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Road,
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Town5
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pemissonoI rhepubishe6
Desgned
byCaroynGibson
I unraGdbyPeter
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andill anMoseda
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n{es;iy amendmenls
in iuiureedlonsol lhe book

Prinkdandboundn HonqKong

2013 2012 2411 2A1A2049


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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Business
Paur
Emmerso"
VOGabU

Ia ry

Builder
to Upper-intermedi
Intermediate
Thewords& phrases
vouneedto succeed

A
MACMILLAN
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Contents
B U S t N E S St O P t C S

Financial markets

The businesswo.ld

31 Financial markets

66

32 Investing in stocks

68

33 Re.ruitment

7A

34 Pay and bnefits

72

35 lisues in the workplacc

74

The econo y

Th businesscycle

lnternational tlade

10

Setting up and g.owing a businest

12

Company tt|pes and corporate govrnance

14

Global issuesfor the 21st <entury


C F F E C I I V E C O M M I ' ,I \ I I C A T I O N

Management styles and qualitis

Organizing time and work

20

36 Yoqr ba<kgroundand carcel

76

Planning and setting obictives

22

37 Your aompany

78

24

38 Youriob

80

10 Leading and motivating


11 Insuranceand risk management

Telphoning

Produdtion and oprationt


12 Manufaduring end engineering

28

13 Inside a factory

30

14 Procurement and purchasing

32

l5 Supply chain managment and logistics

34

16 Lean production
17 Quality

38

lisiening

a2
a4
86

42 Telephoning- arranging a meting


43 Telephoning- <omplaints
z|4 telephoning - .viw

88
90
92

Emails

Salesand marketing
18 Sales

39 Telephoning- making end taking calls


40 Telephonlng- messages
41 Telephoning- checklng, .larifying, active

40

19 Cuttomer sedice
20 Markeb.nd marketing
21 Product
22 Distribution(pla.e)

48

23 Promotion

50

24 Price

52

25 Ma.keting management

54

Coftpany tinance

45 Emails- basica
46 Emails- inlernal .ommunkilion
47 Emails- aomrneftial

27 Balancshet

58

28 Cash flow statemnt

60

29 Managing <ashflow

62

30 Profitability

64

96
98

48 Erneils- customr i$us


49 E nails - arranging a Yiit
50 E n.ils - rcview

100

51 Presentations - oFn-E
52 Presentations - nEin boql

106

53 Presentationi - da*EIF

26 lncome statement

94

54 PresentatiorE - trcr*r
55 Prese8tatioG - t!*
56 Prsentatior6 - rrfu

l 02
104

108
bt

I10

112

114

LISTEiII G SCRIPTs

Meeting5

156

120

Listen and ipeat exercises


Intewiews with busiress peopl

122
't24

A N S W E RK E Y

164

57 Meetings - opinions

118

58 Meetings- making drings da.


59 Meetings - problem-solving
60 Meetings-leading a meeting
61 Meetings - negotlating I
62 Meetings - negotiating ll
63 Meting3 - diplofiatic l.ng$ege
64 Meetlngt - rcview

126
124
130

Businers rcpons and prcposals


'134
65 Buslne$ rcport3 .nd propo3ali - rcpotts I
136
66 Suaine3r rcports and proposab - reports ll
67 Bu3ine.3 lrports and prcpoad3 prDposals I 138
68 Buainear |lport3 and prcpo3.b - prcpo.al5 ll 140
142
69 Bualn$a Fporta and propoa.b linkirg wordr
'lM
70 Burlnaar raporta and propoaab - rlvlw
SPEAKII{G
PRACTICE
Dbcuislon toplaa

146

WRITING PNACIICE

$kiting tasks

t5l

LISTEIIIIIIG
PRACTICE
Interviewr wlth bBlnest peopler ererrii5
1

Interviewwith a privateequityinvettor

Interyiew
with an entrepreneur

Interviewwith
a management
tainee

153

lnterviewwith
a supplychainmanager

153

nterviewwith
a salesmanager

154

Interuiewwith
a ma*etingdirector

154

Intervlew
with a financedirector

154

Interview
with a humanresources
director

155

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151

The economy
Whai drives the a orld economy?The simplestans{pr to
ilrjs questjor is'cons!mer spending'.And what drnes
consumerspendnlg?Sohe cohbination of the faciorsbeldr
is generallyconsideredio p(\,ide a reasonablean${cr

GDPgrowth for different countries


Grossdomesticprcdu.t (CDP) measuresthe sizc ol a
.ountry's economy It reFresentsthe iotallaluc ofall goods
ind se^,icesproducedoler a specifictime period. Cro$ th in
GDP is one ofthe primarr-indicato.susedto gautc
(= neasure) the he!1thof a couniry s e.onom\: Usunll),GDP
is expressedas n comparisonto the prelious quartcr or \,ear

Governmenttrade policy
Thc hro polcs of govc.rucnt policl'arc liberalizationand
'Libralization'isassoci.lcdwiih frcc markets,open
bor.lers,dcr.Bulationand ihc frcc morc,nent of capiinl
around the world.
'Protcctionisnr'is associatcds'ith golcrntrent
inlcNcnlion, sulrsidics,quoiasand t iffs, and resiriciions
o ! l h c m o v c m c n oi i c i p i i a l .
Nation.l govci,nnentsdo hi!c som0gcnrin. choic.s herr,
cv.n if ihoy .ft'consh.nlcrl by thc p.licy of th.ir rc8ional
tridiig bkJc(og the EU, NA1TA, ASE,\N). ln ih. cod host
countrieshNc . mixc.l ccdnotuywhich is lonre('herc
briwccn ihc two crh'omos.
(l.n...lly sp..knrg, froo n.rkots pronartcgrowih ii thc
wodd d.onon\', and ptutcct.d markcisdos doer thc
pr1,c.ss(.lihough thcy nray ha!. a b.neficialeffecton
p . r t i c l l a r i n d u s l r i o si ' r s i d ci c o u D l r v ) .

consumer confidence
lf.onsumcrs are confideniaboui tomorrow,they will spend
more The main factorsaffechngconsumerconfidencearc
the lerel of memplovment ifpeople's jobs a.e at risk, or
the\.don t have a job, they sill spend less ind housepices
if people'shousesare worth more than ihev paid for ihcm,
the\.feel.ich and rvjllspend nrore rrcely.

lnterest rates
Inierestratesire setbv CeniralBanks When intresirates
are lo$r.onsumers and b!sinessesc.n boirow mon.y
cheaplyand ihere is a sfimuhs to the economy.8ut thc
cheap(edit alsocausesinflation an.t too much Liquidjiyin
the system.This liqli.lity leadsto bubblesin siock markets,
housingma.kets,eic. When ihe CeniralBank sccsthe need
b control inflafion dnd cool groivth a liiile, ii .aiscsintcrest

Exchangerates
Curncies fllciLutc againstcich othcr thc c!rc itg.inst th.
d o l l a r i h e t e n . g a i n s tt h c y u a n .T h i s i s d u c k ) m a n yc o m p l c x
factoE such as the undc.lying st..ngth of thc economy,
inicrcst ratc diffcrcntinlsand spcculitnr. Ha!ing a sirong
curcncv makcs impo.ts chcip f(r dotucsticconsrmcrs.irut
huris cxpo.te.s(rvhoscPrcducit bccotuchotu orpdlsivc

The business cycle


Economicsgo throughcycl.s ofg(trt,th.nd coniri.ti()n
(= sldvdor!n). This is co\ dc.t in unii 2.

Eflects of globalization

C oser

Rapidflow of

Cultural

Ecological

Cross-cult!ral

Global

rmmrgraton;

cnaengs
neding

acrossthe qlobe

externallrnancinq

Arguments in favour of globalization


Generaprosperity:
lowerprices,
moreemployment.
hiqherstandard
of living.
mobility.
lncreased
opportunjty
andsoclal/pelsonal
intant
lmprovements
for poorcountrles:
lifeexpectan{y,
mortalty,llteraq,padicipation
of wonrenin society.

Arg ufi ents againtt g IobaIization


lnequality
of walthwithinnations not rnuch'tricke
down effect' (whenfinanclalbenefitsarc p.sseddown
frombig business
to consumeB
andordinarypeople)
powerof local
Humancosts:injustice
increased
dueto
cultures.
elites,erosionof traditional
Environmental
darnaqe.

