cancer deaths in
D) rely on E) make for the United States declined 1.6% per year, but
almost all of this decline was due to a decrease ---
- 2.7% annually for men.
7. Insomnia is a difficulty in falling or staying
asleep or a disturbance in sleep that ---- people A) During / in B) Through / at
feel as if they ---- insufficient sleep when they C) Over / about D) Among / under
awaken. E) Between / of

A) makes / have had


B) made / have 13. People with an avoidant personality are
C) has made / should have oversensitive ---- rejection, and they have a strong
D) had made / had had desire ---- affection and acceptance.
E) would make / had
A) with / in B) to / for C) about / over
D) through / with E) for / about

140
14. ---- the immune system is intricate, its basic 19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada
strategy is simple: to recognize the enemy, numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da
mobilize forces and attack. ifadeyi bulunuz.

A) Although B) If C) Because It has been nearly two years since the last cases of
D) In case E) When SARS were reported in China. (19) ----, a new
affliction has risen to take its place as a more deadly
pandemic – avian flu. Also known as H5N1, this
15. Scientists are developing various influenza virus is endemic to waterfowl and has
countertechnologies, from vaccines made of DNA shown a disturbing propensity (20) ---- the past nine
to proteins that prime our blood to attack the years to infect chickens and human beings. Avian flu
malaria parasite ---- it is still inside the mosquito. is the Ebola of the poultry world, a haemorrhagic fever
that (21) ---- much bleeding from every orifice of its
A) so long as B) as soon as C) while winged victims. It leads to extensive destruction of
D) just as E) whether these animals in (22) ---- two days. When the virus
jumps to humans, it (23) ---- very noticeable at first,
but in fact, has a fatality rate as high as 33 per cent.
16. According to geneticists, genetic testing (also
called genetic screening) is useful ---- it is 19.
presented in such a way that people can A) As a result B) Accordingly C) Moreover
understand what the limitations of the tests are D) Likewise E) Since then
and what the results mean.

A) whereas B) only if C) even if 20.


D) so that E) before A) over B) through C) at
D) by E) from
17. Most patients want to know even bad
prognoses, but ---- a physician tells a given 21.
patient should be determined primarily by the A) upholds B) spreads C) causes
patient, not the physician. D) implements E) consists
A) how long B) how many C) how often
D) how much E) how few 22.
A) just B) any C) most
D) several E) still
18. Excess vitamin A can cause toxicity, ---- it is
taken all at once (acute toxicity) ---- over a long
period of time (chronic toxicity). 23.
A) was not B) has not been C) must not be
A) whether / or B) not only / but also D) is not E) ought not to be
C) both / and D) neither / nor
E) so long as / and
24. – 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde
tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.

24. Whenever doctors consider prescribing a


drug, ----.

A) infrequent headaches or muscle strains can be


relieved with over-the-counter drugs
B) they must weigh the possible risks against the
expected benefits
C) infants and very young children are at special risk
of adverse drug reactions
D) it’s necessary to accept a higher risk of a severe
drug reaction to treat a life-threatening disease
E) potential benefits and risks were seldom able to
be determined with mathematical precision

141
25. ----, but the question of its effect on health is 29. Even if tumours grow in and disrupt the brain,
less clear. ----.

A) Some early research indicated that cycles of A) cancers are named according to the organ or
weight loss and gain presented risks for blood tissue in which they originate
pressure and cardiovascular disease B) cancer cells may continue to grow until they kill
B) The very thinnest and the very heaviest people the organism
seem to be at greatest risk for all-cause mortality C) they can often be removed completely by surgery
C) Gaining weight is a risk for health D) certain brain diseases change the pattern of brain
D) Being severely obese places a person at an waves
elevated risk for several types of health problems E) symptoms result when brain tissue is destroyed
and premature death or pressure builds on the brain
E) Obesity is undesirable from a social point of view

30. Anaemia means a deficiency of red blood


26. Because adults dislike hearing babies cry, ----. cells, ----.

A) infants sometimes stop crying if they have A) whereas the body replaces the plasma within 1 to
interesting things to watch 3 days after rapid haemorrhage
B) the infant uses basic techniques for getting the B) but red blood cells are delivered from the bone
caregiver to come closer marrow into the circulatory system
C) babies learn very early to control their social C) so in sickle cell anaemia, the cells contain an
environment abnormal type of haemoglobin called
D) they try various techniques for soothing them haemoglobin S
E) the crying of healthy newborn infants is fairly D) which can be caused by either too rapid a loss or
characteristic in both pitch and rhythm too slow a production of red blood cells
E) yet a person cannot absorb enough iron from the
intestines in chronic blood loss
27. Even though there is widespread publicity
about the genetic causes of cancer, ----.
31. Cholesterol is notorious as a possible factor in
A) genetics actually plays a fairly minor role in the heart disease, ----.
development of cancer
B) scientists estimated that lung cancer was nine A) so that the body regulates lipoprotein levels in
times higher among smokers than non-smokers several ways
C) epidemiologists generally agree that sufficient B) because each type of lipoprotein serves a
research evidence exists for infection different purpose
D) the leading cause of cancer deaths for both C) but about one in 500 babies inherits a disease
women and men continues to be lung cancer called hypercholesterolemia
E) these genes protect against cancer by providing D) although it circulates in the blood, mainly in
the code for a protective protein particles called low-density lipoproteins
E) yet it is essential for the functioning of all our cells

28. When people do not have insurance to obtain


health care, ----. 32. People of all sizes eagerly try the best diet
ever on the market, ----.
A) this reluctance has consequences for the
management of their diseases A) in case they cannot afford to consult a physician
B) they are less likely to have regular medical B) hoping that this one will really work
attention and more likely to have a chronic health C) as some diets do not offer a safe and effective
problem plan for weight loss
C) they need to be regularly checked for any serious D) in which they often offer distorted bits of
disorder legitimate research
D) they have a wide experience of receiving health E) so that they do not have to conduct credible
care, from the time they are children to the time research on the benefits or dangers of their diet
they are adults
E) medical dominance began to decline and other
types of health care providers became more 33. A team of medical researchers were granted
prominent financial support to explore ----.

A) whether there was a connection between autism


and a newly discovered class of nerve cells in the
brain called “mirror neurons”
B) although these observations must be taken into
account in any final explanation of autism
C) that the most conspicuous feature of this disorder
has been a withdrawal from social interaction
D) when further investigations also supported the
existence of mirror neurons
E) if they have continued to investigate mirror
neurons in different species
142
34. ----, the jaw should be held in place with the 38. Since salts are lost from the body daily
teeth together and immobile. through sweat, urine and faeces, they must be
replaced by dietary intake.
A) As many jaw fractures can be repaired surgically
B) Just as antibiotics are usually given to a person A) Ter, idrar ve dışkı ile her gün vücuttan kaybedilen
with a jaw fracture tuzların telafi edilmesi ancak besin alımı yoluyla
C) Even though fractures can cause internal olur.
bleeding B) Her gün alınan besinler, vücudun ter, idrar ve
D) If a jaw fracture is suspected dışkı yoluyla kaybettiği tuzların telafi edilmesini
E) While a blow powerful enough to fracture the jaw sağlar.
may cause bleeding within the skull C) Tuzlar, her gün vücuttan ter, idrar ve dışkı yoluyla
kaybedildiği için, besin alımı ile telafi edilmelidir.
D) Her ne kadar ter, idrar ve dışkı yoluyla vücuttan
35. Cancer cells are immortal; they can go on her gün tuz kaybedilse de besin alımıyla bu kayıp
dividing indefinitely ----. telafi edilir.
E) Vücuttan ter, idrar ve dışkı ile her gün önemli
A) once the body’s immune system normally miktarda tuz kaybedilmesine rağmen, bu tuzlar
recognizes a transformed cell as abnormal besin alımı yoluyla hemen telafi edilir.
B) but chemotherapy is used to treat metastatic
tumours
C) as long as they have a supply of nutrients 39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye
D) because this process has already been controlled anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.
E) insofar as many tumours, luckily, can be treated
39. Tiroid bezi işlevini yerine getirmediği zaman,
bazal metabolizma hızı yaklaşık % 40 düşer.
36. – 38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye
anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz. A) Invariably, the basal metabolic rate falls to 40%
as soon as thyroid function is reduced.
36. Even when we are not moving, our muscles B) When the thyroid gland does not carry out its
are in a state of partial contraction known as function, the basal metabolic rate is reduced by
“muscle tone”. about 40%.
C) Since there is no thyroid function, the basal
A) Hareket etmediğimizde bile, kaslarımız “kas metabolic rate has dropped to a level of 40%.
tonüsü” olarak bilinen kısmî bir kasılma D) The reduction of the basal metabolic rate to a
durumunda olur. level of 40% is inevitable only if the thyroid
B) Hareket etmesek bile, bazı kaslarımız kısmen ceases to function.
kasılır ve bu duruma “kas tonüsü” denir. E) A 40% reduction of the basal metabolic rate
C) “Kas tonüsü” olarak bilinen kısmî kasılma occurs when the thyroid’s function is
durumu, kaslarımız hareket etmediği zaman compromised.
oluşur.
D) “Kas tonüsü”, hareket etmediğimiz halde .
kaslarımızda oluşan kısmî kasılma durumuna 40. Bebeklerin büyüme ve gelişmesinin, yedikleri
verilen addır. yiyeceklerden etkilendiğini hepimiz biliyoruz.
E) Eğer hareket etmezsek, kaslarımız “kas tonüsü”
olarak bilinen kısmî kasılma durumunu sürdürür. A) As far as we know, the kind of food babies eat
has much influence on their growth and
development.
37. Brain activity can be studied by measuring B) All of us know that the food babies eat can have
and recording the “brain waves” given off by some adverse effect on their growth and
various parts of the brain when they are active. development.
C) We are all aware of the fact that babies’ growth
A) Beyin faaliyetini tetkik etmek için ölçülen ve and development depend a great deal on the
kaydedilen “beyin dalgaları”, beynin çeşitli kinds of food they consume.
bölümleri tarafından faal oldukları zaman yayılır. D) We all know that the growth and development of
B) Beynin faal olan çeşitli bölümlerinden yayılan babies are influenced by the food they eat.
“beyin dalgaları”nı ölçerek ve kaydederek, beyin E) It is well known to us all that whatever food
faaliyetlerini tetkik etme olanağı vardır. babies consume essentially affects their growth
C) Beyin faaliyetlerinin tetkik edilmesi demek, beynin and development.
o an faal olan bölümlerinin yaydığı “beyin
dalgaları”nın ölçülüp kaydedilmesi demektir.
D) Beyin faaliyetini, beynin çeşitli bölümlerince faal
durumda iken yayılan “beyin dalgaları”nı hem
ölçerek hem de kaydederek tetkik etmek
mümkündür.
E) Beyin faaliyeti, beynin çeşitli bölümleri tarafından
faal oldukları zaman yayılan “beyin dalgaları”nı
ölçerek ve kaydederek tetkik edilebilir.

143
41. Çoğu sindirim enzimi, yalnızca, sindirim 43. Before treatment was available, most people
kanalında yemek bulunduğu zaman üretilir. who had acute leukemia died within 4 months of
diagnosis. Now many people are cured. ----. The
A) While food is passing through the digestive tract, disease returns in many, but 50 per cent of
a number of enzyme secretions take place. children show no signs of the leukemia 5 years
B) As soon as food enters the digestive tract, many after treatment.
digestive enzymes are produced.
C) Most digestive enzymes are produced only when A) These symptoms include weakness and
food is present in the digestive tract. shortness of breath, resulting from too few red
D) Several kinds of enzymes are secreted into the blood cells; infection and fever, resulting from too
digestive tract whenever there is food in it. few normal white blood cells; and bleeding,
E) Soon after food moves into the digestive tract, a resulting from too few platelets
large number of enzymes are secreted. B) Common blood tests, such as the complete blood
cell count, can provide the first evidence that a
person has leukemia
42. – 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçada C) However, a bone-marrow biopsy is almost always
anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek performed to confirm the diagnosis and
cümleyi bulunuz. determine the type of leukemia
D) For more than 90 per cent of people who have
42. In the United States, more doctors are using acute lymphocytic leukemia (usually children), the
hypnosis for procedures in which sedation is first course of chemotherapy brings the disease
inappropriate or patients are allergic to under control
anaesthetics. Yet not even the most enthusiastic E) They are released into the bloodstream and
proponents of hypnosedation suggest it can transported to the liver, spleen, lymph nodes,
replace anaesthesia entirely. ----. Some 60% of brain, kidneys and reproductive organs, where
patients are hypnotizable to some extent; an they continue to grow and divide
additional 15%, highly so. The rest seem to be
unresponsive.
44. People adopt health-related behaviours in
A) Millions of Americans have employed hypnosis to order to stay healthy and to combat disease. ----.
stop smoking cigarettes or cut back on their However, all of these models have some
eating limitations, especially in their ability to predict the
B) Meanwhile, studies using advanced scanning health-related behaviours of people who lack the
technology have shed additional light on how financial resources necessary to pursue proper
hypnosis works to block pain medical attention.
C) Since the early 1990s, hypnosis has increasingly
been used in operating rooms as a substitute for A) Several theoretical models have been formulated
or as a complement to anaesthesia in an effort to explain and predict health
D) This application, now widely employed in Europe, behaviours, and most of these theories have
stems in part from studies showing that some value in predicting and explaining health-
hypnosedated patients suffer fewer side effects related behaviour
than fully sedated ones do B) Although the meaning of these models may seem
E) For one thing, not everybody can be hypnotized; obvious, their definitions have been elusive
to oversimplify, one must be open to the process C) The limitation of each of these models is their
first inability to accurately measure a number of
social, ethnic and demographic factors that also
affect people’s health-seeking behaviour
D) Among these stages is the necessity of
overcoming their optimistic bias; that is, their
belief that, although certain behaviours are
dangerous, the danger pertains to other people
and not to them
E) In the United States and other Western countries,
people are not “officially” ill until they are
diagnosed by a physician, making physicians the
gatekeepers to further health care

144
45. In the United States, child abuse is by no 47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş
means a recent phenomenon, but the bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi
identification of child battering as a social bulunuz.
problem and its definition as a crime did not occur
on a national level until the 1960s. ----. Evidence 47.
began to accumulate that such beatings were Diane: - Everyone knows that physical exercise
common and a major source of injury for infants lowers our risk for diabetes and heart disease, but
and children. do you know why?
Ed: - ----
A) One common result of intentional injuries is that Diane: - No, it’s because our bodies have evolved
abused children may be vigilant and feel in such a way that our muscles need to be used in
threatened in a variety of situations – the world order for the rest of our bodies to remain healthy.
becomes a dangerous place
B) Treating infants with skull and long bone A) Which types of exercise are best for people with
fractures led paediatricians and radiologists to heart disease?
recognize that these injuries were caused by B) I am afraid overexercising makes joints, muscles,
beatings tendons, and bones ache. Don’t you agree?
C) Children who fail to thrive, especially during the C) I think swimming is one of the best forms of
first year of life, may never catch up exercise, isn’t it?
developmentally or socially with their peers D) Is it because exercise lowers the percentage of
D) Violence is a more common cause of injury and fat in our bodies?
death in the United States than in other E) Well, the recommended heart rate for exercise is
industrialized nations, with violent crimes 60 per cent of a person’s estimated maximum
occurring at a rate of about 8 per 1,000 people heart rate.
E) Abused children also tend to be fearful about
rejection, abandonment and additional abuse
48.
Ann: - My doctor told me that I should have
46. Some obese people who lose weight screening for colorectal cancer.
voluntarily benefit from their weight loss. Kathy: - ----
Research on obese people who lost weight Ann: - Yes, I know; she said that I need a
indicates that a 10% loss is sufficient to produce screening only as a preventative measure
significant decreases in lifetime health risks and because of my age.
personal health-related expenditures. ----. Kathy: - That’s right. The disease has a higher
prevalence in people 50 and older.
A) Dieting is a good choice for some people but not
for others A) You’ll need to be screened at regular intervals,
B) The eating disorders that have received the most won’t you?
attention, both in the popular media and in the B) Does she have a reason to believe you have the
scientific literature, are anorexia nervosa and disease?
bulimia C) Have you had a screening before? I had one last
C) Therefore, even modest weight loss can be month.
important for those who are obese D) Don’t you know that diet plays some role in the
D) On the contrary, the factors that influence obesity risk of colon cancer?
in adolescents are the same as those in adults E) But that doesn’t necessarily mean you have
E) In addition, behaviour modification programmes colorectal cancer.
with obese children have greater success in
promoting permanent weight loss than similar
programmes with adults 49.
Christopher: - My aunt went to the doctor because
she thought she had flu, and the doctor said she
was ill from carbon monoxide poisoning.
Patricia: - ----
Christopher: - Yes, and it’s a good thing she found
out in time. She’ll have to have it checked and
repaired.
Patricia: - I think that people should be educated
more about carbon monoxide, so that they can
take precautions against it.

A) I think the doctor must have made a mistake.


