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Arcturus Publishing Limited


26/27 Bickels Yard
151153 Bermondsey Street
London SE1 3HA
Published in association with

foulsham

W. Foulsham & Co. Ltd,


The Publishing House, Bennetts Close, Cippenham,
Slough, Berkshire SL1 5AP, England
ISBN: 978-0-572-02933-3
This edition printed in 2007
Copyright 2003 Arcturus Publishing Limited
All rights reserved.
The Copyright Act prohibits (subject to certain very limited exceptions)
the making of copies of any copyright work or of a substantial part of
such a work, including the making of copies by photocopying or similar
process. Written permission to make a copy or copies must therefore
normally be obtained from the publisher in advance. It is advisable also
to consult the publisher if in any doubt as to the legality of any copying
which is to be undertaken.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Cover and book design by Steve Flight


Artwork by Ben Krefta
Printed in China

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Acknowledgements
I would like to thank the following for their invaluable help in
creating this book:
Kim Loh from Malaysia
webmaster@neo-epiphani.com
website: http://www.neo-epiphani.com
Kim created the groovy red bikini girl (page 71).
&
Dan Fielding aka Cloud from the UK
cloudstrife@yahoo.com
website: http://www.cloudsgallery.com
Dan is the talented artist of the warrior maid (page 81),
the running girl (page 97) and the action pic of the girl
with two guns (page 142).

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Last but not least a big thanks to my brother James Krefta for his
invaluable help in putting the text together.

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Conte
Introduction

MATERIALS & TOOLS

12

HEADS

20
STYLES

22

MALE FRONT VIEW

24

MALE 3/4 VIEW

26

MALE SIDE VIEW

28

FEMALE FRONT VIEW

30

FEMALE 3/4 VIEW

32

FEMALE SIDE VIEW

34

FACES

36
EYESSTYLES

38

EYESSTEP-BY-STEP

40

NOSES & MOUTHSSTYLES

42

EXPRESSIONS

44

HAIRTYPES

46

STYLES

50

STEP-BY-STEP

52

HANDS

48

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FIGURES

54
BASIC SHAPES

56

PROPORTIONS

57

FEMALE FRONT VIEW

58

MALE FRONT VIEW

62

FEMALE 3/4 VIEW

66

FEMALE REAR VIEW

72

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tents
CLOTHING

76
STYLES

78

DRESSING A CHARACTER

80

ACCESSORIES & WEAPONS

82

ACCESSORIES

84

WEAPONS

85

ACTION

86
FALLING

88

JUMPING

90

RUNNING

94

PUNCHING

98

COLORING

100
COLORS

102

SHADOWS, SCANNING & INKING 104

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SCANNING & CGING

106

SCANNING & COLORING

108

PHOTOSHOP

112

STORYBOARDING

116

CREATING CHARACTERS

128

CHARACTER CREATION

130

BENGOSHA

132

TEMPEST TRIPLETS

136

NIKKI

138

RUDY ROUGHNIGHT

140

SHOOT-OUT

142

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INTRODU
T

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imes are changing


exciting anime and
manga artwork has
finally been recognized
here in the West for its
exotic designs, flair, and
wonderfully distinct style.
Nowadays we see it in
entertainment media such
as magazines, comic
books, television, advertising, graphic design, and
websites, and even at the
movies. Yet not so long
ago it was a genre of
art restricted to audiences
in Asia.
What are these art
forms?
Basically, manga are
comic books and the word
anime means animation.
When these Japanese
terms are used, they generally refer to original
Japanese creations and not
to those created elsewhere.
However, so many people
all over the world are
being inspired by the
manga style that such
work now has its own

descriptive titlepseudo
manga.
Manga literally translates as irresponsible
pictures and it is argued
that the first examples were
Chinese temple wall
paintings of Shaolin monks
practicing martial arts.
More recently, Japanese
comics proved popular
throughout the 1960s with
the serialization of
numerous stories, including
Osamu Tezukas Mighty
Atom, which later became
a long-running anime
between 19631966.
Ironically, the origins of
early Japanese animation
were heavily influenced
by the American cartoons
of the 1950sBetty Boop
for example, with her
big, wide eyes. These were
then adapted by Japanese
artists and were a notable
inspiration for modern
anime character design.
Why has manga
become so popular and
how is it different from

Western comics?
For many years, it has
been a widely accepted
art style within Japanese
culture, and it is here that
manga was born.
In Japan, manga artists
and writers are as celebrated as best-selling authors
and artists in the West.
Every week in Japan, huge
volumes of manga comics
are printed and read by
millions of people of all
ages. Indeed, the popularity of manga can be largely
attributed to the diversity of
genres within it which
appeal to every age and
gender. Subjects can vary
from romance to high
school sports teams, from
outer space battles with
huge, mechanical warriors
to occult horror, and even
traditional folkloreto
name but a few.
It is here that we notice
the first difference to
Western comics; few
manga stories, for
instance, are based on

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DUCTION

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superheroes but tend to


focus on average people
thrust into extraordinary circumstances. Perhaps we
have come to identify more
closely with manga characters because they give us
a very different take on
the types of superhero
stories and art style that we
are accustomed to.
Technically there are
several key differences
between the art in Western
comics and manga.
Manga tends to rely less
on heavy shading and
uses smooth line art.
While the characters may
often appear simplistic in
the way in which they are
drawn, the overall attention
to detail is astounding,
especially in backgrounds
where the picture
is composed as a whole
entity rather than as
aspects added on as
an afterthought.
Then there is the
humor in manga
even if the story is

not a comedy, several


artistic conventions
are used to emphasize gestures and
the expressions of
characters.

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Examples include the big


sweat drop on the brow
to indicate tension, the
small mushroom-shaped
cloud from the mouth
depicting relief, and a
bulging vein at the side of
the head to convey
frustration or anger.
Many Western artists and
publishers are now
producing pseudo manga
and releasing original
titles. This isnt a case
of jumping on the
bandwagonit is because
we like what is offered by
the medium, its freshness
and excitement. Manga
isnt a fad, it is here to
stay!
In this book, you are
presented with step-by-step
instructions that show you
how to create manga
illustrations. The style is
suitable for manga, anime,
or video game design, and
is in keeping with the most
popular Japanese techniques and aesthetics.
The approach is intended
for novice manga artists
with some basic knowledge
of drawing. It is presented
in a way that should be
helpful if you are learning
for the first time. As such,
sections are broken down
to focus on particular

10

areasthe male/female
head, face, hair, and body.
The budding artist can then
move on to designing
character clothing and
accessories, finally mastering the creation of his or
her very own characters.
It is my hope you will
enjoy this book and have
a lot of fun generating
wonderful manga artwork.
The key is to keep on
practicing.

With this solid grounding, youll soon be producing manga as good as that
of your favorite professionals. Keep this thought in
mind and remember
that there was a time
when even THEY
couldnt draw!
Everyone has
to start
somewhere

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MATER
& TOOL

12

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ERIALS
OLS
I

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f youre new to drawing and just want to get stuck in, youll need three
basic items: a pencil, an eraser, and paper. As you become more skilled
and confident at drawing, you should try experimenting with better-quality
materials and different tools to make the most of your work.
Using good-quality materials will give better results and enhance your overall
picture. The next stage should be using several pencils of varying densities for
shading purposes and heavier-grade paper.
You may want to ink and color in your pictures as well, in which case youll
need to use more tools for these tasks, all of which are detailed in this section.
Experienced artists have their own preferences for materials, depending on
their style and favorite medium. This is something which youll develop gradually,
but in the meantime, have some fun playing around with different materials.
Its just as important to discover a material that you dont like as it is to find one
that you love.

13

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On the following pages, well go through the array of materials that you can use as a
budding manga artist and outline the advantages and disadvantages of each medium.
The pros and cons of each medium shouldnt be pitted against one another in order to
find the perfect tool, but merely taken as points of consideration.

The first tool youll need to acquire is a pencilideally, a range of pencils varying
from a hard 3H to a soft 2B. In manga artwork, you need to maintain smooth, clean
lines, so using anything darker than 2B will result in smudging that cannot be easily
removed with an eraser. Not only that, but clean line art makes the inking stage easier
to do (where black outlines are put down on the illustration and shadows added).
Whether you choose to use a mechanical pencil or an ordinary wooden one, pencils
are the standard medium used to draw mangafrom layouts and sketches to the final
illustrationso its crucial to practice using them.

VARIOUS

MATERIALS &
TOOLS

PENCILS

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

manga, chances are youve used


pencils before so its a medium youll
already have experience of.

plan out your drawing on scrap paper


first because if you make too many
mistakes and then rub them out, this can
leave permanent marks.

q Even if youre new to drawing

w If drawn lightly, pencil marks can

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be removed with a soft eraser or putty


rubber so shapes can be redrawn until
they look right.

14

q Before committing to the final sheet,

w Pencil gives an inconsistent line,

depending on the pressure applied.


This can make it tricky to maintain the
shape and tone of a line, and is
especially evident with soft pencils.

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PENS

MATERIALS &
TOOLS

Pens can be divided into two major types: quill pens and ballpoint pens. Quill pens
draw lines that have depth. The ballpoint pen gives clean, consistent lines and is much
simpler to use.
If you look closely at a manga drawing, you will notice that the line thickness is often
inconsistent, with lines thinning out at the end. To create this effect, simply control the
pressure exerted on the pen. If used correctly, quill pens give nice, delicate lines and
add a lot of depth to your illustration. Rotring rapidograph pens tend to be used for
drafting purposes, but work really well for manga, too, so make sure that you use
them! You dont have to worry about dipping the pen in the ink and the line texture will
always be consistent.

VARIOUS

ERASERS

Youll use this more than you probably want to, but remember, erasing mistakes is no
bad thing! Residue from an eraser may spoil the overall tone effect if it remains on the
paper, so be sure to keep your desktop clean. You may want to purchase a pen-type
eraser for helping to get rid of small and narrow spots. Plastic erasers work very well
as they dont lift the ink from your paper.

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PRACTICE!!! No professional artist gets to the stage theyre at without practicing.

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After the picture is drawn, artists will often outline their work and paint in shadows
with black Indian ink. The inking stage is important if youre doing a finished piece
because it makes the lines look bolder and more suitable for print.
If you look through existing manga, youll see that every panel is inked, giving the
impression that pencils were never used in the first place.
There are three tools that you can use to apply ink to a picturea pen and nib, a
paintbrush, or a marker pen.
Many artists have days when they hate inking but they do it anyway. Use India ink,
not only because it dries fairly quickly, but also because it is waterproof. An effective
way to ink is to keep your strokes moving in the same direction and work as swiftly as
possible. This way you will reduce the likelihood of unwelcome drips, splodges,
and wrinkles. Using a blowdryer on your illustration also reduces wrinkles!

VARIOUS

MATERIALS &
TOOLS

INK

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

strengthens the look of a line to make


the image appear bold and ready for
any coloring.

down on paper will stay there and cannot


be removed without spoiling your drawing! Successful inking is a skilled process
and requires a different technique to
penciling. To get used to the medium, first
practice by inking several sketches before
applying ink to your finished piece.

q Inking a picture finalizes and

w Using varied line widths will make the

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picture appear dynamic and can give it a


3D effect.

16

q Ink is permanent, so whatever you put

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WATERCOLOR

With the penciling complete, watercolor painting provides subtle tones and delicate
pastel washes. Your drawing will have a loose and fluid feel rather than the bold and
graphical effect you get with inking. Watercolors are very organic in the way they are
applied and appear on paper, so suit a fine art style of working.
One renowned manga artist who regularly uses such coloring is Masamune Shirow.
Although Shirows early work was painted using traditional brushes, he has embraced
computer technology and now does most of his coloring digitally.
Both methods are viable but working digitally gives you more control over the
medium.

usually indicate femininity.


w Watercolor is quick and easy to apply.

and making it look effective takes


practice. As its rarely used in manga
comics, watercolor is best suited for a
stand-alone piece of work.
w Ordinary drawing paper is not suitable
for watercolor painting. You will need
thicker paper for the paints to be
absorbed effectively without any running.

q Delicate washes can be used and

q It is an unusual technique for manga

VARIOUS

DISADVANTAGES

MATERIALS &
TOOLS

ADVANTAGES

RULERS

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Try to use your ruler as little as possible and practice drawing straight or curved lines
without it instead. In the end, the only thing youll really need your ruler for is drawing
frames or borders around your comic, or for helping cut out your illustration. However,
as you will no doubt use it initially heres a quick tipthose of you who have tried inking may have noticed that the ink tends to bleed or smear if you aren't careful.
The easiest way to avoid this is to use a ruler with an elevated edge. You can raise
your ruler simply by taping a coin (about the size of a quarter) to the underside.
It works really well!

