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Commutative Property - Percent Increase and Decrease






2 x 60 mins

Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication of decimals to

solve problems

Solve problems involving percents from 1% to 100%

Students will understand that order does not matter in calculating

tax and discount on the same original price.

Students will think mathematically, using the process of conjecture

and generalization to problem solve.

Students can convert between fractions, decimals, and percents

Students understand how to calculate n% of a value

Students understand various methods for calculating the price after

both tax and discount.

Top Hat and some form of technology that students can use to
access top hat (phone, tablet, laptop).

Alternatively could use Post-It notes or stickers on poster paper for

students to vote



Tell students that today in the marketplace they must include a

discount on at least one of their products and still include the 5%
GST that was added last class.

Let students continue buying and selling while calculating both

discount and GST. Give students time and see if any of them ask

10 mins

the inquiry question below. If not, stop them after 10 minutes and
pose the question.

Pose Question: In our marketplace, [students name] has a product

with a 20% discount and we also have 5% GST. Which would you
prefer to have calculated first? (adapted from Warehouse Question
[Mason, 2010])

Right away pose the question using Top Hat. Allow students to use
their phones, laptops, tablets, etc. to answer the question on Top
Hat. View the results of the vote from the entire class.

Let students know that they will be handing in all their work done
in the process of solving this problem and presenting a solution.
Pass out the rough draft rubric for the assignment and ask
students for their input. Is there any part of this rubric you want to
change, or anything you want to add or delete?

Ask students to pair up with someone who voted the same as them
and begin working on solving the problem. Can you explain why
your choice is the best option? Have students record their work.

Teacher will circulate to guide and assess student progress. Remind

students to use the rubric if they get stuck - the rubric reminds
them to start by using examples and looking for patterns.

Once students begin to recognize the pattern (that no matter which

way they calculate, they always arrive at the same result), bring the
class back to a large group discussion. Have them vote again on
Top Hat, but this time include a third option (Discount first, Tax
first, or order doesnt matter).

Show this on the board using multiple examples. Now that every
student knows the answer, the focus is shifted to formulating a
well-communicated representation and explanation of the solution.

Give a hint to guide them: when we calculate percent we are using

multiplication. What are some other rules we know about
multiplication that relate to why the order doesnt matter?

10 mins

20 mins

Students have time to work on formulating their explanation of the

solution to the problem. They can work in groups as they discuss
ideas. Teacher will circulate and give guiding hints to the groups.

Next class, students will hand in an explanation of this problem as

well as all their work done this class during the problem solving
process. This will be assessed according to the rubric.

Exit slips: Students will use the rubric to self-assess their progress
before they leave the class for the day.

20 mins





Have students work in groups of 3 to come up with a word

problem that has the same structure as the problem posed the day
before. (In our marketplace, [students name] has a product with a
20% discount and we also have 5% GST. Which would you prefer
to have calculated first?)

Teacher will circulate to guide this process. If students are stuck,

point out different aspects of the question (discount is percent
decrease, tax is percent increase).
o Also provide struggling groups with scaffolding to help
students structure their word problem.

30 mins

One example of a problem could be: You have $100. Would

you rather have you money 5% increased, then 5%
decreased; or 5% decreased then 5% increased. Or do you
not care?

For those groups who have completed one question,

encourage them to create more and to create slight
variations in their questions. For example, a question where
you apply a percent decrease, then an increase, then a

For the last part of class, groups will switch questions with another

30 mins

Plans for


group and work together to come up with solutions to the


They will then present the solutions to the problems they were
given. In this presentation they will also discuss the
similarities/differences of these problems compared with the

During the presentations, students will assess their peers and

provide feedback. Each group will be assigned to assess the group
that received their questions. They must also include in this
assessment how the presentation has informed their understanding
of the problems they wrote.

ELL students can use manipulatives (tenths, hundredths, and

thousandths blocks) or a visual representation of percent in order to
aid their understanding. This can also be used as part of their

For students struggling, the teacher can take them aside at the
beginning of Day 2 to work through the problem from the original
day, using what they have handed in as a starting point. (Helping to
get them to the same point as the rest of the students in the class so
that they will be successful in the next task).

Provide scaffolding for the task on day 2 in the form of a word

problem structure that they can use to create their problem.

For students excelling, invite them to create more complicated

problems that are similar to the original problem.

Students are involved in the creation of the assessment rubric and

in so doing are taking responsibility for their own learning.

Students will use self-assessment at the end of the lesson according

to the rubric that will eventually be used as summative assessment.

At the end of day 2, students will use peer assessment during the
presentations from other groups.

Students will be assessed using the rubric on the solution they hand
in from day 1. Students will also be assessed on the presentations
that they give at the end of day 2.