B) How strange! There must be a problem with her
heating system.
C) Carbon monoxide? Where did that come from?
D) She’s lucky she only became ill. Many people die
from carbon monoxide poisoning each year.
E) She should have had a carbon monoxide monitor
installed in her home.

145
50. 53. (I) When a person eats too much, metabolism
Doctor: - ---- favours fat formation. (II) The human body can digest
Richard: - Why not? What’s wrong with it? a wide variety of plant and animal tissues, converting
Doctor: - Studies have shown that second-hand these foods into usable proteins, fats, carbohydrates,
smoke has more toxins and cancer-causing vitamins and minerals. (III) The digestive system
chemicals than what smokers inhale from their takes in food, processes it into particles that can be
cigarettes. absorbed, and excretes the undigested wastes. (IV)
Richard: - Well, I guess I’d better be more careful, The particles that are absorbed through the digestive
then. system are transported through the bloodstream so
as to be available to the whole body (V) This provides
A) You really shouldn’t smoke, you know, when the energy for activity as well as the materials for
there are people around you. body growth, maintenance and repair.
B) Do you still smoke? You know it’s the leading
avoidable cause of death! A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
C) Your heart and lungs will be affected negatively if
you don’t quit smoking soon.
D) How many packs of cigarettes do you smoke 54. (I) The relationship between genes and proteins
every day? was first proposed in 1909 when English physician A.
E) Many work places and public places have Garrod suggested that genes dictate phenotypes
banned indoor smoking. through enzymes, the proteins that catalyze chemical
processes in the cell. (II) The idea came from his
observations of inherited diseases. (III) He
51. hypothesized that an inherited disease reflects a
Kelly: - My doctor says that I have something body’s inability to manufacture a particular enzyme,
called pre-diabetes. and he referred to such diseases as “inborn errors of
Eric: - ---- metabolism”. (IV) The function of a gene is to dictate
Kelly: - Maybe not, if I exercise and watch what I the production of a specific enzyme. (V) His
eat. hypothesis was ahead of its time but research
conducted decades later by other scientists proved
A) What are the symptoms? him right.
B) Does that mean you are going to develop
diabetes? A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
C) Do you think I should get my glucose levels
checked, too?
D) Could you give me your doctor’s name and 55. (I) Almost everyone has experienced heartburn at
telephone number? one time or another, usually after a meal. (II)
E) I wonder whether you’ll have to change your diet. Heartburn is the painful sensation a person feels
when the cardiac sphincter fails to prevent the
stomach contents from refluxing into the esophagus.
52. – 56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla (III) As a matter of fact, anyone who has heart trouble
okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan should consult a doctor. (IV) This may happen if a
cümleyi bulunuz. person eats or drinks too much or both. (V) Tight
clothing and even changes of position (lying down,
52. (I) Anything that irritates the eyes can also irritate bending over) can cause it, too, as can some
the eyelids and cause swelling. (II) The most common medications and smoking.
irritant is an allergy, which can make one or both lids
crinkled or swollen. (III) Allergic reactions may be A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
caused by medications instilled into the eyes, such as
eyedrops; other drugs or cosmetics; or pollen or other
particles in the air. (IV) Insect stings or bites as well 56. (I) Some people have especially active,
as infections from bacteria, viruses, or fungi can also decaycausing bacteria in their mouth. (II) A parent
cause the eyelids to swell. (V) In fact, tears are salty may pass these bacteria to a child, presumably by
fluid that continuously bathes the surface of the eye to kissing. (III) However, one must understand that not
keep it moist. all tooth pain is caused by cavities. (IV) The bacteria
flourish in the child’s mouth after the first teeth come
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V in and can then cause cavities. (V) So a tendency
toward tooth decay that runs in families doesn’t
necessarily reflect poor oral hygiene or bad eating
habits.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

146
57. – 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 60. It is explained in the passage that when a pain
cevaplayınız. occurs in an internal organ, ----.

Pain is a signal that protects us from harmful stimuli. A) it can be located immediately through the work of
An excess of any type of stimulus such as pressure, certain sensory neurons
heat, cold, excessive mechanical stretch, and specific B) it is usually felt in an area under the skin, which
chemical compounds stimulates pain receptors. In the may not be close to the organ itself
human body, pain receptors are the tips of certain C) pain receptors throughout the body begin to work
sensory neurons found in almost every tissue. efficiently
However, most internal organs are poorly supplied D) it is obvious that the organ cannot cope with a
with pain receptors. For this reason, pain from internal wide range of harmful stimuli
structures is often difficult to locate. In fact, pain is E) the connection between the organ and the spinal
often not projected back to the organ that is cord is seriously disrupted
stimulated. Instead, it is referred to an area just under
the skin that may be some distance from the organ
involved. The area to which the pain is referred is
connected to nerve fibres from the same level of the
spinal cord as the organ involved.

57. According to the passage, although most of


our body is thoroughly equipped with pain
receptors, ----.

A) this is not true for all the internal organs


B) it is in the internal organs that they function most
efficiently
C) they are mostly located in the tissues of some
internal organs
D) some of them are far more sensitive than others
E) the pain caused by heat and cold is much
stronger than other kinds of pain

58. It is pointed out in the passage that, through


pain, ----.

A) the relationship between the spinal cord and an


internal organ becomes extremely compromised
B) the function of the organs in the body is seriously
reduced
C) the area in an internal organ which is most
affected by a harmful stimulus can be identified
right away
D) it is extremely easy to determine the excess of a
harmful stimulus in an internal organ
E) we become aware of those stimuli in the body
that can have an adverse effect

59. As can be understood from the passage, the


stimulation of pain receptors ----.

A) is much stronger in an internal organ than in any


other area of the body
B) takes place only if the stimulus endangers the
organs
C) depends a great deal on the kind of chemical
compounds found in the body
D) occurs when any tissue in the body is
overstimulated
E) clearly indicates the somatic importance of the
spinal cord

147
61. – 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 64. The author suggests that ----.
cevaplayınız.
A) the spread of kidney disease in the world will
Our kidneys excrete metabolic wastes and help continue to increase
regulate the volume and composition of body fluids. B) the immune response may be the cause of the
Their vital function is compromised in more than 13 impairment of the kidney’s filtration function
million people in the United States who suffer from C) the number of people who suffer from kidney
kidney disease. In fact, kidney disease ranks fourth in disease in the United States will remain stable
prevalence among major human diseases in the D) glomerulonephritis can lead to the growth of
United States. Kidney function can be impaired by tumours in the kidneys
infections, poisoning by substances such as mercury, E) mercury is the only substance that has a
lesions, tumours, kidney stones, shock or circulatory devastating effect on the kidneys
disease. For instance, one of the most common
kidney diseases both in the United States and in the
world is glomerulonephritis, which is related to the
damage of the kidney’s filtering units. The damage is
thought to result from an autoimmune response.

61. As pointed out in the passage,


glomerulonephritis ----.

A) is the failure of the kidney function caused by


various infections and other factors
B) is widespread and occurs when the kidney fails to
filter properly
C) becomes a deadly disease when the kidney’s
autoimmune response fails
D) has a limited extent of prevalence throughout the
United States
E) can cause serious damage to the filtering units of
the kidney

62. It is pointed out in the passage that the


kidneys ----.

A) have an autoimmune system which is very


efficient, especially against poisoning
B) have a very efficient filtering system which is
immune to certain infections
C) are responsible only for the excretion of waste
matter from the body
D) can fail to function properly owing to a wide range
of causes
E) can be easily infected once a tumour begins to
grow in them

63. As one understands from the passage, the


kidneys play a role ----.

A) in the partial filtration of various types of fluids in


the body
B) especially in regard to the concentration of
mercury in the body
C) in the efficient circulation of body fluids
D) in the body’s response to various infections
E) in relation to the fluids in the body

148
65. – 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 68. As one learns from the passage, the current
cevaplayınız. genetic studies of schizophrenia ----.

The causes of schizophrenia are unknown, although A) also focus on the families in which the disease
the disease has a strong genetic component. Studies has a high rate of occurrence
of identical twins show that if one twin has B) have already produced positive results for more
schizophrenia, there is a 50% chance that the other efficient therapies
twin will have it, too. Since identical twins share C) are mostly concerned with cases of twins and
identical genes, this indicates that schizophrenia has how they can be treated effectively
an equally strong environmental component, the D) have already radically changed the norms of
nature of which has not been identified. Current treatment for the disease
treatments for schizophrenia focus on brain pathways E) totally leave out the role of the environmental
that use dopamine as a neurotransmitter. Despite component in the incidence of the disease
their ability to alleviate symptoms, many of the drugs
used to treat schizophrenia have such negative side
effects that patients frequently stop taking them. Now
that the human genome has been sequenced, there is
a vigorous effort under way to find the mutant genes
that predispose a person to the disease. This effort
includes sequencing DNA from families with a high
incidence of schizophrenia
.
65. As one understands from the passage,
identification of genetic mutations that contribute
to schizophrenia ----.

A) can only be useful in the treatment of the disease


if the use of drugs is also continued
B) will take a very long time before an effective
treatment for the disease can be developed
C) is being actively pursued
D) is not a solution since there are different forms of
the disease
E) has led to a wide range of new therapies that are
particularly effective for the disease

66. It is suggested in the passage that an


environmental influence ----.

A) is not of primary importance in understanding the


type of schizophrenia a patient has
B) must be completely ruled out in the diagnosis of
schizophrenia
C) need not be taken into account in a genetic study
of schizophrenia
D) is also considered to be as significant as the
genetic factor in schizophrenia
E) has a very minimal share in a patient’s
predisposition to schizophrenia

67. It is clear from the passage that the treatment


of schizophrenia through the use of drugs ----.

A) is most suitable especially in the case of twins


with identical genes
B) is the most effective therapy which is commonly
practised in the medical world
C) has serious drawbacks and, hence, is often
disrupted
D) also has to take into account the patient’s social
environment
E) is least concerned with the role of dopamine in
the brain

149
69. – 72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 72. As pointed out in the passage, the
cevaplayınız. communication between the brain and all the
other parts of the body ----.
Protected inside the bony vertebrae of the spine is an
inch-thick gelatinous bundle of nervous tissue called A) is extremely complicated due to the structure of
“the spinal cord”, which acts as the central the spinal column
communication conduit between the brain and the B) is maintained by nerve fibres through the spinal
rest of the body. Millions of nerve fibres carry motor cord
information from the brain to the muscles, while other C) is not affected even when the vertebrae are
fibres bring sensory information from the body to the injured
brain. In its structure and functions, the spinal cord D) can still be maintained even though the spinal
may be compared to a transcontinental telephone cord is broken
cable jam-packed with wires, each of which carries E) depends a great deal on the proper functioning of
messages both ways. But what happens if that cable the brain
is cut? Signals cannot get through, communication is
lost, and the cable must be repaired or replaced. In
humans, though, this is not a simple process due to
the sensitive nature of the spinal cord. The spinal cord
is rarely severed because the vertebrae provide rigid
protection. However, a traumatic blow to the spinal
column and subsequent bleeding, swelling and
scarring can crush the delicate nerve bundles and
prevent signals from passing. The result may be a
debilitating injury.

69. According to the passage, the spinal cord in


the human body ----.

A) is very sensitive to external blows and can be


easily injured
B) only carries the brain’s messages to all the parts
of the body
C) is far more intricate and vulnerable than a mere
telephone cable
D) is not affected by swelling and scarring caused
by an injury
E) can almost never be completely cut as it is
wellplaced within the vertebrae

70. As it is pointed out in the passage, there are


so many nerve fibres in the spinal cord that ----.

A) the appearance reminds one of a telephone


cable consisting of innumerable wires
B) each has a different function to perform for the
brain
C) it takes no time for the messages to reach the
brain
D) any injury to them can be absolutely fatal
E) their delicate nature makes them vulnerable to
injuries

71. As one understands from the passage, while a


severed telephone cable can be repaired or
replaced, ----.

A) the vertebrae make it impossible for us to treat


the spinal cord
B) the nerve bundles inside the spinal cord need to
be carefully treated
C) this is not so easy with the spinal cord due to its
very delicate structure
D) this is not the case with the spinal cord due to
bleeding and swelling
E) in the case of the spinal column the procedure
takes a long time

150
73. – 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 76. It is clearly pointed out in the passage that,
cevaplayınız. occasionally, there may be cases when ----.

Immune deficiency, which in fact means an A) chemotherapy drugs have no effect whatsoever
inadequate immune response, may occur for several on the occurrence of immune deficiency
reasons. For example, it is a side effect of most B) there occurs a failure in the development of a
chemotherapy drugs used to treat cancer. Immune child’s immune system
deficiency also occurs naturally. Although the immune C) even antibodies do not provide protection for the
system is not functional at birth, infants are protected infant in the placenta
by antibodies they have received from their mother D) child mortality may not be related to children’s
through the placenta, and infants who breastfeed also exposure to viruses or bacteria
receive antibodies from their mother’s milk. These E) the mother’s milk does not contain antibodies to
antibodies offer protection until the infant’s own protect the infant in the first months of life
immune system develops during the first months of
life. In rare cases, the immune system fails to
develop, leaving the child without immune protection.
Exposure to any virus or bacterium can be fatal to
these children. Therefore, they are sealed into sterile
quarters to isolate them from the microorganisms that
are part of the normal world.

73. According to the passage, the development of


a child’s immune system ----.

A) is not of vital importance since the child is always


protected by various antibodies
B) begins in the placenta before birth and is
completed at birth
C) depends completely on the protective nature of
antibodies in the mother’s milk
D) is only completed a few months after birth
E) is closely related to the child’s physical
development and, hence, takes a very long time

74. As one can understand from the passage, the


causes of immune deficiency ----.

A) in an infant can be understood easily, as the


development of the immune system is yet in its
early stage
B) can sometimes be traced to a microorganism
such as a virus
C) are fundamentally linked with chemotheraphy,
which is used in cancer treatment
D) in children can be traced back to the first months
after birth
E) may vary

75. It is clear from the passage that, at birth,


infants ----.

A) have a non-functioning immune system, and so


rely on antibodies from their mother’s milk for
protection against microorganisms
B) have a relatively well-developed immune system
and are therefore well-protected against viruses
or bacteria
C) are so exposed to viruses or bacteria that the
rate of mortality is usually very high
D) hardly need antibodies gained from breastfeeding
to protect them against the fatal effects of
disease-causing bacteria and viruses
E) have a very strong immune system which
enables them to cope with viruses

151
77. – 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 80. It is suggested in the passage that when
cevaplayınız. people discover that they are HIV-positive, they
----.
People who believe they may be infected with HIV, as
well as those who know they are, can benefit from A) adopt an indifferent attitude and continue to live
various psychological interventions. People with high- their usual life
risk behaviours may have difficulty deciding whether B) begin to act responsibly by refraining from
to be tested for HIV, and psychologists can provide contaminating others
both information and support for these people. A C) usually experience various negative feelings
significant minority of homosexual and bisexual men, D) seek help and support from psychotherapist and
intravenous drug users, and a larger proportion of apply for treatment
heterosexual men and women with multiple partners E) volunteer to undergo a series of tests in order to
and inconsistent users of condoms have never been obtain the most effective treatment
tested for HIV. Indeed, an estimated 70% of people
who are HIV-positive have not been tested and thus TEST BĐTTĐ.
do not know their HIV status. Because HIV infection CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.
has a long incubation period, at-risk heterosexual
men and women may contaminate others for years
before they learn they have HIV. However, people
learning of an HIVpositive test result typically react
with increased anxiety, depression, anger and
distress. Therefore, trained psychotherapists are
needed to help such people cope with their diagnosis.

77. It is clearly emphasized in the passage that


psychological help ----.

A) and the clinical treatment of HIV are two different


procedures which are irrelevant to each other
B) plays a minimal role in the treatment of HIV
patients
C) has not proven to be useful in the treatment of
HIV patients because they often do not want to
cooperate with psychotherapists
D) is often ignored in HIV treatment not only by
patients but also by physicians
E) can be beneficial to patients with HIV infection

78. As pointed out in the passage, many people


already infected with HIV ----.

A) have agreed to be tested and undergo long


periods of treatment
B) have been receiving help from psychotherapists
to overcome their psychological problems
C) are not aware of their own situation because they
have not been tested
D) mostly include intravenous drug users and
heterosexual men with multiple partners
E) have been identified through a number of tests
they have taken

79. One learns from the passage that because it


takes a long time before HIV infection reveals
itself, ----.

A) heterosexual men and women with HIV may


already have infected many other people
B) homosexuals deliberately avoid taking HIV tests
and, thus, endanger themselves
C) intravenous drug users think that they are free
from any infection
D) this does not mean that bisexual men cannot be
infected
E) homosexuals and heterosexuals must be tested
regularly to make sure that they are free from HIV

152
1. – 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 9. In April 1953, Watson and Crick ---- the
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. scientific world with a succinct paper ---- their
model for DNA.
1. Throughout history, many ---- in engineering
and science have come about as the result of the A) were shaking / to explain
development of weapons. B) had been shaking / to have explained
C) have shaken / to be explaining
A) applications B) resolutions C) representations D) shook / explaining
D) innovations E) amplifications E) had shaken / having explained

2. Because of the time needed to develop 10. Common fungicides ---- for the puzzlingly high
expertise, scientists tend to continue working in a levels of DDT still found in some soils, even in
single area for a ---- length of time, perhaps even regions where this potent insecticide ---- decades
throughout their lives. ago.

