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Lecture 1

Components:

Speed feed back

current feedback

controller

electric
motor

converter

supply
Dc drive:
Constant Dc supply

chopper

variable Dc

Constant Ac supply converter

variable Dc

Constant Ac supply rectifier

constant Dc

Constant Dc supply chopper

variable Dc

mech load

Ac drive:
Constant Ac supply

cyclo converter

Constant Dc supply

inverter

Tm

variable Ac

variable Ac

4- Quadrant operation:

G
(I)-

FM= forward motoring

Tm w

(II)-

FB= forward brake

Tm

(III)- RM=reversed motoring


(IV)- RB=reversed brake
Tm

w
w

M
Tm

The drive may be:


- One quadrant operation : (I)
-Two quadrant operation : (I+II)
-Four quadrant operation : (I+II+III+IV)

WE MUST HAVE MINIMUM TIME FOR STARING AND


BRAKING
W
Wl

Tst
Brake torque
=Tb

-Tl
Tl

W=
0

Starting

2
Wl

Tb

Tm

The torque speed response is as shown:


FM
RM

FB

RB
Tst

Tb

Tm
Speed
W

Wl

-Wl
time

-Tl

Tb
Tst

One cycle

Notes:
(1) Brake: to stop motion w

To limit the speed from running away W<


(2) Load: Active load: unidirectional torque (gravity)
Passive load: oppose motion torque (frictional)

Tl

Viscous
friction

motion
I=Mg*r

frictio
n

(3) At steady state:


Mg

W=constant

Dry
friction

Tl

Tm = Tl

EX: Electric lift

Tm
Drive
wheel

Empty car+ Mg/2= C.W


r

Counter weight
Motor torque =(Mg/2) *r

rop
e
T
Tl

T
Tl

FB

car

FM
Load
M

w
Tl

T
Tl

RM
RB

Methods of braking:
1) Mechanical brake (jaws)
KE
friction loss

jaw
s

2) Eddy current brake


(iron losses)
flux

Tb
Copper or aluminum
disc

3) Electric brake
a-Dynamic brake:
KE

copper loss
Rb

(Ib*Rb)
+

_
_

Ib

e
+

w
T

Tb

b-Plugging (current
reversal)
M

_
_

_
_

Rb to
limit
Ib

Ib

e
+

_
w

w
T
Tb

KE+ supply energy


copper loss

c-Regenerative brake

KE

supply
w

Pumped
back

wb

Tm
Tb

Tm

W<Wo

6
W>W
o