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..



2003
1

373.167.1
81.2
95
..
. C
: /
.. . .: : , 2003. 168 .
ISBN 5-89349-422-9 ()
ISBN 5-02-002934-3 ()
,
, .
, , .


.
C


25.10.2002. 60 88/16. .
. . . 10,3. .-. . 9,1.
2000 .
. . 502.
04826 24.05.2001 .
, 117342, , . , . 17-, . 332.
./: 336-03-11; . 334-82-65. E-mail: flinta@mail.ru, flinta@cknb.ru
020297 23.06.1997 .
, 117997, -7, -485, . , . 90

ISBN 5-89349-422-9 ()
ISBN 5-02-002934-3 ()
2

, 2003




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,
, ; , , .
, . , ,
.
; ,
(, ) . , , .
, ,


. , : , , .
6

, ,
,
. ,
,
, ;
, , , -
. -
. ,

.


(, . , 1988; , . , 1998), .
,

( ),
, (
, ,
). 4- , ,
: (Common case)
(Possessive Genitive case).
, , .

. -, (
) (, Nominative case, , Objective case),
.
,
,
.
; , (town,
8

country, London, England, world, Earth, Moon, Sun), (ship, car, aeroplane), ,
(an hourwalk, a miles distance);
(musics voice, lifes joys); (within a stones throw, at ones wits end, to
ones hearts content, for conveniences sake).
, ,
- (.
, ).
, ,
(group possessive), (somebody elses child; the Prime-Minister of
Englands speech; the man I saw yesterdays son),
,
. -
, , . , ,
, (
).
,

; . the boys father the boys fathers.
childrens books, mens
clothes, ( , ..).
:
1) , (.
Johns house / wife / friend / work)
9

(Johns
arrival). ,
, , , ( );

; . ( -, - ). , , , (invitation of the writer by smb.; killing of birds; punishment of
children);
2) () , :
childrens books (for children; ), an officers cap (for an officer;
), a miles distance (stretching for a mile), an hours walk.
. , ,
:
the mans son man, son; the young mans son the young man, the young
son; the mans young son man, young son.
yesterdays interesting party, Byrons last poem,
, ,
( ),
( : the interesting party of yesterday; the last poem of Byron).
(interesting,
last)
, .
: , ,
, : a big childrens shop a big shop (for children); a pleasant
5 minutes talk = a pleasant talk (for 5 minutes).
: a two days journey (= a journey for two
10

days; journey) a days work


(= work for a day; day, one day); . in two weeks ( , time ) in a two
weeks ( , period
).
: a nice childs cap (= a cap for one child) nice childrens
caps (= caps for children in general); a new womens
magazine (= a new magazine for all women).

, (),
( ) . . boy girl; cow bull; cock hen;
duck drake,
woman-teacher, he-wolf, tom-cat, lioness, waitress.

. , (England / Australia and her
people) , (The
United Kingdom and its peoples; The continent of Australia: its climate
and natural resources). ( , ,
), ,
,
, , (man),
, , , ,
- {20}. ,
Sun = he, Moon = she; Wind, Ocean, River = he; Nature = she; Fear,
Love = he; Hope, Mercy = she.
11

(Dog, Fish, Horse,


Cat, Mouse = he), , (Lioness = she) : (
) Ant = he, Grass-hopper = she.
(boat, ship ..),
(Something
is wrong with my car, I cant start her);
(I saw a car at the curb; its
window was broken).
,
- (I am trying to move this cupboard over to the other
wall. Just give me a hand with her / with it).

an (), ( )
: one book =
( , ) . (a book =
- )
, ( ), .
, ( ),
(.
). , , :
for an hour, a mile long (= one hour/ mile).
12

(
)
, , : , There was a
book on the table. I took the book and opened it
, ,
.
, ,
, ( , ).
,

; . ... (= a friend told me);
. ... (into the shop).

(
...; ...) {13}.

( ) (I like detective stories)
(There was milk in the cup). ,
,
, a dog / dogs / water / beauty,
the dog / the dogs / the water / the beauty.
,
,
(, , ): Dogs
(= all dogs) are domestic animals; A / The dog (= any dog) is a domestic
animal.
, . ,
(. The dog was tamed by man a long time ago),
, (- / ).
, ; . the use of the wheel ( 13

) the use of the tool (


) {37}; {15}.

,
; . a metal (= )
metals; a young beauty (= ) young beauties. . ,
, He felt pity / surprise / pleasure, ,
, , , It a pleasure (a pity, surprise) to
hear this, : ,
, (a pleasure = something that gives
pleasure, a pleasant thing / event),
(the pleasures of
life = pleasant things).
, ; . a good education,
a happy childhood, a short life. , ,

. ,
(education, childhood, life)
, .

(
; . in cold / hot water), :
weather, news, information, advice, progress, work, permission, fun,
luck, , ,
. ,
,
,
(with great interest, in complete silence) (English poetry, higher education, political life, physical georgaphy).
,
, ,
; ., ,
The baby came out in new beauty (G. Eliot); For a moment the
14

last sunshine fell with romantic affection upon her glowing face (Faulkner);
Annette said with startling suddenness (Galsworthy), , ,
, , A knowledge of English is essential (R.A. Close. A
Reference Grammar for Students of English, p. 112); I have always believed
that a love of nature was essentially a healthy sign in a man (Steinbeck),
(, a certain knowledge,
love of nature). , , , : A very, very valuable work of clearance has
been performed (E. Waugh); They will be puzzled by getting from Beethoven
not merely a music that they did not expect... (B. Shaw); My father never
allowed the men to visit the camp unless permission was asked, a permission
only given to exceptionally trusted people (M. Gilmore).
( ,
)
(descri ptive attribute) (limiting / restrictive
attribute); , , (the book which I am reading
now).
, . , of ( ),
/ , : a group of boys (= ); a cup of tea (= ); an expression of fear, a
feeling of anger (= ). ,

: the roof of a / the house; the daughter of a / the
general; the eyes of a / the young man.

() : , , , ( ) ..

, (the man
15

who teaches us French now),


, (a man who knows French = some / any man who
knows...). , , , (a man who
writes such books = , ...),
(the man who wrote this book = ,
...). (continuative
attributive clauses), ,
- :
: He gave her
flowers, which she immeditely put in a bowl = He gave her some flowers
and she put them in a bowl ( , ).

; . the great Shakespeare (= ,
) This theatre shows us a new Shakespeare,
(, ); . : Shakespeare,
who died in 1616 (= , , 1616), did not live to see
most of his works published.
a Rembrandt (= ), a Ford (= )
, .. .
, ,
, .. (
). , , ,
,
: . , ,
- ()
16

, -
, , ; .
- .
,
, {22}: ,
. ( ) , , ,
( , ..)
. , , , , -
.
. , .
, ..; ... , , , , , ... ,
( ) ( ), .
: . , .. ( ).
,
: ( ..) , ( , ...), 17

(,
, , ...), .
(The book is interesting) ,
- .
, ,
, .. (. ). , ,
,
, (), .

. / , .. (I saw a dog / dogs in the yard =
dog / some dogs).
( ) ,
- .
(), ..
(Dogs are domestic animals; The dog is a domestic
animal), ().

-
{8, . 351}. ()
() ; , (
),
( , , ..
),
.
, (, ) :
. , , (
18

): =
.
. , - (, , );
: = .
( ), .
:
/
; =
/ ..

. . ,
, , , {4, . 88}.
,
:
, ,
..
, ( ), ,
.
, ,
- . ,
,
- ,
.
,
, :
, .
,
19

.. . : ) (= ) ; . The house is
not big (= ); There is a house near the river
(= -, ,
) ) , ; . I want to buy a house
(= - ); You may take any book (= );
A (The) dog is a domestic animal (= ; ) {24}. , - , , , ,
. , , (, ..). , , , .. ,
; , . ()
,
- , , , ( ,
..) ( , ..),

.
, , ( )
,
( ),
( ). , ,
, , :

, .. ,
,
, .
( ), -,

20

, ..
(, ) (,
). ,

( . {14}).

