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Mixtures

I can compare/contrast pure substances and mixtures.

Review
What are:
atom
element
compound

Pure Substances
substance that contains only one type of
particle
atoms - elements
molecules - compounds

if it is a pure substance, then it is not a


mixture

Mixture
mixture - two or more substances that are
not chemically combined
they are physically combined
they do not react to form a compound

2 kinds of mixtures
heterogeneous - mixture that does not fully
combine and you can still see the different
substances

homogeneous - mixture that fully combines


and will look uniform or all the same

Pure substances are not mixtures

Separating Mixtures
mixtures are a physical combination - they
can be separated
physically pulling apart substances, filters, magnets
distillation - separating substances based on boiling
points
centrifuge - separating based on densities

Comparing Mixtures and Compounds


Mixtures

Compounds

Composition

made of compounds,
elements, or both

made of elements

properties

retains properties of
substances

different properties than


original substances

separation

physical

chemical

ratio of components formed by any ratio of


components

formed only by set


ratioes of components

Solutions
mixture that appears to be one substance all looks the same - homogeneous
dissolving - process in which particles
separate and spread out evenly throughout
a mixture

solute - substance that is dissolved


solvent - substance in which the solute is dissolved
soluble - able to dissolve, makes a solution
insoluble - unable to dissolve, does not make a
solution

Solutions are Homogeneous Mixtures

Examples of Solutions
States

Examples

Gas in gas

dry air (oxygen in


nitrogen)

Gas in liquid

soda (CO2 in water)

Liquid in liquid

antifreeze (alcohol in
water)

Solid in liquid

salt water (salt in


water)

Solid in solid

brass (zinc in copper)

Concentrations of Solutions
Concentration - measure of the amount of
solute dissolved in a solvent
grams of solute per milliliter of solvent (g/mL)
concentration = grams of solute / mL of solvent

solutions are either concentrated or dilute


less solute means it is less concentrated or dilute
more solute means it is more concentrated
too much solute and solution will be saturated - no
longer will mix

Dilute, Concentrated, Saturated Solutions

Solubility
ability of a solute to dissolve in a solvent at
a certain temperature
most solids will dissolve faster at higher
temperatures - they are more soluble
gases become less soluble in liquids at higher
temperatures
gases will escape - soda goes "flat" faster

Suspensions
a mixture in which the particles of a
material are dispersed throughout a liquid
or gas, but are large enough that they
settle out
particles are large enough to scatter or block light
particles are too large to stay mixed without being
shaken or stirred - think snow globe

Colloids
have properties between solutions and
suspensions
mixture in which the particles are dispersed
throughout but are not heavy enough to
settle out
particles are small and well mixed
milk, mayonnaise, deodorant, jello, whipped cream