1 THE ECONOMY

Exercises
1.1 Find a word in th text opposite thal matches ach
definition below' The words appear in orcler.
1 makessomethinqwork; p.ovidesthe power for somethng

dctivty
2 removing
the rusandlawsthatcontrobusints
pdysto supporlndunresor
3 moneythattheqovrnrnent
' p d L , F r p r o . p. oo d u . r
4 officallrnitson the amountol somethng
5 " . p . o . g o o do. - 9 . n l o d . o - n t a /
6 limited,rstrded
r e d r o L o ln o n e y n c i c - l c t o .
8 periodsof t mewh-"npeoplepaymorclhanthe realvaue
o . o 1 e l 'n q .b . 5 o ' a r r - a o L d
9 wth dn important
efiect,but onethat iln t easyto notce
th ngs
10 (forma,the degreeoi difference
between
Now do the samefor the words in 'Efiectrof
globalization'opposite.
11 whnpeop h.ve..oneyandeverylhng theyneedlor a
good f
12 theab ityto readandwlte
1.2 [4akephrasesby matchjngan item from eachcolumn.
I consumer
movement
oJcapital
\
2 fre
and
convacton
\
3 growih
\ ...- borders
4 Ie
rpendinq
5 open
oi livnq
5 standard
expectancy
8
9
l0
1I
12

goods
rntren
cheap
socia
L r n d e rnl yg

1.4 Readthe articleabout the USeconomy,then answr


the questionsbelow.Checkany unknownwords in a
dictionary
aiulacturng in the US slowedmorethan lorecast
it
lUl ln Ocloberas factores recevedjewerordercafd
producuonconiracted,an induslryreportshowedtoday.
Manufacluring
Lson lhe vergeof stallngas the deepenng
housing
weakens
demandlorconstruction
equrpmenl,
slLimp
nole the
furnilureand appliancesBul on a moreposiUve
weakerdollaris boostingexportsand he p ng companes
thatdo mlch of ther busin
Theseilguresmake it ciear why the Fed clt nterest
Fed
ratesby a quarterpoint ast week. n theirstatement,
porcy md.rssard rl-dl rl-eouloo o ho p, or o n) (
unce ain,evenafterso d growlhast qua.ler.Theyadded
lhal upsideriskslo lnialionroughlybalancethedownsrde
riskslo grcwlh.
Finda word in the text that means:
1 (ftvewotds)rcat1yslopping n its progress
beiore
2 perodwhensometh
ng is muchesssuccessiulthan
: hepi.gsorel' nq ro n.'pd"
4 (shortfam)Cefita Bankol the UsA
5 approximately
topi.s.
seepage146lorsomediscu55ion

srengrn

oamaqe

1.3 Usephrasesfrom 1.2to completethe sentenceg


below.The phrasesare not in order.
w qrcw { q]]:njlql l|ert'rfg rsnsrnq
1 Theeconomy
2 conslmersandbusnesseg
cantakeon too muchdebtif
re e 5 easJaccess
to
bul alsohrgher
3 Econom
c qrowthbr ngsmateriacomforts,
prcesfor the bascnecessties
of ife n oiherwords,your
qoesuP,bui sodoesYolr
costot vinq
4 Econom
esqo throlghcycl,"s
of
5 The nraintool avail.bleto a centra Bank s ts abilityto st
O \ e ' - h e o , r gr p r

e , . r d n q A, d r F .d p p p d
' or lr
or rne economy.

' fAi ;;t


tr

d?

;t \lir tht !,nan|

T h eb u s i n e sw
s orld

History shows thal there is a business cyde that repeats again and agai4 although of .oue tlle detaiis vary
each time. Look at the diagram below. The outer circle is the ycle of eonomic expmion md conbaction.
The next circle icide shows some storsof fte economy that tend to do wel at particular tims duing this cyde.
The cnde inside that shows interst rates and infiation. Finalv, the imer cinl shows the sidk market cvcle.

Grotvth
Let's go roud the diagram,starting at twelve otlock. This
point marksthe end of waknessin the conomyand the
early siSnsof growth. Wlat hascausedthesegrnshoots?
Theclue is interestrater which bottomedout around
eleveno'lock.lj)w interestratesmeancheapborrowhg for
individuals md compani$. Amongst the quickestsctorsto
resPondm consmer discrtionary(eg restaurants,leisure,
travel) hd technology.
Onetherearearly siSnsof growth, tnnsportation picks up
(moregoodsarebeing shipped),and indutry spendsmorc
on capital goods(egmchinery). During this pedod,infiation
startsto rise, and sobondssuffei Bondspay a 6xed rate of
interesito their bondholde$, and the value of this intelestis
erodedover time as inflation gosup-

The peak of the Gycle


A1l good things mEt come io m end. rs six o'dock on
the diagram- By now inflation hd bmme a prcblm, md
Cmrral Banls have nisd inteBt rates to deal with it. That
means that credii is tighL md bonowing is expsrsive. The

stock market rccognizes that tl| 6d is omin& ard perts


just before the final pak in the e(al,dr_r. Inrsto.s rsw
(eg
switch to more dfensive stocls lik drglffi.riples
food, household products) and utiliti.<

Corltra(tion
Now ils seven o'dock arld w'rr {tkd
d. Fin
of
conhaction. Stock Mkets are A|L? Ltcrd
8-Ls
se the danger md e lowrit iH
rG
b -'m8e
spending md avoid a r.tsin- Bd
q'd
Frtudy
to the drop in rat6, md th.{.as'hlh.
to
f;l.
safety' etr(t 6 invsrors rFirD-.b
-&-

The bottom of the q*


Evmtuall, firffiials stdt b .--fq
bonowin& and ttF th. !d_'-G
about six to niE r..dE i J-{-.F
economy. Just like 4 dE qrJ|tqt,tE|ct
ro knowthara hmirahl__,_y
eonomy is $ni4g b i----l

rtqte

nore
a bottom
ir d real
sms
Now the
rd fte whole

2 THEAUSINESSCYCLE

Exercises
2.1 Putthe words in italicsin order 1-4.
a Theeconomy,
nart ng at twev o clorkon th
diagram,
rhows ..
contraction I a downturn
an upturn
) expansion
b Thenock market,staaring
at eleveno'cockon the
dragrdm,..
perks
battoms
turnsdawn
2.2 MatcheachsectoroI th economyl-'10 with an
indurtry group a-i.
1 Basicrnaterid
s
6 Enerqy
3 Cornmerc
al serurcs
4 Consurner
d scretonary
5 Consurner
stdpes

8 Technology
10 Ut (res

a holes,restauranis
c
d

f
9
h
i
j

empoymenl
agences,
audtnq
rnachinery,
eqLiprnent
goods,
household
foodretailnq
insurance
banking,
software,
rommuncatonsequpr.ent
gasprodu(ton
oilprodlction,
electrcty,
waier
air nes,ogsllcs

2.3 Underlinthe corrctwords in italics.Checkany


unknownwords in a dictionary.Someideasbelow are
alsoaovered
in unit 1.
1 Thecons!merdrscretionary
slartsto
sectoroi theeconomy
recover
wheninterestraresarch/gh/iow, andlustbelore
picksup I tuns down
the generaeconomy
2 Inve9tors
iavoLrr
theconsumer
stapessectoral lhe
grcwth
beginning
end
/
al lle
cycle,lun asthe markeisare
pickingup / tuntng down
lf a qovernment
it
or cornpany
wanlsto borrownroney,
canits a band I an obllgatronlnvestorsre.eivea F/ied/
vatiable,aleol nlerestovera f xedperiodof time.and lhen
gettheirorg nalinvenment
backat theend
A risen nterestratesrnakes
borrcwng.heaperlmore
expensive.Ihi\
caols/ stlnulaterihe economy.
CentraBankslower nterestratesif iheyth nk the economy
s ikey ro gtow/contrcct,andwil aciaqgrcssvey
llhey
thinkihere s a danqerof a baom/ rccessian
Stockmarketsfend to arfic,bate/ mavein linewith / react
ro cnanges
InrnereaLeconomy
nterestratestendto bottomout before/ afterboththe
nock markets
andthe realeconomy
A risng marketis calleda bearlbul/market.Peopewho
th nk thai d paarcular
marktk qoingto risen the lutlre
arcdescribed
ar beingbulrsh/ bull/ke on that market

2.4 Complte the text about dealing with th business


cyclewith the phrasesin the box.
govetnnent debt labaur natket
ne\,r'bonawing
poh.y n,akeljj side-effects tax cuts

What.ancentralbanke6andgovernment
'
do?can theyprevent
a contractonfromturnng inloa rccesson?
Whattools
areavaabe io them?Thefollowingihreearethe most
Interertrate adjustments
Thesvonqest
economy
andfastesttoo n a weakening
s the cenvalBanks'abrty io cut rnteresl
rates
Forcompan
esand ndvidu.s with existnq bank
repayments
oans,
arered!ced,lor others,
'
ss
oecomes
qlrarteFpornts
expen5veMostCentraBanksdropratesby
ralesst takestwo
or,at cruoa t mes,half-ponts Lowerinq
or threeqlarlersto benefitan economy,
andit doesalso
Thenegatrve
arethat t weakensa ndtion's
consequenc$
(urren.y.andthatanyqrowthi t c a u s em
s a yb e i n f l a t o n a r y
Economic
stimulus
A naiionalgovernment
canchooseto spendmon/
usudy moneyrt mun borrow on all sorisoJprcjectsn
orderto nimulateihe economyThs puismoneybackinto
peop'spockets
to
so thattheycanbly goodsandservces
o
boostlhe eco.on/
-fhe
areanotherwayoi achevng the sarneeffect. problem
leadlo hiqh evesof
arises
whentheser.eagures
y thai
Eventua
have
debtwill
to be repard
Regulatoryreforms
A counlrycanimplement
reforrns
to the aw in ofderio
groMh.Theseincludemeanrres
stimulate
to enhance
competition.
to liberali?e
the
siada newbu5ness,tc.
Seepage146for somediscussion
topics.

