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# 1 BASIC

FOR CALCULATION
1 In the calculation only three phase symmetrical fault has been considered.
2 A simplified procedure for calculating the symmetrical short circuit current called the E/X method is used,
which disregards all resistance,all static load and all prefault current.
3 The PU system is adopted for fault calculations as it simplifies the calculations
4 Since X/R ratio of the effective impedance at the bus is unknown,It si considered that the calculated current
should not more than 80% of the allowed valve for the breaker at the existing bus voltage.
5 Motor Contribution has been considered as 2 times the rated current of HT motors and negligible in case of LT motors.
6 For claculation,the impedances of cables has been neglected.
7 The distribution transformers in different load centres of the plant shall operate in isolation and not in parallel.
8 The utility fault level has been considered as 600 MVA.

2 DESIGN DATA :
a Utility fault level at plant grid

600

MVA

## b Base MVA chosen

25

MVA

c) Distribution Transformer
1 Rated capacity

3.15

2 Voltage at HT side

11

KV

## 3 Voltage at LT side(full load)

0.380

KV

4 Percentage impedance

d) Rating of HT motors
1 HT motor rating

MVA

4150

Kw

## 2 Motor Power factor

0.85

red

3 Motor efficiency

0.95

## 4 Maximum starting torque considered for

the motor at 11kv

200

% FLT

## 5 Maximum Running torque considered for

the motor at 11kv
Cable Size XLPE,Armoured

100

% FLT

240

Sqmm

Cable no of run

No.

## 5 HT motor fed from cable

5Rx3x240Sqmm XLPE CU (Z)

0.23

ohm/km

## 6 HT motor fed from cable length

150

ohm/km

e) Rating of LT motors
1 LT motor rating

350

Kw

## 2 Motor Power factor

0.85

red

3 Motor efficiency

0.90

## 4 Maximum starting torque considered for

the motor at 11kv

200

% FLT

## 4 Maximum Running torque considered for

the motor at 11kv

100

% FLT

1.5

Sqmm

Cable no of run

## 5 LT motor fed from cable

3Rx4x300Sqmm XLPE CU (Z)

0.020

## 6 LT motor fed from cable Length

70

No.
ohm/km
mtr

FAULT CURRENT CALCULATION FOR HT (UP TO NEAREST MOTOR TERMINAL FROM SOURCE)

1.1

## Calculation for source impedance (Zo)

System Voltage (KV)

33

500

ZO
1.2

## Fault Current at 33KV Switchgear at APTRANSCO End (IF0)

IFO

KV
MVA
2

System KV
Short Circuit MVA

ohm

Square (33)
500

ohm

2.178

ohm

1.1 X KV
3 X ZO

kA

1.1 x 33
3 X 2.178

kA

9.62

kA

## FAULT CURRENT AT 33KV SWITCHGEAR AT PROPOSED SUBSTATION

2.1

Main Incoming power supply through 33kV, 1R X 3C X 300Sq.mm. Aluminium armoured Cable from APTRANSCO Substation to Plant
Substation
Resistance of cable ( R ) (Resistance / Km)
=
0.130
ohm/Km
Length of Cable (L)

1500

R x L
(N x 1000)

ohm

0.195

ohm

0.100

ohm/Km

X x L
(N x 1000)

ohm

0.150

ohm

(Ra2 + Xa2)

ohm

0.2460

ohm

Za + Zo

2.425

Ra
2.2

## Reactance of cable (X) (Reactance/Km)

Actual Reactance of Cable (Xa)

Xa
2.3

2.4

Za

Z1
2.5

IF1

1.1 X KV

3 X Z1

Meter
No.

ohm
kA

( 1.1 X 33)
( 3 X 2.425)

kA

8.643

kA

25 kA

## FAULT CURRENT AT PRIMARY OF 8MVA, 33/6.9KV TRANSFORMER AT PROPOSED SUBSTATION

33KV, 1R X 3C X 300Sqmm (E) Aluminium armoured Cable is connected between 33KV HT Panel & 8 MVA Transformer

3.1

0.130

25

Meter

No.

R x L
(N x 1000)

ohm

0.00325

ohm

0.100

X x L
(N x 1000)

ohm

0.0025

ohm

(Rb2 + Xb2)

ohm

Rb
3.2

## Reactance of cable (X) (Reactance/Km)

Actual Reactance of Cable (Xb)

Xb
3.3

ohm/km

ohm/Km

Zb
3.4

Z2

3.5

IF2

0.0041

ohm

Zb + Z1

ohm

2.430

ohm

1.1 X KV

kA

3 X Z2

( 1.1 X 0.15)
( 3 X 2.43)

kA

8.625

kA

## FAULT CURRENT AT SECONDARY OF 8MVA TRANSFORMER AT SUBSTATION

Power Transformer 8MVA, 33/6.6 KV , 8.35% Impedance (as per IS2026)

4.1

4.2

Vp

33

KV

## Secondary Voltage of Transformer

Vs

6.6

KV

Transformer Capacity

8000

KVA

% Impedance

8.35

## (% Imp/100) x KVs ohm

(KVA / 1000)