A) substantial B) thorough C) moderate A) are blamed / would have been banned


D) qualitative E) comprehensive B) could be to blame / was banned
C) were blamed / must be banned
D) might be blamed / would be banned
3. Although the red flames of lithium and E) are to blame / has been banned
strontium appear similar, the light from each can
be separated by means of a prism into ----
different colours. 11. Rockets ---- to have originated with the
Chinese before the thirteenth century, which is
A) excessively B) distinctly C) conventionally when they ---- to appear in Europe.
D) properly E) familiarly
A) may be believed / were beginning
B) could be believed / have begun
4. The continents ---- their existence to Earth’s C) were believed / had begun
long history of plate-tectonic activity. D) have been believed / could begin
E) are believed / began
A) endanger B) result C) proceed
D) compile E) owe
12. Gregor Mendel probably chose to study
garden peas because he was familiar with them
5. For decades, scientists have theorized that ---- his rural upbringing; they were easy to grow,
much of the universe is ---- nearly undetectable and they came ---- many readily distinguishable
dark matter and dark energy. varieties.

A) made up of B) taken over by C) lost in A) from / in B) at / for C) with / on


D) held on E) broken away from D) in / by E) on / over

6. Exploring the human genome for clues to 13. Sunspots, a barometer ---- solar activity in
human evolution and migration is something of a general, seem to have been unusually numerous
battlefield, and the ground rules of this new ---- the last century.
science are still being ----.
A) for / at B) of / over C) within / by
A) worked at B) worked out C) worked through D) for / about E) above / from
D) worked back E) worked for
14. Fish often spend much of their time in the
7. Geology and biology ---- since life ----. deep, cool waters of a lake ---- oxygen levels there
become depleted by decomposers.
A) are intertwined / has begun
B) were intertwined / had begun A) as if B) just as C) now that
C) have been intertwined / began D) unless E) so as
D) would be intertwined / begins
E) could be intertwined / will begin
15. In 2002, ---- Australia’s Great Barrier Reef was
hit hard by unseasonable warming, 95 per cent of
8. ---- missing heat-shield tiles or a failed its coral was adversely affected.
undercarriage door have allowed the airframe ----?
A) so that B) if C) when
A) Could / to melt D) so long as E) in case
B) Would / melt
C) Might / to be melting
D) Can / melting
E) Will / be melting

153
16. ---- a violent storm is over, it leaves a cooler 24. – 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde
ocean behind, lowering the likelihood that more tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
storms will flare up, at least not immediately.
24. Despite the fact that no one has ever seen it
A) Once B) Even so C) Even if happen, ----.
D) Since E) While
A) there is evidence to suggest that rocks of up to
320 kilograms are moved by the wind across the
17. Humans, like all warm-blooded animals, can floor of Death Valley in California
keep their core body temperatures pretty much B) the Grandstand is a 20-metre-high island of rock
constant ---- differences in the temperature in the that looks like the top of a mountain buried in a
world around them. sea of sediment
C) most of southeastern California is a region torn
A) as of B) regardless of C) instead of by earthquakes and eroded by wind and rain
D) in terms of E) because of D) Death Valley lies 86 metres below sea level and
is surrounded by peaks of more than 3,000
metres
18. The part of an animal ---- gases are exchanged E) Death Valley was formed as the Amargosa and
with the environment is called the respiratory Panamint mountain ranges were pulled apart
surface. from each other
A) how B) which C) whatever
D) what E) where 25. As the Hubble Space Telescope continues its
mission, ----.

19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada A) Edwin Hubble encouraged this idea in connection
numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da with his own research
ifadeyi bulunuz. B) Eta Carinae is one of the most massive stars
known in the Milky Way, and is thought to be on
Small planes should be safe enough for normal, the verge of becoming a gigantic supernova
nonrisk-taking people to trust their lives to them. C) millions of people have already learned a great
NASA wants (19) ---- the accident rate by 90 per cent deal about the solar system
within twenty-five years. The planes should become D) we tend to think of science in terms of great
fast enough for their effective speed to be at least minds coming up with great ideas
three times (20) ---- great as that of cars on the E) it sends home new revelations about the life and
highway. The existing small-plane fleet averages 150 death of stars and the nature of our expanding
knots; that should be raised to 300 knots within a universe
decade, and eventually to 450 knots, (21) ---- small
planes could compete with the jetliners’ speed. The
planes should be more efficient and environmentally 26. When the first transistor amplifiers came
safer, using less fuel, creating less pollution, and along, ----.
generating less noise. They should be more (22) ----
in their operations and far simpler to fly, much like A) there were a number of design deficiencies
cars that vary little from one rental site to another. B) the engineers identified these problems and fixed
And they should be radically more reliable and them
cheaper to maintain – following the example of C) people would have been astonished by the magic
automobiles, with their quality revolution (23) ---- the of it all
1980s and 1990s. D) Shockley, Bardeen and Brattain developed the
transistor in 1947 and 1948
19. E) the extent of their achievements will never be
A) to have reduced B) reducing appreciated
C) having reduced D) to reduce
E) to have been reducing
27. As soon as scientists realized the power of
20. DNA technology, ----.
A) as B) such C) much
D) so E) more A) early concerns focused on the possibility that
21. they might create new pathogens
A) if only B) in that C) so that B) the Human Genome Project has yielded many
D) by which E) as if other unexpected results
C) they claim that these proteins could be tested for
22. their ability to cause allergic reactions
A) tentative B) consistent C) deliberate D) they began to worry about its potential dangers
D) reluctant E) recurrent E) one safety measure is a set of strict laboratory
procedures designed to protect researchers from
23. infection
A) at B) for C) about
D) of E) with

154
28. Although geologists tended to dismiss the 32. Geologists note that coal is similar to tar ----.
attempt of the physicist Kelvin to estimate the age
of Earth as being too simplistic, ----. A) as we might expect coal to last another 200 years
B) unless environmental issues may limit how much
A) the theory of continental drift might have been of this resource is exploited
accepted decades earlier C) in that both are relatively difficult to mine without
B) early nineteenth-century geologists largely dangerous environmental consequences
accepted that Earth was of unlimited age D) because the world is using these energy sources
C) many people believe that his calculation failed so inefficiently at the moment
through his ignorance of radioactivity E) while tar is also formed by tobacco burning
D) Kelvin began writing on this subject when he was
16
E) the model he used has in fact proved very useful 33. Practically all the problems associated with
in geology the musculo-skeletal and body-fluid systems
could be alleviated or avoided in space ships ----.

29. Since albatross have the longest wings in A) if artificial gravity similar to that on Earth could be
nature, ----. provided
B) as current countermeasures are limited to the use
A) their populations had already begun to decline of exercise equipment
B) they came ashore far more frequently C) since technological progress might have solved
C) they can glide for hundreds of kilometres without this problem
flapping their wings D) before further complications had developed
D) from time to time they went in search of new E) although the spaceship could be linearly
breeding grounds accelerated in the desired direction
E) most pairs mate for life, producing and raising
one chick every two years
34. The Mariner 10 space probe determined ----.

30. Fullerenes are carbon molecules ----. A) since planetary scientists have speculated about
Mercury’s magnetic field
A) that the simplest fullerene molecule, C60, has a B) that Mercury, unlike Venus and Mars, has a
soccer-ball shape significant magnetic field
B) whose shapes are made up of pentagons and C) while there is no way to judge whether iron on
hexagons that meet three at a time, in such a Mercury is solid or liquid
way that no two pentagons are adjacent D) until the new project uses radar reflections to
C) whereas, mathematically, the combinatorics of determine subtle oscillations in Mercury’s rotation
fullerenes is an application of Euler’s formula rate
D) although other fullerenes, such as C80, have E) which presumably creates a strong magnetic field
been made in the laboratory
E) while every fullerene contains exactly 12
pentagons with no limit to the number of 35. One of the most important aspects of our
hexagons it contains planet’s evolution is the formation of the
atmosphere, ----.

31. Twenty years have passed since the accident A) if continents and oceans, encircled by an oxygen-
at Chernobyl ----. rich atmosphere, support familiar life forms
B) although such constant change has
A) when many of the studies have been showing an characterized Earth since its beginning some 4.5
elevated rate of mutations among the animals in billion years ago
the area C) whether understanding the carbon dioxide
B) so that scientists studying the effects find content of the early atmosphere is crucial for
themselves in unpopular positions understanding climatic control
C) wherever policy makers want concrete D) because it is this assemblage of gases that
conclusions and results, not probability estimates allowed life to come out of the oceans and to be
on the dangers of radiation exposure sustained
D) because many public servants do not share the E) as continental shift has been altering the face of
scientists’ enthusiasm for the scientific process Earth for nearly a billion years
E) but the extent to which people and the
environment have been harmed is still being hotly
debated

155
36. – 38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye 39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye
anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz. anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.

36. In North America, the electrical grid has 39. Darwinizme göre, mümkün olduğunca sık
evolved in piecemeal fashion over the past 100 üremek, her canlının temel amacıdır.
years.
A) Darwinism upholds the view that every organism
A) Kuzey Amerika’daki mevcut elektrik şebekesi, always strives to reproduce so long as it is
geçen 100 yıl boyunca aşama aşama possible.
oluşturulmuştur. B) According to Darwinism, frequent reproduction is
B) Kuzey Amerika’daki elektrik şebekesi, geride what every organism has as a major aim.
kalan 100 yıl boyunca parça parça ancak C) As one infers from Darwinism, for every
kurulabilmiştir. organism, the essential goal is to reproduce so
C) Kuzey Amerika’da, elektrik şebekesi, geçen 100 far as possible.
yıl içinde düzensiz bir şekilde gelişmiştir. D) According to Darwinism, it is the basic goal of
D) Kuzey Amerika’daki elektrik şebekesinin bir every organism to reproduce as often as
bölümü, geçen 100 yıl içinde geliştirilmiştir. possible.
E) Kuzey Amerika elektrik şebekesinin adım adım E) With reference to Darwinism, it is to be stated
gelişmesi, geçen 100 yıl içinde gerçekleşmiştir. that reproduction is what every organism has as
its ultimate aim.

37. Global competition regarding limited


petroleum and natural gas resources is intense, 40. Kozmik ışınlar, aslında, atmosferin tepesine
and even a mild production shortage can send hemen hemen ışık hızına yakın bir hızda çarpan ve
prices skyrocketing, as we have been seeing for çoğunlukla güneş sisteminin ötesinden gelen
some time. iyonlardır.

A) Sınırlı petrol ve doğal gaz kaynakları konusunda A) Cosmic rays, usually called ions, come from
küresel rekabet yoğundur ve, bir süredir across the solar system, hitting the outer layers of
gördüğümüz gibi, hafif bir üretim açığı bile the atmosphere at a speed close to that of light.
fiyatları birden yükseltebilir. B) The fact is that cosmic rays, also called ions,
B) Petrol ve doğal gaz kaynakları sınırlı olduğu için come from the other end of the solar system and
küresel rekabet oldukça yoğundur ve üretimde en constantly hit the top of the atmosphere at the full
ufak bir azalma, son zamanlarda görüldüğü gibi, speed of light.
fiyatları fırlatmaktadır. C) Cosmic rays are in fact ions that strike the top of
C) Sınırlı olan petrol ve doğal gaz kaynaklarına the atmosphere at nearly the speed of light and
yönelik küresel rekabet o denli yoğundur ki, yakın mostly come from beyond the solar system.
zamandan beri gözlemlediğimiz gibi, en küçük bir D) It is true that cosmic rays are ions which cut
üretim açığı bile fiyatları birden yükseltmektedir. across the solar system and strike the upper
D) Küresel rekabetin yoğun olduğu petrol ve doğal layer of the atmosphere at about the speed of
gaz kaynakları oldukça sınırlıdır ve, bir süredir light.
görüldüğü gibi, üretimde oluşan en küçük bir E) What we call ions are in fact cosmic rays that,
kısıtlama bile fiyatları oldukça yükseğe coming from the depths of the solar system,
çekmektedir. strike the upper parts of the atmosphere at
E) Sınırlı petrol ve doğal gaz kaynakları exactly the speed of light.
konusundaki yoğun küresel rekabet nedeniyle, bir
süredir gördüğümüz gibi, üretimin hafif de olsa
düşmesi sonucu fiyatlar alabildiğine 41. Leibniz, bilgisayar programının icadından 250
yükselmektedir. yıl önce yaşamış olmasına rağmen, modern
algoritmik bilgi düşüncesine çok yaklaşmıştı.

38. Until recently, there was no reliable method to A) Although Leibniz lived 250 years before the
measure the age of dinosaurs, and thus, to figure invention of the computer programme, he came
out the conditions in which they grew. very close to the modern idea of algorithmic
information.
A) Son yıllara kadar kullandığımız hiçbir yöntem B) Leibniz, who lived some 250 years before the
dinozorların yaşını ölçmek ve büyüdükleri introduction of the computer programme, was in
koşulları ortaya koymak için güvenilir değildi. fact fully familiar with the idea of modern
B) Dinozorların yaşını ölçmek ve dolayısıyla algorithmic information.
büyüdükleri koşulları ortaya koymak için bugüne C) It was just 250 years before the development of
kadar hiçbir güvenilir yöntem bulamadık. the computer programme that Leibniz lived and
C) Yıllardan beri, dinozorların yaşını ölçmeye ve put forward the modern idea of algorithmic
böylelikle nasıl büyüdüklerini belirlemeye yönelik information.
herhangi bir yöntem bulamadık. D) Living 250 years before the launching of the
D) Uzun zamandan beri, dinozorların yaşını ölçerek computer programme, Leibniz had a notion of
büyüdükleri koşulları kesin olarak belirlemede modern algorithmic information.
kullanılabilecek herhangi bir yöntemimiz yoktu. E) Even though the computer programme was
E) Son zamanlara kadar, dinozorların yaşını ölçmek invented 250 years after Leibniz, he was actually
ve böylece büyüdükleri koşulları anlamak için aware of the idea underlying modern algorithmic
güvenilir bir yöntem yoktu. information.

156
42. – 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçada 45. Although a soccer ball can be put together in
anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek many ways, there is one design so ubiquitous that
cümleyi bulunuz. it has become iconic. This standard soccer ball is
glued together from 32 polygons, 12 of them five-
42. Carbon nanotubes have been hailed as a sided and 20 six-sided, arranged in such a way
semiconducting wonder ingredient that will make that every pentagon (five-sided) is surrounded by
materials stronger. ----. Moreover, their ability to hexagons (six-sided). ----. This colour scheme was
act as filters might one day be exploited to build introduced for the World Cup in 1970 to enhance
artificial livers. the visibility of the ball on television, although the
design itself is older.
A) In the molecules of a polar liquid, some atoms
are slightly positively charged while others carry a A) 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons form a figure
balancing negative charge known to mathematicians as a “truncated
B) Some experts in nanotube chemistry have icosahedron”
published extensively B) To a mathematician, the iconic black and white
C) Accordingly, it is possible to make nanotubes soccer ball is an intriguing puzzle
generate electricity C) A number of questions can be tackled about the
D) Thus, their importance has been greatly arrangement of pentagons and hexagons using
overrated the language of mathematics
E) In addition, they will help miniaturize electronics D) The usual way to colour such a ball is to paint the
systems pentagons black and the hexagons white
E) Every soccer ball contains at least 12 pentagons,
but may well contain more
43. Locomotion can be considered to be a flow of
mass from one location to another. ----. They seek
and find paths and rhythms that allow them to 46. This year researchers from some 60 nations
move their mass the greatest distance per are participating in the International Polar Year, an
expenditure of useful energy while minimizing intensive burst of interdisciplinary research
thermodynamic imperfections such as friction. focusing on the polar regions. ----. For instance,
water from the melting ice sheet is flowing into
A) All of these designs allow for the maximum the North Atlantic much faster than scientists had
transfer of material with the least amount of previously thought possible.
resistance
B) A flow is an equilibrium of areas with high and A) Greenland, especially, has become a kind of
low resistivities barometer for the rest of the world because of its
C) Animals move on the surface of Earth in the sensitivity to climate changes
same way as rivers, winds and oceanic currents B) Climatologists have found that the best places to
D) A river basin configures and reconfigures itself so study global warming are the coldest regions on
that the water is discharged with the least Earth
resistance through the mouth of the river C) Thus far, the data the researchers have seen has
E) One of the basic goals of any design – whether been alarming
it’s an animal or a machine – is to get maximum D) A glacier that accelerates with a warming
output for minimum energy atmosphere is within the realm of scientific
expectation
E) Arctic climatologist Konrad Steffen has spent 18
44. Only a few large meteorites have struck the consecutive springs on the Greenland ice cap,
earth. The largest we know about fell in Arizona personally building and installing the weather
and made what is now called Meteor Crater, a hole stations
about a mile across and 600 feet deep. ----. Other
big meteorites fell in ancient times, in Texas, in
Argentina, in northern Siberia and in Greenland.

