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1 BASIC

FOR CALCULATION
1 In the calculation only three phase symmetrical fault has been considered.
2 A simplified procedure for calculating the symmetrical short circuit current called the E/X method is used,
which disregards all resistance,all static load and all prefault current.
3 The PU system is adopted for fault calculations as it simplifies the calculations
4 Since X/R ratio of the effective impedance at the bus is unknown,It si considered that the calculated current
should not more than 80% of the allowed valve for the breaker at the existing bus voltage.
5 Motor Contribution has been considered as 2 times the rated current of HT motors and negligible in case of LT motors.
6 For claculation,the impedances of cables has been neglected.
7 The distribution transformers in different load centres of the plant shall operate in isolation and not in parallel.
8 The utility fault level has been considered as 600 MVA.

2 DESIGN DATA :
a Utility fault level at plant grid

600

MVA

b Base MVA chosen

25

MVA

c) Distribution Transformer
1 Rated capacity

3.15

2 Voltage at HT side

11

KV

3 Voltage at LT side(full load)

0.380

KV

4 Percentage impedance

d) Rating of HT motors
1 HT motor rating

MVA

4150

Kw

2 Motor Power factor

0.85

red

3 Motor efficiency

0.95

4 Maximum starting torque considered for


the motor at 11kv

200

% FLT

5 Maximum Running torque considered for


the motor at 11kv
Cable Size XLPE,Armoured

100

% FLT

240

Sqmm

Cable no of run

No.

5 HT motor fed from cable


5Rx3x240Sqmm XLPE CU (Z)

0.23

ohm/km

6 HT motor fed from cable length

150

ohm/km

e) Rating of LT motors
1 LT motor rating

350

Kw

2 Motor Power factor

0.85

red

3 Motor efficiency

0.90

4 Maximum starting torque considered for


the motor at 11kv

200

% FLT

4 Maximum Running torque considered for


the motor at 11kv

100

% FLT

1.5

Sqmm

Cable Size XLPE,Armoured


Cable no of run

5 LT motor fed from cable


3Rx4x300Sqmm XLPE CU (Z)

0.020

6 LT motor fed from cable Length

70

No.
ohm/km
mtr

FAULT CURRENT CALCULATION FOR HT (UP TO NEAREST MOTOR TERMINAL FROM SOURCE)

FAULT CURRENT AT 33KV SWITCHGEAR AT APTRANSCO END

1.1

Calculation for source impedance (Zo)


System Voltage (KV)

33

Sorce Fault MVA

500

Source Impedance (Z0) in Ohm

ZO
1.2

Fault Current at 33KV Switchgear at APTRANSCO End (IF0)

IFO

KV
MVA
2

System KV
Short Circuit MVA

ohm

Square (33)
500

ohm

2.178

ohm

1.1 X KV
3 X ZO

kA

1.1 x 33
3 X 2.178

kA

9.62

kA

FAULT CURRENT AT 33KV SWITCHGEAR AT PROPOSED SUBSTATION

2.1

Main Incoming power supply through 33kV, 1R X 3C X 300Sq.mm. Aluminium armoured Cable from APTRANSCO Substation to Plant
Substation
Resistance of cable ( R ) (Resistance / Km)
=
0.130
ohm/Km
Length of Cable (L)

1500

No.of Run (N)

R x L
(N x 1000)

ohm

0.195

ohm

0.100

ohm/Km

X x L
(N x 1000)

ohm

0.150

ohm

(Ra2 + Xa2)

ohm

0.2460

ohm

Za + Zo

2.425

Actual Resistance of Cable (Ra)


Ra
2.2

Reactance of cable (X) (Reactance/Km)


Actual Reactance of Cable (Xa)

Xa
2.3

Impedance of Cable (Za)

2.4

Total Impedance at 33KV SWGR at Substation1(Z1)

Za

Z1
2.5

Fault Current at 33KV SWGR at Proposed Substation (IF1)

IF1

1.1 X KV

3 X Z1

Meter
No.

ohm
kA

( 1.1 X 33)
( 3 X 2.425)

kA

8.643

kA

Selected Fault KA at 33KV Bus


25 kA

FAULT CURRENT AT PRIMARY OF 8MVA, 33/6.9KV TRANSFORMER AT PROPOSED SUBSTATION


33KV, 1R X 3C X 300Sqmm (E) Aluminium armoured Cable is connected between 33KV HT Panel & 8 MVA Transformer

3.1

Resistance of cable (Resistance / Km)

0.130

Length of Cable (L)

25

Meter

No.of Run (N)

No.