(some, any, once, somewhere, somehow), (this, that, then, there, thus) (all, every, each).
( ) , .
(this, these)
(that, those), (That is what happened
, ) (This
is what he said = ...).
some any (, ). some ,
. , I see note on the table; has
someone been here? , - ;
, , , (presupposition = , . ). Could you give me some more
cake?: (Please, give me some more), .. , , , some.
Wasnt there some other way out?, -
21

, , ,
, - .
; . ()
-:
- ?; - , ! () -, : - ?;
- , ?.
() any, () some.
, e any . ,
There is hardly anything interesting here Most likely, there isnt
anything interesting ( ); He is too tired to do anything now too
(= so tired that he
cannot do anything). any ( whatever; )
- ,
:
/ , . , You may take any of these books : You may take
one book, and it does not matter which book it is.

every each
-body, -one. Every child knows it ( ), Each child was given
a present , .
all:
All children know it, All the children were given presents.
, , of each (Each student of our group), ,
, every. , ,
, every I know every house in my village,
;
, .. , 22

each: There are twenty houses in the village, and each house (= each
of those houses) has a small garden.
, , everybody everyone, somebody someone ..;
. Everybody (anybody) can do this Every one (any one, someone) of
us can do it. : (Somebody / someone knocked at the door; I know everybody
/ everyone here), of
-one. . everything, everybody, , all (all of it, all of them), ; nothing none (of it);
nobody no one / none (of them).
what (What books do you like?)
which (Which of these books did you like?). ; .
/ , ( ); / ? ?
some, certain, several,
a few
(We need several / a few people for this work = not one),
some, certain
(Some / certain people cannot live without quarrelling = a
certain kind of people).


. (
) : (),
, . ,

; He is a student; A student entered
, .. (. . , ). ,
23

- (. / ).
, , This was a man of the caves and
woods; He is a student of chemistry ()
.
, (. thing, person,
matter ..),
; . , : There was
a person under this roof who had already killed five times; It was indeed
a thing of great beauty. , , : But it is clear that at some point these clauses will assume the form
of a sentence; In some (certain) cases the use of force becomes inevitable.

- : at a later point / at a
point where...; in cases of emergency / in cases when...

24

, , . , ,
( , , , )
( ).
, , (Jack built
a house). ,
(A house was built),
(by Jack) .
, , ( ) (.
) . ( . {11}): Jack built a house A house was built by Jack
, , ,
,
(
, ).
25

( ),
, , ..
- , .

. , :
(1) (to do smth., to see smth.)
() , : Smth. was done (seen);
(2)
(to give smb. smth.; tell, show, promise, offer), : I was given a book The book was given to m.
, ( ); . The book was given to me
(= not to him) I was given a book (= not a pencil);
(3) , , ,
: to explain smth. to smb. (dictate,
translate, describe). (The rule was explained to us),
.
buy (bring, fetch, find) smb. smth, (2), ,
, (,
e ). ,
; . He gave me
this book He gave this book to me ( 2) He bought me an
icecream He bought an icecream for me. ,
-
: Smth. was bought for smb.;
(4) , () to look at smb / for smth. / after smb.; to speak to smb. / about
smth; to take care of smb., , : He was looked
at / after; He was spoken to / about.
26

,
, , : , () =
, (). ( )
(
); , When the door was locked, we left
the place; The door was locked by the servant , .
,
(. ); . I could not enter because the
door was locked, ()
(
). , - . , The book has already been written, The
cistern has not been filled yet , ;
The book is written in Spanish, The cistern is filled with water
, (The
book is in Spanish; The cictern contains water).

( ) (reflexive
voice) (middle / medial voice).
-/ , , .
(to wash / shave oneself), .. ( ), ( ). (He washed
and shaved quickly),
. , wash oneself
.
27

- /-, , ; . (). , -, , ( -.)


, (), ..
:
,
, ( ) . , ,

( ), ,
. , ,
( , ).
, -
, ; .
/ (= - ),
, - .
, ,
. ,
- , ,
,
()
() - (
). - ,
: .

28

, The door opened ; ,


( ,
) , ( ). The door opened
The door was opened by the servant,
() () .
(
)
The book sells well, The cloth washes easily.
( ), (
/ ).
, : , ,
,
( = - ) ( )
.
, , ,
.
{1} , . ,
:
, .

(. . ).
29

/
,
, .
, ;

; .
( ) ();
/ ,
.

( ) (Tense)
(Aspect).
- , .
, . .
(, ). - , ( ,

), : (He said he knew it), (He said he had finished his work)
(He said he would come soon).

. , (
) ,
(When does your train leave?; Where are you going for a
holiday?) . . . (Historical Present),
30

(Suddenly John comes in and says =


came and said). : I forget when
it was (= I have forgotten); You simply astonish me (= you have astonished
me); John says its interesting (= John said). ,

.
: Do you speak French?
(= can you speak?); I tell you its true! (= I wish to tell you); I give you
a warning! (= I want this to be a warning to you); Why dont you tell me
the truth? (= why dont you want to tell me?)
, , -,
, (. {5; 7; 16; 18; 19; 28; 34}).
,
, .

(Perfective aspect), (, , ),
(Imperfective aspect), ,
(, , ). ,
(termination of the action), ..
- : , -., = , = , = , =
, , =
, .. (
, , ,
), () ,
.. .
, ,
.
31

? : ( ,
)?. , (.. . )
:
. ( ),
, ( ): , ( , ...) (
). , .

?, : ( )?.
()
(= ) ;
. , (, ).
, ( . {14}).
,

: ( ).
,
, ,
( ).
, :
, () ( ),
; , 32

, .. -
( , , ).
, , / (, , , ,
, , ), () .
; : (= ); (= ); (=
); (= );
(= ) ..
, ,
.
(1)
(terminative verbs), / ; . arrive, come, appear (= -.); leave, disappear (= ); get, receive,
buy (= ); lose, sell (= ), (2) (non-terminative), sleep, sit, stand, work, wait, live, love ..
, , ,
( ); . I have built a
house (= ), , ,
, , , , I am building a
house (= ...).

, . ,

( ,
..). , I have lived here all my life , I have built a house,
live - .
33

/

. ,

You will feel better when / after
you have had some sleep (have slept a little); He felt much better after he
had slept a little.
(
),
: He will feel better when / after he wakes; He felt better when / after
he woke (: has woken / had woken).

; .
He has come at last , ( ),
He has come down to see her too often (A. Christie)
(= ),
, . ,
(, )
.
,
. , He came home at six (=
) He finally built
his house (= - ) , (; )
(He has come; He has built a house). ,
, , , ,

( ) ( , ). , .
34

, :
.. {28},
- () (
Present Perfect), - ( Past
Perfect) ( Future Perfect).
, - , .. , ( ) .
..
(, .. {34},
correlation ), .. ( ) - ( . He had gone before I
returned).
,
,

(Continuous / Progressive).
, , ; . He was working
at that time. He worked for a long time. He has been working all this
time. He has worked long enough. ,

, , ,
.
(Continuous / Progressive form) ,
( ),
:
(He is sleeping), -
(He was sleeping when I came ; At this time tomorrow he
will still be sleeping). , ,
, ,
, . ,
(get, bring, take, put, throw, jump ..),
(have, contain, consist, belong, equal, amount to, hate, like,
love, respect), c , 35

, , (wish, want, desire, need, require,


demand, allow, forbid) .. ( . ).


,
. ,
(get, lose, come, arrive, finish, begin ..) , , : He is coming back tomorrow;
I am buying a new house; The concert is beginning.
, , ,
() ,
:
() , ( , ); . You are being awfully good to
me (J. Updike) ( -); Alexander inclined his
head; nobody said much, but they knew what it was costing him
(M. Renault) (
); But I am forgetting you: would you
like some coffee? {29} ( , ); Tarzan
was wishing that they might walk on like that for hours (E. Burroughs)
( ...); For some reason the Master was not
finding it easy to collect the necessary votes (C.P. Snow) (
, ).
- (Perfect Continuous / Perfect
Progressive) , - ,
(He has been working all day today; He had
been working long by that time; He will have been working long by some
future moment). , : We have known each other for many years; I have been
here since morning.
, - , (We have
worked enough, let us have a rest = ),
36

- ,
(We have been
working since morning = ).
, (, -)
- : (He is sleeping now; He
was sleeping when I came), (He has arrived ; We have known each other for a long time
, ),
- ,
(He has been sleeping for
some time).
:
,
(He worked long yesterday), (I came, I saw, I conquered);

, -
(reference moment {35}). , - , - , ; . He entered the flat, looked into the dining-room
and saw ( ,
) that the guests had
gone and Mother was clearing the table.
.. (, , ),
(time correlation), .. (relative
time).
(,
), () ( , ). () (37

)
.
,
, , , , .
, : .
.
, -
; . yesterday,
last year ,

. ( never, ever, often, once, just, yet, already, before), ..
, -
( , ),
( ) . , , ,
( ); . My wife is an alcoholic. I have you
tried to help her?. Did you drink with her? (J. Updike ). You have spoken of your intentions? Yes, I
spoke to the Master myself (A. Christie ).