A) When a meteor reaches the earth, it is called a


meteorite
B) This big meteorite may have fallen as much as
twenty-five thousand years ago
C) The amazing thing about these meteor showers
is that they come year after year
D) Most meteors are small, probably a few inches in
diameter
E) The most remarkable meteor shower was seen in
Connecticut on the night of November 12, 1833

157
47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş 50.
bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi Ann: - Did you know that the use of graph paper
bulunuz. for plotting functions and data was first made
common by Professor John Perry, when he was
47. still an assistant of the famous physicist Lord
Angela: - How was your visit to Crater Lake Kelvin?
National Park last summer? Jane: - No, I didn’t. How did he make it available to
Sharon: - It was wonderful. The lake is very the public?
beautiful, with a clear, deep-blue colour. And I Ann: - ----
learned something new about it: it’s a closed Jane: - Well, that’s really something.
basin lake.
Angela: - ---- A) He was a tireless educator in engineering and
Sharon: - Well, there are no permanent streams mathematics.
that enter or exit the lake. B) He challenged Lord Kelvin’s hypothesis about the
temperature of the Earth.
A) I plan to visit the lake this summer. C) Perry came up with the idea that heat moved
B) How did you learn that? more easily deep inside the Earth than it does
C) You’re very informed, aren’t you? close to the surface.
D) What does that mean? D) Perry insisted that mathematics was basic to all
E) How many visitors are allowed into the park each the sciences.
year? E) Simply, it was because of him that the price of
graph paper became affordable for everybody.

48.
Ken: - Do you know? I’m really getting very 51.
interested in the movement of glaciers. Peter: - It seems that higher sea-surface
Sherrie: - What have you learned now? temperatures could give rise to ever larger and
Ken: - ---- more frequent hurricanes.
Sherrie: - That’s right; the ice moves out to the Frank: - ----
sides because of the greater weight and pressure Peter: - True. What do you think is going to
at the centre. happen?
Frank: - Let’s just wait and see!
A) That when glaciers move, they don’t only move
straight downhill. A) At present, it is all pure speculation. Let’s change
B) Well, some glaciers flow into the sea, but others the subject.
end on land. B) Why have you become so interested in global
C) Glaciers store about 75% of the world’s warming?
freshwater. C) But which parts of the globe would be affected?
D) I found out that where an ice sheet flows into the D) Yes; I’m familiar with that theory. But there are
ocean and floats, it forms an ice shelf. opposing theories too.
E) Ice sheets flowing over land usually form piles of E) Hurricanes will certainly increase in number and
rocks and dirt at their ending points. severity.

49. 52. – 56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla


Michelle: - It says in this article that Jupiter’s moon okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan
Europa has relatively few craters on it – only one cümleyi bulunuz.
or two significant ones.
Kathy: - I wonder why it has so few, when some of 52. (I) In science fiction, the worst threats to space
Jupiter’s other moons and our own moon have so travellers are large ones: asteroids, ravenous
many. creatures, and imperial battle cruisers. (II) The journey
Michelle: - ---- time from Earth to Mars could be reduced from six
Kathy: - Oh, yes, I’ve read about that. It has to do months to less than six weeks. (III) In reality, though,
with tides changing the surface features, doesn’t the scariest menaces for humans in space are the
it? tiniest: fast-moving elementary particles known as
cosmic rays. (IV) On a long journey, these would give
A) The article says that it would be surprising if the astronauts a dose of radiation serious enough to
tides weren’t still active. cause cancer. (V) Unlike most of the other challenges
B) Scientists think that the surface has been of venturing into deep space, which engineers should
completely re-made in the cosmically recent past. be able to solve, cosmic rays pose irreducible risks.
C) The continously changing surface would create
organisms, if there are any, that could adapt A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
easily to the changes.
D) Since there are many tiny bodies in the outer
solar system, they would normally have hit
Europa, forming craters.
E) The weak ice on Europa’s surface cannot support
high mountains.

158
53. (I) A dramatic cut in the cost of a super-efficient
new breed of solar cell could put domestic solar
power on a more economic footing. (II) The cells,
which helped take NASA’s electric-powered aircraft
Helios to record altitudes, have until now been too
expensive. (III) But their manufacturer has found a
way to make them as much as 20 times cheaper. (IV)
The cells convert light energy into electricity with an
efficiency of 20 per cent – which means they generate
one-third more electrical power than conventional
silicon solar cells. (V) NASA’s electrically powered
plane Helios soared to altitudes above 96,000 feet (29
kilometres) – a world record for a winged plane not
powered by a rocket engine.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

54. (I) Our knowledge of cell structure took a giant


leap forward as biologists began using the electron
microscope in the 1950s. (II) Instead of light, the
electron microscope (EM) uses a beam of electrons.
(III) Actually, specimens should have been cut into
extremely thin sections and stained with atoms of
heavy metals such as gold. (IV) The EM has a much
greater resolution than the light microscope. (V)
Under special conditions, the most powerful Ems can
detect individual atoms.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

55. (I) Early in the 20th century, oranges and


grapefruits were ripened for market in sheds equipped
with kerosene stoves. (II) Before leaves fall, many of
their essential elements are stored in the stem. (III)
Fruit growers thought it was the heat that ripened the
fruit, but when they tried newer, cleaner-burning
stoves, the fruit did not ripen fast enough. (IV) Plant
biologists learned later that ripening in the sheds was
actually due to ethylene, a gaseous by-product of
kerosene combustion. (V) We now know that plants
produce their own ethylene, which functions as a
hormone that triggers a variety of aging responses,
including fruit ripening and programmed cell death.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

56. (I) Since the terrorist attacks on 11 September


2001, anti-aircraft missile batteries have been
installed to protect buildings in US cities. (II) However,
less drastic solutions have also been suggested. (III)
No software simulation is going to be sufficient to
convince any pilot about the new avionics systems.
(IV) An aerospace company, for instance, has
proposed installing the electronics from its pilotless
plane in passenger aircraft to allow ground control to
take over a hijacked plane and land it remotely. (V)
Others say automatic landing systems could ster
planes to safety without human intervention.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

159
57. – 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 59. According to the passage, Pasteur discovered
cevaplayınız. that ----.

There were many heated debates in the nineteenth A) most French winemakers were far more skilled at
century about the relationship between chemical producing vinegar than wine
reactions and living organisms. Some scientists felt B) the problem French winemakers faced needed to
that fermentation was an activity of living things and, be dealt with immediately
therefore, could not take place outside of living cells. C) most scientists of his time knew little about the
This was proved by the work Louis Pasteur undertook variety of chemical reactions taking place in living
for the French wine industry. Indeed, in the 1850s, the organisms but they were prepared to debate
French wine industry was having serious trouble with about them
wine that had spoiled. The French emperor, Napoleon D) what really spoiled wine was not fermentation
III, called in Pasteur to help. Pasteur knew that the brought about by living yeast cells but that
fermentation which produced wine was caused by caused by bacterial activity
living yeast cells. But now he found that certain E) not only the French wine industry but also its milk
bacteria could also carry out fermentation. He industry could be greatly improved through the
discovered that fermentation by bacteria spoils wine use of pasteurization
because it produces vinegar (acetic acid) instead of
the alcohol produced by yeast. Pasteur suggested
that the winemakers heat the wine for a short time to 60. As pointed out in the passage, the idea that
destroy the bacteria. They were horrified, but it ----.
worked. The process, pasteurization, is still used
today, especially for milk. A) bacteria spoiled wine was accepted among the
French scientists of the nineteenth century, but it
57. It is clear from the passage that the was Pasteur whom Napoleon III appointed to
fundamental principle of pasteurization, especially improve wine-making in the country
as practised in the milk industry today, ----. B) bacteria in wine could best be destroyed through
a prolonged process of heating was
A) aroused a fierce controversy among the French commonplace among nineteenth-century French
scientists of the nineteenth century winemakers
B) was already known in France before the time of C) pasteurization prevented milk from spoiling
Pasteur quickly spread outside France in the nineteenth
C) was given a full scientific explanation by century and has never since been challenged by
scientists working for Napoleon III scientists
D) was discovered only after a long period of D) fermentation by bacteria spoils wine is no longer
experimentation by French winemakers current, since various new methods have been
E) is the destruction, by heating, of the bacteria developed for better wine-making
which cause fermentation E) fermentation was caused by a chemical reaction
in living cells wasn’t accepted by many scientists
until well into the nineteenth century
58. One understands from the passage that, in the
nineteenth century, ----.

A) a major controversy among scientists concerned


whether living organisms played any role in
chemical reactions
B) Napoleon III was seriously interested in scientific
matters and favoured Pasteur more than any
other scientist
C) French winemakers had so much trust in
Pasteur’s work on bacteria that they fully followed
his instructions for the process of pasteurization
D) French scientists especially focused on
fermentation, since the wine industry was of vital
importance for France
E) the French wine industry was remarkably
advanced since it made use of various
innovations and scientific discoveries

160
61. – 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 64. It is pointed out in the passage that ----.
cevaplayınız.
A) Aristotle was particularly interested in the fossils
Fossils are the remains of organisms which have found in rocks
endured for fantastic periods of time. Fossils can be B) there are many different kinds of fossils
bones or teeth or even plant or animal imprints C) the earliest kinds of fossils were those of sea
preserved in rock since prehistoric times. The plants and seashells
appearance of fossils in rock has been a source of D) Herodotus and Aristotle were the earliest
wonder and fascination to man for centuries. The pioneers of fossil studies
fossil of an ancient sea animal was even found E) the very first discovery of fossils was in the
among the possessions of a prehistoric man. Many Libyan desert
people have tried to explain fossils. Aristotle believed
they were the remains of living creatures, but thought
the creatures grew in the rocks. Some people
believed that fossils were placed in rocks by evil
spirits. Other explanations were remarkably modern.
For example, Herodotus, an ancient Greek historian,
observed fossil seashells in the Libyan desert in 450
B.C. and guessed that the Mediterranean Sea had
once reached much farther south than it does today.

61. It is clear from the passage that ----.

A) throughout history, there have been many


different views and explanations as regards the
nature and cause of fossils
B) it is only in modern times that there has been any
serious interest in fossils
C) human interest in fossils has only been aroused
through the fascinating explanations and
discoveries made by modern science
D) Herodotus travelled extensively in the
Mediterranean world and was particularly
attracted by the geography of Libya
E) the study of fossils by modern scientists has
mostly focused on the preserved imprints of
plants and animals in rocks

62. It is clear from the passage that fossils ----.

A) greatly fascinated prehistoric peoples, who


revered them as sacred
B) are always found in rocks as bones or teeth
C) date back to very early prehistoric times
D) were not as serious a concern for Aristotle as
they were for others
E) were regarded by prehistoric man as evil spirits
preserved in rocks

63. According to the passage, Herodotus


speculated that the Libyan desert, ----.

A) which was rich in the remains of various


organisms, had been the original home of
prehistoric man
B) which was vast and dry, had been flooded on
several occasions in the past by the
Mediterranean Sea
C) through which he often travelled, had in the past
made up a major part of the Mediterranean Sea
D) where he saw fossil seashells, had once been
covered by the Mediterranean Sea
E) where there were plant and animal imprints in
rocks, had no connection whatsoever with the
Mediterranean Sea

161
65. – 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 68. As it is indicated in the passage, if the addition
cevaplayınız. of new members to a population exceeds loss, ----.

A population is a group of individual organisms of the A) this can have a restrictive effect on emigrations
same kind that are limited to some particular space. from the population
The most familiar example is the human population, B) this has no effect whatsoever on the environment
but there are also populations of animals and plants in which the population lives
everywhere on Earth. In fact, scientists regard a C) the survival of the population can be maintained
population as a biological unit that has both structure in a balanced way
and function. The parts of a population are its D) the size of the population shows a growing
individual members. The functions of a population are pattern
similar to those of other biological units: growth, E) new measures must be introduced to prevent
development, and self-maintenance in a changing environmental changes
environment. Individuals enter a population by birth
and by moving in, that is, by immigration. Individuals
leave a population by death and by moving out, that
is, by emigration. If the environment of a population
remains the same, loss and replacement of members
are in balance. The population will be able to survive
in that particular environment. If the environment
changes, however, loss or addition of members
increases or decreases the size of the population.

65. It is pointed out in the passage that the


changes that occur in the environment of a
population ----.

A) have an impact, negative or positive, on the


members of that population
B) speed up the process of replacement of the
members of the population
C) always contribute greatly to the survival of all the
members of that population
D) are mostly caused by the uncontrollable size of
that population
E) can be reduced through an increase in the size of
the population

66. According to the passage, what is called a


“population” in biology ----.

A) can be defined as any group of organisms that is


not subject to loss and replacement
B) is a biological unit that has only the function of
growth
C) is a group of animals and plants that can survive
all kinds of environmental changes
D) solely refers to any human group that lives in a
specific region on Earth
E) is a unit that consists of the same kind of
individual organisms living in a particular area

67. It is clear from the passage that, so long as a


population lives in a constant environment, ----.

A) the growth, development, and self-maintenance


of its members can be fully controlled
B) its size remains more or less stable
C) it usually undergoes a rapid structural change,
which considerably affects its size
D) the replacement of its members is relatively slow,
compared with other populations in different
environments
E) its survival becomes difficult owing to the
uncontrollable increase in its size

162
69. – 72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 72. As is stated in the passage, from the data
cevaplayınız. provided by the Hubble Space Telescope about
Pluto ----.
Pluto, which was until recently regarded as the
outermost and smallest planet in the solar system, A) some scientists have suggested that its
has never been visited by an exploring spacecraft. So exploration ought to be started soon
little is known about it that it is difficult to classify. Its B) one can conclude that it has a climate which is
distance from Earth is so great that the Hubble Space stable and temperate
Telescope cannot reveal its surface features. C) it has a dull surface with absolutely no variety
Appropriately named for the Roman god of the D) it is understood that there is an ice cap on its
underworld, it must be frozen, dark, and dead. Its north pole
mean distance from the Sun is 5,900 million E) one becomes aware of the fact that every planet
kilometres. In fact, it has the most eccentric orbit in in the solar system has a similar cycle of seasons
the solar system, bringing it at times closer to the Sun
than Neptune. Furthermore, there is evidence that
Pluto has an atmosphere, containing methane, and a
polar ice cap that increases and decreases in size
with Pluto’s seasons. It is not known to have water.
The Hubble Space Telescope’s faint-object camera
revealed light and dark regions on Pluto, indicating an
ice cap at the north pole. It is not known if there is an
ice cap at Pluto’s south pole.

69. According to the passage, Pluto’s orbit around


the Sun ----.

A) takes so long that each of its seasons has a long


period
B) has not yet been described accurately
C) brings it, on occasion, closer than Neptune to the
Sun
D) follows a pattern which is uniform and stable
E) has been studied again and again through the
Hubble Space Telescope

70. As is pointed out in the passage, Pluto ----.

A) is on the outer edge of the solar system


B) has extensive ice caps at both its poles
C) was a major god in antiquity, worshipped by the
Romans as well as by other peoples
D) and Neptune seem to have similar orbits that
bring them closer to the Sun
E) looks so dark that nothing whatsoever can be
observed on it

71. It is stated in the passage that, since Pluto is


so far away from Earth, ----.

A) its regions and poles can best be studied through


a powerful telescope
B) almost nothing is known about even its exterior
C) the density of the methane in its atmosphere
cannot be measured
D) the Hubble Space Telescope clearly shows how
completely frozen its surface is
E) only some minor explorations have so far been
made by means of a spacecraft

163
73. – 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 75. As can be understood from the passage, the
cevaplayınız. fact that even some great rivers have from time to
time run dry due to the overuse of their capacity
Today the world faces a growing crisis over the ----.
management of its great rivers. In recent years, most
of the great rivers in the world, such as the Yellow A) demonstrates how the growth of the populations
River in China, the Indus, the Colorado, and the Nile, in some countries has had an adverse effect on
have all periodically run empty because mankind has the water resources
used their every last drop. Indeed, there is a huge B) shows how irresponsible the water engineers of
unmet demand in the world for water. More than a most countries have been
billion people have no access to clean drinking water, C) signifies that there must be a national water
and while it is hoped that this figure will be halved by authority in each country for the preservation of
2015, nobody is sure where the water will come from. the water resources
With today’s trends, one-third of the world population D) makes it urgent for water engineers to discover
will be seriously short of water by 2025. Politicians in new water resources in the southwestern US
China, India, Pakistan, Egypt and other waterstressed E) is a clear indication of how urgent the demand for
countries want their water engineers to find solutions water is in the world today
– and fast.

