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Lecture 2

Dc Drives:
1) Separately exacted Dc motors:
Characteristics:
+

_
_

ia

(Rf, Lf)

e
+

Tm

if

Vf

_
_

Dynamic equations
dia
V=e +ia.va+ La. dt

e=k. .w =km.w
Tm=km.ia
Km=motor constant
Tm=Tl + J. w

_
_w

+ B.w

Friction coef
(neglected)
Moment of inertia
Kg/m2

Load
torque
1

(J,
B)

(Ra,
La)

d
At steady state ( dt =0)
Tm
V= km.w + Km . ra

W=

v
Km

Tm= Tl

ra
Km

.Tm

, w= constant
w
Wo

Tst

+
V
-V

Wo= no load speed (Tm=Tl=0)


Tst= starting torque (W=0)
=

V . Km
Va

Starting:

V=0

1) Hard starting :motor is connected directly to the


supply 2 kw
Starting time(Tst)
v= Km.w +ia.ra
=vm.w +

W+

J . ra
Km

Tm
Km

.ra

v
Km

. w =

Tl
- Km

Which is in the standard form:


w = Wf

W +

W(t)=

Wf +(Wi Wf)

The motor speed


W(t) = Wf (1 - e

Where :
=

=time constant ,sec

T .ra
Km

Wf=Wl=final (load) speed


(at t= )

V
Tl .ra
= Km Km
Wi=0

(initial speed)
w
Wo

ess

Steady state error

Wl=W
f

wl
t
Ts

Tst=Ts=setting time:
3 , ess

4 , ess

Armature energy loss (Est)


tst

Est =

ia .ra dt
0

ia. ra = ia ra . ia
(V-Km.w)

Tm Tl+ J w

=
Km
Km

V . Tl
`= Km

tst

tst

tst

tst

.J
dt + VKm
w dtTl w dtJ w . w dt
0
0
0
0

wl

wl

dt
dw
0 dt

Est =

V . Tl
. tst
Km

V .J
. wl
Km

dt
w dw
dt
0

1
w dt J . wl
2
tst

Tl
0

W= Wf (1 - e

wl

or

tst
tst

Ash =

Special case:
For no load starting

w .dt
0

V
, Wl = Wo = Km

Tl=0

1
J
2

Est =

Wo

= K.E

2) Soft starter :
i)

Conventional method : using starter


R

R
R
R

section
sm

e
R1

R2

a
R

R3

stu
ds

Movable
arm

if

ia

Ia

I max
I min
t
w

W2
W1

t
3

Connection
diagram