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VARIOUS

MATERIALS &
TOOLS

CELLULOIDS

WITH ACRYLIC
Acetate is the thin plastic sheet that pictures are painted on for use in animation.
When the acetate has an image on it, it is called a Celluloid or Cel for short. If youre
keen on painting and using color, making cels might appeal. Although most manga is
black and white, cel works are always in color and you can create manga images in
the style of your favorite anime! Much of the art in this book lends itself well to the
anime style so why not give it a try?
Acetate sheets are available from good art shops and come in various sizes and
thicknesses and are affordablemuch like paper. The size of the sheets used in
professional productions are 10.3 x 9 for 4:3 ratio series or 13 x 9 for
widescreen presentations. However, if youre planning to make individual pictures, just
choose the size you want. To create a background for your cel, you can paint on a
sheet of cartridge paper using watercolors.

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

emulate the anime lookits the way


real cel animation is made.
w Once the outline is drawn on to the
cel, its easy to fill in the gaps with flat
color.

wear cotton gloves; even the cleanest


fingers leave natural oils, which can
slightly mark a surface.
w Painting in reverse may be a little
confusing at first.

q Painting on acetate is the best way to

DIGITAL ART

Computers are being increasingly exploited as software/hardware becomes more


advanced, cheaper, and readily available to home users. Digital art can now facilitate
and combine drawing, inking, and coloring. You can draw effectively via the computer
using a Graphics Tablet, and inking and coloring can be achieved through a variety of
software packages. Digital artwork is vitally important in manga.

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

traditional tools are not required.


w Mistakes can be easily erased and
rapidly amended.
e Different techniques and effects can be
used to enhance the imagethere are
few limitations to what you can achieve
with a still image.

hardware and software is very expensive


but it becomes cost effective if you get a
lot of use from it.
w The final product exists in a virtual
worldprinting your work isnt as tactile
as traditional artwork methods.

q Paper, pencils, pens, and other

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q Take care when handling acetate and

18

q Buying a computer with the necessary

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OTHER TOOLS

Of course, there are other tools and materials available to encourage your creativity,
which is just as important as the technical stuff. Items such as paper, templates, and a
light box can help you to achieve effective results not forgetting your workspace, which
should be kept clean and tidy with everything youll need to hand.

MATERIALS &
TOOLS
VARIOUS

WORK AREA

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Keep it clean and lean like a well-oiled machine. Poor rhyming aside, your workstation
is vital to producing good illustrations. You must be comfortable (get a decent chair!)
and have everything you need easily to hand. Avoid clutter, and ensure the area is
well lit. You may also want to keep a number of books and other reference materials
close to hand for quick and easy inspiration or guidance!

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HEA
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ADS
T

his is the initial focus of your manga character and the first thing that youll
start to drawthe head is key to your creation. Drawing the head can help
you to define two main areas: proportion and pose. If you flick through this
book, youll see a particular style to the artwork that is typical of most mangaa
standard body-sized representation. Other styles include Chibi (child-bodied) and
Super Deform, abbreviated to SD (simplified miniature creations).
The head can be used as a tool to measure the proportions of the whole body
so sketching this correctly is the first step to a competent-looking drawing. More
information on this can be found within the Body section but lets not get ahead of
ourselves!
A head doesnt look much by itself. Only when the facial features are added
does it begin to take on personality. However, youll want to make the character
appear dynamic and this is largely achieved by the pose, not only of the characters body but also the angle of the head.
When starting off, its good to begin by practicing a lot of front-view angles to
get the style and facial features right, then move on to an angle of the head and a
side/profile angle, all of which have been illustrated in this section.

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Good luck!

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HEADS

STYLES

HEADS

Drawing the head (and the face to fit it!) is one of the most important, and often
daunting, tasks of manga character illustration. In this section there are a number of
step-by-step examples to help you become a confident creator of craniums, but to
begin with, always bear these points in mind:

Shadows and highlights are


always based on reality--use
your reference materials.

Female heads are generally


wider in appearance.

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Younger characters have circular-shaped


heads with bigger eyes and smaller noses
than their adult counterparts.

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Page 23

The shape of the head and the facial


features differ, depending on the age
and personality of the character.

HEADS

Female eyes are drawn bigger so


they look more appealing.

STYLES

Always keep your guide lines tightthey arent


part of the final illustration but are essential in
giving your creation proportion and symmetry.

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When drafting out your head illustration,


press lightly or use lighter pencils so
mistakes can be easily erased.

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Page 24

Step 1!

MALE FRONT VIEW

HEADS

All heads start by simply drawing a circle with a center line through it.
You do not need to draw a perfect circle. Note that these lines are guide
lines and are not all supposed to be left on your final drawing so remember to draw them lightly so that they can be erased later.

"Step 2

Male faces are generally longer and more angular than


female faces. Draw two parallel vertical lines downwards
from the side edges of the circle. Slope the lines inwards
to create the jaw.

Step 3!

Fill out the proportions of the face by adding in guide lines. Near the bottom
of the circle you can see the eye and eyebrow lines which are spaced apart
equally. Mark in where the beginning and end of each eye goes. Remember
to keep things symmetrical by using the central guide line to help you. Draw
a square down from the center of the bottom of the circle. The base of this
square will mark where the nose ends. Draw two equally spaced horizontal
guides below the squarethese are the lip guides. Ive also marked in where
the bottoms of the ears gojust above the slope of the jaw.

"Step 4

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Add in some facial detailseyeballs, eyebrows, and


a nose. The nose is represented by a shadow right
down the central line. Draw boxes for where the ears
will gothe top of the boxes are just above the eyebrow. Neck lines should fall parallel from the jaw. The
neck should be just a bit narrower than the width of
the head. Draw in the hairline on the forehead.

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Page 25

Step 5!

Define the eyes inside their guide boxes. The nose


shadow line goes up to the bottom of the circle.
The mouth and bottom lip are added, then the
guide lines removed. Add detail to the insides of
the ears and provide a rough idea of where the
hair will go. Hair cant grow from below the hairline. Add lines where the neck tendons go.

HEADS
MALE FRONT VIEW

Step 6#

Add the finishing details and make your


final lines bolder, erase the guide lines,
and clean up the image.
Now its all ready to color in!

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Look at magazines, manga, and comics for reference to see how the professionals do it.
As soon as you understand what makes up an anime style and why artists draw the way
they do, the learning process becomes easier.

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Page 26

Step 1!

MALE 3/4 VIEW

HEADS

Start with a circle. Because the head is at an angle, the central


line curves and is aligned left in the direction in which the head
will be facing. The chin line at the bottom is drawn at a slant.

"Step 2

On the left, draw the cheekbone as a diagonal line extending


from the circle. Join this to the bottom of the jaw. Draw the
cheekbone and jaw line as shown on the diagram.

Step 3!

Draw eye lines parallel to the chin. The top eye


line joins where the circle meets the cheek line.

"Step 4

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To create the nose, extend the line down from the central line to the corner of the guide box. Create a box
for the ear. The first neck line comes down from near
the center of the chin, the second comes down from
the ear.

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Page 27

Step 5!

Add details to the eyes, mouth, and ears.


Rough out where the hair will go and remove
the guide lines.

HEADS
MALE 3/4 VIEW

Step 6#

Add in the finishing details and make


your final lines bolder. Erase the guide
lines and clean up the image.

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Now its all ready to color in!

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Page 28

Step 1!

MALE SIDE VIEW

HEADS

Start by drawing a circleit doesnt have to be perfectly round.


Intersect the circle with two lines towards the bottom right-hand
area; one line horizontal, the other vertical. As these are guide
lines only, draw them in lightly so they can be erased later.

"Step 2

Draw a box diagonally starting from where the intersecting


guides meet the bottom of the circle. This box is the jaw
line guide.

Step 3!

Add eye line guidesthe top guide runs horizontal and parallel to
the existing intersecting line. Add in the eye, which is triangleshaped. Add guides for the bottom of the nose, mouth, and bottom
lip. Also note where the bottom of the ear starts.

"Step 4

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Add in some facial details such as the eyeball and eyebrow. Begin a vertical guide line and box in the ear. The
biggest step is to chisel out the mouth and chin. Add in
the neck lines and indicate the top of the hairline.

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Step 5!

Add more facial details and round off the mouth,


lips, and chin. Rough out where the hair will be.
Hair will grow from above the hairline guide. Add
a neck tendon in a diagonal line.

HEADS
MALE SIDE VIEW

Step 6#

Add the finishing details and solidify


your final lines. Erase the guide lines
and clean up the image.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Now its all ready to color in!

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Step 1!

FEMALE FRONT VIEW

HEADS

Remember that all heads start by drawing a circle with a central line. It
is not necessary to draw a perfect circle. As before, remember to draw
guide lines lightly so that they can be erased later.

"Step 2

Female faces are generally rounder, smaller, and a lot less


angular than male faces. Draw two short parallel vertical
lines downwards from the side edges of the circle. Slope
the lines sharply inwards to create a smaller jaw.

Step 3!

Fill out the proportions of the face by adding in more guide lines.
Mark in where each eye goesnote these will be bigger than male
eyes. Remember to keep things symmetrical by using the central
guide line to help you. Draw a square down from the center of the
bottom of the circle. This square will form the mouth.

"Step 4

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Add in some facial details. As you would expect, features such as


the nose should be a lot less prominent. Draw in the outline of the
earsthey will help you shape the hair at a later stage. Neck lines
should fall parallel from the jaw and equidistant from the central
line. The neck should be just a bit narrower than the width of the
head. Draw in a small v to mark the hairline on the forehead.

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Step 5!

Define the eyes inside their guide boxes. The eyes should
be big and bold as this is a strong feature of manga
female characters. Add detailing to the insides of the ears
and begin to sketch in the hair around the shape of the
face. Turn the neck lines into a curved shape to suggest a
more graceful female form.

HEADS
FEMALE FRONT VIEW

Step 6#

Add the finishing details and solidify


your final lines. Put life into the eyes
by carefully shading in the pupils.
These are your characters most prominent feature so work hard to get it
right. Erase guide lines and clean up
the image.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Now its all ready to color in!

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Step 1!

FEMALE 3/4 VIEW

HEADS

Start with a circle. Because the head is at an angle, the central


line curves and is aligned left in the direction the head will be
facing. The bottom chin line is drawn at a slant.

"Step 2

On the left, draw the cheekbone as a diagonal line extending


from the circle. Join this to the bottom of the jaw or chin.
Draw the cheekbone and jaw line as shown on the diagram.

Step 3!

Draw the eye lines parallel to the chin. The top eye
line meets where the circle meets the cheek line.

"Step 4

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Extend the line down from the central line to the corner
of the guide box for the nose. Create a box for the ear.
The first neck line comes down from near the center of
the chin; the second comes down from the ear.

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Step 5!

Add details to the eyes, mouth, and ears. Rough


out where the hair will go. Remove the guide lines.

HEADS
FEMALE 3/4 VIEW

Step 6#

Add the finishing details and solidify


your final lines. Erase any guide lines
and clean up the image.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Now its all ready to color in!

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Step 1!

FEMALE SIDE VIEW

HEADS

Start by drawing a circle. It doesnt have to be perfectly round.


Intersect the circle with two lines towards the bottom right-hand
areaone line horizontal, the other vertical. As these are guide
lines only, draw them in lightly so they can later be erased.

"Step 2

Draw a box diagonally from where the intersect guides meet


the bottom of the circle. This box is the jawline guide.