lnternational trade
De.iding to export
t\try export? The two mosi important reasotr are likely to be:
1 To increase sales and revenue. Expoiting i{il allow you
In ,lp
u J e F u . p d c d p di' h . n , r e a +
"dunliBeof"nl
production,reducemit cosisilrough economiesof.cale
and increase profits if thin8s go well.
,r To diversify. Relying on jrst yotrr own domeshc market is
risklaSelllngto other countriesallows you to splcad the
Bui befoie decidingto export thereis a lot of !6earch to be
done on the foreign market:
/, Backglound:economi. siiuation,poltical stabiliry
a Markei sizeand likely product demand.
'f Competiiionrsimilar productsalreadyin the market.
,, Disiribution channels:agents(who act on your behau and
receivea commission/but don'i buy goodson their own
account),or distribuiors (who actuallypulchasctoods
from you for resale,likea wholesaler).
,, Promoiionalmaterial:salesand support matcrial needed
in the loc.l lanSuage.
1,,customcrservice:Proceduresforenquiries,comPlaints,
w.rrrarltyclaims,servicing,tc.
,, Lcgal rcquircments:iechnical,safetyand cnvironmental

The first step in xporting is likely io inlolve an iniermediary


(eg lffal agent,distributor).They will have local knowledge
and contacts in the unfamiliar market- If ihings go wll,
the exporter may then decide io establish its own presmce
in the foreiSn market such as settinB up a sales office and
wareholse.This allows diiect contactwith cuslomrs,faster
d e l , r e r ya n d r a r e c o n E o n
l r r h c I n c r lm i - 1 p , .
Two key issuesfor an exporterare a)the method ofpaymeni
seethe tablebelow and b) who pays for transportation.
This latier issueis coveredin the contiactby specltyingthe
relevantlncotem (IntemationalCommer.ial Term)for iliat
particllar consiSnment(= quantity of goodsshippcd at the

Other options
Exporiing is one way to selLyour goodsinto a foreign narket,
b r . rt h e r ca r eo t h e ro p l i o n s . rr i l r b l e r o L r r 8 ecr o m f . _ . rr
/j, Ioint venhtre:two companies(a foreign companyancl
a localpartner)work iogetherbrt keep their own lcgal
r ForeignDirect Invesiment(FDl): a businsssetsLrp
operationsin a foreign couniry,or acquires(= buys).
'oca' comPany.
r Licensing:. companysellsthe right to usc a patented
manufacturingprocess,orsomecommercialerperiise,
or a iradmark,in exchangefor. feeor a royalty.One
particularcaseof this is franchising.

Ltte.of credit(UC)
paymentto
one bankguarantees

(Pre-payment) anotherbank.Theirnpo er
Cash-in-advance
Pays

Theimpoderpay$th invoiceln
advance,beforeshipment.
Whe.e
ih6y onlypaya part in advance,it's
calleda 'downpayment'.

whenlhe exporlerpresenlscenain
listeddocumenlsto theirbank.
Typicaldocumenlsneededare:
documenls{eg bill
lransponation
documenis,
of lading),insurance
documenls(eg invoice).
commercial

oderaccouni
Thesuppliefshipslhe goods,and
the importerpayslaler,according
to lhe termsof lhe contraci.Thisis
morersky,and is onlyusediflhe
lmponerhasestablisfred
a qood
credlthislory.

LO

Documentary
collection
A cheapervaiationof an L/C.The
lwo banksmakeno guarantees,
but simplyhandlethe exchangeoi

Consignment
Durc..has
Theimporterreceiveslhe goods
and holdslhemin stock,but only
pays lor them afterihey have been
soldto the end users.

TRADE
3 INTERNATIONAL

Exercises
3.1 Find a word in the text opposite that matches each
definition below. The words appear in order
1 fthreeworc&)spreadng cons ovf d ldrgernumberoi
un ts, and ihereforeproducng th ngs moreche:ply

3.4 completethe text about Incotermswith the words in


the box. Noticethe glossaryat the bottom.
./arrr.e
customr .iacunentation freight
ttu.k
handling laading ptentses temlnal ttansi

of you
2 (threewords)instead
of you,or dsa representatve
1
3 wrttenpromise
thata company
w reparsomethnglf
4 b q bu d ngwherelargeamounts
ol qoods
arenored
s spcalrks or knowledge
6 nameor designon d productthatshowsrts m.de by d
partcudr compdny
7 nonypdd ior profess
ona setuce5,or a one'timamount
you'r
8 moneypaidto sornone
whosedeasor invenlrons
U ,n g
Now do the samefor th wordsin'Financing
internationaltrade' opposite(aleocalleda 'b ')
reqlestnq paynrent
9 document
1A fthreewotds) n givn9 dta! of goodsthata shrp.etc|s
carryng,. so actEasa conlractto tr.nsportlhosegoods
3.2 Make phrasesby matching an itm from each

2 relyon
3 spredd

c m.rket
lun yourdomet
behali
on somebodys
capac
1y
of anyunderured
thenik

5 estab sh a presence

to the termsof the contra.l

7 h a n de i h e e x . h a n q e
8 pay accordnq

lega dentiy

3.3 Studythe methodsof paymentshown in the box


opposite.Thencompletethe diagramby writing the five
methodson the horizontalaxis.

What are ln(oterms?


lncotermt
statethe responsiblties
of buyerandseler n
relaton
to marnetranspodatonnotjusttheshrpping
cosls,but all otherassociated
costsslch as nsurance,
'
duties,
andqrcund
The buyerpaysfor the seacrossing
A prcequotedEXWiswherethe te ler makesthe goods
avail.ble.l
thelrownr
, anolne
billtyfor a
buyercollecls
themthere.Thebuyerhasrespons
costsandrsksfromthal po nt onwards.
lhe othertranspori
lf thprceisFAS,lhen
thecostof
theseer a socovers
p o ( o l s hp m e n t a
. n d o f ! n l o a dn g t h e . o n t an 6 o n t ot h e

'roo ne ouyerpaysror shrpp usa the.ons fromthatpo nt.

FOBs alrnostthesame,exceptherethesellerpaysfor
oadrnq
ontotheshrp,nottheb!ye.
Thesellerpayslor the seacrossing

N o { + F g o o d _a ' " 0 1 _ l - F . l r p i 1 " p r p a sb e " - ' " 1


so that the se er also paysthe '
(= goodsand the ryslemof movrngtheseqoodt cons,
then thererre f!rlher hcoterrnsto be used
Wrth CFRthe seler paysthe lreght costsand handlesthe
(= paperwork),bLrtdoes
expon 7
pay
not
lhe nsurancwh le the goodsare n
s
a t s e a .W i h C F i h e s e l e rp a y s
nsurancers well. 8ut in both casesthe r responsbi ty
endsat the port ol denination,wh le the goodsarc st on
board.The buyerhas responsbilty for unloadnq iees, oca
noraqe at a e
, the mpo( cen.e,
dutisand taxs,the custombroker'sfeesand onward
de iveryto th buyer'sown premses.
In rhe final c.se, DDq it! lhe sellerwho paystor
everything,and who also hdsto handledny clstoms
'o
probems.The buyerhas no
.dditonalcosts or isks at all but of (oLrrsethe pnce
quoted in the contfactw I reflectthis!

RISK

EXW Exworks
tAs: kee A ongsde ship

I Y P E SO F F I N A N C I N G

C F RC o n & F g h t
. eF r e g h t
C F r C o n , l n s ! r a n&
DDP Delivered
DutyPad

S e ep a g 1 4 6J o r s o m e d i s c u s s i o tno p i c s .
The businessworld

Setting up and growing a business


Initial idea
Someonehas an idea for a newbusiness(a'stait up').
Maybe they spoi a 8ap in the markeL or maybe they
have an idea thai is simllar to existingoffers,but wiih a
competitiveedge.Potniialsourcesof financefor ihis new
businessinclude sclf'fuding, backerssuchas tsiendsand
family trenbers, a bant loan, and a venfurecnpital firm.
A bank will want somesort of securityin casethe loan is
notrepaid, and sometimesihe person'sholse is offered
as.ollateral.The fourth option, venfurecapital (VC),is
aiiractiveforbusincsscs$'jth a high profit potentialin the
medium term,but high start'up costs.A VC company $'ill
offer funds and take on the risk of thebusinessfailing, but
in exchangewillwant a lalge number ofshares.They aim
to sell theselater,wlren ihc businessgoespublic

TENREASONS
WHYA NEWBUSINESS
CANFAII
Cause:startjnga business Solution:Taketime
with a goodidea.some
to research
the market
tho.ouqhy beforeyoustart
entnusiasmbut no serous tradng

Cause:buyingtoo rnuch
paytng
srocK,
cusromers
l.te or not at a I, suppliers
needng to be paidon t me

Solution:prodlcereaistc
cashflow forecasts
andpay
strct atlentonto budqets

Cause:Sticking
with your
own onginalideasfor too
long

Solution:Activey seekthe
MewS
0l cLrStorneTs,
andac1
on whattheysay

- a
Cause:f. seeconomy
cheapleasein thewrong
neighbourhood

Solution:remember
that
accessib
lityfor cusiomers
s

When financingis in placc,the businessis registeredas a


lcgil entity: sole hader pa.tnership,limited compant etc.