, /
38

, , /
, , ..
( ), ( ) ( ).
,
, .


( ), ; ,
.
, (affirmative) (firm);
, (assertion)
. Peter is sleeping Peter is probably sleeping,
,
, .. . , ,
, .
, ( ) (
) : Peter is sleeping
, . ,
, ;
( + ).
( ) 39

Peter is not sleeping - , , ..


, . , -
( ),
:
( )
( ).
Is Peter sleeping or not? , ,
, , (..
). (= )
: Which of
them two is sleeping? = Is it Peter or is it not Peter who is sleeping? =
, , , ; .
, ,
, ,
: ? = ,
, , ; ? = ,
, , ; ? = , ,
, ..
, . ?, ;
,
, () . , , ( ) (-
= , , , ..).
,

, . ,
,
- Isnt he sleeping
yet?, , , 40

, ..
, .
/ . (, ! ...
?), , ,
(= , ).
, , : ,
, , , (
) , ( ). , ,

(, ...) /
.
- (Come here = ,
), . ,
,
:
( ) (). ( ) , ,
, : Could you (will you) open the window? =
Please, open!


, .. , :
(Indicative mood); (Imperative); II (Subjunctive II), .. were, came
had been, had come ; (Conditional mood) , .. 41

should / would; I (Subjunctive I)


,
(it be; he come ..); (Suppositional mood) should .

,
() .
, .. / .
, / (Peter has come back = , ).
(
Subjunctive, Conditional), , - If... then,
If.
If he arrives in
Moscow, he will call me When he arrives, he will call me,
, ,
(, ). , ,
.
..?,
If If,
(He asked if...). -

, .. , (), , ,
().
If he were in Moscow,
he would call me If (, ), (
) ,
, .. (,
). , (
42

not), ( ); () ,
,
.
, ,
: ,
.
,
, ..
( ,
).
( ) (If he were...),
(If he were not...).
(
) - , . , , ..
, :
( ...),
, .
( ), () : ,
, , ,
, -
.
, .. : ,
What a hero!; ! , .

.
Subjunctive II (were, came, had been, had come)
Conditional ( should / would)
( ),
43

. - : Conditional
, Subjunctive II . ,
would / should, ; . If you could talk to my boss
about me, it might help, Subjunctive II.

It is impossible / desirable / necessary that ...
:
, ()
. , , ..
-
; .
(), / ; It is impossible that
he is right / that he should be right / that he be right; I wish that he should
be happy / he may be happy / he be happy. ,
should, may, (Subjunctive I), , , - ( ):
- -
.
, - ( ). , I wish he were happy , ..
; (were)
, (if he were happy...).
( )
I wish he should be (may be,
be) happy,
.
, ,
44

: , , (= ), (
) ;
. ,
( should, may, might Subjunctive I)
- .
, , ,
, , , {5}. , ,
. , () ,
.

, ( / ), , , , , .., .
(
perhaps, probably, very likely, certainly, no doubt
may,can, must)
. This medicine may help
, ,
; , The water will boil at 100 degrees
, 45

. , , () ().
(
)
, .
, (can, be able) -
: He can solve such problems ,
,
(If want, I will do it, . {38}).

(possible, can be done) : , (He
can speak English), , (This car can go very fast), - , -
: It is possible to achieve great speed in this car;
Thanks to the telescope we (= people in general) can observe the stars.
, , ..
, ( , ). ,
(necessary, must, should ..) ,
, :
, , ,
, ().

, () (=
, ). , , ,
. , ( ,
) , ;
, 46

,
(. {17}).
( , , ..),
must, should, have to, be to .., , () . Our car broke down, so we had to walk, , (
) , ..
, .
You ought to be more polite
;
I was to meet him near the entrance
..
, (
= ) .
(inadmissible, must not ..) , A, .. ,
. ,
; . , -
, ( )
: You mustnt bathe
in cold water ,
. : The mother
forbade her son to bathe = a, = ,
, ;
.
()
(no need, neednt, unnecessary, optional, superfluous)
- : , , ,
. You neednt remind him of his promise,
, , , (= )
() . - ( ) ,
( ): The
47

mother allowed her son to bathe = , ,


.
, ,
; , , .
,
, : =
( ),
.
() (useless, senseless, no
point in) ,
, ,
(= , ).
(preferable; had better)
, , , , ,
() ; , . , ( ) : You had
better take your umbrella with you = , ; ,
, .
...,
,
, .. -
. , ,
, , (=
, ). ,
- ; - ,
. , , ,
, - .

- .
, () ( ; )
(1) , ,
, , (2) , , ,
48

. , ,
(
), : , , , (= )
, .

, ( , ) : , , ,
( ). ,

:
(... ), ..
( , ...),
() (
, ...).

***

, . (, )
(, , ),
, () , .
; , ,
( ) . , , (
), , , , ( / ), (
/ ) .
49




(, , , ) (, , ),
. - , .
, ,
- live / stay / reside (somewhere) go / come/ arrive,
build / destroy / say
..
. ( , , ), ( ),
( ), , ( ),
, ( , , ..).
,
. ,
50

, , , . , , (to build smth.)


(to give smb. smth.) (to cut with a
knife), (to wash smth. with soap) ..
e
{1},
(deep cases {31}). , ( , , , )
:
, , , , - -
.
- , ..
,
(doer of the action, agent)
,
(= - ): I took the book in my hands
,
. (book) ,
, () ( / ).
. , Peter gave the book to John
,
; , ()
() -. : John
cracked the nut with a nut-cracker , ,
; ()
() , ( ). (to wash smth. with soap) , ,
51

{1}. (John passed the


book to Peter through Nick)
( ),
(
).
, , .
John is in London now ;

( ),
() . John went from Paris to London
(
,
), , , .
, ( ) (
), :
, , , , (quick, easy)
(quickly, easily).
, ,

.
, : , , ,
. , ,
,
;
() .
. , ,
(
-. -.), ( -), 52

( ), ( )
.. , , . , -. -. ,
-. -. ,
. , ( , , ) .

(?) (?), (to speak at the meeting) , ,
. , ,
(
) , .. ,
.

-, (. ).

53



XX . ( , ) {23}.
( ,
rheme focus) , ,
(, . theme topic). (
), , . , John sent
me a postcard ( ),
?,
, . , , . John sent the postcard to
me ( : ?) , . John sent me the
postcard (?). , , , , . - 54

(? ?
?), - .
, ,
(It
was John who sent me the postcard; It was to me that John sent the
postcard),
(John did send me a postcard),
, ,
. : Only to me did John send a postcard; Never
before had he sent me a postcard. : In the middle of
the room stood a big table ( ?),
The table stood in the middle
of the room, ?.
, . , ( ) , . ,
He sent me this letter yesterday ( ) ?,
. Yesterday he sent
me a postcard ,
( ?), ( ?).
,
; . He left the room very quickly.
,
; . He quickly left the
room Quickly, he rose and left the room,
, (: ?).

,
, : Where did Peter go? (Peter went) To London; Who went to
London? Peter; Did Peter g to London? He did.
55

.
Where did Peter go? , . , , , , - ; , , (
, ). ,
(presupposition {2}) ,

.
, , ( , ), ,
, . ,
( )
: , ( , ), (?).
Peter went to London
;
: , -
; .
,
,
; , . ,

:
(, ...), , ,
.
, . , Peter went to the city of London
, , , , 56

( ) . , , , ,
, , .. . ,
{22} ,
, .
, -
(He came to a big town),
(. He went to London). One day a
little girl went to the wood, ( ), (. ).
,
, .. , : , , It is cold; Winter;
Winter has come; ; ; .. {22} , ,
, (). ,
, (.
, , , , {4, . 90}). ,
, , , . -, , , - , ..
. - - - ?, ,
: () ,
, ,
57

, , , , ..