Step 3!

Add in the eye line guidesthe top guide runs horizontal and
parallel to the existing intersecting line. Add in the triangle-shaped
eye. Space the horizontal lines equally and add as guides for the
bottom of the nose, mouth, and bottom lip. Also add in the point
where the bottom of the ear starts.

"Step 4

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Add in some facial detailsthe eyeball and the eyebrow.


Begin the vertical guide, box in the ear. The biggest step
is chiseling out the mouth and chin. Add in the neck lines
and where the top of the hairline is.

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Step 5!

Define more facial detailsthe eye, eyebrow, the


inside of the ear. Round off the mouth, lips, and
chin. Rough out where the hair will be. Hair will
grow from above the hairline guide. Add the neck
tendon in as a diagonal line.

HEADS

des meet
e.

FEMALE SIDE VIEW

Step 6#

Add the finishing details and solidify


your final lines. Erase the guide lines
and clean up the image.
Now its all ready to color in!

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Do your drawings look a mess after constant erasing? Try pressing your pencil more
lightly on the paper and use a pencil like a 2H. When you are happy with your work,
you can go over the lines with a darker pencil (B) or ink if you like.

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F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

fac
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ces
O

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

nce the head is drawn, you naturally need to add a face and this is the
really fun part! It is important to pay attention to detail here because the
face will give your character personality and a lot will depend on the
size and shape of the features. Drawing the face allows you to show whether a
character is male or female, young or old, or even if they are good or evil.
When we see manga faces, we can immediately tell them apart from real-life
portraits and other cartoon styles because of the particular techniques used to
create them. Consider what you would have to think about when drawing a
life-like picture of a persons face. There are a lot of details that we see including
the size and shape of the features, bone structure, and textures such as skin tone.
To animize a face, we use a degree of simplification and suggestion-this is true
for all cartoon styles but the application is unique in manga.
Manga faces are often idyllic and beautiful; they will have a flat, smooth skin
tone (wrinkles are only used to represent very old people) and simplified features.
The eyes are often large and reflect a lot of light and the nose and mouth are
represented by simple dashes or curves. As easy as this might sound, there are
right and wrong ways to draw features as outlined in this section.

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FACES

EYES

Its time to get going on the face so Ill begin with the eyes which are the hardest
part to master I think. The hair comes a close second!
Why is drawing eyes the hardest thing to master? Primarily because the eyes play
such an important role in expressing the character of your creation. Not only do you
have to make sure that the eyes are balanced, you also have to draw the eyes so
that they show the emotion inside the character. Hair might be difficult to draw but
mastering it isnt hard when compared to doing eyes.
There are many different types of eyes (and eyebrows!), and Ive included a few
examples to give you some ideas. Eyes can take many different shapes and sizes,
and they may appear fairly easy to drawthey are, but only when done badly!
Looking at the range of samples that Ive provided, do you think you can easily
spot the different male and female eyes?

EYESSTYLES

Jagged eyebrows are used for


characters that have an exceptional or
exaggerated personality. Many villains
have these eyebrows but you would very
rarely see them used for female characters!

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Streamlined eyebrows are the most


commonly used. They can be a straight line,
a hill, or a small wave.

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When drawing male eyes, male eyebrows


are created, eyelashes are omitted, and the
eyes are usually smaller than that of female
characters.

FACES

Eyes can be hooded, wide-open,


or can glint in the lightvital for
drawing character emotion.

EYESSTYLES

As different characters have different


personalities, these rules arent written in stone
and youll need to break the rules occasionally.
For example, a strong, adventurous woman
may have thicker eyebrows.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Women tend to have thin


eyebrows. The eyelashes
are thicker and the eyes
are bigger in comparison
to a male.

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Ste

"Step 1

Step 2!

Heres where most budding artists can go wrong. The lids


wrap around the contour of the orb. Imagine stretching a
sheet of rubber over a cue ball. The eyelid hugs the curvature
of the eye.

EYESSTEP-BY-STEP

FACES

Some people prefer to start with a ball, but I think this


approach produces a better eye. Begin by drawing a large
off-center v and, somewhere around the middle, draw two
opposing curved lines. This represents the orb of the eye and
helps with the general placement of the eye in the skull.

"Step 3

The eye in a relaxed state hides some of the iris behind the
lids. Notice how the iris takes up most of the surface area of
the orb. This really only occurs in manga. Also sketch in your
eyebrowas you may have already guessed, this is a female
eye so the eyebrow is thin. Youve now got the basics of your
eye in place.

Step 4!

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

It starts getting more complicated as you add the details that


will set your eyes apart from other illustrators! Have a look at
the shapes Ive sketchedthey wont make much sense at the
moment but all will be revealed as we start to color in the eye.
It is all about the reflection of light and the role of shadows.

40

Up unti
eyelids
weight
face. It
lashes w
Obviou
females
sexy ad
areas

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Step 5!

Up until now, the eye has been left fairly plain. Flesh out the
eyelids with some heavy-duty, fluttering lashes. This adds
weight to the eye so it's not simply floating around on the
face. It also draws the viewers attention. The thickness of the
lashes will depend on the character you are creating.
Obviously male characters won't have this trait and younger
females should have a thinner line. This eye is right for the
sexy adult female. Also note the small x in certain
areasthis is to show where Im going to add solid color.

large
w two
eye and
ull.

EYESSTEP-BY-STEP

A specular is the reflection of light on a reflective surface.


The placement of the specular on the eye should be indicative
of the local source of light. If the light is coming from the
upper left, the specular should be on the upper left of the iris.
In this case, the light enters the eye from the upper left and
exists through the lower right. In manga, speculars are also
used to add emotion to a character. For example, sparkling
light brings life to happy eyes.

FACES

"Step 6

nd the
area of
in your
a female
s of your

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Heres the finished eyebetter get on


with the other one!

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NOSES & MOUTHS

NOSES & MOUTHSSTYLES

FACES

Manga-style noses and mouths are pretty straightforward, so rather than taking you
through various types step-by-step, I have included a number of examples to give you
an idea of the styles that you can use.
The basic style for nose and mouth consists of three simple steps: a wedge for
the nose; a long, thin line for the mouth; and a shorter line to define the lower lip
(although this lower line is not always included). With frontal views, you can get
away with using very few lines to define the nose and mouth. The size and shape
of each feature varies with each character.

The main thing to consider is the curve of the


nose, lips, and chin. The upper lip curves
inwards, and the lower lip curves outwards.

Female characters will tend to


have smaller, less defined noses,
while male characters will often
have longer, angular noses.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Even though the proportions


and expressions may change,
most noses and mouths stick to
the same basic shapes.

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However, it may take some practice before your


character doesnt look like they are making a
weird face or puckering their lips!

FACES

Manga mouths are not often very large,


unless the character is yelling or shouting,
so try to keep them relatively small.

NOSES & MOUTHSSTYLES

When drawing faces in profile, try not to


make the noses really pointy or the face too
flat. Make sure the features curve properly or
the face is going to look slightly strange.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Several of the examples here can


be used for either gender. Notice
that with some styles only a thin,
straight line defines the mouth.

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Page 44

EXPRESSI0NS

EXPRESSIONS

FACES

This is all pretty much self-explanatoryyou put an expression on a face to give the
viewer as clear an idea as possible of the emotion that your character is expressing
or experiencing.
On the following pages, you will find a number of expressions that will cover most
of the basic emotions that your characters are likely to feel. Try drawing the expressions one by oneyoull soon get a feel for placement of the various features and
how different expressions can radically change your characters look!

"ANGRY
This is the face of someone who is really, really mad!
The eyebrows come down sharply, the pupils shrink, and
you get a pulsating vein on the forehead. Fanged teeth
help convey the emotion!

ANNOYED!
The pupils are still small but there are no popping veins or
fanged teeth! The mouth goes up in an upside-down lopsided u. The eyebrows still come down but not as far.

"EVIL

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

One of my favorites! The eyebrows are drawn thinly and


look sharp, pointing downwards. Dark eyelids obscure the
iris and pupils giving a hooded look. The nose is small and
pointed and the mouth is thin and slightly upturned at each
corner suggesting a sly smile.

44

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FRIENDLY!
The eyebrows are up. A thin line follows the upper curve
of the eye to convey a relaxed state. The mouth is a sideways D.

The eyes are shut from laughing or smiling. The mouth is a


huge, sideways D and the eyebrows are up. You could
even add some blush to the cheeks if you wanted to make
really sure your character looks happy.

FACES

"HAPPY

EXPRESSIONS

SAD!
The eyebrows are up, the mouth is a downturned line, and
the open eyes have more sparkles in them to convey a wet
look. Tears are visible in the corners of each eye.

"SURPRISE
The eyebrows are up! The eyes are very wide open but
the pupils are small. The mouth takes the shape of a sort
of lopsided o.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Having trouble with drawing faces and expressions? Try keeping a little mirror with
you as you draw. Just pull the type of face youre after and draw what you see!

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HAIR

FACES

Hair can be particularly difficult to draw but, unfortunately, its just something that
takes practice and cannot be taught with a simple step-by-step. The different styles
are just too numerous to cover in this book!
Depending on the style, manga hair can be very complex. However, if you break it
down into its basic components, the process of drawing manga hair becomes a little
simpler.

HAIRTYPES

Like real hair, manga hair is


composed of many strands.
However, rather than drawing
each individual strand, the hair
is often drawn in various sized
or shaped clumps.

You can either make the hair very detailed


or very simple, depending on how many
individual strands you draw.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

You can create some really interesting hair by


having it twist and turn all over the page.

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Keep in mind that you can make the


hair as detailed as you likejust keep
adding more strands.

FACES

Once you know how to draw each strand or clump of


hair, you can start putting them together to form
something that closely resembles anime hair.

HAIRTYPES

Similar shapes generally persist across different types of


hairstyle. Making one line curve out more than another on
each strand can really help flesh it out.

The size and shape of each strand


gives the hair different character; the
strands can be long and thin, thick and
curvy, or sharp and spiky.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

air by
e.

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F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

HAN
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NDS
H

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

ere I will be talking about drawing hands. Hands are absolutely vital to
the overall look of your finished artwork. Many people treat them as an
afterthought and yet think about how much you use your hands every
day. So, take your time to get the basics right to ensure the hands are every bit
as good as other aspects of your character studies.
The basic form and procedure for creating hands is similar to that of figure
drawing. You break the overall shape down to simpler sizes, and then connect
them all together. With good composition, you can draw hands from
any possible angle.
When drawing hands, try not to think of detailed contours but rather about the
composition of the hand structure broken down into simpler terms. Remember how
many different aspects there are to a handin effect, its a torso with five limbs!
It can also take on many different shapes and forms, all adding particular
aspects to your character and the overall composition. A clenched fist, a wave,
a thumbs-upthey all project very different stories and are vital to enforcing the
image of your characters actions.
However, if youre still struggling with the complexities of hands after going
through the advice in this section, dont panic! The great thing about manga is
that you are encouraged to be creative with your drawings. If you cant draw
a human hand then make it something else!!!

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HANDS

STYLES

HANDS

Hands can be a nightmare for most artists. Its hard to create a hand in basic
shapes so break it up into major forms and really pay attention to where it
folds and bends.

Have a look at the various examples to


get a feel for how hands are constructed.
The hand is a bit like a shovel.
The palm gives you the lines
you need to see where it bends.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

The thumb side of the palm


pivots from the center.

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Never make the hand a


flat wedge. It curves
and follows the contours
of the lines on the palm.

HANDS

It is essential to recognize
how the joints in the
fingers and wrist work if
you are to draw an
accurate representation of
a hand in action.

STYLES

Even when drawing a hand from the rear,


pay attention to the fold lines on the palm.
This will help you draw more natural
positions for the thumb and fingers.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Notice how shading is vital


for highlighting the actions
that hands are carrying out.

51

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!Step 1

Step 2"

Now draw a gently curving line across the bottom half of


the orbthis will provide a guide to the middle of the
outstretched palm. Also add a simple curve around
three-quarters of the orb as this marks the end of the fingers.