Early months and growth phase


Now thc businesscan start trading.The risk of failu.c
nr thc first iwo yearsis very high. Oftcn thc problem
isn't salcs,bui cashflow: ihc cornpanyhas to wait for its
invoiccsio be paid, and mcanwhilethc debtsare piling
up. Thc bank will onl), extend its linc of credit up to a
But hopfully the businessachicvcsa critjcalmassot
customrs,and esiablishesitselfin the markerplace.lt
entGs a gfowth phase.This early growth tendsto be
organic tlrnover increases,
the companyemploysmore
' l d ( v c o p s . r. u p p l J n e t w o r l .. r c . I h e m d l o r i r yo ,
"rdff.
n r r l l . u m p r n r c sr ! : t c o n l n u ei n r l - F w d v - g r o w i r Bo r
shrinking ye.r by year dependingon their managerial
skills and generalmarket condihons.

Sellihg the business


However,thereare olhe. possibiliiies.The founder of
l h e b u - i n c \ \m o ! d e c i d el o - c l l t h eb u \ h ' s \ d i d g o i n g
concern.They might sell to a competiior or io a company
wantnrg to expandinto that market.The buyershele
nrc lookirg to Srow ihJolgh a straiegyofacquisitions
/- at<over). dn ilrerna !e ,o lhe strdtegyot organic

Cauierthinkingthata good Solution:b creative,


prodlctw ll sellitself
y revrew
constant
the
plan
marketing

Cause:beingtoo ambitious Solution;be realistic

yo!r seed
Cause:spending

Solution:p annnq, keeping

Cause:behaviour
of some

Soiution:tra ninq,
monronnq,comp.nycl]rure

Cause:assuming
thatyou
irve customer
loydlry

solution: watch
.oroet Lorscose)

Cause:compacency
aflr
nitialsuccess,
lackof

Solution:be flexble,
recognLze
oppoftuntres,

tPo
Anoiher possjbility is ilut the fouders may decideio
go ptrblic (= floaillisl on ihe stocketchange).Here,
they sell their onginal privately-held shares at an IPO
(initial public offering). Thii brings in a huge amount of
money, some gojng dilectly to the owne.s as rerrard for
their hard work, the rest going back into the business as

72

4 SETTINGUP AND GROWINGA 9U5INEsS

Exercises
4.I Finda word in the txt oppositethat matche5each
definitionbelow.Thewords apparin order.
I smaladvantage...............
y by providnq money
2 peoplewho slrpporta pan, especia
prcpertyor moneythatyoupromseto g ve someonef you
(farnal:tuvawards)busness
that s a singleunitiroma
lega'o'd..of ingpo' ol vew
g vingdetailsof products
thatsorneone
docLrments
payment
for thm
hasbought,andrequening
to manage
6 (phrcsalverb)incrf.asnq in a way that is difficr.rlt
7 Income,revenue
8 rrhr"" nord5rd srccess'ulblsirei)
a corpd s I dl hole beenboLghl by o her co'npanip5

Now do the samefor the words in


new businesr<anfail'opposite.
10 carefuly
andcompletely
11 (infomal;ph?salverb)contin!ng to do somethinq
w thoutchangingi
that ischeapbut couldhavebad
12 (twowords)eo.r.elhtng
Tesu
t5
13 smalareaol a town
14 (f,^/owads) morcy rhat is usedto slart a new busrness
etc
15 beng faithfultoa product/ brand/ company,
andconfident,
sothatyoustoptryrng
I 6 beingioo satislied
4-2 Make phrase5by matchingan item trom each
a gapin the rnarket
2 wait
3 grow

for invoices
to be p. d

5 spot
6 takeon

tailing
the riskof the business
or snnnKyearDyyear

7
8
9
10
rl
12

brng n
enter
extend
9o
grow
se

asa gorngconcern
the busrnesr
a hugeamountof money
a growthpnase
y or by acquisitrons
organLca

4.3 Fill in a<hgap with ale word from cgilh box,

cut stmare expang


ide
spend take

pefiorn

1 lf yougrowa business
too qucklyandtdkeon too m! c h
tr:lrxP;rro
rlsk,you
you
lf yousellgoods
at a owrpfcethanyourcompettors,
yourcompetitors.
or
li youdo.'t makear muchmoneyasexpected,
yo- rele5s
succ"rs'u1vo-' ob lrdr e pF(rod.ycgoespan anothern termsof sales,profiis,
lf yourconrpany
mdr\l-rdre.etc.rl"pnyoJ
you
or morethanyouplanned,
lf youusetoo muchrnoney,
by m n.k),
li youaska c ent for too litte money(Lisually
you
lnera.
decslon,you
authortyto relectsornebodys
7 lf youuseyoLrr
than
or essimportant
ng issmaler
8 lf youthinkthatsomelh
rt.
t reallys, you
4.4 Readthe text about fran.hising,then answerthe

lltould voLhhelo srarla newbLs'rss,perfapslrr 19


Y U a smattrera'oJrler?Frarchsing s an oovioLsopl 01.
'lfanchsor')
Howdoes t work?The parenlcompany(lhe
ollersyou (lhe lranchisoe)ts trademarkprcduclsand
businessmethodsYoupay theman initia fee to usothe
ot lhe lurnoveras we .
name,andthenpaya percentage
idsntryslandards
lo
lulfillcerlain
corporate
Youwlllneed
lts hald
suchas thoserelalng io lurnilureor stallunlforms.
yo!?e
buy
ng
a wI
are firany:
work,but the advanlages
is
knowobrandandthe risk minimzed.
po nt of viewthe benellsarec ear
Flomthefranchisor's
Theycan leaveihe day{o-dayfiJnningoi the buslnessto
you,whilegeliinga shareoi yourturnover
Finda word from th text that means:
wherea prcducts sold
1 anypLace
(orto a professiona
prson
2 moneyyoupayto do something
for theirwork)
3 do 5on'elfnq p'on'"d: Fd'l
4 levelso' quahyo' a,l_eveme_
.
5 operating
andmanagng .... .
topic..
Seepage146for somediscussion

ao-o.t y types and corporategovernance

Company types
ln 1aw,thereare various types ofbusinessentiry.For each
one there are different legal adangements to register the
conpmy, different requirements for presenting accomts, eic.
The main business t'?es are:
Sole trader (UK) / Sole plopdetoGhip (US)
A singlepelson owns and operatesa business-Legally,
the bushesshas no separateexistencefrom its owner
(proprieto!).This meansthat.ll the debtsof thebrsinessare
ihc debts of the owner
Partnership(UK and US)
Two or morcpcoptc s'ork togetherand sharethc risks and
profits. Justlikc a solc proplietor the partners.rc fully liible
f(' (= responsiblcfor) an)' debis the businesshas.This is
.efefed to in law as lurlimited iiability'.
Cofrpany ruS and UK) / corporation (US)
Thcb!snless is a lcgal cniity ihat is separatefrom its or'ners
thc sha.choldcrs.Thc osne$ are not fully liablc for the
debtsof the busincss.lnstcad,then liability (= potcntialrisk)
is rcstrictedb thcjr sharecapital.This is thc amount of cash
ihat they havecontribuicd to ihe compan}l This,s rcfcred k)
nrl.w .s'limitcd liability'.
Theredr lwo manl rypesofcompanies:
' l'rivate company:thc sharcs(ArnE sto.ks) arc'p.n atc
in thc sensethat thcy cannotbe bought by mcmbersoi
thc public. Thc vast trajority ofcompaniesfall into this
catcgory.Thcy'rc oftcn smallercompanies,with sharcs
hcld by a fei{ businessassociates
or family nembe.s.
'i Public.omp.ny: the sha$s are openl!' b.1dedon a public
stockexchangc.Thcsearc thc large,often wcll-known
businesses.
Thc word 'public' should not bc confDscdwith
'siate{wned'. A'sialc-owned cntcrprisc'(SOE)is o$'ned
by the government.