. , , .. . ( )
/ , , ,
, ? ,
(
, , ) , ,
( ).
: , , ( ).
( ) ,
,
, :
. , , , ,
( ) () ( / ). ;
( = - ),
( );
( ). , , , ..
, ...
, ,
.
58

, ,
. ,
( ?) ( )
, , , , . ; ? {27} ,
, ,
- . ( ?)
, : (
, ); (
, ) ; (, ) ;
(, ) (
). ,
, : ,
..
, ,
( ) - . Peter is sure that the
book is interesting , , .
() ( ),
,

. , -
() - ,
. , Peter made a mistake only
because he was inattentive , , : ( ) ; ( ) ; (
, ) ( -
. {14}).
59



; , . , bachelor () . John is not a bachelor
(), ( , ,
) {33}. ,
, ,
() , ( The man is not
married, , , ). , man (
) () (, );

; . , ( ) ,
( ).

. , swim: 1) Birds
do not swim, they fly () , ; 2) Why dont you swim? ( ). -

{1}, . , to
stand -, ; A chair will not stand on two legs
,
-. 60

; A tall tree once stood here (= )


-.,
(, ).
. , glass () (, ),
, , ,
( , ) . (a glass of water) , ( , ,
) ; . , , .
,
- , ,
, accuse criticise ( ): I did
not accuse you of that , (, , ); I did not criticise you
for that , (, ,
, ) {33} ( , )

. . {32}. ,
, ask, demand, suggest, object,
protest, promise, swear ( , , , , ), 1 . . . .
, , . , I swear! I promise
that! I protest! ( : ! ! !),
(performed) , , .. /
/ -, ..
( ), - :
I asked him to come = , ( ) ;
I ask you to come = ( , ) , .
,
61

/ ,
( : I do not ask you to come ,
).
,
;
, (),
. ,
, : What are you suggesting / asking /
demanding? = are you speaking about (which you wish to be accepted)?
(. - ).

.
,
: Aristotle says that... (= said); : , ... (= ). , ,
. What
does Aristotle say about it? (,
)? , ,
,
(
), .
( ); , . (says), , ,
( ), - .
: , , ,
( ). ,
, ,
,
(
): ,
62

- . , ,
, ( ) .
( , ),
( ) .
,
- () ,
, , ..

63





( ) , . ,
: to build
, ,
. , ,
. ,
(), ,
. , , ,
- .
(,
) ,
.
, , , , ( ). ,
say, tell (? ?),
64

lie (= )
, () ; promulgate (, .. ) (), ; speak ( , )
, , , .
: ( )
( - ), , , - , .


; ;
= ; =
.. ,
- (, , , ),
.. ( )
-, .
, ( / / ).
It rains (=
), It snows (= ), It is growing
dark (= ) (, ..)
- ,
. , ,
( )
, () - , ,
.
65

, -,
(, .. , ; ). , ,
.
, , , , ,
() . , :
He likes to read, ,
- , (, )
.
, , , ,
. , . - .
, , - , . , a flying bird, a small bird,
The bird is flying (is small),
(, )
( , ). ,
( ) ,
, ,
, , .. ,
.

, . ,
,
66

beauty, movement, ( ? ?), (? ?). , .


(hand, foot; roof, top)
(father, son), -
( ?
?).

. ( )
, , , , , , (be, exist, do, implement,work, act). , = , = ;
= ; = .
,
. , : =
; , : = .
, (
= ), ( =
),
. (= , ) = .
( = ), . .
: ,
: (, , )
.
-
, (.
{1, . 45}).
67



- . . -
. , ,
(nominal clauses, ),
, (subject, object, predicative clauses). ( ) , .. (He said that...; His
suggestion was that...),
( , ); .
(comparative clauses); . He can run faster
than I can. () , ,
( ?), .
, , , , , , ()
. , (-, ..) , , : (,
) ; () .. ,
; ,
He was absent from classes because he was ill : , ()
, ( ); They talked while they danced :
..
68

, ,
, , , (), , ,
, , ,
.. , H stayed at home because of (during) his illness
,
-, .. .
(Here is the book that I am reading now),
(a good book), , -
( ? / ?); (book), . , , ( ),
, . - (pronominal
relative clauses): : Blessed is he who expects nothing, for he shall never be
disappointed; He went there from where there is no return; I will do that
which is expected of me (. ... ; ... ..).
,
-
(pronominal relative-conjunctive clauses); . He ran so
quickly that I could not catch up with him; There was such a strong wind
that the trees bent low. . , (so...; such...; ...; ...;
...) , (
, ) (so, such) (so quickly) (such
a wind). , , , .. , 69

(so / such... that); , . , ,



(that) , , , - ,
( ?). , , (. ).
. (but), (and) ( or). , ,
. He was sitting and she was
standing ( , ) :
, , ,
. but (. ) and (. ), , , but
() ,
, . , The Fox jumped high but he couldnreach the grapes
(. ) , ,
, .
,
(. . 76),

, . (1)
( , )
(2) ,
; . I knocked there was no
answer; I did not hurry, there was plenty of time, but because, .
(1) () , 70

, () , . () () , ,
(-1) (-2) . (-1)
(-1-) () (, , ), ( ) , ,
(-1-) , (). (-2)
(, ..),
:
( ) , .
, , () , (
+
) - . () () - ,
()
, ( )
.
, : () (). ,
,
. , : , , ,
; , (
),
( ). 71

: , , .
,
( , ), ; .. {26, . 464}.

( ). , ,
, :
, ,
- , , . : ,
, .. , . , (...),
( ),
(...).
( , ),
: ; (= , )
, . ,
: , :
72

. , ,
, ,

(
{21, c. 112}).
,
(
): If
(when) you feel unwell, then you may miss some classes; .
()... ()... ; ... ....
, , , , then, so, thus, however,
nevertheless, , ( , / ),
,
( / however ,
/ thus -, / then ). ,
, (He tried hard but / however he failed), ( , ) , (, , ..).
, : , so, thus
(= , ); , however
(= , , , ); / then (= ,
) ..

, : ; He went
into the house ( ?). ; He approaached the house and went in ( ),
( ?) ( , in , , .. ).
73

,
( ).
, ,
,
, .. ( ) ,
() ().
, ( ) , ,

. , , , (,
; , ).
,
. , , , , , ; ()
, ( ) () - .

, . . () .
()
- . , , ,
; . ,
. , .
() ( ):
:
74

. ( ), .. (, ) ,
- , , . ,
( ) . , ( , ..), ,
- , -
. , , (
),
, ,
, .
( ,
, , , ) , . ,
.
,
, (), ,
. ,
. ( ) ,
( ). ,
-
( ). ,
, ( ),
(.
). , ,
-
, ,

(. ).
75





(1)

(2)
(
)

()

()
(#1) .
.

(#2) .##
. .

(#3) .#. . .
(#1)

(#2)
()

(#2#) .
(.#.
.)

(#1#)
.
.

.
.

76

(#2#) .
.
(.#. .
. .)

(#1#) and, . . . . . .
but,
. r
.


( ,
), ,
( ),
().
, (,
, ) ( ). , .

: ,
. , ( ) .
,
() , -77

, .. - . , , , , .
,
: () (
) ( , ),
() ( ) ( , ). , ( ) (,
... , , ..,
.. - ,
,
() . , , ,
( ), , ,
,
, .
- () , ..., , ... ..
. , ,
,
, ( , , ), .

, (
). ,
( , , ); 78


. ()
-., - : (, ) -.
-., , . (= )
(= ) . ,
, - (-) : ... ....
; , =
; = , = , , = , = ..
, - () , ;

, , (
) (
).
? - , ,
; . .. (
.. ) , , , , , , {28, . 102}.
. . , ( ) ,
? ? , , ,
,
( ..).
79

, /
,
, - (. ,
); , .
It is
raining, ,
- . , , ..
, -.
, , , , -
(), ().
, (
) , ()
(). , (), ,
-
, . ,
, . , ()
,
, ; ( ,
, , ), , - , , .
(, ) (),
, (
) ( ), () 80

( ),
, ,
.
,
, . , : . ( ) = (),
().
( ) ,
:
,
- ( , ... ).
, , (-), , ..
.
- , ( -) .
,
( ). , , , (),
; , .
, , .. , ,
( )
, , ..
( , , , . {22}).
: . , , 81

( ,
).
( ), .. , (
) (). ( ) , ,
( ).
, (), ,
. . ,
, , ... ... , [6, c. 168].