STEP-BY-STEP

HANDS

Start with a simple orb. Make sure it doesnt take up


too much room on the paper as you will need to draw
quite a lot around it. I know it seems strange starting
out with a circle but, trust me, it will all come together!

!Step 3

At this stage, its time to add in the fingers and thumb


as simple tubes. As you can see, its starting to look like
a hand already! Notice how the thumb projects from
the point where the palm line touches the circle.

Step 4"

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Now that its beginning to look like a hand, start shaping the
overall form. Erase your initial guide lines.

52

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Step 5"

Round off the fingers and thumb at both ends.


You now have fingers with tips and a clear
indication of where the fingers and thumb join
the palm. Square off the original circle to give the
hand its recognizable flatter, more angular shape.

STEP-BY-STEP

Add in all the details to really bring


your hand to life. The best way to do
this is to look at your own hand. Note
the use of simple lines to create
effective wrinkles and creases that all
add to the realistic look of the hand.

HANDS

!Step 6

Step 7"

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Color puts the icing on the cake. Use careful but


simple shading to bring out the tones of the hand
and emphasize its position and action.

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F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

FIGUR

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URES
H

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

aving looked at constructing the head and face, we can begin to


address the body. Again, this is a very important stage where we define
the characters appearance in terms of size and muscle structure,
proportion, and chosen style.
What are the differences between manga proportions and real-life proportions?
Many animanga characters, especially the main heroes, are teenagers or young
adultsthe reason is because this media is largely marketed at the age group that
identifies with them most. Such characters are often slim and athletic with longer
legs than real-life individuals.
The characters pose is depicted by the body and is one of the most descriptive
parts of the picture. Think about the angles you could use to make the picture
visually interesting and what body language can suggest to help explain a
characters actions and movement. You should think of yourself as a film director
who chooses specific camera angles and tells the actors how you want them to
move and act in a given situation. This analogy is worth using again when we
come to look at creating manga layouts and panels.
Whether someone is in a dynamic action shot or slouching in a chair, this has a
direct effect on the composition of the picture and gives us information about that
characters actions, personality, and the overall mood of the scene. Dont think too
deeply about the construction of your picture; these are just considerations that
should be in the back of your mindafter some practice, youll come up with
ingenious ideas for how to get the most from your poses.

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Page 56

BASIC SHAPES

FIGURES

Look at the shapes below. Seem simple, huh? Well, practice them until you cant
draw anymore, and then practice some more, because these shapes form the
cornerstone of all the figurework you are ever likely to do in manga.
Whenever youre bored, doodle these shapes and practice shading and
developing them, maybe even linking the shapes together. Over the next few
pages, youll discover just why they are so important.

SQUARE

3
4

BASIC SHAPES

PYRAMID

CIRCLE

Th

Twice
eye

CUBE

SPHERE

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

TRIANGLE

6 12

56

CYLINDER

CONE

Sligh
the ne
elb

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PROPORTIONS
Average Manga Proportions
Note: The body is in proportion with the size of the
eyes and the head.

BODY HEIGHT

LOWER ARM

LEGS

6 12 712 head heights high.

Distance from the wrist to


the elbow is slightly more
than one head height
(same as length of foot).

About half the overall height.

HAND

KNEE

About 4 head height long.

Two head heights above


the bottom of the foot.

3 2 eye heights high by


4412 eye widths wide.
1

EYES
A little more than one
eye width apart.

Same width as height of head


(distance between armpits).

LOWER LEG (CALF)

BUST

FOOT
Its length is slightly more than
the height of the head.

Three eye widths wide.

Fullest point falls one head


height below the chin.
The breasts are three
eye widths wide.

SHOULDERS

WAIST

Twice as wide as the head; one


eye height below the chin.

Falls one eye height below the


elbow, slightly less than
the width of the chest.

MOUTH

NECK

UPPER ARM
Slightly less than the width of
the neckthe distance from the
elbow to the armpit is one
head height.

HIPS
134 2 times the
width of the head.

Same as the neck.

PROPORTIONS

About one eye height


above the chin.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

CHEST/HIGH BUST

Almost as wide as the head.

FIGURES

HEAD

UPPER LEG (THIGH)

These average proportions


will work for either a male
or female character. For a
male character, you may
wish to slightly expand the
width of the chest and
make the hips 134 the
width of the head. For a
female character, keep the
width of the chest the same
as the height of the head
but make the hips two
head widths wide.

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Step 1"

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

FEMALE FRONT VIEW

FIGURES

All right, now that weve gone


over some of the major areas
in detail, lets put them all
together and make a full body
pose. When drawing your
subject, you can either begin
with the preliminary ovals and
circles, or you can go straight
to the final draft, whichever
you are most comfortable with.
If you are using circles and
ovals, then you will notice that
the main body (torso and
pelvis) is composed of a basic
triangular shape which curves
inwards towards the stomach.

!Step 2

Make sure that this shape is


aligned along the central guide
line, as shown in the head.
This guide line in the head can
basically be continued to form
the spine of the character and
will determine her pose. Notice
that the central line curves a
little to the right on the pelvis
because her weight is shifted
and her right hip sticks out
slightly. This makes the pose a
little more interesting than if her
weight were evenly balanced.

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Step 3"

FIGURES

The body can be divided in half


equally if the central line in the
head is continued down the length
of the body. Use this as a general
reference when determining how
long the legs should be in proportion with the rest of the body yet,
often in manga, the length of the
legs is exaggerated, for both
males and females, and looks just
fine. When drawing the midsection, remember to try to keep the
hourglass shape of the figure.

FEMALE FRONT VIEW

!Step 4

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Female manga characters will


generally have thin shoulders, a
thin stomach, and a somewhat
rounded waist. Take care to make
the curves look natural, unless you
are really good at figure drawing
and can exaggerate the proportions. Begin by adding clothes (as
many or as little as you like) to
cover up those areas that can be
particularly hard to draw. It is
very difficult to draw the female
bust, for example, so use clothing
to make this easier and hide any
parts of the figure you are not
happy with.

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Step 5"

FEMALE FRONT VIEW

FIGURES

Its time to add in the final


detailsnails to the
fingers, detail to the eyes
and ears, and think carefully about creases and
shading on the clothes.

!Step 6

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Remember to make the


eyes big and almondshaped. Notice how
adding in eyelashes opens
up the eyes even more,
and helps accentuate the
femininity of the face.

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FIGURES
FEMALE FRONT VIEW

!Step 7

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Youre now ready to


use color but
remember to keep it
simple for maximum
effect! Youve just
created your first
female manga figure.

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Step 1"

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

MALE FRONT VIEW

FIGURES

Start building your figure


using basic shapes. Look at
the arms. They consist of three
basic sections: the upper arm,
the forearm, and the hand.
Each can be represented by
preliminary sketches using
oval shapes. I know some
people don't like using
shapes to draw a figure:
you dont have to sketch arms
in this way; it is just one possible way of going about it.

!Step 2

Some recommend using


cylinders, but its better to use
flat ovals because they more
closely match the shape of
the arm. If the arms are held
loosely at the sides as here,
the hands should come down
to the middle of the thigh.
The elbows should be at
about waist length.

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Step 3"

FIGURES

Draw in some hair and add


the outlines of the costume.
Note how the male figure
does not have sloping shoulders like female characters.
The body tends to be made
up of solid blocks or slabs of
shape rather than smaller,
curved shapes. Drawing the
hands as clenched fists
suggests strength and power
in the pose.

MALE FRONT VIEW

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

g
to use
more
e of
e held
here,
down
gh.
at

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Step 4"

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

MALE FRONT VIEW

FIGURES

Its time to give your figure


drawing some life. Start to
add in the smaller details.
Notice how the ripples and
creases on clothes can help
to define the idea of muscles
underneath (without actually
having to draw them).

!Step 5

Remember to keep the lines


and the detailing simple,
but notice that tiny details,
such as giving your character stubble or a slight frown
by angling the eyebrows
downwards, can add a
great deal to your picture.

64

Learn to draw realisticallyonce you've gained some proficiency in


this, try doing it manga-style. It's much easier to stylize something
once you know the basics of anatomy.

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FIGURES

!Step 6

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

MALE FRONT VIEW

The coloring stage can often make


or break your figure drawing.
Use careful shading to accentuate
body parts, such as the biceps,
and to highlight individual
aspects, such as the hair or eyes.
Often color can be used to draw
attention to character aspects that
are hard to highlight with just a
sketch. You could, for example,
match hair color with aspects of
the clothes to build up a stronger
overall image.

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Step 1"

FEMALE 3/4 VIEW

FIGURES

This time, try using a different


method to structure your figure.
Instead of ovals and other shapes,
lets construct the figure using
simple, curved lines with dots to
highlight the joints. It looks a bit
like a join-the-dots picture!

!Step 2

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

This technique essentially stems from


the stick-people doodles that weve all
done at some point or another. The
emphasis is on keeping things simple,
but think carefully about where the
joints are as they accurately help
construct a pose for your figure.

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Step 3"

FIGURES

Now build up some bones


around the original lines
and dots. Before long,
youll end up with a figure
that starts to resemble a
human skeleton.

FEMALE 3/4 VIEW

!Step 4

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Youll notice that the pose


still looks slightly awkward
at this stage, and the
figure is robotic-looking
rather than human.

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Step 5"

Page 68

FIGURES

Look out for the neck at this angle;


it connects up into the skull and
should be obscured by part of the
face. The midsection should be
somewhat hourglass-shaped, but
again, dont overexaggerate the
curve unless you really know your
anatomy (you have to know the
basics before you can start bending the rules). Don't overdefine the
lines on the behind, since there's
little reason to. Be careful when
drawing the arms; from the back,
the elbows should be more prominent than usual.

FEMALE 3/4 VIEW


F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

4:09 pm

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FIGURES
FEMALE 3/4 VIEW

!Step 6

Now that youve got some flesh


on the bones, erase your original
guide lines and start building in
more details. Notice how very
small, simple, curved lines help to
give a suggestion of how your
figure is posed, such as the curved
lines at the backs of the knees and
the slight arch in the back.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Experiment with as many varieties of media as possible. Chances are


you'll find something you like beyond your pencil.

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F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

FEMALE 3/4 VIEW

FIGURES

Manga 144 sections 48-75

!Step 7

Add some very basic


blocks of color. Feel free
to stop at this stage if
you want toyour figure
is now perfectly formed.
However, if you really
want to go to town

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FIGURES
FEMALE 3/4 VIEW

Step 8"

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

...then you can use color to


emphasize the pose of your figure
and even suggest aspects of the
backdrop. This all adds character
and life to your drawing.

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Step 1"

FIGURES

Remember all those stick


people you used to draw in
school? Here is where you
realize how useful they
were. Begin with a loose
stick figure as your foundation. Note that the form is
about 7 heads high. You
can draw a line straight up
and down from the top of
the head to the bottom of
the feet. Body mass is
distributed equally on both
sides for balance.

!Step 2

FEMALE REAR VIEW

The female torso can have a


casual yet sexy stance by
slanting the shoulders and
hips in different directions.

!Step 3

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

In manga, the legs are made to look


slightly longer than the upper half of
the body. The knees are located
halfway between the top of the hip
and the bottom of the foot.

72
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Step 4"

FIGURES

Now we start to flesh out


the illustration. You have to
be good at drawing cylinders and ovals to do this
correctly. Study muscle
groups to get an idea of
how the shoulders, arms,
and legs are shaped. Try
to use only curved lines.
Nothing on a human being
is ruler-straight, especially
a female figure who is
all curves!

FEMALE REAR VIEW

!Step 5

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Now start tightening up your


art. Grab a kneaded eraser
and start blotting away the
fine, sketchy lines, keeping
only the lines that you wish
to use for your final piece.
Tidying up your drawing at
this stage makes the next
stage much easier.

73
Kenneth Torgerson

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Step 6"

FEMALE REAR VIEW

FIGURES

Gradually start to complete


the character by outlining
the fleshed-out sketch from
the last stage and
smoothening over all the
joints used to build the
illustration. The eraser is
very important at this point
as you remove stray lines to
get a clean, usable piece
of art.