73. In the passage, there is a clear warning that, 76. One concludes from the passage that efficient
----. management of the water resources of the world
is essential ----.
A) sooner or later, water shortages could lead to
serious political crises in China and other A) if the growing worldwide demand for water is to
countries be met adequately
B) despite the solutions proposed by water B) and the waters of the Nile and the Indus, in
engineers, the people of China, India, Pakistan, particular, must not be used so wastefully
and Egypt will soon face a serious shortage of C) since China and India, with their large
water populations, are heading for a serious shortage
C) unless more precautions are taken, more than a of water well before 2015
billion people will have almost no access to water D) as one-third of the population in China is unable
in the near future to get clean drinking water
D) so long as politicians remain indifferent to the E) in order to maintain political stability in the
growing water crisis in the world, most countries countries most affected by an acute shortage of
will be unable to provide clean drinking water for drinking water
their people
E) by the end of the first quarter of this century,
there will be a severe water shortage affecting
one-third of the world population

74. According to the passage, the water resources


of the world ----.

A) are largely confined to the Indus and the Nile


B) have been increased through the solutions
proposed by water engineers, and so the need
for clean drinking water will be met well before
2015
C) are so limited that it is doubtful whether the
number of people with no access to clean
drinking water can be halved, as hoped, by 2015
D) have become a major concern among politicians
in many countries and, therefore, new policies
have been proposed for an efficient management
of the great rivers
E) need to be upgraded by 2025 in order to catch up
with the growth rate of the world population

164
77. – 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 80. As pointed out in the passage, Greenland, with
cevaplayınız. its 5,000-foot-thick ice sheet, ----.

The huge ice sheet covering Greenland, which is the A) is so affected by the atmospheric concentrations
world’s largest island, provides a habitat for many of heat-trapping gases that the amount of the
arctic species and holds nearly 8 per cent of the meltwater on the island has risen to a dangerous
world’s freshwater. It is, on average, 5,000 feet thick level
and is constantly being replaced as snow falls each B) has lost much of its freshwater capacity due to
winter. Over the course of centuries, the snow the process of extensive melting which has been
compacts into ice, which slides towards the ocean. In going on for centuries
recent years, higher atmospheric concentrations of C) will soon lose its ice mass, since the amount of
heat-trapping gases have accelerated that process. snowfall on the island each winter has dropped
As temperatures rise, the top layers melt, giving way dramatically over the course of the last few
to darker, heat-absorbing ice and liquid water. The centuries
meltwater seeps down to the rock below, lubricating D) not only accommodates different kinds of arctic
the ice mass and speeding its slide into the sea. species but also preserves a significant amount
of the world’s freshwater
77. As one can see, the passage ----. E) can no longer provide a habitat for some arctic
species that have lived on the island over the
A) focuses on the importance of Greenland as a course of many centuries
major source of the world’s freshwater
B) is mainly concerned with the geographical
features of Greenland’s surface and highlights its TEST BĐTTĐ.
natural beauty CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.
C) deals in detail with the causes of global warming
and its effects on the arctic species in Greenland
D) explains how global warming is having an
environmental impact on Greenland’s ice mass
E) extensively describes the process whereby the
ice mass of Greenland has formed over the
course of centuries

78. It is pointed out in the passage that the slide


into the ocean of the ice mass in Greenland ----.

A) has caused much damage to a wide range of


arctic species and their habitat
B) can be prevented completely so long as
temperatures are stable
C) is of vital importance because, through this
process, the world’s freshwater capacity is
increased
D) has only been observed in recent years, but
environmentally, this phenomenon is of no
significance
E) has been faster than usual in recent years as a
result of global warming

79. According to the passage, when the top layers


of the ice sheet melt, ----.

A) the ice mass ceases to slide towards the ocean


B) water seeps down to the rocks below aiding the
ice mass to slide into the sea
C) it has an adverse effect on various arctic species
D) the rock under the ice mass is fully exposed
E) there is a noticeable increase in the volume of
liquid water

165
1. – 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 8. The Pyramid of the Sun ---- in stages in the
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. second and third centuries A.D. and ---- about 200
feet high and 700 feet in length.
1. The process of economic and social reforms
that began in the 1990s in some developing A) was built / measures
countries has had a profound ---- on the B) had been built / may measure
functioning and adjustment of their labour C) could have been built / was to measure
markets. D) has been built / would measure
E) could be built / had measured
A) dismissal B) recovery C) impact
D) recognition E) distrust
9. Underwater archaeology is generally
considered to ---- its first major encouragement
2. Ever since the ---- remains of ancient states and during the winter of 1853-54, when a particularly
cities were first discovered, the collapse of their low water level in a Swiss lake ---- bare enormous
civilizations has been a focus of debate and quantities of wooden posts, pottery and other
inquiry. artifacts.

A) consistent B) implicit C) vulnerable A) be receiving / has laid


D) competent E) impressive B) be received / would lay
C) have been received / had laid
D) receive / could have laid
3. The Arawak Indians were the first to inhabit E) have received / laid
Grenada, but they were all ---- massacred by the
belligerent Carib Indians.
10. Sub-Saharan Africa ---- at a relatively stable
A) fairly B) previously C) eventually rate since the mid-1990s, and its growth ---- in the
D) principally E) rarely following years.

A) was growing / continues


4. In the advertising industry, it is a maxim that a B) has been growing / should continue
message needs to be ---- often in order to be both C) has grown / should have continued
understood and appreciated. D) grew / has continued
E) is growing / will have continued
A) repeated B) engaged C) negotiated
D) involved E) settled
11. In a clever experiment carried out during the
1980s, a team of psychologists at Cornell
5. In narrative poems, characters often ---- certain University ---- that being in a happy mood ----
ideas or heroic qualities which the poet wishes to people generate more creative solutions to
celebrate. problems.

A) head towards B) stand for C) show up A) have found / will help


D) carry out E) try on B) had found / helped
C) are to find / would help
D) found / helps
6. Children can ---- different roles, work through E) would find / has helped
conflicts, and attempt various methods of
communication, all under the pretence of play.
12. Psychological studies show that Belgian and
A) go along with B) give up C) get in French workers place greater importance ----
D) try out E) fall back on personal independence than do workers ---- many
other countries.

7. In the US, the percentage of obese people ---- A) in / of B) on / in C) about / by


over the past two decades, and at present, 35% of D) to / for E) of / within
the population ---- overweight.

A) could have doubled / would be 13. Ancient Pompeii, destroyed in A.D. 79 ---- an
B) had doubled / was eruption of Vesuvius, lay buried ---- rock and ash
C) has doubled / is until the 18th century.
D) would double / will be
E) doubled / has been A) by / under B) at / for C) with / below
D) in / on E) through / over

166
14. During the second half of the 20th century, the 19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada
fracture rates among high-risk European numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da
populations grew higher, ---- this increase was ifadeyi bulunuz.
modest compared with that of the urbanized
populations in Southern Asia. The Spanish people take particular pride in their
cultural heritage. (19) ---- the traditional art form of
A) in case B) because C) unless flamenco dance and the three-act drama of the
D) but E) now that bullfight (corrida), the theatres and opera houses of
Spanish cities provide one of the best ways of sharing
the cultural experience (20) ---- Spain. Many activities
15. Citizens of countries that are members of the (21) ---- well after midnight, and so taking full
EU, as well as citizens from the US, Canada, advantage of the afternoon siesta is a good way to
Australia and New Zealand, do not need a visa to (22) ---- for the evening ahead. Further, Spain’s
visit Germany ---- their stay does not exceed three mountain ranges, woodlands and extensive coast
months. offer great potential for scenic tours and sports
vacations (23) ---- alternatives to sunbathing on the
A) whereas B) as if C) so long as beach.
D) whether E) so that
19.
A) In opposition to B) As a result of
16. Every Turkish citizen over the age of 25 is C) In addition to D) Dependent on
eligible to be a deputy in Parliament ---- he or she E) In spite of
has completed primary education and has not
been convicted of a serious crime. 20.
A) at B) for C) by
A) with the idea that D) of E) from
B) from the point of view that
C) despite the fact that 21.
D) by the fact that A) begin B) began C) are to begin
E) on condition that D) have begun E) was to begin

22.
17. The number of frauds in the US ---- the A) maintain B) prepare C) complete
criminal uses someone else’s credit card number D) identify E) participate
doubled to 162,000 cases in 2002.
23.
A) in which B) by whom C) of which A) just B) like C) such
D) which E) with whom D) even E) as

18. Unlike many other European nations, Finland 24. – 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde
has not been the destination of large groups of
tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
foreign workers, ---- has it ever been a colonial
ower.
24. When a rise in civil-servant numbers resulted
in economic problems in Tanzania, ----.
A) and B) nor C) or
D) also E) not,
A) newly emerged leaders often offered civil service
jobs to their supporters in Africa
B) the payment of civil servants is still problematic
C) a painful cut in pay would be inevitable because
of staff numbers
D) the IMF forced the government to cut the total
wage bill
E) holding civil servants to account is another
problem

25. Since older people perform certain tasks beter


than the young do, ----.

A) it is wrong to categorize them as generally less


capable
B) older people often are more socially competent
C) an older employee might prove initially slower at
a particular mental function
D) it is exactly what employers worry about in
quality-control jobs
E) this insight has important implications for the
workplace

167
26. Although it is not known exactly when 31. Small states in Africa like Senegal would
potterymaking began in Cappadocia, ----. probably integrate with the global production
chains of multinationals ----.
A) early pottery was generally shaped by the
wrapping-rolling method A) although Mali and Cameroon could be
B) it is still agreed that the art originated in industrialized by processing foodstuffs
Mesopotamia B) while countries with large populations like Nigeria
C) it dates back at least to Hittite times might develop their own national industries
D) most archaeologists are keenly interested in the C) if ever South African firms expand aggressively
excavations that are going on across the region
E) pottery belonging to other cultures has been D) whereas such obstacles explain why sub-Saharan
found in the townships of Hacıbektaş and countries have only a marginal share in manufactured
Güzelyurt goods
E) in that most African industries are classified as
small-to-medium sized enterprises
27. As long as the inflation rate differs from what
is expected, ----.
32. Some researchers have recently questioned
A) there will always be winners and losers ----.
B) the same is true for unanticipated inflation
C) it is called hyperinflation when rates exceed 50% A) whether drug protocols used in American lethal
per month injections produce death without pain
D) the purchasing power of your wage would be less B) that some people used to believe capital
than you anticipated punishment was wrong
E) many people devoted their time to speculation in C) which lethal injections replaced death by hanging
real estate D) because it is obliged to execute as humanely as
it can
E) when the time has come for renewed
28. On the issue of why men earn more than consideration of the death penalty
women, ----.

A) various studies suggest the opposite is true 33. Dutch was widely known in Europe in the 17th
B) some people are of the opinion that sex century, ----.
discrimination plays an important role
C) American economists observed a gap of about A) since English has had much influence on Dutch
20% among workers aged 26-34 since the Second World War
D) a recent study suggests that Afro-American B) as it has had an influence in Sri Lanka
females earn 86% as much as white females C) when Dutch-derived artistic terms such as
E) others believe that the gender gap is smaller in “landscape” and “sketch” were adopted into
Europe but much larger in Japan English
D) but there was a Low German influence on
English starting with the later Middle Ages
29. Even before the Walt Disney Company signed E) until scholars use the word “Netherlandic” as a
an agreement with the French government to historical term for the various dialects spoken in
open Euro Disney, ----. the Netherlands

A) the park would employ thousands of people and


attract a large number of tourists 34. It was not until the middle of the 19th century
B) Disneyland Paris has more than twice as many ----.
visitors as the Louvre
C) certain attractions are introduced to cater to A) while some geologists were studying the
French tastes stratification of rocks
D) critics began to refer to it as a cultural disaster B) when there were significant achievements in the
E) the French are the largest European consumers newly developing science of geology
of Disney products such as comic boks C) in which these guidelines were to be the basis of
archaeological excavations
D) that the discipline of archaeology became truly
30. The most prominent ancient monument in established
Đzmir is the ruined fortress of Kadifekale, ----. E) before the term “prehistory” itself came into
general use
A) so successive reconstructions were made by the
Romans, Byzantines and Ottoman Turks
B) and all that survives are the fortifications on
Kadifekale
C) but the foundations and a few of the lower
courses were built around 295 B.C.
D) whereas the ruins that one sees there today are
the remains of the citadel
E) which was originally the acropolis of the
Hellenistic city

168
35. Most stutterers can recite poems or sing with 38. Whereas the freedom of the press in America
relative ease, ----. is guaranteed by the First Amendment to the
Constitution, the British press has never enjoyed
A) since they exhibit structural weaknesses in the such a right.
brain’s speech motor centres and auditory areas
B) whether speculation about the causes of the A) Her ne kadar Birinci Anayasa Değişikliği ile
speech problem has been widespread since Amerika’da basın özgürlüğü güvenceye
ancient times kavuşturulmuş ise de, Đngiliz basınının böyle bir
C) so as late as the mid-19th century, physicans haktan yararlanması söz konusu değildir.
were using surgery to correct supposed defects B) Amerika’da Birinci Anayasa Değişikliği sonucu
in the tongue basın özgürlüğünün tam bir güvence altına
D) although stress may also influence the onset and alınmış olmasına karşın Đngiliz basınının böyle bir
durability of stammering hakka sahip olması hiçbir zaman
E) but normal conversation can be a distressing öngörülmemiştir.
exercise in frustration C) Basın özgürlüğü, Birinci Anayasa Değişikliği ile
Amerika’da güvence altına alınırken, böyle bir
hak Đngiliz basını için hiçbir zaman gündeme
36. – 38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye gelmemiştir.
anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz. D) Amerika’da basın özgürlüğü, Birinci Anayasa
Değişikliği ile güvence altına alındığı halde, Đngiliz
36. The Romans adopted from the Greeks not only basını hiçbir zaman böyle bir hakka sahip
epic and lyric poetry, but also rhetoric, olmamıştır.
philosophy, and the writing of history. E) Đngiliz basınının hiçbir zaman sahip olmadığı
basın özgürlüğü hakkı, Amerika’da Birinci
A) Romalılar, Yunanlılardan sadece destanı ve lirik Anayasa Değişikliği ile kayıtsız şartsız güvence
şiiri değil, aynı zamanda söylevi, felsefeyi ve tarih altına alınmıştır.
yazımını almışlardır.
B) Romalıların Yunanlılardan aldıkları arasında
sadece destan ve lirik şiir değil, aynı zamanda 39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye
söylev, felsefe ve tarih yazımı bulunmaktadır. anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.
C) Romalılar, destan, lirik şiir, söylev, felsefe ve tarih
yazımının hepsini Yunanlılardan almışlardır. 39. Son derece saygın bir yazar ve muhalif olan
D) Destan ve lirik şiirden başka, söylev, felsefe ve Vaclav Havel, 1989’da Çekoslovakya
tarih yazımı da, Romalıların Yunanlılardan cumhurbaşkanı seçilince, ülkedeki aşağı yukarı 42
aldıkları arasındadır. yıllık komünist yönetim sona erdi.
E) Romalıların Yunanlılardan aldıklarını, hem destan
ve lirik şiir, hem de söylev, felsefe ve tarih yazımı A) The election in 1989 of Vaclav Havel, a much
oluşturmaktadır. admired writer and rebel, as the president of
Czechoslovakia ended the 42-year Communist
regime in the country.
37. Until the 1950s, Nepal was a closed society B) In 1989 when Vaclav Havel, a highly respected
ruled by hereditary prime ministers, but since writer and dissident, was elected president of
then it has had an open-door policy for integration Czechoslovakia, nearly 42 years of Communist
with the outside world. rule in the country came to an end.
C) Communist rule in Czechoslovakia had lasted for
A) 1950’lere gelinceye kadar aynı soydan gelen about 42 years before Vaclav Havel, who was
başbakanlarca kapalı bir toplum olarak yönetilen admired greatly as a writer and political rebel,
Nepal, o zamandan beri dış dünya ile was elected president of the country.
bütünleşerek açık kapı politikası benimsemiştir. D) Vaclav Havel was so respected in
B) Aynı soydan gelen başbakanlar, 1950’lere kadar Czechoslovakia as a writer and political figure
Nepal’i kapalı bir toplum olarak yönetmişlerse de that, when he was elected president in 1989, the
daha sonra dış dünya ile bütünleşmek amacıyla, Communist regime in the country, which had
açık kapı politikası benimsenmiştir. lasted for over 42 years, came to an end.
C) Nepal’in, aynı soydan gelen başbakanlarca E) As a dissident and an extremely admired writer,
kapalı bir toplum olarak yönetilmesi 1950’lere Vaclav Havel was elected president of
kadar sürmüştür, fakat daha sonra, dış dünya ile Czechoslovakia in 1989, and this brought to an
bütünleşme hedeflenerek, açık kapı politikası end the 42-year Communist rule in the country.
benimsenmiştir.
D) Her ne kadar 1950’lere gelinceye değin Nepal,
aynı soydan gelen başbakanlarca kapalı bir
toplum olarak yönetilmişse de daha sonra, açık
kapı politikası izlenmiş ve dış dünya ile
bütünleşme sağlanmıştır.
E) 1950’lere kadar Nepal, aynı soydan gelen
başbakanlarca yönetilen kapalı bir toplumdu;
ancak, dış dünya ile bütünleşmek için, o
zamandan beri açık kapı siyaseti izlemiştir.