. . , , {9; 25} , . , ,
( )
, .. ,
.
. , , ,
, , , . ,
82

.
()
.., , ,
, .. , .
,
, (, .. {12}

, {22}). ,
,
, {34}. , ... , .
, , , ..
,

; , .
, ,
-; . ,
, , (
), . -
, ,
.
83

, ..
.
, ( ,
), ( ,
) (

).
:
(= ), , ..
, , , .. , :
, . , ,
( = , , ) ,
( ) .

() , , ,
( ). ,
, , , ; ., , ( ) -
,
(
). , 84

,
( ) ; -, .



,
( , . {38}),
, . , , , , (), .. ,
( ) ,
.. (.
).
(, ), (, , ),
, - , : , (
) , .
-
, : .
( )
( )
- /
, ,
..
( ) , , , / , , ,
85

. (, , , , ) , ()
(= ).
, , .. ,
, ,
( ), ,
.
. ( ) . , , ; ..,
- ( ).
,
, ,

: ,
, , .
( ) , .. - .
, ,
. , , ten days (
) . ,
{30, . 264}.
, . .
:
...
( , 1964). , - ,
, 86

, , , , () .
.
, , , ,
, (
). ,
: ,
. , ,
, , ,
, . {11}:
, ( ) , , ,
,
.

,
(, ).
/ , , . , ,
() . , , ,
( ) . ,

. , , , : , /
( , :
, ). , , ,
, .
87

, ,
,
. ,
(), (), , ,
,


- . , ,
- , ,
, : ( ) ,
, . () , , ..
. , , , ..
, .



. , ,
, , , , ,
/ , , ,
,
. -,

, , , 88

. ,
( -, ,
), ,
, - ,

:

(), ,
,
.
,

( ) ( , ). , , ,
(, ): -,
, -, .. .
,
.

.
, , , . ,
, , , ,
, ..
, (= ), ,
. ,
,

.
, (,
-)
89

- . ,

: ,
; , ,
. , , . ,
( )
, .
( ) , , ,
.. - . , ,
(), .
,
-
.
, ,
. ,
( / ),
, ,
, ( ). -, ()
,
, ,

, ,
. , , : - ( 90

) , .. () . ( , , ,
), , -, .. , ,
.

, () , , (
) / ( ).

, , ():
, ...
, , ..,
().
, , ( ), . ,

- ,
. ,
. ,
91

, , (, ),
. ,
(), ( ) (
).
/ , .
,

. , , ,
, (
). ,
,
1. , (
...) , ,
( , ... ...).
- () ,
.
: , , , ; = . ,

, .
: ,
, , .
(,
, ), , (, ), . , -., /
, 92

, .. : (= ), (= ), (= ), (=
). (
), : / /
/ (= , / /
/ ) .. ,
: , .. ,
( ).
,
- (. ,
..). , , :
, , -
. , (), .
, , () (), . ,
; , , ,
.. . , , - () (, , , ..).
, .. , ,
. - : ,
93

.., , , , , (= ) ,
(=
) ()
, , , ,
, , ,
, ,
. , ,
, . , , , , -
,
(..
, ). ,
,
, - () . ,

, ,
.
(
) , , , . (
)
, ( ) ,
-: (), (), (), ()
, (..
). ,
{1, . 75}, ,
94

: , , ,
,
.. - , , ,
, ,
, ( ).
, , ,
, ( ) ..
, - ( ,
). ,

.



.

. ,
,
- , .. . (
) ,
( ),
. ,
( ) ( ), .

95

;
() . ,
,
( ),

.
() : stone wall
, (),
( , ) .
, , ,
.. , ().

() - .
, ,
.

(
) ();
( ) ,
. () . , , ,
( ),
.
() , ,
, .
96

, to yawn, .
()
. ,
, ,
, . , , , ( ).
,
, () . ,

, : ,
, - - ,
, ..
- ( ) ( ). ,
- ,
.
. ,
, , , , , ..,
. ,
There is nothing to talk about () ..
,
( );
. ; He did not answer my question,
/ / 97

. . : ! ! .., , , ..,
.
, -. -.
, : -. (
?), ( ?),
() , . -. ,
( -)
( ,
).
, ,
, , . , ,
,
. ,
( ),
,
- .
,
,
- :
, ..
- () .
( )
.
(), () ( ). 98

,
, :
- ( - ), . ,
, , -
, ; . (), () ..

,
.
, () ( , ). , ,
, . ,
, -, ,
.

.

99

1. .. . . ., 1974 (2- . ., 1995).


2. .. .
, . . , 1973, . 32, 1.
3. .. . ., 1976
4. . . .,
1955 (. .).
5. ..
. ., 1975.
6. . . ., 1974 (. .).
7. .. . ., 1994.
8. .. .
, . 5. ., 1980.
9. . . ., 1993 (. .).
10. .. . ., 1960.
11. . . ,
. 8, 1978 (. .).
12. ..
. , 1950, . 2.
13. .. ? , 1968,
3.
14. .. . ., 1988
(2- . ., 1998).
15. .. . , 1983, 1.
16. . . ., 1958 (. .).
17. .. .
, . 8, ., 1964.
18. .., .., .. . ., 1981.
100

19. .. ( ). ., 1956.
20. ..
. . . , ., 1960.
21. .., .. .
. ., 1973.
22. . ., 1990.
23. . .
. ., 1967 (. .).
24. .. . ., 1985.
25. .., .. : . . ., 1984.
26. .. . .,
1956.
27. .. . ., 1970.
28. .. . ., 1959.
29. .. Present Continuous.
. ., 1963.
30. .. . 1920 . , 2, .,
1960. (. .). 31. . .
, . . ., 1981 (. .).
32. Austin J.L. How To Do Things with Words. Oxford, 1962.
33. Fillmore Ch. Types of Lexical Information. Studies in Syntax and Semantics,
v. 10. Dordrecht, 1969.
34. Ilyish B.A. The Structure of Modern English. Moscow-Leningrad, 1971.
35. Reichenbach H. Elements of Symbolic Logic. N.-Y., 1947.
36. Searle J.R. Speech Acts (An Essay in the Philosophy of Language). Cambridge,
1969.
37. Vendler Z. Linguistics in Philosophy. Ythaca: Cornell University Press,
1967.
38. Wierzbicka A. Semantic Primitives. Frankfurt, 1972.

101

102

103


, . ()

- , XIX .

- ,
( XIX .) .
-
() - (), .
(,
.., , ..),
(, , ).
: (
12 , , , , , , , .);
, , - (
- ), -, -, (,
), , -, 104

, , , .

(- ) ,
( ), ( ), ( ) , , -,
, - ( , .. ),
( -). , , , ,
.
(, ), :
Ego ic (Ich, I) (); tu thu (thou, thee) (Iran.)
tuvem; meus my, mine mein ; () satem
(Iran.) centum, kentum hundred; sum, es, est, sunt am, is,
ist, sind , , , ; mother, mater; brother
Bruder frater ; , , , , , atta
(, ); . anus (manuscri pt); deep,
dhoup ; dhunoti down (eiderdown).

, , g ;
. . gino ; h ; . granum, grain; g
h helvus gelb yellow.
, , ..:
1 : p, t, k f, th, h (pater father, penta fimf, nepos
nephew, flame, octo eight, nocto night, hook
);
2 : b, d, g p, t, k (sleep , pool , water
, tree, videre; witan (wit, witty), wissen;
, gino cwena).
105

- ( ), , ( ),
;
, , ..
- (= -)
.

, , ,
(. . ).
, , , , ( , 1, 2 3 .), ,
, ..
, ,
, , (, ) , , , (
), , -
( ) ..
, ( ). ,
, .. . , ()
; . ( ;
; ); ( ;
106

; ); ( ;
; ; ).
; . . (.
Kirche) . ; . (. hal,
. to heal, whole) . .

(910 .): (ceosan chesen
to choose; cild child; (scip ship; action); (brygge
bridge). , ; . . Caesar,
[kesar], ( ) [tsezar] ( . ), [Chesaro].
-
-, ,
.