R x L
(N x 1000)

ohm

0.00325

ohm

0.100

X x L
(N x 1000)

ohm

0.0025

ohm

(Rb2 + Xb2)

ohm

Actual Resistance of Cable (Rb)


Rb
3.2

Reactance of cable (X) (Reactance/Km)


Actual Reactance of Cable (Xb)

Xb
3.3

Impedance of Cable (Zb)

ohm/km

ohm/Km

Zb
3.4

Total Impedance at 33KV SWGR at Substation1(Z1)


Z2

3.5

Fault Current at 33KV SWGR at Proposed Substation (IF1)

IF2

0.0041

ohm

Zb + Z1

ohm

2.430

ohm

1.1 X KV

kA

3 X Z2

( 1.1 X 0.15)
( 3 X 2.43)

kA

8.625

kA

FAULT CURRENT AT SECONDARY OF 8MVA TRANSFORMER AT SUBSTATION


Power Transformer 8MVA, 33/6.6 KV , 8.35% Impedance (as per IS2026)

4.1

4.2

Primary Voltage of Transformer

Vp

33

KV

Secondary Voltage of Transformer

Vs

6.6

KV

Transformer Capacity

8000

KVA

% Impedance

8.35

Transformer Impedance (Zc)

(% Imp/100) x KVs ohm


(KVA / 1000)

Zc

(8.35/100) x 6.6)
(8000/1000)

Zc

Total Impedance on secondary side (Z3 )

Z3
4.3

Fault Current at Secondary side of 8MVA Transformer(IF3)

IF3

0.455

ohm

ohm

{((Vs)/ (Vp))x Z2 }+ Zc

ohm

((6.6) / (33) X 2.43) + 0.455

ohm

0.553

1.1 X KVs
3 X Z3

ohm
KA

( 1.1 X X x L)
( 3 X 0.553)

kA

7.580

KA

FAULT CURRENT AT 6.6 KV HT PANEL AT PROPOSED SUBSTATION


Incoming power supply through 6.6kV, 3R X 3C X 300Sq.mm. Aluminium armoured Cable from 6.6KV Terminal of Power Transformer

5.1

Resistance of cable (Resistance / Km)

0.129

Length of Cable (L)

25

Meter

No.of Run (N)

No.

R x L
(N x 1000)

Actual Resistance of Cable (Rd)

Rd
5.2

Reactance of cable (X) (Reactance/Km)


Actual Reactance of Cable (Xd)

Xd
5.3

Impedance of Cable (Zd)


Zd

5.4

Total Impedance at 6.6KV HT Panel (Z4)


Z4

5.5

Fault Current at Proposed Substation 6.6KV HT Panel (IF4)

IF4

ohm/km

ohm

0.001075

0.0830

X x L
(N x 1000)

ohm

0.000691667

ohm

ohm
ohm/Km

(Rd + Xd )

ohm

0.0013

ohm

Zd + Z3

0.555

1.1 X KV

3 X Z4

ohm
kA

( 1.1 X )
( 3 X 0.555)

kA

7.553

kA

Selected Fault KA at 6.6KV Bus


26.3 kA

FAULT CURRENT AT MOTOR TERMINAL (IBC3 nearest)


6.6KV, 1R X 3C X 150Sqmm Aluminium armoured Cable is connected between 6.6kV HT Panel & HT Motor terminal

6.1

Resistance of cable (Resistance / Km)

0.264

Length of Cable (L)

180

No.of Run (N)


Actual Resistance of Cable (Re)

Re
6.2

Reactance of cable (X) (Reactance/Km)


Actual Reactance of Cable (Xe)

Xe
6.3

Impedance of Cable (Ze)


Ze

6.4

Total Impedance at HT Motor terminal (Z5)


Z5

6.5

Fault Current at IBC3 Motor Terminal (IF5)

R x L
(N x 1000)

No.
ohm

0.04752

ohm

0.0890

ohm/Km

X x L
(N x 1000)

ohm

0.01602

ohm

(Re2 + Xe2)

ohm

0.0501

ohm

Ze + Z4

0.606

IF5

ohm/km
Meter

1.1 X KV

3 X Z5

ohm
kA

( 1.1 X X x L)
( 3 X 0.606)

kA

6.917

kA

3 PU IMPEDANCES OF VARIOUS EQUIPMENT/SYSTEMS:


1 Base MVA chosen
2 PU impedance of Utility

25

MVA
(Base MVA)
(Utility MVA)

25
600

25
0.042

= 0.041667 Pu
3 PU Impedance of equipment

=
=

i) Distribution transformer(3.15 MVA)

(Base MVA) x (Percentage Impedance)