The Board
Public companiesare.ontrollcd by a board ot directors('the
Board'),eleciedby the shareholders.
Noi allBoards are tully
independent,bui in generaliheir rolc is to:
,| Setlong term straiegy.
,r Appoint a ChiefExe.utive Officer (CEO)and other
membersof the seniormanagemeniteam kJ run the
.ompany dair to day.
't Ask questjonsabout any short- or medium-term straiegy
developedby the CEO, and then suppori it oncethey have
tl)

Overseeihe preparationof the finmcial statements.


Appointand ensurcihe independenceof the company's

t Overseeand managerisk.
,r' Set an amual dn'idend.
Who choosesthe Board? In theory',jt's the shareholders.
At the Amual GeneralMeeting (AmE Annual Meetingof
Stocholders) the shareholderscan questionBoardmembers,
14

vote io accept or reject the dividend, vote on replacements


for ieiinng Boad members, etc. But, in piaciice, the situahon
may be different. In pdticular mosi shares are held by lae
institutions, and these may simply sell their stake if they
aren t happr instead of qving to chdgc ihe Board.
In reaiity many Board members arc chosen by the CEO
and the shareholdeG simply approve ihes members.

Corporate governance
T h i " w h o l eN \ u cu t l h e r o l <r t l h c B o d r d l,- o w . c n r r
managersare responsibleb shareholders,
and how ihe
companyis run, is refe.redb as'coryorategolemance'.
Traditionally,differentregionsof the world havehad
differentmodelsof corporategovemance.

s:'., :F.$.it

'

Anglo"Amncndodl:epafarionol ow.e6hlp ( e
prioritygiventothe
shareholdet)
andconvol(iemanaqu);
inters$o1sh:reho
der
I

tlopcai / rapai6. nodel: similar1othe Afglo-Ameri6n


model,bur a greaterrecoqnnon otthe intere* oi orher
elakeholdeuruch
aremployees,
5upplie6,cunomeu,enden
(es bankt, andthe .ommunity.

EaetArian/ tarin nodel: family.owned


companie5
wilh no
i^deoendenl
Boad or outiideshareholdu.

No*adays this traditional pattern is breaking down, and


the siiuation is mor. mixed. Howeeer, the followmg basic
piinciples of corporale govemance are widely acc.ptedl
, ' Respeci for ihe righis of shareholders.
I A clear definjhon of the roles and responsibilities of Board
r' Integrity and ethical bchaviour
Disclosuie (= givhS tull informalion)

and iransparency.

GOVERNANCE
6 COMPANYTYPESAND CONPORATE

Exercises
5.1 Underlineth (orrrt wods in italics.
1 Moneythata personor compdny
owesis debt/ /abiltty
whenusedin the pluralandin a
Thworddebts/ /rabtlites,
- but it canalsohave
formalcontext.hasthe samemeaninq
a widermeanng oi 'egal responrbiltiei.
2 fhe wotdowner/ prcptietormeans
thatyoulegallyhave
somthing anything.
ThewotdownerI propnetarmeans
thatyouhavea busness(andis morcfo.ma).
3 f youandyourbusnesspartners
all havethsamerisks
at th sametime,thenyoudrrde/sharethe rsks.ll you
partsor ditfercntcategor
es,
separate
the isks intosmaller
thenyoud/v;de
/ sharethem(= spit them).
4 A sharchaldett stakehalder/ 5toctho/drs someonewho
I
in Bit sh EfglishA shareholdet
ownspaftof a br.rsiness,
/ stockhalder
s the same,in Amerca.Engsh.
stakehalder
A shareholder/ stakeholder/ sfockho/deris anyonewho has
an interestn the success
of a plan,lyslemor oaganzaton.
in a company,
theneveryyearyou
5 f yoLr're
a shareholder
tecevean incane/ a profit/a d dend pad out oi the
incane / prcfiE / di\/idends.
company's
5.2 Readthe definitionbelow and tind the word in the
text. (lt appearstwice.)
for anyinstitution,
company,
fforma,'ageneralierm
parinersh
p, governmnt
agency,
or anyotherorqanrzanon
unit.
whchexistsn lawaraseparate
andcompete
5.3 Fill in the miising letters,
y
thenyolJ'rci
1 f you'recompeteyliablefor something,
iabe,
in l.w thenyou'rele lly
2 f youle lablefor something
liable.
thenyoure
3 lf youas.n ndvidua.reabelor something,
per allylable.
|ally
4 lf youmaybe abe for somethng,thenyou'repot
llable.
5 lf youkeepshares
for . longt me,thenyouh
them.
6 f yo! buyandseI shares,
thenyouir
them

Now do the samefor th tcorporategovernance'section.


5 th qualityof belnghonestandhavng highmoralnanddds
6 doingthlngsln a waythatallowsotherpeopto know
exactly
whatyou'redoi'rg
5.5 Makeword partnershipsby matchingone item from
to complete
ea(h box. Thenusethe word partnerships
delatletl legal ltnted
liabllity

non prcfit
aryantzation

namecantellyouabout
TheletteEthatfolow a cornpany
ha5'Lld.fter its name
In the UK,a pivatecompany
(because
of itsowne6)and
oi the '
hasPLC(standing
for Pubc Limited
a publiccompany
Company).
In theU5.'1.(' {L.litedL,ab,'ty
Conpany)
and Co'o'a'e
equivalents
to'Lrd'and 'PLC',altholghthe
app.oximate
?
governing
formationrs
company
diffefentin the two co!ntris.
TheletteB'lnc'(meanng 'rncorporated')are
alsousedn
the lJS,aodtheycovera verybroadrangeof ofganzatons.
Theycanreferto anyI
rhar s seoarate
fromils ownerssuchasa privatecompany,
a public
c o m p a nay ,
.o osPorcl-D
5.6 CovereveMhing on thesetwo pageswith a pie.e of
paper.Write down lhe fullform oI thesabbreviations:
CEO,AGM, PLC,LLC.
see page146for somediscussion
topics.

5.4 Finda word in The Board'sectionoppositethat


matcheseachdefinitionbelow
1 waichthe pfoqress
of sqmething
io makesurcii'sdone
correcryt
supervEe
.......
2 exiernaf rmsthatofficlaly examnethe financalrccods
of a company
to seeihat iheytetrueandcorrect
p.ysto
3 an amountof the profis thatthe company
4 moneyinvsted
in a busness

dlu k
1tu6 oI r dt 6 ot lhfu;rt?"

The businessworld

1:

Global issuesfor the 21st (entury


Geopoliticsand the world economy
lvhat big-pictureissuesare likel\'to dotrlnate
geopoliiicsdrl the rLorld econotrv in th coming
decadcs?Here are somesuggestionsl
The Browth of the BRICS
T h " q L ;{ o r \ o f t h . 2 l . r , F . r . f l . r h c r r ^ \ ' h '
Brazil,llussia,lndia and China (plus the Middle East).
This is ccrtain io tr.nslaie nrto lncreasedgeopolitical
tuflucnccfor ihesecountries
The decline of the dollar
One ifrp.ct of thc prcrious trend is thdt the dollar
will krseits statusns ihc l\'orld's rserle curr.nc\:
Cent'!l brnks rvill hold fci{cr dollars,.nd oil s ill
be priced in i rangc of currcn.ics.But rLhai clsc sill
h.ppen h the c!(cncv arca?Willa.onmon Asian or
Lath Ame.i(.n c!rrcncv.tncrge? And what atroui ih.
nrternalconflio
c tv c r t h c . u r o - s h o r i d i i b e s t r o n gt o
fighi nlflitior or {'cak to heh exporters?
(;krhl !!armnlg is hippc,rint Ho('.!cr, any srlulxu
l " r l r , l , l l . r t r h rf r " r ( . . , . i . i r . , r . . tr . ., { r ' ' r ..
is likcly i(r trc rcslsidrl.DeYck,pnlgcouni.icsc.nl
rccus. lhc Ll.!ck)pcd nitions of h!poc,is! $cstc.n
c o u n i r i c sh i ! c i l r c i d ! b d c ni h r o u t h t h e i , i i d u s b i i l
f h a s ci n d D o r ! h . \ . l h d l u r u r ! o f t h i n k n l gn l r d u t
i'stnin.ble g()wlh. Dclolopnlg naltun! Llont haro

' , l + , ' ^ , p ' ' , , r i ' - : , { r ' r ! p , 1 , \ \ .\ s " { .


lh.r.'s just ndt cnough lefi nr thc gnD.l. 5o supplv js
s]finlitlg. lso, dereloping nationsarc hungry id oil
- ld tr.nspo.t, nldusq, etc.So dcmand is risirrg.hrt
logcthcrfilling supplv an.l rising dcnrandaDd lou
gcl onc thing: much higher pricesfor the i.rcsccablc
Energy se.lrity and alternativeenerSy
Somccountdcsh.!e a lot ofenergy re$urces, others
don't. And if you don't, you hive a nrajo geopoliticaI
problen. li's calleddependenc\.Put this issue
bgether s'ith pcak oil, and it points in one dnection:
aliematile cncrg\. But sone g.een acii\ists are
unre.listi. about this solar Nind, tidal, ei. can onh
nreeta lraction ofthe world's energl'needs.The one
technologythat might make a differenceisnuclear.
And ihat, of course,is.onhoversial.