107



XIX .
, .. .
(. ) ( , ) . . ,
(-
): , .
(, ) (.
.. ,
). () (- ) .
() (, ) ( ); .
ehir ( ) -ler (. ) imiz ( ) -de ( ) = .

( ) (, , );
108

,
, ( ) ( ). -,
, ( ),
( ); , , ( ).
, ( )
, , ; .
:
(= ), (= ),
(to fish = ),
It rains; (=
). , .
(. )
, . (
)
, ..
.

( ) .. , ( ).

- . . , , , ..
..
, , ,
- , ( ) ( ),
.
109

..
, ( ). ,
(- )
(),
- , ,
, . , . , , . . ( ),

,
, (
) [8].

( , )
.. 1950 .,
, , , , -
.

110


:
) / , ;
) / ;
) ;
) ;
)
...
, ,
(, , ), , ().

.

( , , ..) ( , ).
, , , (= ). 111

; . He goes; ,
, , , ; ,
, . : ( .), ,
..,
.

(
). , , ().
( ), .. ,
( , .. , . ).

, ,
. . - ,
- - ( -, -);
,
- ,
, . .
- - , . : - (
+ , , ), - ( +
).
. : - - , - - - :
,
;
( ) (). , - , -
, .
- - , - - -
( ), (). ,
112

, ( )
(, , , ), . , , ,
;
:
( ), ;
. :
? , , , ?
( : ? ? ?).
; . ( -- ) - , - - ( ) ( );
,
(? ?);
- , - - - (
).
,
(. ehir - ler imiz - de = ),
. ,
; (); . ler / lar
: ehir + ler (),
, okul + lar
(), .
,
( ), ,
(, ). ,
.. , () , . , 113

, ,
,
. , -, , , ..
.
,
, , , , ; . ,
, , .
(,
, ,
) (,
, , , ).
, : - , , .
-
,
( .. {13}). (
) , .. (), , .. - ( ) . ( )
,
( ).
( ) 114

-. , .

, ,
, (() (). (
, ) ,
:
,
;
.
, , , , ,
,
(, , ),
, .
, ,
. , S () P ()
() ( )
S P ().

,
( ) ().

115

1



, ..
, .
( ), (), , .
, : (); () (); (
) ( ) (). , , ,

( ), ,
, ,
. , () ( = ).
( / ). , , .., (= ), (= ),
(-, ) ( 116

, , , ). , (
), ,
..
, : , ,
, - (), (),
() .. , , -, , (), ..



24 , 35.
,
:
, , ..
,
, .. : , , .

. (T, D,
K, P, B ..) . L , ( ), .. , :
( ) (dark variant)
(luck, lock, large, call); (
) (light variant) (listen, late, lie, clean).
, [],
(. John). [] []
(),
(. sure; . . television). , , ,
, ( ).
117

, ( ) (, , ). , , ;
[] .
.

, , , , ,

(
).
(

).
,
, . : , . , (
L), - , , .
, ,
: Pyetya (), pyatyero rebyat
( ).
: , ; pig big, too
do ( ).
(
a),
() ,
.
,
, ,
(. );
-
, .
118

, ,

( ) () , ..
.
(),
(
).
,
, (, Yes, he does; If you want...).
. , , ,
, , , (),
.
h () ,
, (.
house).
, (): p, t, d, k;
. [], .
[]; , ( - ).
,
: , , , , ; - .

, , :
1) : , , (), (w) , ; ,
;
119

2) , ;
3) : , ;
4)

, ,
.
; . (
), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ),
( ) ..;
.
( ): [d] [] (divide
division), [z] [] (seize seizure), [s] [s] (express expression),
[t] [s] (dictate dictation). ,

- .

12 (),
6 .
(, ) (,
). , I: () ;

, : ( )
; [] (girl)
.
120


: (.. ); . [i]
(), [i:] ()
.
, , [a] () [a:]
(), [], [:] ;
[u] () [u:] ().

(.. ). . [I:], [U:]
[i], [u] ();
[], [] (girl),
singer, again;
[ ] (but), [O:] , cat, car, box. .
,
, ,
.
, (, , ). ,

, ,
. ,

, : ,
.

, , ,
.
-,
, :

(. )
( ), (). 121

, , -
; , ,
.

:
(--!), .

, ,
,
: , [i] ,
[I:],
; ,
: , ..
;
. ,
, ( );
:
- , - , - , - . (
) - (.
- - ), (= + ), - - ..

. ,
( , ).

(, ), ( ) ( ). , .. (
),
.
,
: ,
, 122

, : elevate elevator, active in-active;


legal il-legal; real un-real, labial bi-labial; clever cleverer
cleverly cleverness. recordplayer, school teacher, war time, book-binding, music lovers.
,
(activity, ability, courageous, location, garage).

: , ;
.
,
,
: operation, celebration, interference.
, , .
,
(), ; . ,
(). , ,
, .. , , .
, -
revolution, demonstration .

(), (
; Dont do it).
(; about),
, ( ; I
didnt think about it). , ,

(I didnt look at him).
( ),

123

, :
! Only to me did he tell the truth.

(). ,
;
.
( ),
, .
( ).
; ,
.
(, , );
. ; ! ; . :
/ ? Has Peter / come? ,
.

, () : \ ? \ Where were you
yesterday?

: / \ ?
Have you / been there or \ havent you?; \ , / ? You
have \ been there, / havent you? ,
, , ,
( /, ...).
. . ,
:
? (/\) ()
124


: Have you / been there since that time?

, : , ; Yes, I was there.
(low fall)
, , : Oh,
did you?
, .

,
: Have any
of those people ever / been there? When Peter finally came / home, ...
()
, :
- / ?; / , ...

, .

, :
- (rise-fall: Well, I see that you met everybody.
But did you / meet \ Peter there?), (=
?), - (fall-rise: When he \ did
come / home...) (rise-fall-rise: Did / you \ really come
/ today?).
: En \ joy /
ment is not the right \ word / here; Oh, \ real / ly? (fall-rise).

125



,
(IV . ..), () . , , ..
. (). : ,
;
, ( . . , ).
( , )
, ,
, , , .
(126

, , , ..) ( , ..).
,
, .
(,
, ) (, , , ,
..).

(
), (
) (
). , ,
, , ,
, .
, , , , , ,
; .
(, , ..) ,
, .
, (he, it, something, everybody),
(my, his, some, any) (now, then, here, there, somehow,
thus). , , . , (,
, ), ,
, , , .
(, , , !; Oh, Ouch, Well, Wow, Alas)
- ( , ; perhaps, probably,
of course, no doubt, surely) ( 127

), (
- ). , ,
, ,
. , / , ..
, , . , -;

.

(, ), .. ; perhaps /
, no doubt, surely = .
,
. ,
,

(, , ..).
:
,
. . ; He is still sleeping,

, . , ( ), . already, yet
. ,
/ ; He has already
come / has not come yet ,
; /
.
/ /
( / ),
. , / 19
, 19 ;
(
already even; as far back as).
128

,

. ,
( ) ( ,
); ; , .
, ( ); {5}.

. ,
, ,
, ( ).

, . ,

,

( , ),
.
, () ,
,
; . plant:
animals and plants () plant and animal life (
) to plant trees (); . the
back of the hand (.) the back part of the hand (.) to go
back (.) to back an idea (.).

. , before (before
the war) (Before he came back...); but (We waited, but he didnt come), (He
spoke to everybody but me = except me), ,
129

(But for the bad weather...)


(He is but a baby = only a baby; I could but hope =
I could only hope).
,
( ),
.

,
- . , ,
. ,
, , ,
.. , , , , -
: , , . ,
.
( , ) ( )
. ,
. , , , :
, , (

this these).
130


, ( , book books). / (a book books).
( ),
,
(, ; water, kindness) - .
( , , ; much, a little, little).
,

(, , ; group, people, furniture).
(The family is / are waiting for him), (The furniture is quite new).
( ,
family families).
, (, ; peasantry, brotherhood);
, , .
, , ,
; (, ; scissors, spectacles, trousers) , (, , , slums,
dregs, outskirts, goods). -
, .
: , Pluralia tantum , , ,
hair (, ),
gate, watch, sledge (, ); Pluralia tantum goods ( ) commodity commodities (
).
131

()
:
()
. ;
. ( ) ( ). , , (often
came; came at last).
- {4}. , () ; People often (sometimes)
make mistakes () ;
, (, )
(
), () ( , ), ,
.
, ( ) :
; Men are mortal
. , - (, ),
( ): = ; There were people in the yard = some people.
( ; These
people often make mistakes) , .