169
40. I. Dünya Savaşı’nın başında Romanya 42. – 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçada
tarafsızlığını ilân etti; ancak, daha sonra Almanya anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek
ve müttefiklerine karşı savaşa katıldı. cümleyi bulunuz.

A) Although Romania was neutral at the time World 42. Although difficulties with names are nothing
War I broke out, it soon decided to declare war new, the nature of name-giving changed with the
on Germany and her allies. introduction of computer technology. ----. In the
B) When World War I started, Romania was old days, a letter from overseas addressed to the
determined to remain neutral but, soon after, it “U.S.” or the “U.S.A.” or even the “E.U.” would
declared war on Germany and her allies. stand a chance of being delivered, but an e-mail
C) At the start of World War I, Romania proclaimed for the corresponding geographic domain must
its neutrality, but later joined the war against have the exact designation “US”; no variation is
Germany and her allies. tolerated.
D) Romania’s neutrality was declared at the start of
World War I, but this did not last long since it later A) For example, the ticker symbols that identify
declared war on both Germany and her allies. securities on the New York Stock Exchange can
E) Romania’s declaration of war on Germany as well be no more than three characters long
as her allies came later, since at the start of B) Broadcast radio stations in the US have call signs
World War I it had decided to remain neutral. of either three or four letters, and the first letter is
always either K or W
C) The names can get so long and intricate that only
41. Yunan alfabesinden kendi alfabelerini a computer can identify them
geliştiren Akdeniz ulusları arasında, M.Ö. 9. D) It is not just the names that are scarce; we are
yüzyılda Đtalya’ya yerleşmiş olan Etrüskler de even running out of numbers
bulunuyordu. E) Place names – and abbreviations for them – offer
a good example of how names have changed
A) The Etruscans, who had invaded Italy during the
9th century B.C., were one of the Mediterranean
peoples who adopted their alphabets from the 43. Capturing your attention and holding it is the
Grek alphabet. prime motive of most television programming,
B) Among the Mediterranean peoples who and this enhances its role as a profitable
developed their own alphabets from the Grek advertising vehicle. ----. So the surest way to get
alphabet were also the Etruscans, who had audiences focused on a programme is to provide
settled in Italy in the 9th century B.C. them with constant stimulation through variety,
C) It was from the Greek alphabet that, like other novelty, action and movement.
Mediterranean peoples, the Etruscans, who had
conquered Italy in the 9th century B.C., developed A) It is difficult to escape the influence of television
their own alphabet. B) The advertisements are often more entertaining
D) Like the other Mediterranean peoples, the than the actual programmes
Etruscans, who invaded and settled in Italy in the C) The only things Americans do more than watch
9th century B.C., adapted the Greek alphabet and television are work and sleep
developed their own. D) Programmers live in constant fear of losing the
E) The Etruscans were among the Mediterranean attention of their audiences
peoples who settled in Italy during the 9th century E) By the age of 20 an average person will have
B.C. and created their own alphabet from the been exposed to at least 20,000 hours of
Greek alphabet. television

44. The arts in Italy have enjoyed a long and


glorious history, and Italians are very proud of
this. ----. Still, efforts are being made throughout
the country to put as many art collections on
show as possible. The performing arts such as
opera and cinema are also underfunded, yet there
are spectacular cultural festivals.

A) A tradition of literary Italian was established back


in the 13th and 14th centuries by Dante and
Petrarch, who wrote in a cultured Florentine
dialect
B) In the land of Verdi and Rossini, opera is
naturally well supported
C) However, it does cost a lot to look after them
D) It was the artists and scholars of 15th-century
Florence who inspired the Renaissance in
Europe
E) On the other hand, Rome, Florence and Venice
are naturally the main tourist destinations

170
45. In its first case concerned with global 48.
warming, the US Supreme Court ruled in April that Maria: - Natives of the areas near the Arctic Circle
greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide are air say that people who come from Europe or
pollutants which the Environmental Protection America are essentially lonely.
Agency (EPA) can regulate. As a consequence, Bob: - ----
experts agree that greenhouse emissions from Maria: - Well, I think they’re trying to say that
automobiles and possibly power plants will face Europeans and Americans are not so closely
regulation. The debate will now focus on how involved with their neighbours or relatives.
strict or flexible those rules will be. ----. Moreover, Bob: - That idea deserves some thought, I
the agency also stated that even if it did have the suppose.
power to regulate these gases, it would not do so.
A) Do you ever feel lonely? I never do.
A) If the agency were to refuse, there would be a B) In fact, natives of the Arctic used to live together
lawsuit against it with their extended families.
B) However, the EPA had long claimed to have no C) I completely disagree.
authority in regulating these gases D) What do they mean by that?
C) Siding with the EPA were several industry groups E) Which natives do you mean?
and ten states, a number of which rely heavily on
coal, electricity or motor vehicle production
D) The Supreme Court ruling may represent a 49.
milestone in the legal battle over climate change Oscar: - This article tells how a poor woman in
E) Notably, 12 states had been seeking waivers Bangladesh borrowed money from a bank and set
from the Agency permitting them to pass laws up a small profitable business.
requiring reduced car emissions of greenhouse Ernie: - ----
gases from the 2009 model year onward Oscar: - I had never heard of it until I read this
article. Very interesting.
Ernie: - Imagine. When she has finished paying off
46. Whether or not the number of pilots increases the loan, she’ll make an even greater profit!
in the long run, for the foreseeable future small
planes could make a difference mainly if they A) So you are interested in economic matters, are
constitute the operating fleet for a new national you?
system of air taxis. ----. And, in the race to create B) Oh, I know. It is an example of the micro-credit
this fleet, two companies are deeply involved. system practised in Bangladesh.
C) How did she find a bank that would lend her the
A) They will be looking for jet planes priced at well money?
under a million dollars apiece D) As you may recall, the per capita income in
B) The people racing to create new systems of air Bangladesh has always been very very low.
transportation are nearly all men who learned to E) Bangladesh is not an industralized country, and
fly as teenagers the rate of unemployment there is very very high.
C) Both these companies have already begun large-
scale production of a genuinely new small
airplane 50.
D) In fact, most airlines have introduced Helena: - I’m reading an article on the US
considerable reductions in their air fares government’s breakup of the Standard Oil Trust,
E) A supply of inexpensive, safe, comfortable small which occurred in 1911.
planes could bring freedom and convenience to a Ron: - ----
broader share of the travelling public Helena: - Well, the trust was controlling over 90%
of the market for refined petroleum products, and
using unfair means to do so. The government
47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş broke it up into several new companies to
bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi encourage competition and reduce prices.
bulunuz. Ron: - It’s a good thing they did, too.

47. A) Why don’t you try reading something a little more


Woody: - Hi, Amy. How are you? current?
Amy: - Oh, I’m fine, but I’m worried about my B) Yes; there are many similar stories in US
daughter. Her notes in maths have fallen this year, economic history.
and I think it’s mostly due to her teacher. C) Oh? What happened?
Woody: - ---- D) I’ve always found American industrial history
Amy: - Oh, the teacher is qualified enough, but I fascinating.
don’t think she’s used to teaching at my E) I don’t think it should have been broken up.
daughter’s age level.

A) Why? Isn’t he or she a good enough teacher?


B) I had the same worries with my son last year, but
everything turned out alright.
C) Why don’t you talk to the school principal?
D) Are you sure your daughter is working hard
enough?
E) What about your son? How’s his maths this year?

171
51. 55. (I) To answer the question “why?” is the most
Fred: - Have you read this article about Lady Bird difficult task in archaeology. (II) The past 30 years
Johnson, the wife of former US president Lyndon have seen the re-emergence of the use of
Baines Johnson? archaeological theory. (III) Indeed, it is the most
Bob: - ---- challenging and interesting task in any science or field
Fred: - That’s right. The article is largely about her of knowledge. (IV) For with this question, we go
commitment to cleaning up America and making it beyond the mere appearance of things and on to a
more beautiful by planting trees and flowers in the level of analysis that seeks in some way to
cities. understand the pattern of events. (V) Indeed, this is
Bob: - Well, that’s a worthy cause, and I think she the goal motivating many researchers who take up
succeeded during her lifetime. the study of the human past, whether through
archaeology or history.
A) No, I haven’t. How do you find the time to read so
many articles? A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
B) No; I was never a big fan of either President or
Mrs Johnson.
C) No. What does it say about her? 56. (I) An engineer may choose either to work or not
D) No, but I’d like to have a look at it when you’re to work in defense-related industries and be ethically
through. justified in either position. (II) Many reasonable
E) No, I haven’t. Didn’t she die last year? engineering professionals feel that, ethically, they
cannot work on designs that will ultimately be used to
kill other humans. (III) Their remoteness from the
52. – 56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla actual killing doesn’t change this feeling. (IV)
okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan Everyone in his working life is likely to face problems
cümleyi bulunuz. that cannot be solved easily. (V) Even though they
won’t push the button or may never actually see the
52. (I) It has been estimated that at least 100,000 victims of the weapon, they still find it morally
children testify in court cases in the US every year. (II) unacceptable to work on such systems.
This figure does not include the much larger number
of instances in which children provide evidence A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
outside court. (III) In recent years, a number of
researchers have performed studies that speak
directly to this important question. (IV) The cases in
which children testify have a range of topics, but the
most frequent category among criminal trials,
accounting for about 13,000 cases each year, is child
sexual abuse. (V) In most instances of alleged abuse,
the child witness is also the target of the abuse.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

53. (I) In 1958, following the signing of the Treaty of


Rome in the previous year, the European Economic
Community (EEC), now the European Union (EU),
was born, and Brussels became its headquarters. (II)
Today, the city remains home to most of the EU’s
institutions. (III) The European Commission, the EU
body that formulates the policies, is currently based in
various buildings in the city. (IV) The city is also one
of the seats of the European Parliament. (V) Each
nation has a certain number of votes according to
their size in the Council of Ministers.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

54. (I) The World Cup football tournament has grown


much more competitive due to globalization. (II) More
and more players from teams with no history of
success are getting the chance to play for more
experienced teams in other countries. (III) Indeed,
football is the most popular sport in South America.
(IV) Further, the trend now in world football is for
games in the competition to be decided by much
closer scores. (V) This means more suspense for the
spectators, a fact that makes watching the matches
more enjoyable.

A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V

172
57. – 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 59. According to the passage, following in the
cevaplayınız. footsteps of Adam Smith, a number of capitalist
economists in Britain ----.
The most important idea of the nineteenth century in
Britain was that everyone had the right to personal A) were much upset about the practices of factory
freedom, and this became the basis of capitalism. owners and, therefore, made proposals to the
This idea, which had originated with Adam Smith in government to stop child labour
the eighteenth century, spread widely due to the B) believed that more laws were needed to
popularity of his book The Wealth of Nations. After encourage commercial and industrial activities
Adam Smith, several capitalist economists argued throughout the country
that the government should not interfere in trade and C) were so concerned with the happiness of the
industry at all. Fewer laws, they claimed, meant more majority in society that they provided employment
freedom, and freedom for individuals would lead to even for women and children
happiness for the greatest number of people. These D) did their best to improve the economy of the
ideas were eagerly accepted by the growing middle country and fully supported the government’s
class. However, it soon became very clear that the economic policies
freedom of factory owners to do as they pleased had E) maintained that commercial and industrial
led to slavery and misery for the poor, not to activities were to be completely free from any
happiness or freedom. By 1820, more and more government interference
people had begun to accept the idea that the
government must interfere to protect the poor and the
weak. The result was a number of laws to improve 60. Though it was still widely believed in
working conditions. For instance, one of the laws, nineteenthcentury Britain that laws limit freedom,
which went into effect in 1833, limited the number of ----.
hours that women and children were allowed to work.
A) the government in Britain did not hold with this
57. As pointed out in the passage, in the early belief
decades of the nineteenth century in Britain ----. B) factory owners felt that they needed the
protection of laws
A) a growing number of people shared the view that C) laws to improve working conditions in the
the poor had to be protected against capitalist factories were eventually introduced
abuse D) Adam Smith did not share this view
B) the English middle class strongly supported the E) the book, The Wealth of Nations, discredited this
government’s proposals for the improvement of theory
life for the poor
C) most factory owners introduced a wide range of
measures to improve the working conditions of
women and children
D) the government adopted a new policy which
ultimately led to the abolition of slavery in the
country
E) the government strongly held the view that new
legislative steps had to be taken to increase the
effectiveness of capitalism in the country

58. It is stated in the passage that the idea of


individual freedom, ----.

A) widely popular among factory owners, led to a


serious decline in trade and industry in
nineteenth-century Britain
B) first put forward by Adam Smith in the eighteenth
century, led to the rise of a capitalist economy in
Britain
C) supported by capitalist economists, in fact had
nothing to do with the development of the
capitalist economy in Britain
D) which formed the essence of Britain’s
government policies, had been originally attacked
by Adam Smith
E) which was confined to economic activities, had
much influence on the government’s economic
policies in Britain in the eighteenth century

173
61. – 64. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 64. It is clear from the passage that those
cevaplayınız. emigrating from England in the seventeenth
century, ----.
The seventeenth century is probably the first in
English history in which more people emigrated than A) were largely criminals hoping to make a fresh
immigrated. In the course of the century, something start in life
over one-third of a million people, mainly young adult B) were mostly Catholics headed for Europe and
males, emigrated across the Atlantic. The largest Maryland
single group made for the West Indies; a second C) were usually reluctant to do so
substantial group made for America, in particular D) were not usually serious about finding
Virginia and Catholic Maryland, and even Puritan New employment
England. The pattern of emigration was a fluctuating E) included a small number who were simply looking
one, but it probably reached its peak in the 1650s and for good pay and adventure
1660s. For most of those who emigrated, the search
for employment and a better life was almost certainly
the principal cause of their departure For a clear
minority, however, freedom from religious persecution
took precedence. Moreover, an increasing number
were forcibly transported as a punishment for criminal
acts. In addition to these transatlantic emigrants, an
unknown number emigrated to Europe and settled
there. The largest group were probably the sons of
Catholic families making for religious houses in
France and elsewhere. There were also some
adventurers who were willing to fight in any cause if
the pay were good.

61. As clearly pointed out in the passage, for a


very large majority of people who left England in
the seventeenth century for America and the West
Indies, ----.

A) the main motive was to find work and improve


their way of life
B) New England seemed to offer far beter economic
opportunities than any other place
C) religious freedom was of vital importance and
became the main reason for emigration
D) the real attraction was a life filled with excitement
E) Virginia and Maryland provided better conditions
for employment than the West Indies

62. According to the passage, seventeenth-entury


emigration from England ----.

A) was mostly in the direction of Europe


B) included as many women as men
C) surpassed immigration to England
D) did not include men wishing to fight in foreign
wars
E) to the West Indies exceeded emigration there
from many other European countries

63. It is stated in the passage that the emigrants


from England to America in the seventeenth
century ----.

A) had to choose between Virginia and New


England
B) were almost all in search of religious freedom
C) found what they were looking for there
D) included criminals who, as a punishment, were
being deported from the country
E) followed a very stable pattern since most of the
emigrants shared the same aims

174
65. – 68. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 67. According to the passage, every recognized
cevaplayınız. Athenian male citizen ----.

Ancient Greece consisted of a number of city-states, A) had the right of direct involvement in collective
of which Athens was one of the greatest. In the fifth decision-making
century B.C., all citizens native to Athens could both B) attending a public assembly was expected to
vote and speak in a government assembly; but this, of speak on laws and foreign affairs
course did not apply to women and slaves. This C) was dissatisfied with the system of direct
system of “direct democracy” was feasible because democracy as practised by a number of citystates
Athens was a small community. Each individual could in Greece
be involved, gathering collectively in the public square D) had the right to hold whatever religious beliefs he
where decisions on government matters, such as chose to
laws and foreign affairs, were made. City E) believed that representative democracy was
administrators were expected to account for their more feasible than direct democracy
decisions. What counted in ancient Athens was the
authority of the community as a whole. This took
precedent over the liberty of the individual. The 68. In the passage, attention is drawn to the fact
freedom of the individual to make private decisions, that administrators in ancient Athens ----.
such as choosing a religion, was restricted on the
grounds that the interests of society were paramount. A) were so powerful that no citizen dared to speak
However, this simple form of democracy had its against them in the assembly
drawbacks. While subsequent political thinkers B) were elected by the members of the public
praised the concept of direct political involvement, it assembly
was recognized that this would be impractical in larger C) were normally held responsible for their decisions
communities. Indeed, societies with populations of of government
thousands or millions would never be able to manage D) did their best to reconcile the liberties of the
the logistical problem of direct participation. It was, individual and the interests of the community
therefore, natural that in modern times there emerged E) were biased against direct democracy and
the idea of representative democracy. advocated representative democracy

65. It is clearly stated in the passage that, in


ancient Athens, ----.