( Equipment MVA)
25 x ( 8/ 100 )
3.15

= 0.634921 Pu

4 FAULT LEVEL AT 11 KV BUS


Effective impedance of utility

0.041667 Pu

Total impedance at 11 kV bus

0.041667 Pu

Fault level corresponding to above value

(Base MVA)
Total Pu Impedance

=
=

600

MVA
(Total kW of HT motors x 2)
(1000 x pf x efficiency)

Contribution of HT motors

Contribution of HT motors assuming a p.f. 0.9


and efficiency 95%

Fault Level corresponding to impedance at


11kV bus + Contribution of HT motor

= 600 + 10.28

Hence Fault current at 11kv Bus

( 4150 x 2 )
(1000 x 0.85 x 0.95)
10.28

610

610
( 3 x 11)

MVA

MVA

= 32.03233 kA
The 11kv Switchgears with fault with stand capacity of up to 40kA is feasible
a) Conclusion:
Fault Level at 11 kv Bus is 32.0KA

5 FAULT LEVEL AT 0.380 KV BUS


1 Base MVA chosen
2 The pu impedance up to 11kV bus to 11kV bus

Effiective impedance of distribution


transformer
Fault level at 0.380 Kv bus

=
=

25

Base MVA
Hight fault level at 11kV bus

25
610

0.041

pu

0.635

pu

Base MVA
(The pu imedance up to 11kV bus + inpedance of
distribution Transformer)
25
(0.041 + 0.635)

Hence fault current at 0.380Kv bus

MVA

37

37
( 3 x 0.38)

MVA

56.19

MVA

37

MVA

b) Conclusion:
Hence , the fault level at 0.380kV bus
rounded of to the nearest integer Value

6 CALCULATION FOR VOLTAGE DROP

The per unit impedance of the system components are calculated as follows :
i) Per Unit impedance of the system Components:
System Component
Sr.No.
i) pu impedance of utility

P.U.Impedance
25
=
600

0.23 x (150/ 1000 ) x 25


3 x (11^ 2 )

0.0417

Pu

0.0024

Pu

ii) HT main motor fed from cable Impedance


5Rx3x240Sqmm XLPE CU for 150mm length

iii) Starting of HT motor impedance

4150kW

(25 x 0.85 x 0.95)


(4150 / 1000 ) x (200/ 100 )

2.4323

pu

iii) Running of HT motor impedance

4150kW

(25 x 0.85 x 0.95)


(350 / 1000 ) x (100/ 100 )

57.679

pu

iv) Distribution transformer Impedance 3.15MVA

(25 x ( 8/ 100)
3.15

0.635

pu

v) LT main motor fed from cable Impedance


3Rx4x300Sqmm XLPE CU for 70mm length

0.02 x (70/ 1000 ) x 25


2 x (0.38^ 2 )

0.121

Pu

vi) Starting of LT motor impedance

350kW

(25 x 0.85 x 0.9)


(350 / 1000 ) x (200/ 100 )

27.32

Pu

vi) Running of LT motor impedance

350kW

(25 x 0.85 x 0.9)


(350 / 1000 ) x (100/ 100 )

54.64

Pu

2.4764

Pu

Total Pu Impedance

= (0.0417 + 0.0024 + 2.4323)

100

Voltage requirement for stable starting of HT motor 11kV ,4150kW


System Component

% Voltage Drop

i) Utility System

ii) 53x240mm2 XLPE Cable

0.0417
2.476

x 100%

1.68

0.0024
2.4764

x 100%

0.097

1.6839

1.68

1.78

98.22

193.15

iii) Voltage Drop upto

11KV Bus

iv) Voltage drop upto

4150kW motor terminals= (1.6839 + 0.097)

v) Voltage avaliable to the motor

= 100 1.7809

vi) Hence maximum starting torque normally


avaliable with
10.81 Kv

(200 x 10.81 ^ 2 )
(11^2 )

Conclusion
Higher starting torque,however,can be achived by adjustment of electrolyte strength of LRS.
For starting of 4150 kw motor,the starting surrent have to be resticted to less than
assumption the voltage drop is
1.78
%

200

% Even with above

Voltage requirement for stable Running of HT motor 150kV ,0.9kW


System Component

% Voltage Drop

i) Utility System

ii) 53x240mm2 XLPE Cable

0.0417
2.476

x 100%

1.68

0.0024
2.4764

x 100%

0.097

1.6839

1.68

1.78

98.22

iii) Voltage Drop upto

11KV Bus

iv) Voltage drop upto

4150kW motor terminals= (1.6839 + 0.097)

v) Voltage avaliable to the motor

= 100 1.7809

vi) Hence maximum starting torque normally


avaliable with
10.81 Kv

(100 x 10.81 ^ 2 )
(11^2 )