Zc

(8.35/100) x 6.6)
(8000/1000)

Zc

Z3
4.3

## Fault Current at Secondary side of 8MVA Transformer(IF3)

IF3

0.455

ohm

ohm

{((Vs)/ (Vp))x Z2 }+ Zc

ohm

ohm

0.553

1.1 X KVs
3 X Z3

ohm
KA

( 1.1 X X x L)
( 3 X 0.553)

kA

7.580

KA

## FAULT CURRENT AT 6.6 KV HT PANEL AT PROPOSED SUBSTATION

Incoming power supply through 6.6kV, 3R X 3C X 300Sq.mm. Aluminium armoured Cable from 6.6KV Terminal of Power Transformer

5.1

0.129

25

Meter

No.

R x L
(N x 1000)

Rd
5.2

## Reactance of cable (X) (Reactance/Km)

Actual Reactance of Cable (Xd)

Xd
5.3

Zd

5.4

Z4

5.5

IF4

ohm/km

ohm

0.001075

0.0830

X x L
(N x 1000)

ohm

0.000691667

ohm

ohm
ohm/Km

(Rd + Xd )

ohm

0.0013

ohm

Zd + Z3

0.555

1.1 X KV

3 X Z4

ohm
kA

( 1.1 X )
( 3 X 0.555)

kA

7.553

kA

26.3 kA

## FAULT CURRENT AT MOTOR TERMINAL (IBC3 nearest)

6.6KV, 1R X 3C X 150Sqmm Aluminium armoured Cable is connected between 6.6kV HT Panel & HT Motor terminal

6.1

0.264

180

## No.of Run (N)

Actual Resistance of Cable (Re)

Re
6.2

## Reactance of cable (X) (Reactance/Km)

Actual Reactance of Cable (Xe)

Xe
6.3

Ze

6.4

Z5

6.5

R x L
(N x 1000)

No.
ohm

0.04752

ohm

0.0890

ohm/Km

X x L
(N x 1000)

ohm

0.01602

ohm

(Re2 + Xe2)

ohm

0.0501

ohm

Ze + Z4

0.606

IF5

ohm/km
Meter

1.1 X KV

3 X Z5

ohm
kA

( 1.1 X X x L)
( 3 X 0.606)

kA

6.917

kA

## 3 PU IMPEDANCES OF VARIOUS EQUIPMENT/SYSTEMS:

1 Base MVA chosen
2 PU impedance of Utility

25

MVA
(Base MVA)
(Utility MVA)

25
600

25
0.042

= 0.041667 Pu
3 PU Impedance of equipment

=
=

( Equipment MVA)
25 x ( 8/ 100 )
3.15

= 0.634921 Pu

## 4 FAULT LEVEL AT 11 KV BUS

Effective impedance of utility

0.041667 Pu

0.041667 Pu

## Fault level corresponding to above value

(Base MVA)
Total Pu Impedance

=
=

600

MVA
(Total kW of HT motors x 2)
(1000 x pf x efficiency)

Contribution of HT motors

## Contribution of HT motors assuming a p.f. 0.9

and efficiency 95%

## Fault Level corresponding to impedance at

11kV bus + Contribution of HT motor

= 600 + 10.28

## Hence Fault current at 11kv Bus

( 4150 x 2 )
(1000 x 0.85 x 0.95)
10.28

610

610
( 3 x 11)

MVA

MVA

= 32.03233 kA
The 11kv Switchgears with fault with stand capacity of up to 40kA is feasible
a) Conclusion:
Fault Level at 11 kv Bus is 32.0KA

## 5 FAULT LEVEL AT 0.380 KV BUS

1 Base MVA chosen
2 The pu impedance up to 11kV bus to 11kV bus

## Effiective impedance of distribution

transformer
Fault level at 0.380 Kv bus

=
=

25

Base MVA
Hight fault level at 11kV bus

25
610

0.041

pu

0.635

pu

Base MVA
(The pu imedance up to 11kV bus + inpedance of
distribution Transformer)
25
(0.041 + 0.635)

## Hence fault current at 0.380Kv bus

MVA

37

37
( 3 x 0.38)

MVA

56.19

MVA

37

MVA

b) Conclusion:
Hence , the fault level at 0.380kV bus
rounded of to the nearest integer Value

## 6 CALCULATION FOR VOLTAGE DROP

The per unit impedance of the system components are calculated as follows :
i) Per Unit impedance of the system Components:
System Component
Sr.No.
i) pu impedance of utility

P.U.Impedance
25
=
600

3 x (11^ 2 )

0.0417

Pu

0.0024

Pu

## ii) HT main motor fed from cable Impedance

5Rx3x240Sqmm XLPE CU for 150mm length

4150kW

## (25 x 0.85 x 0.95)

(4150 / 1000 ) x (200/ 100 )

2.4323

pu

4150kW

## (25 x 0.85 x 0.95)

(350 / 1000 ) x (100/ 100 )