Management
andbusiness

il.r3!iri ,!.i: ne<.!'.'r'rrh.idr,cJr tfril.l..1jLir;. th:r i.alj


I r e i : , r . !i < r u ? s . i i r i :2 : i r . : i i r n , l ? e . : i . . , r . rj .e r L i . .h . 1 o , , 1
Forme,branding
anddesigni the keyiss!es.
Customers
caneasityfind goodquatityandvalue-formoney attour
youneedmorethanthis,
compeiitouoffrthis. Tosutujve,
yo! ndbrandirq.
Without
a strorqbrard,youhaveno
customer
toyattyard no pncingpower.Ard tinkedto brandirq
is design- cusiomers
witt piy for desiqn.Thesearethe major
batttefietds
in moderrburinesr,not costor quatjty.

1r ourorganizalion,
findinganddevetoping
tatentis going
to bea majorissue.
There's
a dectinjng
birthnie,ardtlre
incrcased
mobitityof tabourmeans
that workers
canchoose
wherctheyworkandfor whom.Sotalentis goingio be in
shortsuppLyAndthats paticutarLy
truefor knowtedge
workers
andcreatives.
Wewitl needto find waysto motivat
thernand
retairthminside
ourorsanization.

In the modern
workptace,
manaqinq
diversityir goirg to
increasinqly
beconre
comptex.
Wvegatissresof gender,
ethnjcity
ard dge.Wetry to make
equat
opportLrities
work,
butwehaven't
doneaswettaswe'dtike.Andnowwhave
newprcbtems
oi muttjc!tturat
managemert
across
nalionat
bo.ders.
Imaqine
whenteamnembrs
lhe probtems
from
different
cutturatbackqrounds
hotdvjduatmetings
on the
webwithout
thcharce
to qetto kfoweachotherin person.

Theissue
thaiwelatkaboutmoreard morethesedaysjs CSR
- corporatesocjatresponsibility.
I'm talkingaboutfair trade,
theenvjronmertat
impa.tof business,
theeffecton tocat
.o-1r ri'r'es. rs ainab
e devetoplear.
tdbo..pra-riLe'
, d
stuff tikeihat. Campaiqns
by activistscanaffectyourprofits
anddestroyyourbrand-

In nra'ry
industnes
a majorissueis the threatcausedby the
Internet.Basicatty,
if it canbe digitized,it canbe pilated.
lhe musicdndsoftware
industries
havealreadybeerhit badty
by this,the fitmindustryis nextandpubLishirg
wittfottow.

ShortagesoI otherresourcesand cofrnodities


The bad nerls continucs.As ryell as a shotage or
energy,{,e're also short of water (in China,Southem
Europeand the MiddLcEast).And as h,ing standards
rise, $Ie'11
find that manv agricultural.ommodites
(eg ('heat, com, neat) are jr short supplv as well.

16

GeneratLy
speakirg,qtoba[zation
hasbeengoodfor bLsi]ress.
But nowthereis a backtash
againstgtobalization
arnongst
the pubLicIhis is creatjngpotitjcatpressures
for protectionisrn
aid for tocatsourcing
to protectjobs.ForLsthai means
reduced
access
to worLdmarkets
andhighercosts.

6 GLOBALISSUESFORTHE21STCENTT,RY

Exercises
5.1 Make phrasesby matchingan item from each
I geopotrca- ------\
2 .limare
3 globa

warming
i.fhren.e
growth
change

5 pak
6 green
8 livng

5.4 Fillin the gapswith a differentform ofthe worcl


in brackets.Th new form may be a noun (singularor
plural),verb or adjedive.Somewords are not in th text.
(warm)afdthe
1 Glob.
.'r!l!ll
/.1..r,..n1r rh6 0-,'..rrent

ore

(threadthe planet
(.ctive)dndotherpressure
2 Green
groLp)d e be(onig inr'edr19y
i , n { r , , o n . o \ , n r r o r 4 r m i nn . r h 4

banlefld

9 pricing
10 decning
1l knowledge
6.2 completethe beginningot ea<hphrasewith its

(environment)
policisof argecompanies.
3 G e n ec
(controve6y),but many
developingnalionr see ii ar the on y way to ensure
(grow)in agricultura
continuing
lpfoouce)

4 Ther governmentS
isoneot rapid

(-"conomy)
strateqy
( n d ! s t r a l i z T) .h i sh a s

supply

2 behungry
5.5 Completethe text about tair tradewith the words in
the box.

3 be in shoft
4 havea commonAsian
5 prceo n

access gendet
7 in the coming
8 ior ihe foreseeable
t hold

averyrcductQn pavefty

prentun

a v nuarmeerng

6.3 tind a word trom the section'Managementand


business'oooositethat matchesthe detinitionsbelow.
Thewords appearin order.
(orquantty)in
1 goodquality
reatonto theprce
2 b e , _ g' a l h l - | . a { a y s 9 r . ' g , L p p o r l
3 p e o p l ew h o l s e t h e i ri m a gn a t o n o r s k i s t o m a k et h i n g s
(numanresourcetkeepsomeone
5 the factof belngeithermaleor lemale
6 caoabeof contnulnofor a onoiirneatthe sarnelevel
7 a stronq,neqative
reactonto somethinq
thatwa9prevbusly
popuar
8 qettinga productor component
fromsomewhere

Fairtradersan organr?ed
5ociamovement
whichpromotes
I
lor labolr,sociapolicy,
environmentali5m
andsu5tainable
development.
Key':
ol faiftradeare:
a Creating
opportuntiesfof economically
d sadvantaged
p.oducers
by payng a farfprlce.lt is a nfrtegyfor
l
reduclng
e Deveop ng produceB'ndependence
by opening
to newmarkets
andbuiding
managemeni
skils
', SaJe
andhealthyworkifgconditons.
.
equality
e Goodenvironmenral
practcsandrsponsib
e methods
Butlair tradehasitscriiics.People
saythattoo muchof the
pricepaidby consumeB
goesto the
retarlelsAndove'thelongtern f" r LrddeoperaLes
asa
hidden7 ..............
..............................
. li putsa prcefloorundera
commodrty
ard theeroreencoJr"ge,3
Thiscaneventually
leadio lowerpicesfor 9rowe6

Seepage146for somedircurriontopics.

The businesswofld

17

Managementstyles and qualities


Managment styles

Personspecification

Elerv ftanageririllbe different,bui oler th lears


mnnagenlentthcory has est.blishcdtluee broad categoriesof

[Ihen bokinS for can.lidatesfo. a particularjob, many


companiesproduceboth a iob specificationand a pe$on
specificahon.This helps recruitmentagenciesand/o. the
human resourced.pariment to find s!italrle people.The
personspecrficationivill inchde the skilis nccdcd,cxpcrieDce
neededand personalqualitiesof the ideal can.lidatc.The
e\ample belorLshoirs the finil section,p..sonal qu.litics.

The authoritaIian manager


This personis strict,demanding,conh.nlng and probabh
ioo rigid in their vic{'s. Thev i.ke a krp do$r approa.h tsut
somestlff like this - thev kno$, qficrc ihcy si.nd and rrhai
ihcir rcsponsibiljticsare.Thelr jobs i,r clcirh dclirlcd
The consensual,nanager
Tliis pcrsont,clieles in consuliation,and in coachingand
menbrnlg th.ir shffto help thcn dcr.lop.Sllrordlrats
!suallv like this tvpc of manager,lrul thc man.ge na! lnck
vision and f.ril t() sln { lcadersh\r.