!Step 7

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Start by correcting any of


the mistakes made during
the building process and get
the line art as complete as
possible, in preparation for
inking. Theres nothing
worse than inking over
sloppy pencil lines, so make
it as accurate as possible.

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FIGURES
FEMALE REAR VIEW

!Step 8

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Now use color to bring


your character to life.

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F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

CLOTH

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THING
C

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

reating a character is not just about drawing the figure; careful


consideration must be given to clothing and accessories, too. The clothes
worn by a character not only enhance their personality and give us clues
about who they are, but they open up a whole new range of drawing techniques.
Whereas a body has standard forms and shapes, simplified to cylinders and
circles, textiles come in many shapes, sizes, colors, and textures.
We see clothing as a three-dimensional form and surface on which light
reflects. This shows up as folds and we can imagine what sort of texture a fabric
might have by the shadows and highlights. Different fabrics reflect different
amounts of light; leather, for example, is very reflective compared to tweed
which absorbs light.
Have this in the back of your mind as you attempt to draw clothing that looks
realistic. In manga, however, many costumes seem to defy gravity, such as
billowing capes and tall hats that couldnt possibly exist in real life. This is where
we can use some artistic license in making the character look dramatic and giving
the picture added visual impact. Try sketching several outfits over the frame of a
character and play around with the designs each time to see how far you can go
without making it look ridiculous.
It is important not to feel daunted. In manga, you can simplify all these things
and still achieve wonderful illustrations. On the following pages, a few secrets
will be revealed that will help you come up with stunning results!

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CLOTHING

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

STYLES

CLOTHING

Ive included some examples of basic folds. Notice the movement in each instance.
The fabric flows downwards if pulled down by gravity, but folds become more
horizontal than vertical the further they are stretched. Also notice how the folds
are sometimes nested within one another. Folds follow the direction in which the
cloth is being pulled.

Generally, you shade along a


fold line, or anywhere you think
a shadow might be cast.

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It helps to look at actual


folds and see where you
need to shade.

As practice, try sketching the drapes of a towel


when slung over a chair. You will start to get a
better feel for how clothing needs to be shaded.

CLOTHING
STYLES

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Remember to use
shading to give your
subjects more form.

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F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

DRESSING A CHARACTER

CLOTHING

There are thousands of different styles for


clothes, so rather than try to cover them all,
I thought I would show you how clothes
behave on the body. You can at least then
get the physics right and design whatever
style of clothing you wish.
When you first draw your character, don't
worry about initially putting clothes on.
Instead, make sure you have fleshed them out
correctly. Clothes flow over the body like
water. The folds on clothes are determined by
kinetic force and gravity.
You have to imagine the way that the
fabric will be pulled, both by gravity and the
motion of the wearer. Notice the clothing is
smooth and taut over areas that are bent or
which push against the fabric. Fold lines
radiate out and away from bends.

Imagine hoops around your arms, waist,


neck, and legs. If you raise your arm,
how does the hoop hang? Which part of
your arm is touching the hoop? The part
that touches it is where the clothing would
outline your arm and the folds would radiate out and away from this point. Clothes
bunch up and hang in the opposite direction to the motion of the body.
The most important thing to consider
whenever you are drawing clothing or
any type of fabric for that matter is the
direction that the fabric is going to be
pulled in. Folds are caused wherever the
fabric is being stretched or pulled; figure
out how exactly you want the fabric to
move, and the rest is pretty easy.
Remember to consider the figure beneath
the clothing; the clothing should reveal
the shape of the figure.

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CLOTHING
DRESSING A CHARACTER

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Having trouble with clothes? You can buy realistic paper dolls featuring
styles from every decade to traditional clothes from other cultures!

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F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

ACCESSO
& WEAPO

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SSORIES
PONS
I

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

n addition to clothing, think about adding extra adornments to your character


such as trinkets, personal artefacts, and jewellery. Not only are these visually
interesting, they also help promote the personality of your character, suggest
events that occurred throughout their lifetime, and give clues about their culture
and background. Consider what adventures they may have had and what
souvenirs they might have picked up on their travelsa necklace, a bracelet, a
ring, or a hat are all favorites, but your ideas will depend on the characters age,
gender, and the setting of the story (science fiction, medieval, school, etc).
Another great way of emphasizing a characters occupation or interests is to
highlight tools of the trade. For example, a computer hacker may be inseparable
from her laptop, a spy may have an array of communication devices all over his
body, and most fantasy characters will have exotic weapons of some description.
In most modern and sci-fi comic book settings, guns and blades are often the
weapons of choice, both because there is style to them and because they have
great destructive power. However, manga is firmly rooted in Japanese culture and
tradition, and its important to remember that through martial arts, many everyday
objects and farming tools were adopted as weapons. The most common of traditional weapons are the Katana (sword), Bo (wooden staff), and Nunchaku (two
wooden lengths attached by a length of chain).
For more ideas, put some research into this topic using magazines, books, and
the Web so you can adapt various weapons to your creations. Not only will this
be rewarding, but youll also be creating original designs that will be appreciated
by those who view your work.

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ACCESSORIES & WEAPONS

The most important point to remember when creating accessories, whether clothes,
weapons, or jewellery, is to draw them with the necessary amount of detail. Be
imaginative by all means but make the effort to fill in the details.

ACCESSORIES

ACCESSORIES &
WEAPONS

It is possible to
draw the necklace by placing 6 circles
next to one
another, but
does it look
effective?
Why go to
all the effort
of creating a
visually stunning
character but then
rush the accessories?

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

84

You would think the buckle of


a belt is simple to draw but
most people represent
it as a square box
on a thick line. A
little attention to
detail will make
your illustration
look sharper.
Draw the buckle
as shown here
with the strap
overlapping the
back end of the
buckle and the thickness
of the belt clearly visible.

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Because of the nature of manga,


weapons are often very important
accessories for many characters, and you
may want to include some with your own
creations. Look at these two examples of a
knife. With the use of foreshortening on
the larger of the two examples, you can
create a very dynamic in-your-face
drawingthis adds a great deal of
vibrancy and menace to
your composition.

ACCESSORIES &
WEAPONS

WEAPONS

kle of
w but
resent
e box
ne. A
on to
make
ration
arper.
buckle
here
strap
ng the
of the
kness
sible.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

You might also want to consider


the careful use of lens flares and
shading to bring some realism and
life to your accessories. Light glinting
off a curved sword or a twirling mace
can radically increase the dynamic
impact of your illustration.

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F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Act

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tion
N

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

othing helps with action drawing like good reference material. Get your
friends to pose for you or clip pictures from magazines. Any time you see
a pose that you like, GRAB IT! You never know when you might need it.
After a while, you'll be able to draw from your imagination.
When choosing a pose for your character, think about his or her personality and
how he or she moves. For instance, when walking, one character may strut along
confidently while another may drag his or her feet and walk along with his or her
head hung low. The mood you show depends on the pose, as well as the facial
expression. Try to imagine how you stand or move in different moods.
The only way to get good at drawing action shots is to practice. In the following
examples, Ive covered running, jumping, fighting, and falling. Think about all the
things you have learnt so far about figure drawing and clothing and bring them to
bear on the examples that follow.

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The key here is the


stick figure and
the line of motion.
Lots of artists get
all caught up in
the clothes and
muscles and
details way too
early in the
drawing. The key
to a good action
pose is a strong
foundation and the
stick figure will
help us with that.

FALLING

ACTION

Manga 144 sections 86-99

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

First draw the


line of motion.
This smooth, curving line runs from
the top of the
characters head,
through the body
via the spine,
and out. Build the
stick figure on this
line and flesh out
the character
around it.

88

Draw! Draw! Draw! Bored? Take out a piece of paper and doodle.
Tired of watching TV? Draw that favorite anime character! When you
draw every day, it makes a big difference!

Use oth
such
clo
acc
em
speed
Everythi
upwar
the wind
past a
of gra
the

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FALLING

he
on.
, curvs from
he
head,
body
e,
ild the
on this
sh out
er

ACTION

Here Ive got a


scary falling
sequence going
on. The character
is waving his
limbs and clearly
dropping like a
stone. Concentrate
on the shape and
angles of the limbs
to make the action
more believable
and dynamic.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Use other features,


such as the hair,
clothing, and
accessories, to
emphasize the
speed of the fall.
Everything pointing
upwards suggests
the wind is rushing
past as the force
of gravity acts on
the character.

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The first key to drawing action


poses is to go for broke. Its
better to push the character
too far than not enough. Go
for poses that are dramatic,
almost frightening! Action
poses must also have a sweep
to them, with the character
traveling in a given direction.

JUMPING

ACTION

Step 1!

"Step 2

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

This is as complicated as you


should get when making a
stick figure...stay fast and
loose. Make little circles to
show the position of the joints
and the head. Dont worry
about fingers and toes. Just
make a solid stick person.
Dont forget your line of action.

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ACTION
JUMPING

"Step 3

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

The pose here is a prelude to


another action. Clearly our character is going to descend on a target,
using her aggression to either
defend herself or attack someone
else! You can clearly see the flow
of the poseits a classic stance
with the arm raised above the
head, adding huge drama to the
illustration. The knees are tucked
up, clearly showing that the character has left the ground! The rest of
the legs and torso are fairly straight.
The raised arm also suggests a
forward and downward motion.

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F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

JUMPING

ACTION

Step 4!

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You want to make it seem as if


the character is bursting out of
the picture, almost attacking the
reader! You achieve this by making it appear as if the figure is
above the viewer, coming down
ambush-style! Notice how the
characters clothing suggests
a lot of movement. Even the
frown of the eyebrows shows the
character is making an aggressive downwards movement.

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ACTION

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

JUMPING

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ACTION

Manga 144 sections 86-99

"STEP 1

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

RUNNING

Use your knowledge of creating


figures to sketch out your runner.
Notice how a curved or angled
line of action can be used to pull
your character towards the viewer.
It can also be used to help
exaggerate a position.

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ACTION
RUNNING

Step 2!

Here you see the use of some


foreshortening in the pelvis and
the shoulders because we are
looking at the character from a
slight angle. When running, the
center of gravity lies in front of
the resting point.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Before you ink, try and relax your hands in some way
a shaky hand will leave the line art looking messy.

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RUNNING

ACTION

Manga 144 sections 86-99

Step 3!

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

As you can see, this is an unbalanced pose resulting in the figures falling motion. She won't
fall, of course, because she is
running at high speed and will
have to put one foot in front of the
other before hitting the ground.

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ACTION
RUNNING

Step 4!

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

The loosely flowing hair and the


folds in the characters clothing
all give the impression of movement. Remember, its not just
body shape that helps the viewer
to interpret a characters actions.

97

PUNCHING

ACTION

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Page 98

With a fighting
illustration youve
got to make
the picture as
dynamic as
possible if it is to
have any effect
on the viewer.
Rough out your
illustration using
the tried and
tested ovals and
sticks. It doesnt
look like much to
begin with but
already you can
see the movement in the
composition.

As you start to
flesh in the two
figures, you can
begin to see the
dynamics of the
punch. The force
of the punch is
shown in the
shape and
position of the
characters.
Choosing an
angle that shows
the moment of
impact really
pulls this action
piece together.

When
th
cleanin
work a
in
sure t
rate
translate
ta
The ed
fist an
quick
lowing
tion th
is tra
T
kno
from

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Booo

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PUNCHING

rt to
e two
u can
ee the
of the
e force
ch is
he

ACTION

Now THAT had


to hurt! The use
of foreshortening
crumples the
targets body. He
probably wont
be getting up for
a while. Also,
the attackers
body is very
much a part of
this punchall
the balance is
thrown into it,
giving the
impression of a
mighty delivery.

When you get to


the stage of
cleaning up your
work and adding
in details, be
sure to incorporate lines that
translate the action
taking place.
The edges of the
fist and arm are
quick strokes following the direction that the arm
is traveling in.
The head is
knocked back
from the point
of impact.

the

.
an
shows
nt of
lly
ction
ther.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Booooom!