( ),
, 132

(
, , ,
).

,
(, ,
, , , ), ( ).
, . , ,
, : , ,
:
(. . .), (., . .),
().

. . -,
( )
( I, he me, him),
( )
.
,
, .
, , , (town,
country, London, England, world, Earth, Moon, Sun), (ship, car, aeroplane),
(an hours walk, a miles distance);
(musics
voice, lifes joys). , ; (. , , ),
.
133


,
, - (.
, ).
. . ,
(somebody elses child; the Prime-Minister of Englands speech; the man
I saw yesterdays son), ,
.
- , s
, . , , , (
).
, , , ,
; . - , -, - (
).
,

; . (the boys father) (the boys fathers).
childrens books,
mens clothes,
( ).
, :
1) , (.
Johns house / wife / friend / work)
134

(Johns arrival /
attention). , ,

( );
; . ( -, - ). , , , (the invitation of the writer by smb.; taming
of animals; killing of birds; punishment of children); 2)
() , :
childrens books (= for children; ), an officers cap (for an officer;
), a miles distance (stretching for a mile), an hours walk
(walk for an hour).
( ) : (
), ( ), ( ), ( ), (
, ), ( ! ) .. ,
-
:
, ( -), ( -), ( ) ( , - ).

( ),
( , , , ..) .
,
: , ,
, ..
- .
135


, - , . 3 . . . (, )
(
).

:
( ), , ; ,
(, ),
(, , , ),
/ (, ). , ,
: ,
.

(, ), (,
); (
),
; . , , (
), . .
.. ( ,
).
;

(, , , ),
(). , , , ( ),
(.
: ).
136


, , ,
.
3 . . . (he, she, it).
, ,
(, baby it). , .. (man
woman, boy girl, cow bull, duck drake)
; . -ess (actress, poetess, lioness),
woman-teacher, man-servant, boy-friend, he-wolf, tom-cat, billygoat, nanny-goat.
, , , .
, , ,
, , , , , - {12}. ,
Sun = he, Moon = she; Wind, Ocean, River =
he; Nature = she; Fear, Love = he; Hope, Mercy = she.
(Dog, Fish, Horse, Cat, Mouse), ,
(lioness) : (
) the Ant = he, the Grass-hopper =
she.
(boat, ship ..),
(Something
is wrong with my car, I cant start her);
(I saw a car at the curb; its
window was broken).
,
137

- (I am trying to move this cupboard to the other wall.


Just give me a hand with her / with it).
- , .

( ) , .. .
( ),
, ,
( ).

(.
, ..), (
). ,
() .
,
; . : en bok (= - ) boken (= );
: (=
) (= ).

,
, :
1) .
, : 138

; (
). ? ?, () ( ).
.
,
( ; )
. : ? ?, ()
, . , , .

, , ; . In the middle of the room stood a table; There came a knock at
the door; In his voice was kindness, something of which White Fang had
no experience whatever. , ,
(A table stood in the middle of
the room),
, . , , ,
: ,
( );
2)
: -, -, , ..
. ,
; . ... (= A doctor told
me...); . ... (= into the
shop).
( ...; ...) {7}.
,
(one doctor, this shop),
;
139

3) , :
-
: - ?
, ; , , - (-). , ,
.
- : , ,
( - ?) ( - ?). ,
, .. ,
. , Suddenly I saw a house, -,
The house was burnt down .
, .. , , ( )
(? ?). : : - ?; : - ?.

; . (= the fish), (= the tea)
(= some fish), (some tea). , ( = ).
;
. ( fish), ( a fish).

.
140


:
( ), ( , , ;
;
--, -, --, -) (
).
,
(wooden, sunny). , .
(stone wall, glass door, education ministry, verb forms,
winter session).
, .
, ,
, ( ),
.

; . schoolboy, school-teacher, school building; gas-light, gas mask,
gas and oil production. , , , .
(, , ; easier, shorter), (
/ / ; : more interesting / important). 141

(This story
is more funny / simple than; This edition is more complete than; He
was more happy / wealthy / polite / stupid than; He is more good than
bad),
(a funnier / simpler story; completer edition; a politer /
happier / person; the wealthiest / stupidest person), - {19}.
( / , ; , ...). , .

, : ( ) ( ).

.
, ,
( ),

( ). ; . ( )
( ); (He was angry He is bad-tempered / wicked).
, .

(, , ) ();
().
, , ,
, . , ,
.
142

.. {16}
, ( ) , . ,
.
, {18},
, (statives) . , , afraid, awake, asleep,
apart, aloof, ablaze ..
, , . , -
, .
; , ,
()
I am cold; It is warm (nice) here;
He is afraid (asleep)
( / ).
, -, : ill, ready, eager
.. - - - . , ,

.

.
.
143


,
; . (he him), (John Johns). ,
(, ; my, his).
: (my, your), , (mine, yours), .
.

(, ; this, these)
(, ; that, those).
, , (That is what happened , ) (This
is what happened = , ).
(-,
-, -, -; some, any, once, somewhere, somehow)
, (, ,
, , ; this, that, then, there, thus).
(
) ,
.
some any,
- -, (= ,
) . , .
some, -
, . , I see note on
the table; has someone been here?; , - ? , -
. Wasnt there some other way out?
- ?, 144

, ,
, , - .
e any -
. , There is hardly anything interesting here;
- ,
( hardly; ); He was too tired to do anything
(-) too , , (=
, ).
any whatever; - ,
:
( ), . ,
You may take any of these books;
: ; , .
, some one , .
-
. , ,
( ) :
( , ). , - :
- (
). , -
, some any . () any , : Can I
take any apple? ( - ?) Can I take
any apple? ( ?) {17}.
145

,
: each
every (), somebody someone (-), all everything (),
all everybody (). , . . Every child knows this
(= any children in general) Each child was given a present (= all those
children); Everybody has a right to elect and to be elected (= any person)
Everyone of them was there (= each of those persons); It is impossible to
know everything (= all things in the world) That is all that I know (=
all those things that I know); I found nothing interesting there (= no
interesting things) I looked for the books but found none (= not one of
those things); All the money is here, none of it has been stolen.

What Which: What books do you like? Which of the books did you
like more?
. ,
, : , ,
. , ( ...). ; .
? ?, , . ,
... ,
,
.
, , - , to do (Who
went there? I did).
(I am / I have / I shall).

( . . {6},
; . ? , .
146


, , .
, , (
, , , )

. , ,
(Jack built a house; ). ,
(A house was built; ).

(was built; ), , , - ( ).
( ),
, .. - ,
, .
(The book was given to m),
(I was given a book),
, (The baby was looked after / for
/ at). - ( ; ; ).
, ( ); . The book was given to me, not to him;
, I was given a book, not a pencil; ,
.
, , , .. ,
: , () = , ().
( 147

) ( ): ,
After the door was locked, we left the place; ,
, ,
.

; .
I could not enter because the door was locked;
, , ()
( ), , ,
().
,
.
- / -
, , ,
.
(to wash / shave oneself), ..
, (
).

(He washed and shaved quickly), . , wash oneself
.
- /-, , ; . (). , ,
( -.) , (), ..
. , , , ( )
. , 148

, ( ),
, .
( , ).
, , ,
-
, ; . / (= ), ,
- .
, , , .
,

- ,
,
:
() -, .
,
: .

, The door opened
; ,
( ,
) , ( ). The door opened
The door was opened by the servant,
() () . , , , , ,
- , .
149

( ) The book sells well, The


cloth washes easily.

,
( / ). -
( , ).
, : , to boil (
; The water is boiling)
(), to boil (water),
: ; (= - ); The water was boiled (is being boiled).
!; He was boiling with anger, .
, to open ( ; The
door opened) (), to open (the
door), (
; The door was opened by the servant); - , to open ( ; The door opens easily =
).
, ( )
,

(- -- -; -
-).

, to buy to sell,
. , : , John sold his house to Peter
150

, , Peter bought the house from


John .

(. . ). ,
(), , . , ( ) ; .
.
/ , .


, , . ,
( ; shall / will do),
, ..
. (),
().
, , .., , .
-
,
. , . . (, ). - , ,
( ,

151

), : ( , ; He
said he knew it), ( ,
; He said he had finished his work) ( , ; He said he would come soon).