PERSONSPECIFICATION
Ski,is ond obilities
The idealcandldarewill be able to demon$nte rhe followlnt

The handroff manager


This pcFon deleg.tcsc!.rl,d)lng, o, just l.ircs probl.Drs
n 1i h c h o p et h . t t h c ! t o . r L i ! . T h c v$ . i l l j u s t i l l i h c i r s t \ l c
. s c n + r o w . n e f t ( i c g n i n g . o n h l , l o v ( . d c c , s ( r n tso o t h c r
p$Flc), bui slbordnlilcs q ill frrl r l.rckof guidincc ind
{ppo.l. Li.iwr bfts'ccn .olL.g!.s (.o $rfkc,s) $ ill Lrc
An inTortnnl |oiDl is thil nr,rn.rgrnrcnlsh lf Di8ht rcflrct
t h e . o i l p i n v . u l i ! r f . s m u c h. r si h . f c r s o n n l i t \o' i t h e
i n d i ! i d u . l S o . rh i c r h i c r l c o n r p n f y s l l h . b ! r o . u c r . t 1 .
d c c i s i ( nh . r k i n gp k ) c . s sw i l l s u i t o n c r v p oo l h i n a g c . O n
lh.othorh.!r!l, n dcccntialized.oDrpan\'lrhrr. kn!-lelrl
mrrigo.s cin i.rkc thc jniti.riivc will s!ii .ndthL'r
We .lso ha!. to Nn.nrbd that Lliflerentbusnresssru.rurs
! v i l l ' r q u j r o d i l l c r n t m a n a g o m c nqiu a l i i i L ' s :
Considorthc nrlnagcr whd is nrethodical,slstem.lic.nd
organizcd ls th;,t alw.vs a good ihnrg?Mavbe thcrearc
sitlraliurs where it's bellL'rb be iniuiii\e and flc\iblc. or
ni takc dccisionsqui.klv uithout kno$ing ill the ficrs.
Consid.r the lnanag.r bho is. good tean pl.rvcr,
co{pcratn'e hd supportjle.Is ihai always i good lhirrg?
\rlavbc thcrer.e situaiionshhe.e it's beiier tu \'ork on
J . . r r s r ' b p , - ! - l l , n o \ . r t , .i l f . , . . l i \ ,

Qualitiesor skills?
Hcre is sonrethhg interestingio thinl<nbout:noticethat in
thc text ibole thoe is referenceto sivlesand quilities, not
to skills.This distjlction is inrportant.Qualitiesare a part of
your.ha.acter and personaliiy- rher were presentatbnth or
formed ea.ly in youf life and you s'ill find it hard nr change
thcsethings. Skills,ho('ever are things lo!.an lean like
how to speakanotherlanglage, or gn'e a good presentation.
Skills.nn be devcloped.nd improle.1 thJoughpracticenn.t
r\p, ri" Y. qu" ir .- n...h le\\ .n | . I r
fur ir" nin!. o. .o[r' dpr. lopTell dd ,. -""-. ho . F.

1E

Persono, quolitiet
gusinessknowledge
The idea candid.rewill;
havea tood undeBrandiit of rhe market
kp up ro date wth developmentsin the lield

The ldeal candidatewill:


be able ro rranslarecompanyrrarery into indtvidual
b u s n e s su n i r o b j e c t i v e s
be abe to balanceconf ctiig businessinrerestswithin the

ortanizational ability
The ideal candidatewill:
be a Sood adhinisrntor
be a good time-manater
be conscentiousand lhorouSh
be a Sood team-boilder
Relation to subordinetes
The ideal caidida@will:
havean abi ry to notivrte
know when to de egateand when ro refef upwards
keep tood inesof communicaliof
havean open doof policy
havean abilityto conrol and gve feedback n an

The ideal .andidatewill:


be preparedro take rkks
oe nones and transParent
be single-minddand determlned
be able to recoyer quicklf aiter a setback
suy carm under Pre$ure

7 MANAGEMENTsTYLEsAND OUALITIES

Exercises
7.1 Finda word in the text oppositethat matcheseach
definitionbelow.Thewordsappearin order.
1 expectinq
otherpeopeto obeyrulescompletely
-q . loLo vo-r .rre drd pne'g/
., 'rFed
3 involv
nq theagreemnt
of monpeopenagroup;
democratic
4 q vinqtra ningor ddvicefor a sperifcjobor tan
5 advisng andhelpingsomeone
moregenerally
overa
lonqer
timeperod
poplsothatthey
6 exchange
of informaton betvven
workwe toqether
7 wherepopleandjobsared videdintomanylevelsof
rrnport.nce
8 takingactonbeforet's needed,
ratherthanwaling unti
proDer.soeveop

7.3 Choosethe bestadiectivfrom thosein 7.2 (both


(olumns)to describthsemanagers.
1 ll'sundera lot of pressure
and ooksworredal theUme.
Hesreally
2 Oncesh'srnaded plan,shedoesn'tlikechanqng it 5he! a
brt
3 He rkesto gel nvovedanddothlnqs,ratherthdnjusl
ta kingaboutthemor makingotherpeopiedo them Hes
very
4 Herdeskis so untidy papers
everywherel
t\ ray
5 Heproduces
compllcated
ruesfor every,th
nq. Hs approach
r5very
6 5heshonestandopenanddoesn'ttry to h de any,th
ng.
5hesvery
7.4 Makephrasesby matchingan item {rom each

Now do the samefor the words in 'Personspecifiration'


9 ,ho^irg d ol o' rdre a_d allFnlor
1 0 n c l u d i n ge v e r yp o s sb l e d e t a l . n d . v o i d n g m E t a k e s

t1 wantingto do somethng verymLrch


sothal yolJwill not
et any,lh
ng stopyou
t2 a probemthatdelaysor nopsprogress

on yolr own and be sef-motrvated

-\

2 know
3 work

v s i o na n d f a i l t o s h o w e a d e r s h i p

5 keep
6 give
8 vanslate

quicklyafter a setback
genera (rategy into rpecifc objectves
u p t o d a l ew t h d e v e o p m n ti n
s t h ef i e d
fedbackin an appropraiway

7.5 Completethe teJ(tabout teamswith the words in


7.2 Changeea<hadiectivinto an oppositmeaninq
by fillinq in the letters.lf there is a pretix,it may be
de-, dis-, in- 6t un-,
l simple
2 centr. zed
centraized
3 co-operatve
co-operatve/ helplul
5 d rect
6 flexibe
8
9
10
1l
12
13

honen
iniuitve
merhod
cal
orqanred
nressed
s!pportve

15 transparent

d recl
flexibe
/ ri d

/ me y
organized

brcathing catry out feedba.k guidinq


Bsuing prcgrcss repan back tunntng

Theab ity to eadteamsisa keyskil in the modefn


business
word. Theteam e.derhasto rnovebetweena
varietyof.ppro.ches:'
nstructons
andsuperuising
closely
at times,'?
and
encour.ginq
andofferinqadvice.tothertimes.
Theteamleaders of.ourserespons
blefor monitoring
overallI
, but oncetheteamis up and
a
andieamrolesare
, andthe objectives
clearydefined,ihenhe or shemaybe ableto iakea back
seatfor shortperodsof time.
Teammembers
liketo fee thatthycan
theirroleswithoutihe leaoe,
6
aowntheirneckd Lthet me.
However.
theydo needto 7
regualy,
andthe teamleaderis expected
to glvethernconstructive
. . on theirperformance
seepage145lorsomediscussion
topics.

o.n.rr,ring time and work

At the plaming siage of a project the amount of work required cm look frightening. To make it manageable, you
need to develop d overal time 6ame (rinescale) for rhe prcject md a schedule (tinetable) to show the dates
oi times when individual ihjngs should happen. Hopefuly, throuSh Sood iime mdagement, you will be ahead
ofschedule.Anlyat as long as yo!'re on schedule,there'sno problem.What yo! definitelydon't want is io be
behind schedule.That meffi you be mder a lot of stress,md when you're totally shssedout, your work will
suffea You nlight have to irolk long hours to caich up. And iI you're a mmage!, you probably won't get paid
overtine it's just cxpectedof l.ou.
Of course, it's not always your fault. There can be delays fo! all so s of reasons.ThinSs can take longer than
plannedbecauscof circumstances
beyond your control.ln ihat case... well, deadlinesmight becomeguidellnes.
nrl'at can you do to improve your time muagemeniT Hclc are somehps:

fime management tips


U s ea d a r y ( A m E . a l e . d a r ) t op a n y o u r l m e 5 o h w n r e
pnckaqcss!.h a5 Olllook ..lud rh( iun.t o., but m;ny
p c o p l ep r e i e a
r w a l l . h a r lw r h s r i . k e r a r d . o l o l r . o d i n g r o
5how dltrerenli.r vr es
[ 4 a k ca r . a 5 r i . p a n a . d r r i e r ]t r o ' r z e t l r el " s k s D o r h e A l : 5 k s
t 6 r t h m p o r r a n l!,. p ! e ! 5 d n to, r t m e c o f u n n l g o . e s T h e n
y o ! l l t l r n L oL h l e s sm p o r l a n ro . e s w i t l r a . l e a r m n d D o n l
qctdsfiacledbydonglhesna,-"aiy1.!k!i6l
Us. chccklisls.