99

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F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

color

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oring
A

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

ll great compositions partly owe their success to color. Maybe you


think the artist just needs to stay within the lines and then they end up
with a fantastic picture. Well, its not as easy as that. Over the following
pages, you will find a selection of tips for getting the most from color, and
valuable advice that will help you think before putting a single pixel of color
in your drawing.
Okay, I know what you're thinking: Come on! I know what red, blue, or yellow
looks like. I dont need you to tell me about it. Maybe so. But remember, when
youre out of ideas, always come back to the basics. You might learn something new!
Always remember that colors will create a certain atmosphere in your drawing.
So think carefully about what mood you want to give your work before starting out
with a color simply because its your favorite. It doesnt work that way.

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COLOR

Some useful terms you should familiarize yourself with:

HUE

COLORING

A pure color; the color itself (red, yellow, blue, etc).

INTENSITY

This refers to the brightness of a color. In order to lower a colors intensity (dull down),
add a small amount of its complement, its opposite color (more about complements
later). For example, to dull down red, add a bit of green. If equal amounts of red and
green are mixed, the color becomes brown, not a dulled-down red.

VALUE

COLORS

This refers to the lightness or darkness of a color. For example, to lighten a color,
simply add white.

PRIMARY COLORS

Red, yellow, and blue. They are the basic colors that make up all the other colors of
the color wheel. For example, if you mix red and yellow, you get the secondary color
(orange). Mix red and blueyou get purple. Mix blue and yellowyou get green.
And, from there, you can create tertiary colors like turquoise (a blue-green color) or
fuschia (a red-purple color).

SECONDARY COLORS

Orange, violet, and green. These are made mixing any of the primary colors as
explained above.

TERTIARY COLORS

Colors made by mixing a primary and its secondary color.

NEUTRAL COLORS

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

When equal amounts of two complementary colors are used, a neutral gray or brown
is made.

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Page 103

COLOR MOODS

These are the basic moods:


Warm colors (red, orange)suggest heat, energy, passion etc.
Cool colors (blue, green)suggest cold, calm, relaxation etc.
Light colors (added white)lightness, freedom, air, floating etc.
Dark colors (added black)oppression, small, closed area etc.
Colorful (bright colors)excitement, life, strong energy etc.

COLORING

Before we get into the real coloring tips, its worth bearing a question in mind. Have
you ever experienced looking at your drawing and saying I cant stop looking at this
or that but I don't know why! The answer probably lies in the color. Look at the
following list. It shows which colors are likely to make the most impact, from the one
that gets most attention in a picture to the one that gets the least.

YELLOW
ORANGE
PINK

COLORS

RED
YELLOW-ish BROWN
LIGHT-GREEN
GREEN
LIGHT BLUE
BLUE
PURPLE
VIOLET

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

So before you go crazy with colors, bear this in mindthe little yellow hat you give
your character could gain far more attention than you wanted.
Be careful!

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COLORING

SHADOW
SHADING

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

SHADOWS, SHADING & INKING

INKING

2:44 pm

AND

Inking is by far the most


important skill that a
manga artist needs to
master. Although it is very
similar to a pencil, a pen
requires much more
precision and patience.
However, the rules that
apply to penciling also
apply to inking, so let us
look at the basic skills of
drawing lines before
anything else.
The most crucial skill of
drawing is to learn to
control the thickness and
consistency of a line.
Drawing nice, clean lines
sounds perfectly easy but
this is a skill that takes lots
of time to master.

104

Page 104

Shading can be a bit


tricky at first but its not as
difficult as it seems. One
side of a shape is light
and the others are darkened. This is all you need
to know when shading:
what the light doesnt hit
is darkened. Picture the
light source and the object
which is being hit by the
lightwhich part will the
light hit? How far will the
light go? What you have
to keep in mind is where
the light source is coming

from. If the light is far


above, the shadow will
be shorter: if the light is
lower, the shadow will
become longer. Its also
worth remembering the
shape of the object on
which you are applying
a shadow. Every shape
has its own unique cast.
The triangle has a pointy
shadow, the circle has a
circular shadow, the
cylinder has a rectangular
shadow, and the square
has an L-like shadow.

The ability to produce


clean lines originates from
two factorsarm control
and pressure.
A mistake that beginners
often make while learning
to draw is using only the
wrist during the drawing
process. In order to
produce nice lines, you
must use your entire arm.
Using the whole arm
increases control, thus
producing straighter, more
confident lines. Granted it
is not easy (your arm will
hurt for a while), but
nevertheless, its a skill that
has to be mastered.
A good practice in using
your arm for drawing is to
draw vertical or horizontal

lines across a moderatelysized sheet of paper. You


will immediately notice that
it is easier to draw clean,
straight lines when you use
your entire arm.
Thickness is determined by
two factors: angle and
pressure. The angle of the
pen or pencil to the
surface of the paper is
proportional to the area on
which the tip comes into
contact with the paper.
Therefore altering the
angle of your pen can
easily alter the thickness.
In the case of a ballpoint
or nib pen, an angle
closest to 90 will produce
the thinnest line. This is
usually true for a pencil,

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with the help of a computer. The other method is by


hand with actual pens. This
is the more traditional inking method and still the
most popular.

getting to grips with nibs


and a bottle of ink, then
never fear. There are some
superb felt tips pens
available that will produce
excellent results. They
come in a range of sizes,
produce beautiful, clean
lines, wont splatter, and
you can get a decent set
for under $20! However,
be careful if youre
left-handed as you may
smudge the lines you draw.
No matter what type of
pen you use, you will need
to trace your sketch.
You can either take the
The best way to ink by
sketch itself and ink the
hand is with an inking kit.
sketch directlythen, using
These usually consist of a
a soft eraser, rub the pencil
special pen with a slit at
lines away. Or you
the end for the pen nib.
can get a light box and
Nibs come in many differtrace the picture on to a
ent styles and sizes, all
new piece of paper.
designed to be dipped in a This second option might
bottle of ink.
be preferable for the beginThe results from an inking ner as you dont run the
kit can be second to none, risk of ruining your original
but if you cant face
sketch.

COLORING
SHADOWS, SHADING & INKING

too, but since the tip


becomes dulled fairly fast
in a pencil, the point may
not be at the center.
Pencils should be rotated
to keep the same thickness
and avoid oversharpening.
Pressure influences nib
pens and pencils but has
little or no effect on ballpoints. Controlling the
amount of strength exerted
on the pen or pencil also
takes a lot of practice.
In general, a pen or pencil
requires only a small
amount of force to
produce nice lines.
Unnecessary pressure not
only draws thick, unclean
lines, but will ruin the tip.
Try drawing quicker, lighter
strokes to avoid exerting
too much pressure.
A manga drawing is not
truly complete until it has at
least been inked. There are
two major methods of inking that I am familiar with.
The first is inking digitally

Page 105

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Rushing your inking might leave mistakes or unwanted and stray lines, so take your time.

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F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

SCANN
& CGING

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NNING

NG
W

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

hat is CGing? CG is short for Computer Graphics. Sometimes, youll


hear CG being referred to as CGI, which means the same thing,
Computer Generated Imagery. CG and CGI are broad-ranging terms
that cover any type of artwork made on a computer. From a scratchy image put
together in Windows Paint, to a manipulated and edited photo in Adobe
Photoshop, these are all examples of CG.
This section is not an-everything-you-need-to-know about CGingwed need a
whole book for that! But I will cover some aspects, from scanning and clean-up to
coloring, to provide a very basic foundation in CG artwork.
Why CG? Have you ever heard anyone say, Everythings going to computers?
Thats partially the case here, and theres a good reason why. Computers are
capable of so much! Over the years, computers have evolved into tools for a
vast range of different uses. At first, computer graphics were simplistic and
fake-looking. Graphics software had to be written in-house and was hard to understand and utilize. Nowadays, however, computers and their users are capable of
producing imagery that looks just as good as traditional style artwork and sometimes even better. Add that to the flexibility and functionality of computers and
youve got a pretty good reason to make the jump to CG.

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SCANNING & COLORING

SCANNING &
CGing

SCANNING

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Its important to be able to


transfer your pictures into a
digital format on the computer without losing any of
the original quality. Its also
good to know how to
enhance your images to
make them look cleaner
and sharper than your
original artwork.
A scanning menu or
window appears. Set the
scanner to 300dpi (dots
per inch) and 50% or
100% print size. I usually
use 50%, as I only have
120MB of RAM on my PC.
Unfortunately, Photoshop
has a tendency to crash if
you have really large files
and not enough RAM.
There are two reasons for
scanning at 300dpi
instead of 100 or 70.

Firstly, the scanned image


will show up clearer
because the scanner is
picking up more individual
dots from the artwork, and
the more detail picked up,
the more accurate the
image is. Another reason is
that if you intend to color
the work, its always best
to start out with a largesized picture so you can
color fine details close up
and at a decent image
resolution. You can then
adjust the size of the
image if you intend to
publish it on the Web etc.
If the scanned image is
very small, it will be a lot
harder to color and the
final image quality will be
poor.
Make sure that the scanner lid is firmly down. I

usually leave a heavy


weight on it while it scans,
so theres always an even
pressure being applied to
the scanned piece of work.
If you were to hold the lid
down manually and you
were shaking, the scanned
lines might come out looking crooked. The closer the
image is to the scanners
glass, the more detail the
scanner will be able to
pick up.
Sometimes if the scanner
lid isnt shut properly,
outside light can get in
and reflect on the image,
which further reduces scan
quality.
If scanning black and
white line art, set the scanner to either Gamma 1.0
or Gamma 1.5. Youll get
slightly better results

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and the contrast: Image


Set scanner to 300dpi at Adjust Brightness. Ive
50 or 100% print size
seen so many pictures that
Make sure the scanner
could have looked twice as
lid is firmly down
good if only the artist had
Scan at a Gamma
spent time cleaning up the
level to suit your
image and making the
artwork, usually Gamma lines look sharper, so its
1.0 for ink work and
very important to prepare
1.5 for pencil
the image in the correct
Scan in grayscale
way, whether you wish to
color it or not.
CLEANING-UP
Sometimes when you
Now after Ive scanned my scan, the image wont
work into Photoshop, Ill
appear dead straight, so
need to clean it up.
you might want to adjust
The first task is to adjust
and rotate the canvas
the levels: Image Adjust
slightly. Usually Id adjust
Levels (CTR+L). Just spend the canvas size of my
a bit of time tweaking the
image making it slightly
gamma levels until the lines bigger around all the
look nice and dark and the edges by 100 pixels or so.
white background goes
Then Image Rotate canvas
pure white without any
Arbitrary, then rotate CW
discoloration or smudges
(clockwise) or ACW (Anti
being visible.
clockwise) from 0.4
You might prefer the look degrees to 4 degrees, or
of really dark lines if
however much you need to
youve just scanned in
get the image lined up
some pencil work, or you
perfectly. Now youll want
might like to keep it lighter to crop the image. Using
like the original. Its person- the crop tool is ideal for
al preference really. I usual- getting rid of any surplus
ly go for something twice
border. Its always a very
as dark as my original
good idea to crop a
sketches because I usually
picture down to size if
draw with a 2H pencil.
theres a lot of unnecessary
Alternatively, you might
blank space.
want to fiddle around
There might be a few
with the brightness
smudges or random dark

SCANNING & COLORING

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

SUMMARY

SCANNING &
CGing

depending on the
scanner and what type of
work you are scanning.
Make sure the scanner is
scanning in GRAYSCALE
and not B/W (black and
white) or RGB/CYMK
(color). The bad thing
about B/W is that the
scanned lines are black
and white pixels only, and
the lines are not antialiased. The downside of
RGB is that the scanner will
pick up unnecessary colors, when all you want is
the black and white line
art.
If your picture takes up
more than the scanners
surface area, you will
need to scan it in two
halves and join it up later.
Once again, while
scanning, make sure the
lid is pressed down where
the second half overlaps
or youll end up with a
big, faded gray area near
the edge of the scan.
Though this is important,
dont press down REALLY
hard so that it leaves a
great big crease in the
middle of the work. After
scanning the first piece,
scan the next with exactly
the same settings as the
first (300dpi, gray scale
etc).