A) women enjoyed the same democratic rights as


men and took part in the process of collective
decision-making
B) what was to the benefit of the community counted
more than the personal interests of the individual
C) representative democracy was fully practised
although it had certain drawbacks with regard to
the process of decision-making
D) everybody living in the city was required to take
part in public assemblies and vote for the election
of city administrators
E) the authority of city administrators was so great
that their decisions on government matters were
final

66. As pointed out in the passage, the system of


direct democracy ----.

A) fully safeguarded individual liberties while it


restricted the authority of the community as a
whole
B) was so efficient that, with the exception of
Athens, every Greek city-state adopted it
C) would obviously be unworkable in large
communities
D) was short-lived as it resulted in so many
disagreements
E) enabled a number of Greek city-states to resist
the interference of Athens in their foreign affairs

175
69. – 72. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 71. It is pointed out in the passage that, due to the
cevaplayınız. economic depression in the West in the 1930s,
----.
During the economic depression that affected the
whole Western world in the 1930s, with its mass A) most governments curbed public expenditure and
unemployment, poverty and other social ills, changed their system of taxation
governments, for the most part, did nothing. The B) there was unemployment on a very large scale
accepted wisdom was that, given time, the free C) the increasing demand for goods had to be
market would solve its own problems and that prevented through harsh economic policies
government interference would only make things D) many governments introduced a series of
worse. John Maynard Keynes, the British economist measures to solve social problems
who challenged this belief, argued that it was the E) it was almost impossible for people to borrow
proper responsibility of governments to prevent both Money
booms and recessions in order to maintain gradual
economic growth and permanent full employment. He
maintained that this could be done by manipulating 72. As it is stated in the passage, in the 1930s, ----.
taxation, credit and public expenditure. If the economy
was growing too fast, then money and, therefore, A) all governments in the West carefully followed the
demand could be taken out of the economy by higher economic policies proposed by Keynes
taxes, lower government spending and by making it B) permanent full employment was achieved
harder to borrow money. If there was recession and through an efficient implementation of free
growing unemployment, then the government could market policies
put money into the economy through lower taxes, C) governments generally felt that the free market
higher public expenditure and easier credit. Thus, was the only way of solving the problems of the
demand could be encouraged. If, as a result, there depression
was money in people’s pockets, then more would be D) despite high unemployment, people had so much
spent on goods and more people would be needed to money that the demand for goods could not be
make the goods to fulfil the extra demand, and this controlled
would reduce unemployment. E) the British government gave Keynes full
responsibility to improve the economy
69. According to the Keynesian argument
summarized in the passage, in order to bring
down unemployment, ----.

A) new economic policies would be formulated by


the government, so that demand could be curbed
B) governments would follow a policy of
nonintervention in the economy and allow the
problem to be solved through the free market
C) the government had to make new loans available
for businesses at very high interest rates
D) the government would prefer to increase taxation,
so that people would spend less
E) one of several measures to be introduced by the
government would be to encourage an increase
in public spending

70. As is clear from the passage, Keynes ----.

A) differed little from his contemporaries in his


economic theories
B) had much trust in the free market, which he
believed had a positive impact on the economy of
the 1930s
C) did not think that the economic depression of the
1930s was serious enough to justify government
interference
D) firmly believed that government intervention in
the management of the economy could be
necessary
E) argued that economic prosperity should not be
the prime aim of any government

176
73. – 76. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 75. It is asserted in the passage that, when the
cevaplayınız. Suez Canal was opened in 1869, ----.

Since the dawn of civilization, the Middle East, a A) European powers had already begun to colonize
region at the crossroads of Africa, Asia and Europe, the Middle East on a large scale
has been important to large and small powers alike, B) an increasing number of Europeans began to
from the empires of the East to the imperial powers of make long journeys through Asia
the West. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, C) the flow of Middle Eastern oil to the West
which transformed maritime travel between Europe increased steadily
and Asia, added to European interest. The region’s D) European powers made a joint effort to get
other riches also encouraged European intervention control of the region
and rivalries. This resulted in a series of E) travel by sea between East and West underwent
confrontations between the Ottoman Empire and its great changes
European adversaries, and finally in the collapse of
the former and the direct or indirect European
colonization of large parts of the region in the course 76. It is pointed out in the passage that, from the
of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. But nineteenth century onwards, European
what added to the Middle East’s importance in the involvement in the Middle East ----.
twentieth century was oil, which was found in
abundance in the Persian Gulf and in parts of North A) was solely concerned with the security of the
Africa. Moreover, in the strategic context of the Cold Suez Canal
War, the region’s geopolitical importance provided an B) was strongly resisted by the Ottoman Empire,
additional reason for the superpowers to increase which thus prevented the colonization of the
their role and presence. whole region
C) has largely been motivated by the region’s
73. According to the passage, during the Cold geopolitical importance
War, ----. D) led to various conflicts with the Ottoman Empire
and finally ended its presence in the region
A) the Middle East was geopolitically so important E) centred only on the Suez Canal and the opening
that the superpowers came to believe that of the sea-route to Asia
involvement in the area was desirable
B) the geopolitical importance of the Middle East
was recognized for the first time
C) the European powers competed with each other
in the Middle East in order to have full control of
the oil reserves in the Persian Gulf
D) the superpowers not only increased their
activities in the Middle East but also formed
alliances with the countries of the region
E) the superpowers were attracted by the oil of the
Middle East more than by its geopolitical position

74. It is stressed in the passage that, from very


early times, every Eastern as well as every
Western power ----.

A) has ignored the geopolitical position of the Middle


East
B) has tried to colonize the Middle East and exploit
its natural resources
C) has maintained its presence in the Middle East
on account of its oil
D) has regarded the Middle East as having crucial
importance
E) has followed a policy of peace and cooperation
with the Middle East

177
77. – 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 79. The writer claims in the passage that
cevaplayınız. Aphrodisias, with its wonderful ruins, ----.

Until the early 1960s, the picturesque ruins of A) has been a place of attraction for archaeologists
Aphrodisias were scattered in and around the very for many centuries
pretty village of Geyre, where the houses had been B) is among the most attractive and loveliest of the
built largely from remnants of the ancient city. But the archaeological sites in Turkey
present excavations, which began in 1961, have now C) has now been completely excavated and
reached such a scale that the village and its declared an archaeological zone
inhabitants have been moved to another site nearby. D) still lies hidden under the modern village of Geyre
Some of the superb sculptures unearthed are now and, hence, needs to be unearthed
exhibited in a new museum, which is located in what E) is a Graeco-Roman archaeological site, settled
was once Geyre’s village square, while others can be for the first time in the sixth century B.C.
seen around the archaeological zone, one of the most
interesting and beautiful sites in all of Turkey.
Surprisingly, the excavations at Aphrodisias have 80. It is stated in the passage that the temple of
unearthed remains of a settlement dating back to Aphrodite in Aphrodisias ----.
about 5,800 B.C.. The site seems to have been a very
ancient shrine of Ishtar, the fertility goddess of A) was the very first site to be excavated in the early
Nineveh and Babylon, who was one of the 1960s and is today one of the most captivating
predecessors of Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of sights at Geyre
love. In fact, the earliest Greek sanctuary of Aphrodite B) was designed and built in full imitation of the
on this site dates from the sixth century B.C., and it temple of the Babylonian fertility goddess Ishtar
was from this sanctuary during the next four centuries on the same site
that the cult of Aphrodite spread throughout the C) lost its importance completely once the cult of the
Graeco-Roman world. goddess had spread in the Graeco-Roman world
D) is still regarded by most archaeologists as an
77. As one learns from the passage, the architectural wonder, which, with its superb
excavations at Aphrodisias ----. sculptures, surprises everybody
E) gave rise to the popularity among the Greeks and
A) originally had a single aim: to find out whether the Romans of the worship of the goddess
there was any connection between this city and
the Mesopotamian cities of Nineveh and Babylon TEST BĐTTĐ.
B) confirm that Ishtar was reborn as Aphrodite CEVAPLARINIZI KONTROL EDĐNĐZ.
C) have unearthed only a small part of the ancient
settlements, which are very extensive and need
to be carefully identified
D) have focused on unearthing Aphrodite’s
sanctuary as well as other Graeco-Roman
remnants
E) have been going on for over four decades and
reveal that the city dates back to very early times

78. It is pointed out in the passage that the people


of modern Geyre ----.

A) have always played an active part in the


excavations, since they are very keen to learn
about the past of their village
B) were forced to re-settle at a new site quite far
from that of Aphrodisias itself
C) used the remains of ancient Aphrodisias as
building material for their homes
D) had been moved to a new site for re-settlement
before the excavations began in the early 1960s
E) have insisted that the sculptures unearthed
during the excavations be exhibited in the village
square

178
1. – 18. sorularda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere 8. Psychologists, psychiatrists and
uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz. neuroscientists ---- for years over how much of
our behaviour ---- driven by our genes versus the
1. When taken in doses of more than 10 times the environment in which we grow up and live.
recommended daily ----, vitamins A and D are
toxic. A) had argued / had been
B) used to argue / would be
A) maintenance B) exposure C) application C) have argued / is
D) advice E) allowance D) argue / would have been
E) argued / will be

2. Many people with a regular exercise programme


accept minor injuries and soreness as an almost 9. For a long time, scientists believed that
---- component of their programme. functional deficits in certain brain regions ----
autism – the result of complications in brain
A) irrelevant B) available C) inevitable structure that no change in wiring among neural
D) expansive E) irreversible networks ----.

A) might cause / had fixed


3. Despite a preoccupation with body image and B) caused / could fix
weight loss, the prevalence of obesity in the US C) have caused / fixes
continues to rise ----. D) cause / could have fixed
E) would have caused / fixed
A) collectively B) adequately C) randomly
D) respectively E) dramatically
10. Epidemiology, which ---- as a science until the
19th century, is a branch of medicine that
4. The goal of the Neuroscience Research investigates factors ---- to improved health, or the
Programme is to ---- our understanding of the occurrence of a disease in a particular population.
neuronal systems involved in a variety of
neurological disorders. A) could not have evolved / having contributed
B) had not evolved / to contribute
A) rank B) relate C) implicate C) has not evolved / to have contributed
D) increase E) interact D) did not evolve / contributing
E) could not evolve / to be contributing

5. The body resists starvation by ---- its own


tissues and using them as a source of calories – 11. Although 25 to 30 per cent of all people ----
much like burning the furniture to keep the house some form of excessive mood disturbance during
warm. their lifetime, only about 10 per cent ---- a disorder
severe enough to require medical attention.
A) getting off B) breaking down
C) carrying out D) following up A) would experience / have had
E) making for B) experienced / will have had
C) had experienced / had had
D) will have experienced / would have
6. Billions of useful bacteria colonize our guts, but E) experience / have
because antibiotics are lethal to a whole range of
microbes, drugs taken for a chest infection, for
example, ---- friendly bacteria too. 12. In biofeedback, biological responses are
measured ---- electronic instruments, and the
A) wipe out B) sort out C) build up status of those responses is immediately
D) take back E) move in available ---- the person being tested.

A) with / at B) by / to C) in / about
7. Prevention is the ideal way to approach pain, D) from / on E) through / with
and several educational programmes that ----
workers to avoid lower back injuries ---- some
effectiveness. 13. Perhaps the most crucial factor ---- patient
noncompliance is poor verbal communication ----
A) are training / would show the practitioner and the patient.
B) would train / had shown
C) have trained / showed A) for / by B) of / among C) about / of
D) train / have shown D) in / between E) to / for
E) trained / will show

179
14. ---- physical activity can enhance physical 19. – 23. sorularda, aşağıdaki parçada
functioning, reduce anxiety, stress, and numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da
depression, it also poses some hazards to one’s ifadeyi bulunuz.
physical and psychological health.
People may bruise easily because of fragile
A) Although B) Since C) Whether capillaries in the skin. Each time these small blood
D) In case E) Unless vessels break, a little blood (19) ----, leaving tiny red
dots in the skin and bluish-purple bruises. Women
seem more prone than men to bruising from a minor
15. ---- surgeons in France had performed the first injury, especially (20) ---- the thighs, buttocks, and
partial face transplant late in November, upper arms. Older people are especially susceptible
psychologists began to question whether the to bruising after bumps and falls (21) ---- they have
patient was mentally stable enough to handle the fragile blood vessels and a thinner layer of fat under
stressful, high-risk procedure. the skin, which normally serves as a cushion to help
protect against injury. For most people, the condition
A) Suppose that B) So long as C) As soon as isn’t serious, but bruising easily (22) ---- a sign that
D) Because E) If something is wrong with the blood clotting elements,
most likely the platelets. Blood tests can determine if
(23) ---- problems exist.
16. ---- people have been diagnosed with
cardiovascular disease (CVD), they typically enter 19.
a cardiac rehabilitation programme to change A) passes by B) comes up C) runs away
their lifestyle and thereby avoid subsequent CVD. D) breaks off E) leaks out
A) Whereas B) After C) While
D) Even though E) As if 20.
A) on B) with C) throughout
D) through E) over
17. In veterinary medicine, federal governments
and professional associations keep data on
animal euthanasia and, ---- the research results 21.
obtained so far, have developed guidelines and A) unless B) even so C) because
procedures. D) whereas E) so that
A) in the hope of
B) as of 22.
C) in case of A) has to be B) should be C) would be
D) in accordance with D) may be E) will be
E) on behalf of

23.
18. The anaemia of folate deficiency, ---- DNA A) such B) no C) much
synthesis slows and the body’s cells lose their D) so E) many
ability to divide, is characterized by large,
immature blood cells.
24. – 35. sorularda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde
A) in which B) for whom C) how tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
D) in that E) why
24. Even after a drug has been approved by the
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), ----.

A) such drugs are occasionally studied first in a


small number of healthy volunteers
B) comprehensive premarketing studies detected
adverse reactions about once in every 1,000
doses
C) many drugs are rejected at this stage, too
D) the manufacturer must conduct postmarketing
surveillance and report any previously
undetected adverse drug reactions
E) it was 3 years before the drug came onto the
market

180
25. Because symptoms of sleep apnea ocur 30. According to recent studies, bananas are the
during sleep, ----. most promising food for an edible vaccine against
the hepatitis B virus, ----.
A) severe apnea can result in headaches, excessive
daytime sleepiness and slow mental activity A) but this virus is very common in many African
B) they must be described by someone who countries
observes the person sleeping B) so that potatoes, tomatoes and other vegetables
C) snoring is associated with episodes of gasping might serve to immunize people some day
and choking C) just as symptoms of acute viral hepatitis usually
D) most people have been treated successfully and begin suddenly
can now sleep comfortably D) which lives in about 5 per cent of the world’s
E) people who snore are advised to sleep on their population
side or face-down E) whereas scientists have discovered a way to
boost the level of immune-triggering hepatitis
protein in the fruit
26. Even when a cell becomes cancerous, ----.