57.679

pu

(25 x ( 8/ 100)
3.15

0.635

pu

## v) LT main motor fed from cable Impedance

3Rx4x300Sqmm XLPE CU for 70mm length

2 x (0.38^ 2 )

0.121

Pu

350kW

## (25 x 0.85 x 0.9)

(350 / 1000 ) x (200/ 100 )

27.32

Pu

350kW

## (25 x 0.85 x 0.9)

(350 / 1000 ) x (100/ 100 )

54.64

Pu

2.4764

Pu

Total Pu Impedance

100

## Voltage requirement for stable starting of HT motor 11kV ,4150kW

System Component

% Voltage Drop

i) Utility System

0.0417
2.476

x 100%

1.68

0.0024
2.4764

x 100%

0.097

1.6839

1.68

1.78

98.22

193.15

11KV Bus

= 100 1.7809

## vi) Hence maximum starting torque normally

avaliable with
10.81 Kv

(200 x 10.81 ^ 2 )
(11^2 )

Conclusion
Higher starting torque,however,can be achived by adjustment of electrolyte strength of LRS.
For starting of 4150 kw motor,the starting surrent have to be resticted to less than
assumption the voltage drop is
1.78
%

200

## Voltage requirement for stable Running of HT motor 150kV ,0.9kW

System Component

% Voltage Drop

i) Utility System

0.0417
2.476

x 100%

1.68

0.0024
2.4764

x 100%

0.097

1.6839

1.68

1.78

98.22

11KV Bus

= 100 1.7809

## vi) Hence maximum starting torque normally

avaliable with
10.81 Kv

(100 x 10.81 ^ 2 )
(11^2 )

96.58

Conclusion
Higher starting torque,however,can be achived by adjustment of electrolyte strength of LRS.
For Running of 0.9 kw motor,the starting surrent have to be resticted to less than
assumption the voltage drop is
1.78
%

## Voltage requirement for stable starting of LT motor 0.38kV ,350kW

squirrel cage induction motor with DOL starter.
Total Pu Impedance

## = (0.0417 + 0.635 + 0.1212+27.3215)

System Component

28.119

Pu

% Voltage Drop

i) Utility System

0.0417
28.119

x 100%

0.15

0.6350
28.119

x 100%

2.26

0.1212
28.119

x 100%

0.440

0.15

0.15

2.85

97.15

189

0.38 KV Bus

= 100 2.85

## vii) Hence maximum starting torque normally

avaliable with
369
V

(200 x 369.17 ^ 2 )
((0.38 x 100 )^ 2)

368.6

380

## Voltage requirement for stable Running of LT motor kV ,3.15kW

squirrel cage induction motor with DOL starter.
Total Pu Impedance

## = (0.0417 + 0.635 + 0.1212+54.6429)

System Component

54.81

Pu

% Voltage Drop

i) Utility System

MVA

0.0417
54.806

x 100%

0.08

0.6350
54.806

x 100%

1.16

0.1212
54.806

x 100%

0.230

0.08

0.08

1.47

98.53

94

KV Bus

= 100 1.47

## vii) Hence maximum starting torque normally

avaliable with
374.41 V

(100 x 374.414 ^ 2 )
((0.38 x 100 )^ 2)

## CALCULATION FOR SELECTION OF CABLE SIZES FOR VARIOUS RATING OF LT MOTORS

PU impedance of Utility

0.0417

0.0417 pu

0.6350

0.6350 pu

0.6767 pu

Base MVA

25

MVA

Motor Rating

350

kw

## Motor Voltage rating

380

Power Factor

25 MVA

(350 x 1000)
( 3 x (380 x 1000) x 0.85 x 0.95)
695.13

Motor Efficiency

0.90
Cos

0.85

Sin

0.53

Al =

1.5

Sqmm

## Cable From MCC to Motor

Cable Size
Cable Impedance z%

Z % =

0.020

Cable Length

(L) =

70

ohm/mtr
mtr

(N) =

No.

= 0.000107 /mtr

0.02317 /mtr

## The pu impedance of 150m (typical) cable of different sizes is calculated as follows :

= %Z of Cable x Base MVA x Length of cable in kms
2
(kV)
=

## ( % Z Ohm/km x 25 x 70/ 1000 )

(380x 1000^2)

= ( Z% Ohm/km x 12.12)
Pu Impedance of the Cable
Voltage drop of the selected cable

242.40

pu

695.13
1

( x 0.02 x 70)

16.43

=
=

16.43
x 100
(380 / 3 )
2.50

## The starting KVA of motors is calculated as:

For squirrel cage induction motors
Starting KVA

Kw x 6
Efficiency x Power factor

(k W x 6)
(0.9 x 0.85)

kw X

7.84

= 2745.098 KVA
For Slip ring induction motors
Starting KVA

Kw x 2.5
Efficiency x Power factor

= (k W x 2.5)
(0.9 x 0.85)
=

kw X

3.27

= 1143.791 KVA
For squirrel cage induction motors
Running KVA

Kw x 1
Efficiency x Power factor

(k W x 1)
(0.9 x 0.85)

kw X

1.31

= 457.5163 KVA

12.12