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SCANNING & COLORING

SCANNING &
CGing

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unwanted pixels still on the


image. To get rid of these,
use the pencil or paintbrush tool and color white
over those areas. To clear
any mess out of small
nooks and crannies, you
might want to try using the
Pixel selection tool, then
simply fill in the selection
you wish to clear with
white, or just click Delete,
but make sure white is also
your secondary color if
you do this.
Now your picture should
be clean and looking
good. If you dont want to
color in the line work, and
wish to now save your
image, adjust the image
size: Image Image size.
Youll possibly want no
more than a pixel width of
500 pixels, but it depends
on whether your image has
lots of detail in it or not. I
suppose youll have to be
the judge of what image
size looks best for your
particular picture, but have
a look at other artwork
sites on the Web and see
what sort of sizes they use
for their pictures. You can
do this by right clicking
the full-sized image and
selecting Properties.
To join up two separate
images, adjust the canvas

size (Image Canvas size)


of scan #1 to little over
double and make sure to
have white selected as
your secondary color. Now
go back to scan #2, select
the layer Background in
the layers tab and drag
this layer on top of scan
#1. Use the drag tool to
move scan #2 so it fits in
perfectly (or nearly) next to
scan #1. A good tip when
adjusting the position of
scan #2 is to zoom in at
100% and get the lines
flush with scan #1. If the
lines simply refuse to join
up properly, you might
need to rotate Scan #2:
Edit Transform Rotate.
Use trial and error to very
lightly rotate the layer and
see if it joins up better after
the rotation. After youve
got it lined up, flatten the
image and go though the
previous preparation
process.

SUMMARY

Adjust the levels to


achieve a sharper,
cleaner look
Rotate the canvas or
image if the scan is
not dead straight
Crop the image
Clean any extra
smudges and pixels

If you draw anything that includes nature, get some nature books. Or look at the nature
around you. Many people draw trees in the same way or use the same colorsbrown
and green. Have a lookyou will notice theres more to trees than brown and green!

with the pencil and pixel


selection tools.

COLORING
If you want to digitally
color your line work, there
are many ways to do this.
Heres a very simple
method to get you started.
To begin with, adjust the
image mode to color:
Image Mode RGB.
Then, in the layers tab,
drag the background layer
onto the new layer icon,
which will create a copy of
the background onto a
clean and adjustable new
layer (otherwise you wont
be able to move the outlines on to the top in the
layers tab).
Delete the bottom background layer and rename
the copy-of-background
layer to outline. Next,
check the preserve transparency box for this layer.
While the outline layer is
selected, go to the layer
drop-down menu and
select multiply.
After that create a new
layer and call it BG or
Background. Now, on the
background youll be able
to color underneath the
lines of the outline layer,
but on top of the white of
the outline layer!

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Page 111

!
!

These illustrations
show the simple
steps from initial
drawing to
the completed
color picture.

SCANNING &
CGing

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Alternatively, go to the
channels tab and click the
circular channel selection
icon. The image should be
filled with dotted lines.
Next click deletethis will
get rid of all white areas.
Deselect the channel selection and then move back to
the layers tab. Since the
preserve transparency box
is checked, you can then
reapply black to the outlines by using the pencil

tool with a brush size of


300+, then going over the
whole picture to restore
black to the outlines.
Create a new layer
underneath called BG or
Background and youll be
able to color underneath
the remaining outlines!

SUMMARY

Change image mode


to RGB
Turn the background

SCANNING & COLORING

!
!
layer into an adjustable
outline layer
Multiply the layer, then
color underneath
OR:
Delete the white area
of the outline layer by
using the channel
selection icon
Then re-color the black
lines with the pencil
tool while preserve
transparency is checked.

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Page 112

PHOTOSHOP

SCANNING &
CGing

PHOTOSHOPTOOLS/BASICS

The following tutorial covers the basics of learning Photoshop in relation to CGing or
comic book and anime-style coloring. Theres more than just one style of coloring.
Keep in mind what you want to achieve. If youre already familiar with Photoshop,
then this might not be as helpful, but you might still pick up a few tips.
For this tutorial, Im using Photoshop 6 on a PC, but most tools are the same as
earlier versions of the program.
Ok, so you want to CG color your line artwork or line art and have just discovered
that Photoshop is the thing to do it. The package is used in all sorts of illustration and
graphic design fields, and most importantly, industry-standard comic books!
The tool bar is very similar to Microsofts Paint, so Im sure that youre already
familiar with the layout and interface. First Id recommend checking out the Tool Bar
overview in the PhotoShop help (F1). Some of the icons contained on the bar are very
important, others not so important but most are used for a CG, so heres what they do:
MARQUEE TOOLS <M>
I use these a lot for what I call post production. When the CG is all finished, Ill add
extra shapes (details) to backgrounds and foregrounds. Tip: To create an outline from
your selection, go to Edit >Stroke (or right-click, stroke) and choose the line width.
The color of the line will be the same as the primary color selection. Also Ill use it to
select individual frames (on a sequential page).
MOVE TOOL <V>
Moves selections, layers, and painted areas. Useful but I dont use it too often during
a CG.

LASSO TOOLS <L>


Like the marquee tool, but you have more control over the selections you make.
This tool is used a lot for Cuts and Cel style solid tones. The Magnetic tool is rarely
used. If you dont have a Graphics Tablet, youll spend more time with the Polygon
tool, since the Freehand tool can be tricky to use with a mouse. When I lay my initial
flat base tone, this is one of the three possible tools Ill choose to use. After youve
made your selection, fill it with color. I often make amendments to my selections, so if
youve made a mistake, hold down SHIFT to add extra selections to your first selectionits very handy. Use ALT to take away from your selection. Youll notice the
and + signs as you hold down the keys.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

MAGIC WAND TOOL <W>


Dont be fooled by the name! It wont do your CG for you!! Mostly used if you have
some really clean, inked lines to work with for laying flats. Select an area in your
drawing with the tool, then Select Modify Expand. Expanding the selection will

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avoid a filled flat from looking as though its all scummy around the edges. At the
resolution I work at, Ill usually expand an extra 46 pixels without my selection going
over the lines. Very thin lines might not work with this method, plus you might need to
SHIFT add with the other selection tools to reach areas that the wand cannot get to.
CROP TOOL <C>
Only used at the very end to trim your finished art, or if your scan needs clipping
back.
SLICE TOOL <K>
Never needed it!

SCANNING &
CGing

AIRBRUSH TOOL <J>


I use it A LOT. After Ive laid down my flat tones, I use this to render those tones.
The best bit of advice I can give for this tool is to set the tool options to a low pressure.
Something between 510% avoids an excess flow of paint and possibly a muddy-looking rendered tone. Taking your time and using subtle shades will create a better result.

PHOTOSHOP

PAINTBRUSH TOOL <B>


Its used a lot for Cel style in conjunction with the polygon lasso tool. Its also
another method for laying down flats. When I use this tool, I set the hardness to 100
and spacing to 1 for solid, clean brush strokes.
PENCIL TOOL <B>
(With same icon as paintbrush.) Ive only really used a size 999 to quickly reapply
a flat tone on a locked layer if Ive made a mistake and want to start again.
CLONE STAMP TOOL <S>
Never needed it but I could see it coming in handy for SFX.
HISTORY BRUSH TOOL <Y>
This brush and I dont have much history between usnever used it.
ERASER TOOL <E>
I use this one a fair bit. A good tip is to use it on a locked layer tone so that the
secondary color selection is used. It saves time swapping and picking a second color
because I have my tablet pen button set to eraser.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

GRADIENT TOOLS <G>


DONT try to rely on these instead of an airbrush. The only thing Id use them for is
part of a background. Generally these are what slackers who think theyre CGing use.

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Page 114

PAINT BUCKET TOOL <G>


(With same icon as gradient.) Used for filling selections in with flat tones, nothing else.
BLUR TOOL <R>
Occasionally used to help bend colors and to get rid of seams.

SCANNING &
CGing

SHARPEN TOOL <R>


(With same icon as blur.) Hardly ever used.
SMUDGE TOOL <R>
(With same icon as blur.) Used a little more often than the blur tool and takes a lot of
memory to use. Sometimes youll need a really high spec PC to use a large smudge
brush, and even then itll take 5 minutes to apply the change!
DODGE TOOL <O>
Ive seen people achieve excellent, more realistic-looking results with this tool, but its
difficult to handle and achieve a more subtle graded tone. Id recommend using it on
50% pressure or less and apply it to Midtones.

PHOTOSHOP

BURN TOOL <O>


(With same icon as dodge.) The opposite to Dodge, but used less. Id rather start with
a dark tone, then get lighter with dodge, than start with a middle tone and use both
dodge and burn.
SPONGE TOOL <O>
(With same icon as dodge.) Alters the amount of pigment on a rendered tone. Ive
never really needed it.
PATH SELECTION TOOLS <A>
Never used it, since I dont use paths very often.
TYPE TOOL <T>
Adds text! Usually just for post-production or details on a character.
PEN TOOLS <P>
Similar to the polygon lasso (dot-to-dot style selection), but you have a lot more
control over it. I never use it.

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CUSTOM SHAPE TOOL <U>


Most important is the line too which draws straight lines. Not used much.

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ANNOTATIONS TOOL <N>


I cant see how this would be at all useful unless youre just really bored!
EYEDROPPER TOOL <I>
I usually use it every time I CG. Its easiest if you select a brush. If youre painting with
that brush and notice you need to grab some color from your canvas, hold ALT and the
brush changes to the eyedropper.
HAND TOOL <H>
I use the scroller on my mouse to move up and down an image or just use the scroll
bars on the right and bottom of the window.

PHOTOSHOP

So now you know what the tools do, youll need to know what layers are. Layers work
like sheets of acetateyou know, like they use in animation? The stuff you paint onto
one layer wont affect another layer in the layer tab. If you paint on a layer above the
one below, youll cover up the bottom layer BUT not paint over it. Go to Photoshop
Help (F1) and read the info about layers, while experimenting on your own. Layers are
a very important part of the CGing process and you need to know how you use them
and how they work.
Once youve laid your flat tone, its ready for CGing, so lock it. By locking that layer,
it effectively creates a mask so you can only paint on the flat and nothing else, which
is the best thing about layers! By putting different colors on different layers, you can
render each individually without adding unwanted color to the girls face or tone on
the guys jacket. I could write a book on layers and CGing alone, but Photoshops
Help files have the same info and practice really will make perfect!

SCANNING &
CGing

ZOOM TOOL <Z>


I zoom in and out of my images a lot, but never do it via the tool icon. Just use CTRL
and + or instead, much easier!

SUMMARY

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I hope this gives you an idea of the tools that are involved in coloring your work
in Photoshop. There are similar programs, such as PaintShop Pro, which is a great
alternative if you cant get hold of Photoshop.

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STORYBO

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BOARDING
T

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here is nothing better than taking a character that youve created and putting
them in their own comic strip. However, this can be a very time consuming
process and also hard work! Here are a few useful things to remember:
The first and most important lesson when drawing a manga page is not to waste
too much time on setup. Every page that you waste on boring setup brings the
whole project closer to being a dull end product. Ideally, the setup at the
beginning of the comic is either so brief it fits on a few pages or, even better,
in a few panels. You could also throw it out as a text-only prologue or even just
flash back to it later. Either way, do the bare minimum of setup and get to the meat
of the story as quickly as possible.
You need to keep several things in mind while figuring out the page layout.
For example, you should remember that a manga describes action. Thus, timing
is important. Another aspect to keep in mind is the importance of the panel that
you will be drawing. How much impact does the panel carry? In general, the
bigger panels attract more attention than smaller ones. Therefore big panels should
be reserved for important scenes that need emphasis while the small ones are
used for panels that aid the fluency among the panels.