(--).
,
, .
, , . , ,
( ?; When does your train leave?; Where are
you going for a holiday?) .
. . ,
( ... =
; Suddenly John comes in and says = came in and said).

, : , ...; Aristotle
says that... (= ).
, . : -?; Do you speak French?
(); ?; Why dont you tell me
the truth? (= ).

, ,
.



(
). ,
152

, -,
, ,
{2; 3; 9; 10; 11; 14;
16; 18; 19}. , ,
.

, (, ,
), ,
, (, , ).
, , .. -
: , -.,
= , = ,
= , = ,
, = , ..
( , , , ),

() , ..
.
(
) :
? = ?.
, -
,
, : ? = ,
.
,
, , .. :
/ ? / ?
, .. / (, , , , , , ),
() . 153

, , (
); : (= );
(= ); (= ); (= ); (=
) ..
,
/ ; . arrive, come, appear (= -.); leave,
disappear (= ); get, receive, buy (=
); lose, sell (= ), ,
(sleep, sit, stand,
work, wait, live, love).
, , , , ,
( ); . Have you built your house? (= ?), , ,
, ,
Are you building a house? (= ...).

, . ,

( ,
..). , I have lived here all my life

, live - .

; .
He has come at last, ( ),
He has come down to see her too often (A. Christie)
(= ),
, . ,
(, )
.
154

,
. , He came home at six (=
) He finally built his house (=
- ) , (; )

(He has come; He has built a house).
,
, ,
,
( ) ( , ). ,
.
, :
.. {14} : ( Present Perfect),
- ( Past Perfect)
( Future Perfect). ,
- , .. ,
( ) . .. ( .. {18} ), .. (
) - ( ; . He had
gone before I returned).
,
,
(Continuous / Progressive).
, , ; . He was working
at that time He worked for a long time He has been working all this
155

time He has worked long enough. ,



, , ,
.
, (
),
: (He is
sleeping), - (He
was sleeping when I came; At this time tomorrow he will still be sleeping).
- , -
, (He has been
working all day today; He had been working long by that time).
, : We have
known each other for many years; He said he had been there since morning.
, (, -)
- : , , - ,
.
:
,
(He worked long yesterday), (I came, I saw, I conquered);
, -
(reference moment, {20}. , - , - , ; . He entered the flat, looked into the dining-room
and saw ( ,
) that the guests had
gone and Mother was clearing the table.
.. (, , 156

), , .. .
(, ), () ( ,
).
,
()
. ,

,
, , ,
.
, ,
, ,
, , . , , .
,
- ( ), ,
( ) ( ).
,
, .


( ) ( ), 157

( ).

( ).
( ) ,
( , ).
, .
(If he were in town now, he would call me)
:
should, would,
(Conditional Mood); , (were),
(Subjunctive Mood Subjunctive II).
, , ;
( ) .
(If he were in town, he would call me; If he had been in
town, he would have called me), (
).

; . , -
.
.

: ( )
!; If only you had told me earlier!
,
.
( ) , 158

: (, , , ), .
should, (It is necessary / desirable / impossible
that he should come); . may, (It is possible /
I wish that he may come). ,
(Old Present Subjunctive),
(It is necessary that he come).
should (It is impossible that he should have seen it).
(, , ..)
, .
: I wish that he should come / may come / come /
comes. : , ( ) .
,
,
.

159

: ) , ( ; ),
( ); ) ( , ) ) , - ( ). ,
, (to
see him; this book these books).
, ( ) .

. ) ( ; to read a book) ( ; to run
quickly); ) ( ;
a big room;
; a man in a black coat); )
( ; extremely
quick; ; extremely quickly).

, .
, (stone wall; production meeting;
160

peace conference).
, (, , ), , -,

. -
( ,
) - (
).

. , , (my fathers house),
( ). - (a green oak-tree),
( ), , ( ; ; ),
( ) ..
, ,
,
; . glass window (= )
window glass (= ).


( ), , (. ), - ( ; , ...) - ( ,
, . ;
161

. ; ,
).

. (It is cold; It was raining),
, (It is necessary to go there),
(It). -
-
(Somebody has come to see you; They say...; You never
know; We live and learn).
, - -
. , Somebody came
in -, A boy came in; Some
boys came in .., - .

: ( !; Come here!), ,
, , .. (. . . ;
; Night. Romeo under Juliets balcony; Hamlet, Prince of
Denmark), (! ?;
: To love such a bore!), , (Oh! Alas! Wow!)
(Yes; No; Of course; Certainly; Really).
,
- (
; ), () , .. ,
( ? ; Where is Peter? At school).
.
( ...; ? , ). ;
: So what did you do? Tell him everything? (= Did you tell him?);
Where is Peter? Gone home.
162

: , ; I went home, and he to the cinema;


.
, , , ( ) ; . ,
; , .
.
: , ; ? ; ?
,
Have you read? Yes, I have read; Shall I give? Please, give;
May I take? .

: ? ; Where did
you go? To the cinema; ? . When is he
coming back? Tomorrow; ? ; What did you
buy? A car.
, - do
(Yes, I do; No, he didnt; Please, dont) (Yes, he is / he will / he has). ,
: ?
; ? , .

. , , ,
(Nobody told anybody anything), ( ).

; .
- ,
,
( / ?),
163

- (Dont you know?). -


, ( ? = , ?), (Did you see my note-book?).



, ,
:
(I bought a present for
my children in London last year).
( ;
; ; ..).
.
(. He likes books Does he like books?) (How many English books have you?
How many English books you have!).
(. . ?
? !)
( ),
.
( ), , .
,
, , (, ); . (= - );
( ),
; .
(= ).
, (A girl
entered the room The girl entered the room).
164


,
, , (. : Gestern habe ich ein Buch gelesen).
, , ,
, , (In the
middle of the room stood a big table; Then came a knock at the door).

.
, ( ), ( ) : Only then did he realise the
danger; Never in my life have I seen such things; Not a word did he say to
me; Only to you can I tell the whole truth; Hardly had he entered, when
he saw a stranger.
. ,
, :
, ;
,
, (
).
;
( ) , , . , He sent me this letter
yesterday ( ) ?, . Yesterday he sent me a postcard ,
( ?),
( ?). . He
left the room very quickly ( ) He quickly
left the room Quickly, he rose and left the room, 165

, ( :
?).

(It was he who helped
me; He did help me). ( ; -
; - ).


.
- -
, : , ...; , ...;
, ...; , ...; , ... ..

(I went where he told me; What he
says is true). (He who
laughs last, laughs longest; He went there from where there is no return; I
will do that which is expected of me);
(the man who...; the place where...).
,
(He said he
knew it; This is the book I was speaking about),
.
, .. ( . : ?; I saw him last night.
I say, what you doing here?).
. ,
, , : (, ,
), (
166

, ).
.
, , , .
, ; . On his coming home, I told him everything; The weather
being fine, we went to the river; I moved aside for him to sit down.
: ,
().
, ( and), (, but) ( or).
- . and
: (I am a student and he is a student; ,
), , , (I am a student and he is a teacher; , ).
, (
), : - ( , ), but, (,
) : / , ; I wanted / tried to do it but failed.
, but
, . , , ;
The Fox jumped high but he couldnt reach the grapes
, ()
, .

167

1. .. .
., 1979.
2. ..
. ., 1975.
3. .. . ., 1994.
4. .. .
, . 5. ., 1980.
5. .. .
., 1977.
6. .. . ., 2001.
7. .. ? , 1968,
3.
8. ..
. : . / .
.. . . . ., 1959.
9. . . ., 1958 (. .).
10. .., .., .. . ., 1981.
11. .. ( ). ., 1956.
12. ..
. . . . ., 1960.
13. .. . ., 1975.
14. .. . ., 1959.
15. .. . ., 1965.
16. .. ( 1:
). ., 1974.
17. Dahl O. Some Notes on Indefiniteness. Language, v. 46, N. 1, 1970.
18. Ilyish B.A. The Structure of Modern English. Moscow-Leningrad, 1971.
19. Quirk R., Greenbaum S., Leech G., Svartvik J. A University Grammar of
English. , 1982, p. 123127.
20. Reichenbach H. Elements of Symbolic Logic. N.-Y., 1947.
168

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