A) antigens released into the bloodstream by some 31. Cancer cells are often perceived as all having
cancers are sometimes called tumour markers the same potential to proliferate and spread within
B) it is a cell whose biological function has been the body, ----.
altered
C) a fully functioning immune system can’t always A) because cancer treatments must target cancer
destroy all these cancer cells stem cells to eradicate the disease
D) the immune system may regard these cells as B) but in many types of cancer, only a small subset
foreign of tumour cells has that power
E) the immune system can often destroy it before it C) where the study of stem cells is shedding light on
replicates cancer treatments today
D) so one among thousands of tumour cells may be
a cancer stem cell responsible for driving the
27. While some drugs, once absorbed, tend to disease
stay within the watery tissues of the blood and E) since current treatments focus on killing the
muscle, ----. greatest number of cancer cells

A) others concentrate in specific tissues such as the


liver and kidneys 32. Audiometry measures hearing loss precisely
B) drugs penetrate different tissues at different with an electronic device ----.
speeds
C) all drugs are either metabolized or excreted intact A) that produces sounds at specific pitches and
D) these drugs accumulate in the fatty tissues specific volumes
E) they rapidly circulate through the body B) if a person listens to a series of two-syllable,
equally accented words presented at specific
volumes
28. Armed with gene sequences and the latest C) although it measures how loudly words have to
gene chip technologies to measure the activity of be spoken to be understood
thousands of genes simultaneously, ----. D) because loud tones presented to one ear may
also be heard by the other ear
A) high-risk groups can be targeted with more E) even if it detects how much sound passes
aggressive screening programmes through the middle ear
B) antibody-based therapies have an inherent
limitation
C) the tissue that surrounds a tumour plays a crucial 33. For any pain syndrome, surgery is the most
role in its development extreme approach and is usually recommended
D) anti-cancer drugs have been largely a matter of ----.
dosing people and waiting to see what happens
E) researchers are now several years into the task A) because it has its own potential dangers and
of mapping which ones grow abnormally possibilities for complications
B) in case the pain starts suddenly and stays in a
particular area of the back
29. Although the cause of Reye’s syndrome is C) only when all the other means of treatment have
unknown, ----. failed to produce a positive result
D) unless back surgery is only partially successful in
A) most doctors are unaware of its effects repairing tissue damage
B) people who take aspirin have an increased risk of E) as long as drugs, skin stimulation and surgery
bleeding can all be effective for controlling pain
C) certain viruses, such as influenza A or B or
varicella virus, may be involved
D) the doctor would perform a liver biopsy and
spinal tap to diagnose it
E) no specific treatment can be proposed to prevent
it

181
34. Bulimia nervosa occurs with equal prevalence 37. The severity of a burn depends on the amount
in various social classes and ethnic groups, ----. of tissue affected and the depth of the injury,
which is described as first, second, or third
A) while people who have this disease are degree.
distressed by it
B) but both eating disorders occur far more often in A) Bir yanığın şiddeti, etkilenen doku miktarına ve
women than men hasarın birinci, ikinci veya üçüncü derece olarak
C) even though anoxeria nervosa has a mortality tanımlanan derinliğine bağlıdır.
rate of 5% to 10% B) Etkilenen dokuların durumu ve oluşan hasarın
D) since an antidepressant drug can often help derinliği, yanığın birinci, ikinci veya üçüncü
control the disease derece olarak belirtilen şiddetini ortaya koyar.
E) whereas anorexia nervosa appears primarily C) Bir yanığın birinci, ikinci veya üçüncü derece
among the upper classes olarak sınıflandırılan hasar derinliği ile zarar
görmüş doku miktarına dayanılarak o yanığın
şiddeti belirlenir.
35. People with extensive burns have an D) Bir yanığın şiddetinin birinci, ikinci veya üçüncü
increased risk of infection ----. derece olarak tanımlanması, zarar gören doku
miktarıyla ve ortaya çıkan hasarın derinliğiyle
A) so that a new layer of epidermis grows slowly ilişkilidir.
from the edges of the burned area E) Birinci, ikinci veya üçüncü derece olarak
B) whereas many people who have been burned dlandırılan hasar derinliği ve zarar gören
need to take an analgesic, often a narcotic, for at dokuların çokluğu göz önüne alınarak bir yanığın
least a few days şiddeti saptanabilir.
C) although damaged red blood cells in the injured
area may make the burn bright red
D) because the damaged skin opens up the body to 38. Because much is still unknown about breast
invasion by harmful organisms cancer and no single treatment works all the time,
E) but life-threatening burns require immediate care, doctors may have different opinions about the
preferably at a hospital equipped to treat burns most appropriate treatment.

A) Göğüs kanseri için her zaman sonuç veren tek bir


36. – 38. sorularda, verilen Đngilizce cümleye tedavi yönteminin bulunmamasının yanı sıra
anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz. hastalıkla ilgili yeterli bilginin olmaması nedeniyle
hekimler arasında en etkili tedaviye ilişkin farklı
36. Most infectious diseases are caused by görüşler mevcuttur.
microorganisms that invade the body and multiply B) Göğüs kanserine ilişkin çok az şey ortaya
there. konduğu ve her zaman sonuç veren belirli bir
tedavi yöntemi bulunamadığı için, hekimler en
A) Pek çok bulaşıcı hastalığın nedeni vücuda geçerli tedavi hakkında farklı düşünceler ileri
yayılan ve vücutta üreyen mikroorganizmalardır. sürmektedir.
B) Mikroorganizmalar, vücuda girerek ve vücutta C) Hekimler göğüs kanseri için en uygun tedavi
çoğalarak, çeşitli bulaşıcı hastalıkların hakkında çeşitli görüşler ileri sürmektedir; çünkü,
oluşmasına yol açar. bu hastalık hakkında yeterli bilginin olmaması,
C) Çoğu bulaşıcı hastalık, vücudu işgal eden ve tek bir tedavinin her zaman geçerli kılınmasını
vücutta çoğalan mikroorganizmalar nedeniyle engellemektedir.
oluşur. D) Göğüs kanseri hakkında yeterli bilgi olmadığı için
D) Bulaşıcı hastalıkların nedenlerinin çoğu, vücuda her zaman sonuç veren tek bir tedavi yöntemi
girerek çoğalan mikroorganizmalarla ilgilidir. yoktur ve bu nedenle hekimler en uygun tedaviye
E) Üreyip vücudu ele geçiren mikroorganizmalar ilişkin çelişkili düşünceler ortaya atmaktadır.
nedeniyle birçok bulaşıcı hastalık ortaya E) Göğüs kanseri hakkında çok şey hâlâ
çıkmaktadır. bilinmediğinden ve hiçbir tedavi tek başına her
zaman sonuç vermediğinden, hekimler, en uygun
tedaviye ilişkin farklı görüşlere sahip olabilirler.

182
39. – 41. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümleye 41. Tümör büyümesine neden olan kanser kök
anlamca en yakın Đngilizce cümleyi bulunuz. hücrelerinin varlığı, çeşitli kan kanseri ve tümör
türlerinde tespit edilmiştir; ancak, bu habis kök
39. Yoksul ülkelerdeki çoğu insan, sıtma, AIDS, hücrelerinin nasıl oluştuğu hâlâ belirsizdir.
verem ile zengin ülkelerde daha az bilinen birçok
hastalık çekmektedir; çünkü, hükümetleri, ilâç A) It has been shown that a wide range of blood
şirketlerinin istediği fiyatları karşılayamamaktadır. cancer and tumour types result from malignant
stem cells whose properties are not yet fully
A) Malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis and a number of known.
other diseases not known in rich countries affect B) Cancer stem cells that cause tumour growth have
many people in poor countries, where the been discovered in a number of blood cancer and
governments are reluctant to pay the prices tumour types, but it is not yet clear why they
companies demand for drugs. become malignant.
B) Most people in poor countries suffer from malaria, C) Different blood cancer and tumour types are
AIDS, tuberculosis and many diseases lesser caused by cancer stem cells, although there is no
known in rich countries, since their governments evidence to show how these malignant stem cells
cannot afford the prices drug companies want. come into being and drive tumour growth.
C) Since malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis and various D) Even though it is not yet certain how malignant
other diseases little-known in rich countries are stem cells form, they are often found in various
very common among the people of poor blood cancer and tumour types, causing them to
countries, the governments find it hard to pay the grow.
prices demanded by companies for drugs. E) The existence of cancer stem cells that drive
D) While a growing number of people in poor tumour growth, has been established in several
countries suffer from malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis blood cancer and tumour types, but how these
and several other diseases unknown in rich malignant stem cells arise is still uncertain.
countries, their governments refuse to pay the
prices companies ask for their drugs.
E) The governments in poor countries cannot afford 42. – 46. sorularda, boş bırakılan yere, parçada
to pay the prices companies want for their drugs, anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek
but more and more people are being affected by cümleyi bulunuz.
malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis and other diseases
that do not occur in rich countries. 42. As anyone who has sat through a lecture on a
warm day knows, attentiveness and mental
alertness can be hard to sustain. ----. Its
40. Đnsan vücudu, her biri, yaşamı sürdürmek için counterpart is sleep, a state in which we continue
gerekli olan bir işlevi yerine getiren ayrı ayrı organ to receive stimuli but are not conscious of them.
ve dokulardan oluşmuş son derece karmaşık bir
sistemdir. A) It is also important to regulate sleep
B) Researchers can study the electrical activity in
A) The human body is a highly complex system the brain during arousal and sleep
made up of separate organs and tissues, each C) It filters out some familiar and repetitive
performing a function essential to maintaining life. information that constantly enters the nervous
B) Since the human body consists of many different system
organs and tissues, each of which has a function D) Arousal is a state of awareness of the outside
essential for the maintenance of life, it is to be world
compared to an extremely complex system. E) In general, the less mental activity that takes
C) The human body, which is an extremely complex place, the more regular are the brain waves
system, is made up of innumerable organs and recorded on the electroencephalogram (EEG)
tissues which have separate functions essential
for the maintenance of life.
D) The presence of many different organs and
tissues, each of which performs a function
necessary for maintaining life, makes the human
body a very complicated system.
E) The human body is so complicated a system that
each of the organs and tissues it consists of
performs a function vital for maintaining life.

183
43. Most people are familiar with one important 46. Ulcerative colitis is a disease in which
function of the kidneys – to rid the body of waste extensive areas of the walls of the large intestine
materials that are either ingested or produced by become inflamed and ulcerated. Some clinicians
metabolism. A second function that is especially believe that it results from an allergic or immune
critical is to control the volume and composition destructive effect, but it could also result from a
of the body fluids. For water and virtually all chronic bacterial infection. ----.
electrolytes in the body, the balance between
intake and output is maintained in large part by A) The person may also have a fever and a poor
the kidneys. ----. appetite
B) Even then, the ulcers sometimes fail to heal, and
A) Each kidney in the human body is made up of the only solution is removal of the entire colon
about 1 million nephrons, each capable of C) Moreover, about 10 per cent of people who have
forming urine the disease have only simple attacks
B) This regulatory function of the kidneys maintains D) Whatever the cause, there is a strong hereditary
the stable environment of the cells necessary for tendency for susceptibility to this disease
them to perform their various activities E) Unlike Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis never
C) Blood flow to the two kidneys is normally 21 per affects the small intestine
cent of the cardiac output, or about 1,200ml/min
D) The two kidneys lie on the posterior wall of the
abdomen, outside the peritoneal cavity 47. – 51. sorularda, karşılıklı konuşmanın boş
E) These include urea, uric acid, creatinine and bırakılan kısmını tamamlayabilecek ifadeyi
metabolites of various hormones bulunuz.

47.
44. In 1862, the English doctor John Langdon Patient: - Dr Jameson, what are the safest
Down, who was the director of a home for exercises for me, as a middle-aged man, to
mentally handicapped children, described the improve my fitness?
case of one of the children, who was short and Dr Jameson: - There are several. Let me think
had stubby fingers and unusual eyelids. The boy’s which would be suitable for you.
condition was later labelled by this doctor’s Patient: - ----
surname. ----. In 1959, the French paediatrician Dr Jameson: - Those would be fine. Cycling can
Jérome Lejeune discovered that these children also be useful.
have three copies of chromosome 21, instead of
two. A) It will take time to make a decision, won’t it? I’ll
call you to learn your recommendations.
A) Physical limitations continue to challenge these B) I would prefer walking and swimming. Forget the
individuals rest.
B) Today, more than 350,000 Americans have C) At my age, would aerobics really be suitable?
Down’s syndrome D) Let it be something natural: no exercising
C) But the cause of Down’s syndrome was not machines for me!
uncovered for another century E) I have to climb three flights of stairs to get to my
D) Scientists confirmed that within this chromosome home. Isn’t that enough exercise?
are the genes that cause both Down’s syndrome
and Alzheimer’s disease
E) In 2004, American scientists tracked the effects 48.
of other genes on chromosome 21 Eleanor: - This article is about patients in a
persistent vegetative state. Some of them wake up
many years later, and some of them never do.
45. In the 1990s, most psychiatrists in the US Bob: - How do doctors decide whether or not
started to treat children and teens with these patients should be kept on life-support?
antidepressants designed for adults, since they Eleanor: - ----
wanted something more for them than talk Bob: - I suppose so. Obviously there are legal and
therapy. ----. Now, however, studies have found medical concerns, but I think the family of the
that some antidepressants might interfere with patient should have some rights in the matter, too.
normal patterns of growth in children’s still
developing brains. A) Sometimes a patient’s brain works around the
damaged part, allowing the patient to begin to
A) Although these drugs had not been tested in the function normally again.
young brains of children, they hoped the benefits B) One patient in a minimally conscious state started
would outweigh the risks to speak and move about 19 years after he’d
B) Several brain areas are commonly associated been injured.
with depression such as those involved in mood, C) I don’t know how; but they do have to come to a
sleep, appetite, desire and memory decision.
C) Finding these effects in mice is a long way from D) It is difficult for doctors to make accurate
proving that the same thing happens in humans diagnoses of unconscious patients.
D) Adults with depression usually recognize that E) A patient shows sensory responses to pain, even
they have a problem and they want to fix it, but when the nervous system isn’t connected to the
children rarely ask to see a psychiatrist centres of the brain that cause it to experience it.
E) Concerns over antidepressant use led the FDA to
issue a warning label for these medications

184
49. 52. – 56. sorularda, cümleler sırasıyla
Senior Doctor: - I hear you’ve been doing research okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan
on alcoholism in Turkey. cümleyi bulunuz.
Junior Doctor: - Yes. I feel the findings are not all
that alarming. 52. (I) Mycobacterium tuberculosis has plagued
Senior Doctor: - ---- humans throughout history. (II) Improved public health
Junior Doctor: - In a way, yes. For instance, nearly brought the epidemic under control, and the advent of
8 per cent of adults in the US have a serious antibiotics in the 1940s seemed to ensure successful
problem with alcohol use. treatment. (III) But the bacteria have adapted to
nearly every drug used against them. (IV) As a result,
A) Really? You say that in comparison with other there has been a recent resurgence, and the disease
developed countries? now kills a person every 15 seconds, worldwide. (V)
B) Aren’t they? It’s a fact that alcohol produces both The germ in question is the tuberculosis-causing
psychological and physical dependence. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, once the leading cause
C) In your report, you claim that men are four times of death in the US.
more likely than women to become alcoholics.
D) In general, alcoholics often can’t manage their A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
behaviour and tend to drive while drunk.
E) Well, alcohol is rapidly absorbed from the small
intestine into the blood stream. 53. (I) The most commonly used illegal drug in the US
is marijuana. (II) Its potential for serious health
consequences is still debated, but few authorities
50. regard it as a major health risk. (III) In fact, a recent
Dr Clark: - Let me stress that the most study found no increased death rates for marijuana
troublesome problem of peritoneal dialysis is the users, except for men who died of AIDS. (IV)
risk of infection. Moreover, marijuana has been used medically to treat
Student: - We can use antibiotics to clear up the glaucoma and to prevent the vomiting and nausea
infection. associated with chemotherapy. (V) Although this
Dr Clark: - ---- study does not determine cause and effect, it seems
Student: - So it’s inevitable that in peritoneal safe to assume that marijuana did not cause death
dialysis, complications can occur any time. from AIDS, but rather that men receiving a diagnosis
of AIDS may have subsequently increased their use
A) Generally, peritoneal dialysis is not performed in of marijuana.
people who have abdominal wall infections.
B) Yet that’s not all. Other problems are also A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
associated with this type of dialysis.
C) In peritoneal dialysis, a catheter is inserted
through a small incision in the abdominal wall into 54. (I) The causes of depression aren’t fully
the peritoneal space. understood. (II) A number of factors may make a
D) Moreover, inflammation of the kidneys can also person more likely to experience depression, such as
be caused by an infection. a family tendency, side effects of certain medications,
E) In fact, when the kidneys fail, waste products and an introverted personality, and emotionally upsetting
excess water can be removed from the blood by events. (III) For some reason, women are twice as
haemodialysis. likely as men to experience depression. (IV)
Psychological studies show that changes in hormone
levels before menstruation and after childbirth may be
51. factors. (V) Hormones also control the volume of fluid
Jerome: - Did you see the documentary on TV and the levels of salt and sugar in the blood.
about the US healthcare system?
Mark: - ---- A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
Jerome: - That’s right, many families have gone
bankrupt paying for treatment for a family
member. 55. (I) Like all medicines, sleep medicines have side
Mark: - Yes, and that’s not all. Some patients have effects. (II) On the other hand, daytime drowsiness
even been refused treatment by hospitals. can be best avoided by taking the lowest dose
possible. (III) The most common of these effects are
A) Yes; to tell the truth, I was hoping that it would be dizziness, lightheadedness, and difficulty with
more thorough. coordination. (IV) Sleep medicines can also make one
B) Yes, but I didn’t have time to watch all of it. sleepy during the day. (V) How drowsy one feels
C) No, but I wanted to watch it. Did you? depends upon how one’s body reacts to the medicine.
D) Yes. It’s getting worse and worse.
E) No; I watched a film on another channel instead. A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
Was it very informative?

185
56. (I) Doctors have noted a dramatic increase in 59. The point is made in the passage that what an
bone fractures in children and teenagers in recent autistic person normally does ----.
years. (II) Bones are rigid but not inflexible; they will
bend in response to external forces. (III) For example, A) can best be assessed through intensive sessions
if you fall forward with your hands outstretched, the of psychotherapy
bones of your hands, wrists, and arms will flex to B) is always tolerated, although it often draws other
absorb the shock and then return to their original people’s attention
shape. (IV) However, as many of us know from C) is always ignored by other people, since it does
personal experience, the skeletal system has its not interest them at all
limits. (V) If a force is applied that exceeds a bone’s D) in time develops into extreme fascinations or
resiliency, the result is a broken bone, or fracture. fixations
E) is never taken into consideration in deciding the
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V kind of treatment to be given

57. – 60. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 60. It is stated in the passage that autism ----.
cevaplayınız.
A) can always be successfully treated by means of
Autism, from the Greek word for “self,” was first psychotherapy
identified as a disorder in 1943. Initially, it was thought B) is an abnormality which has not yet been
to be a psychological disorder brought on