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STORYBOARDING

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Over the next few pages, youll find an example of a storyboardI hope it helps.
Ideally, the setup for your panels should always be brief and to the point, each page
telling its own important part of the overall story.
Have a look at the panels oppositethis is a classic setup for a Western comic
page, with the reader reading across from left to right. Plan out your whole story
before you begin so you know exactly what will appear in each panelremember, the
fun is in the drawing, not agonizing over whether youve got enough panels!
It's a mistake to draw a manga page without writing the script in advance and
storyboarding it as well. But dont waste your time planning/writing scenes dozens of
pages in the future. It just saps your energy from actually drawing the current pages,
and, by the time you get there, your hard work will probably be obsolete anyway.
Start sketching your panels out very roughly to see how they hang together on the
page.

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STORYBOARDING
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STORYBOARDING

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Its important to keep the story moving at all timesa dead panel makes for a dull
story! Basically, if you're not interested in drawing some event, just have a character
allude to it and keep going.
With the panels here, Im setting up a cliffhanger ending, forcing the reader to want
to get to the end of the page. Whos the boy? Where is he? Whats he doing? Why is
that dangerous-looking character following him? Is that a knife? As a comic book
artist, you are constantly building expectation and tension, drawing the reader into the
plot.
Notice how the first panel gives you the big picture but without any of the detail. It is
the smaller, more precise panels that unfold events.

STORYBOARDING

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Its a good idea to draw as big as possible! Its easy to draw details on a huge
sheet of paper, but adding tiny details on a small character can be very fiddly.

121

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STORYBOARDING

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Writers often use the phrase to murder your darlingsthis refers to beautifully written
scenes or characters that writers are loathe to cut even though they don't add to the
story as such. Cutting these elements is even more important in comics than in prose.
Sure, it may sound great now, but when it comes to the time to draw it, and draw it,
and draw ityou'll be tearing your hair out halfway through from boredom. And if it
bores you, think of what it'll do to your readers.
Cut mercilessly to the good stuff as soon as possible on the page. Similarly, if you
find yourself writing basically the same dialogue twicefor example, a situation that
has to be explained a couple of times to different charactersyou're doing something
wrong.
Look at how this is now coming together. As the artist (and storyboarder), you are
implying a particular turn of events. Is your friendly, happy, harmless teenager about to
be attacked for no reason by a knife wielding-maniac? What will happen? The reader
has to turn the page to find out. It is very important to create this element of suspense
with your images.
Alternatively the boy could have dropped his knife and the other guy is chasing after
him to give it back. But this seems unlikely given the way the characters have been
drawn. Your work on expressions and figures will come in extremely handy here!

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STORYBOARDING
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STORYBOARDING

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Notice how this whole plot has been created without using one single word of text,
and yet the reader knows exactly what is going on. We can now use coloring to hit
home a few points. The good guy is wearing bright colors to match his cheerful disposition. He has no worries and no enemies.
The bad guy, on the other hand, is wearing black, has dark hair and shadows
around his eyes. Look at those sharply raised eyebrowsscary! Notice as well how
the technique of foreshortening is used to make the knife seem much larger and more
frightening than it actually is.
Ive also used action lines to suggest the speed and surprise of the attack, and a
lens flare on the knife to give it a wicked glint.

STORYBOARDING

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If you feel you have no new ideas for drawings, redraw your old
sketchesyoull be pleasantly surprised by the improvement and hopefully it
will give you the inspiration to get over your creative block!

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STORYBOARDING

Here is where you bring it all together. The gray, industrial coloring of the background
ties in with the gritty, dangerous situation of the storyline. The teenage boy seems out
of place roaming these shadowy, deserted streets. But the man in black seems perfectly
at home in this dark environment. It becomes clear who is the outsider.
In just five panels, we have created an exciting, suspenseful plot, with interesting
characters and a great cliffhanger. Everything in these pictures helps build the story,
from the expressions to the coloring. Try your own storyboardits a fantastic way to
get the most from your character creations.

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STORYBOARDING
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CREATIN
CHARAC

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TING
ACTERS
M

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anga style is instantly recognizable and since the release of Katsuhiro


Otomos cult classic Akira in the West in 1988, many comic artists
have been inspired to pick up a pencil and give it a try themselves.
Hopefully, you are now one of them, too!
In this book, you have seen how to construct characters and how to put them
into settings and comic book panels. The character is undoubtedly the main focus
of any manga or anime so practicing how to create and draw these effectively is
the first step for any aspiring manga artist. Consequently, it has been the main
focus of this book and hopefully you will have found the numerous tips, guides,
and examples helpful.
Throughout the book, the emphasis has been on drawing from real life and
referring to existing objects and people for your designs. Although stylized, all
anime creations are taken from current or past objects and the designs which
surround us. For example, a twenty-fourth century spaceship may be based on a
nineteenth-century paddle steamer and a heros spiky hair may have been inspired
by a garden shrub. Look out for things like this in existing manga and keep an eye
out for similar objects that you could reference to inspire your own creations.
Now its time to gather up your materials, find a clear workspace, and start
producing your own creations. I hope the characters on the following pages
provide plenty of inspiration!

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STYLES

CREATING
CHARACTERS

CHARACTER CREATION

130

A big part of developing a character is knowing what kind of body language they use.
A big mistake beginners make when drawing pin-ups of their characters is to ignore the
personality of the character they are doodling. I often see illustrations posted by artists
that have a character standing with a weapon like they are sitting in a Sears studio for
family photos...NO! Try and avoid using the normal stance. Think about your
character...think about what it is your character does and what effect that would have on
the way they carry themselves. Are they graceful? Are they clumsy? Do they laugh, skip,
play, mope, drag, or cry? Picture this in your head before you put pencil to paper. You
can say a lot with just a stick figure. Get your stick figure exactly right before you flesh in
your character. A good foundation is important if you want your piece to have the right
impact.
Check the following examples of creations to help you along your way.

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CREATING
CHARACTERS

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SYTLES

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BENGOSHA

CREATING
CHARACTERS

Manga 144 sections 128-144

Here Ive put together


a complete drawing
of my new creation
and started playing
around with ideas
before finalizing the
character.Its always
worth taking time to
play with ideas
before completing
your drawing.

132

Sometimes it can be a good idea to plan out more complicated scenes or poses before
you draw them properly. I sometimes draw 4 or 5 thumbnail sketches to plan out
just one picture. It can save a lot of time in the long run by getting rid of
your mistakes at an earlier stage.

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Ive decided that


Im happy with the
composition, so its
time to bite the bullet
and remove all
guidelines and
doodles to clean
up the image.

CREATING
CHARACTERS

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BENGOSHA

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Inked in and fully colored this is him in all his glory!


Pretty cool.

CREATING
CHARACTERS

There are a number of influences on the look of this character, and hes very much a
combination of samurai warrior and mecha

Hes Bengosha a Japanese cyborg warrior from the future where monsters, demons,
and dragons have become a real problem in Tokyo after a parallel dimension portal
opened up in Shinjuku 100 years ago! His father was a world-famous samurai master
of Yosake Dojo and the secret owner of the legendary Murasame sword. After his
father died in battle while he was still a boy, Bengosha inherited the Murasame and
now acts as an lite defender of Tokyo.
NAME: BENGOSHA
WEIGHT: 265LBS
HEIGHT: 6 FEET AND 5 INCHES
WEAPONS: MURASAME SWORD

BENGOSHA
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Bengosha

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CHARACTERS

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BENGOSHA

135

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TEMPEST TRPILETS

CREATING
CHARACTERS

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If you look very carefully, youll notice that these lovely ladies are all very similar in
terms of facial features and physique. It therefore makes you realize how important the
detailssuch as hair, clothes, and accessoriescan be in developing personalities
and individual characteristics in your creations.

These battling teens are not just pretty faces.When their younger brother was badly
injured in an unprovoked attack by a rival high school, the triplets took it upon themselves to seek justice, vowing to find those responsible. The trail led to the notorious
Ring of Skulls Gang and a showdown with their ringleader, Cranium. Using a
combination of ju-jitsu and street fighting, the triplets defeated Cranium and avenged
their brother. They now continue their role as righters of wrongs, meting out justice as
the Tempest Triplets for those who have no other recourse.

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FIGHTING

NAME: MIIKI, AOKI, HARUKA


AGE: 16
HEIGHT: 5 FEET 5 INCHES
WEIGHT: 116LBS EACH
SCHOOL: YUKADA HIGH
SKILL: JU-JITSU AND STREET FIGHTING

CREATING
TEMPEST TRIPLETS
CHARACTERS

TEMPEST
TRIPLETS

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CREATING
CHARACTERS

Theres not a lot I can say about Nikki, although the use of color was very
important in getting the illustration just right! This was a Christmas card I
designed and it brought a lot of cheer to those who received it! Joking
aside, you can see many of the techniques I mentioned earlier, such as
the shaping of the hair, the use of speculars, the folds of the clothes, and
the importance of facial expression.

Nikki is the ultimate stealth operative! A famous fashion model, she is in demand
around the world, but her high-profile lifestyle also gets her close to the rich, famous,
and influential, and proves the perfect cover for her real skills as a seeker and seller
of information. People underestimate Nikki at their peril!
NAME: NIKKI
AGE: 24
HEIGHT: 5 FEET 6 INCHES
WEIGHT: 120LBS
OCCUPATION: SPY FOR HIRE
SKILLS: LOCK-PICKING, HACKING,
EQUIPMENT: JUST HER CHARM!

NIKKI
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Nikki

138

SMUGGLING

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CREATING
CHARACTERS

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NIKKI

139

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RUDY ROUGHNIGHT

CREATING
CHARACTERS

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What can you tell about Rudys background or personality from this picture?
Little features can make all the difference.
What does the band-aid signify?
Is Rudy a fighter or did he cut himself shaving?
Is the frown one of aggression or confusion?

Rudy is actually a character from the RPG Wild Arms.


Rudy is a young Dream Chaser who was exiled from the town of Surf because of his
mysterious weapon, the ARM. When he was a young boy, Rudy was much stronger
than any regular child, so he was feared and became a loner, finding comfort only
in the house of his grandfather, Zepet. He is one of the few people in the world
who can synchronize with the ARMs, making him a forceful fighter.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

NAME: RUDY ROUGHNIGHT


AGE: 15
HEIGHT: 5 FEET 8 INCHES
WEIGHT: 160LBS
COMPANIONS: JACK AND CECILIA
WEAPON: SWORD
GREATEST FEAR: REMAINING IN EXILE

CREATING
RUDY ROUGHNIGHT
CHARACTERS

Rudy
Roughnight

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SHOOT-OUT

CREATING
CHARACTERS

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SHOOT-OUT

FUN!!!

CREATING
CHARACTERS

Thats
it
for
now

get
drawing
and
have

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Ben Krefta
Ben was born in Kent, England, in 1982. He currently enjoys his role as a freelance designer specializing in character design for games or company mascots,
as well as website and graphic design. Ben has had no formal training in any of
the fields he works inannoyingly, its just natural talent! He has been drawing
for as long as he can remember.
Ben has been a big anime and manga fan for years. Influenced by the style since
playing on the Super Nintendo and having seen Akira for the first time, Ben
knew this was a style of art he wanted to get into.
Having always enjoyed drawing and designing his own characters, Ben started
applying the clean, crisp manga style to his designs. They took on a new life,
and his illustrations improved with every new designsince manga is so diverse,
its allowed Ben to have lots of fun experimenting with different style variations
and the anime and manga stories themselves have opened up new possibilities
and ideas.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

Ben hopes to continue drawing, designing, and creating. As Ben himself says,
hes got a fair few years ahead of him yet to develop and improve, so who
knows what big, fun projects hell be working on in the future!!

!"#$"%&''%()*%+",-.."/!"#$"%&''%()*%0-112#%%345&&567%%68/96%%("$-%&

Designed for novice to intermediate


illustrators, the book covers everything the budding
manga artist needs, from choosing essential
materials to creating your own exciting
and innovative characters.
The book is divided into a number of sections, all
providing essential and innovative tips and hints.
Understanding and choosing materials,
from pens to computer software
Expert advice for immediate results improve your drawing dramatically
Knowing how and when to use color and inking
to create brilliant illustrations every time
Pick up the art of storytelling, making
your illustrations come to life, from
figures to expressions to action.

F4D04C65-ADD5-4359-9F34-905F4B2136E6

This is an essential reference book that you'll


find yourself turning to again and again.

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