96.58

Conclusion
Higher starting torque,however,can be achived by adjustment of electrolyte strength of LRS.
For Running of 0.9 kw motor,the starting surrent have to be resticted to less than
assumption the voltage drop is
1.78
%

% Even with above

Voltage requirement for stable starting of LT motor 0.38kV ,350kW


squirrel cage induction motor with DOL starter.
Total Pu Impedance

= (0.0417 + 0.635 + 0.1212+27.3215)

System Component

28.119

Pu

% Voltage Drop

i) Utility System

ii) Distribution transformer 3.15MVA

iii) 3Rx4x300Sqmm XLPE CU Cable

0.0417
28.119

x 100%

0.15

0.6350
28.119

x 100%

2.26

0.1212
28.119

x 100%

0.440

0.15

0.15

2.85

97.15

189

iv) Voltage Drop upto

0.38 KV Bus

v) Voltage drop upto

350kW motor terminals = (0.15 + 0.44 +2.26)

vi) Voltage avaliable to the motor

= 100 2.85

vii) Hence maximum starting torque normally


avaliable with
369
V

(200 x 369.17 ^ 2 )
((0.38 x 100 )^ 2)

368.6

viii) Higher staring torque, however can be achieved by VVVF drive


380

Voltage requirement for stable Running of LT motor kV ,3.15kW


squirrel cage induction motor with DOL starter.
Total Pu Impedance

= (0.0417 + 0.635 + 0.1212+54.6429)

System Component

54.81

Pu

% Voltage Drop

i) Utility System

ii) Distribution transformer

MVA

iii) 3Rx4x300Sqmm XLPE CU Cable

0.0417
54.806

x 100%

0.08

0.6350
54.806

x 100%

1.16

0.1212
54.806

x 100%

0.230

0.08

0.08

1.47

98.53

94

iv) Voltage Drop upto

KV Bus

v) Voltage drop upto

3.15kW motor terminals = (0.08 + 0.23 +1.16)

vi) Voltage avaliable to the motor

= 100 1.47

vii) Hence maximum starting torque normally


avaliable with
374.41 V

(100 x 374.414 ^ 2 )
((0.38 x 100 )^ 2)

viii) Higher staring torque, however can be achieved by VVVF drive

CALCULATION FOR SELECTION OF CABLE SIZES FOR VARIOUS RATING OF LT MOTORS


PU impedance of Utility

0.0417

0.0417 pu

Distribution transformer Impedance 3.15MVA

0.6350

0.6350 pu

0.6767 pu

Therefor ,pu impedance upto

0.38 kV Bus = 0.0417+0.635

Base MVA

25

MVA

Motor Rating

350

kw

Motor Voltage rating

380

Motor full load current

Motor full load current

Power Factor

25 MVA

(350 x 1000)
( 3 x (380 x 1000) x 0.85 x 0.95)
695.13

Motor Efficiency

0.90
Cos

0.85

rad

Sin

0.53

rad

Al =

1.5

Sqmm

Cable From MCC to Motor


Cable Size
Cable Impedance z%

Z % =

0.020

Cable Length

(L) =

70

ohm/mtr
mtr

No.of Run of the Cable

(N) =

No.

AC resistance of the cable at 90C

Reactance of the cable at 50Hz

= 0.000107 /mtr

0.02317 /mtr

The pu impedance of 150m (typical) cable of different sizes is calculated as follows :


= %Z of Cable x Base MVA x Length of cable in kms
2
(kV)
=

( % Z Ohm/km x 25 x 70/ 1000 )


(380x 1000^2)

= ( Z% Ohm/km x 12.12)
Pu Impedance of the Cable
Voltage drop of the selected cable

Voltage drop of the selected cable

242.40

pu

695.13
1

( x 0.02 x 70)

16.43

=
=

16.43
x 100
(380 / 3 )
2.50

The starting KVA of motors is calculated as:


For squirrel cage induction motors
Starting KVA

Kw x 6
Efficiency x Power factor

(k W x 6)
(0.9 x 0.85)

kw X

7.84

= 2745.098 KVA
For Slip ring induction motors
Starting KVA

Kw x 2.5
Efficiency x Power factor

= (k W x 2.5)
(0.9 x 0.85)
=

kw X

3.27

= 1143.791 KVA
For squirrel cage induction motors
Running KVA

Kw x 1
Efficiency x Power factor

(k W x 1)
(0.9 x 0.85)

kw X

1.31

= 457.5163 KVA

12.12