K . o w a n d l s e l h e f n q s y n e mo n y o u r . o m p l r e rp r o p e r l y
A lor ot rh workf ow in b! 5 n.$ Noives e e.tron c pnperworl!
: n d y o u n e e dt o k n o w h o w t o a c c . $ d o c l m e n r sm
, oditthem,
sharerhem and nr.h ve th.m
Deeg;re
D o . l r r y t o b e a p e r f e c t i o n s t n c v . r y t l rn q r t a k e s t i m t o
{ l e rr h . 9 t r b s o l u t e y r g h i , a n d I h c s m o n e y 5 h o r r . u t sc a n
b e a . c e p r a be r a q ! c k . n d d r t y ' s o! t o n m n y b e O K . l i y l o
bnla.ce qua tt cost and time

Bui ofcourse you know all that, and you haYc alrcadv inplemented these suggestions. You use careful
time 'nanagement to plan your workload. You nclcr put off unpleasant tasks or lose concenkation. Becaup
of this, your work is stihulating and rewarding. You do elcrything h'ith calm and focus. At the end ot
e.ch day you go homc with a snse ofachielenent. You say to yourself,'The world is a better plaQ todav
because of what I did in my job.'Right?

What do managers manage?


0perati()ns
5ettnq anda.h ev n9 targets
mprovnq produdv ry
Conrro nq,deeqatingandqivinqleedba.k
Decison rnakng
S a i i s tn g . u n o m e rn e e d s
qLraliry
N'lanaging
Managing.han9e
People
Panningstaffnqneeds,andrecruitinq
and !ee.ting newsratr
DeveLoplflq
theteam,5Lrppoft
ng andg! d ng indivdlak
Deegatinqand monitori.g

Irinance
P , e p a , i nagn dn e q oar r . q b l d q e r 5
^.lonirorin9
rhebLdger
Makng investme.tde.ision5

Inforrnatiou
chi r ng and/orpirticiparig n meetngs

A.cessng iniormatonon thecompanyT neMork


Readinq
andwritingreportsand propon s
Kepingil esup todate
5peakinq. publ., givlngpreseniatons

Careerdevelopmeut
aarryingo!t performance
reviews
Rewardlng
aclrevement

20

DeveopingyoLrrsks and cornpeiencs


Attendlng.onffe.ce5
andsernnal!
Reading
abolt rece.t deasanddeveopmente
ln yoLrrfed

A O R G A N I Z I N GT I M E A N D W O R K

Exercises
8.1 Fill in the missingletters.
1
, Theprotectis goingvrywe . n facl,we're
of schedule.
Theworki w is orqanrzed
efficenty,
andwe hdved bigwallch
with ni
shown9 th d fferntnagesof the prolectandwhat
veryone
shouldbe do nq I likeour team eader she
hasestablshed
thegeneraqu
nes{orolr work,
but she eavesit up to usto pr
trzeourlaskson
a d.y to daybasis.
Of course,
therearealways
chd
ngesto la , but so far we'vebeen.ble lo
m t thosechalenges.
lts a gre:l expeience.irnd
the workst
at ng andrw
nq lts givenmed
rea 5
e oTarh
ment.

Please
5 Ldn week I

ln workng daysfor deivery

5x holrs overtme. They're


qo ng to pay rntim-and-a-half.
6 Th s red y sn t important- we'Ll
loo
m u c h t m e f w d o I L e t s l u s te a v - ot
-

-Ld

.o1 a,,!to.. rdFd_ /a.oLd

aroundtwo weekson our pannedschedule


by do nq t
8 | got distracted
th s afternoonl'l haveto
t me bystayng dte.t th,"olf ce
tonrghr
8 . 3 L o o k a t ' W h a t d o m a n a g e r sm a n a g e ? ' o p p o s i t e .
1 F id d word that s usedin lwo ways:
a) a pan of how to spendmofey, and b)the rnoneyitlelf
2 F r n da i o r m . w o r dt h a t s l s e d n t h e f e l d o f h u m a n
r e s o u r c e1s0n e a n : s p e c i t ck n o w l e d gaen d r k l l s n o t h e r
words. knowledgednd sk k that are lsd for a particular
t a s kr n a p a r t c ! l a rl o b
4.4 Readthe text about delgating, thn antwer the

The work
d n th s project s iar biggerthan
anyoneexpectedThereSa ot 01 !nexpected
od
s o 4 r f a r ' s / e f I ne . o n
n 9 r o L o n pe r e
T h r n q s : r en o t g o i n gw e . n i a c i ,w e ' r e
d
schedLreWe miqht evenm ssthe de,
E v e r y o nret o t a l ys t
People
ed
are
- c s a n d q u a l r tsys u f f e f i nlgt s l u n s o
takngsh
l r u n r a tn g , a n d t 3 n o t e v e no u r { a u l t i l s e n t r e y d L e
to (rc!
cesb
d our conlro The only
way we re go ng io f nishthis work wirh n the given
t me lr
e by f nd nq somekLndol q|]
and
dr
s o u t o n . l k n o wt s nl i d e a ,b u t w h a e
l se

ll managers
haveconslraints
on ther tme - so many
lasksseernurgenland vrla, and yet no one person
cantackLe
lhemall Deegalionis lheanswer
Once youve apponleclthe personresponsible
lor lhe
pa(icularlask yo! need to brief them rhoroughly.
How
muchautonomy
are you goingto allowlhem?Howollen
shouldlheyreportbackto yolrwth progrss!pdates,and
in whatdetail?Andwhoese needsIo be in thetoop?Alter
ali,its noljuslyou
whoneedsto knowwhatshappening
Convo will be a key issLreWhathappensif ihey hil an
unexpected
snag?YoucanI takeall theresponsbilityaway
fromthem lguring out soltons to problernswi be a
chaLlenge
anda motvaliontorlhem.Howeveryoudo need
y
io makesurethattasksarecompleted
slrccessfLr
Finda word from the text that means:
1 limrs
2 de. with
3 qivenecessary
iniorrnaton
4 (fourwatd) he patlaf a groupof peope thdthdsnformatlon

8.2 Completethe sentences


with th vrbsin the box.
Thyar all usedwith time expressions.
allaw

fin.l

nake up put in
speno waste

1 Howmucht medo you


books
aboutmdnagement?
2 knowyou'rebLrsy,
bul wonderif youcould
........somet metomorrowto checkmy
3 That3 it. We haveto f nishfow. We ve
I rne

5 (infarnal) Nabter-|
6 (phrasai
vert beng abe to lfderstand;solvng
8.5 Readthe following sentenceand decidit it's
grammatically
correct.
Anceyau veappointedthe rcspansibiefar the particulartask,
yau needta brief then thorcuqhly
Comparewith the third sentencein the text above.
seepage146for somedis(ussion
topics.

Planningand setting objectives


What is a plan?
A n o r b r _/ ! h o n . , i . ^ n ' r y p ha l h ( l 0 ) c r - ) \ h d p " - , r .
strategy(2 5 years),which in tur. shapesits plans (1 year).

BusinessPlan: Contents

, has obj.cliveswhich can be neasuied.


l, answcrsqucstionsthai stakeholders(eg sharehoidcrs,
banks,cmployees)will ask.
I builds ir oplions.
'1 idcntifics and quantifiesrisks.
a shows how to minimize thoserisks (.nd pelhapsincludes
a coningcrlcy plarl for Nhai happensif things Bo wrong).
a alios's progrcssio be me.sured.

1 summaryand main conclusions

Othe. points to noic arcl


', That ilie.e is a cost to planninSin i..ms ofmanagemeni,
time and .esearch.
,i That all plans makc assumptions,.lihough thcscare often
not statedcxplicitly.
' -hdt rh,1, .r' \om' .cr) .t
llpe"'rfi.
"Ibuinc-"
(cg
projcct
managment
is. distinct busincss
Flanning
function in its own right).

Elements of a plan
AcompreheDsivcbusinessplan for a largecompanymight
involve ihe f(nlowhg:
1, IDtcrnalanalysis:this colors thc strcngihsand tlcakncsses
of thc organizatioll,historicalp$formance, tr.nds in the
businessactivity and cutrcnt roso!rccs.
', Extcnralanalvsis:this covcrsmarkcts,clstomcrs,
l l . , c " m p ' t i n u n .r d \ . l . d r , l i I o n . l h c g . n c r . r b
l u.in.ss
o Gap aDalysis:this stariswiih the kcy issucsraiscd nr the
first two points above,and highlighis lhoseareaswhere
thereis a gap betwcenwherc you arc now and whre you
a Action plan: what necdsto bc donc to closethe gaps?Do
producisneed to be improved?Docstcchnologyned to
be upgraded?Do stafinccd to be rctrain.d?
', Resolrceassessmeni:
rlhat the action pld needsin terms
ofhumar resources,
matcrialresourccs(eg plani, space
nlsidebuild nrgs,equipment),lT rcsourcesand financial
//r TarSeisrspecificta.getsfor financialrciunN, costs,market
share,sales,grorrih, cusiomersatisfaciion,quality,etc.
u, Financialissuesrcashflow forecasls,projeciedprofiiand
loss (P&L).
Look at ihe Contentspage of thc businessplan on the nght.
It is the knld of plan thai a sma or nedium'sized business
mightproduce io define its shategvSoingfoMard. The plan
might alsobe neededto show to a bark if new tunding is

2lntroduction
2.1 Current
situation
2.2 Need
forchange
3 Internalanalysis
3.1 Interna
strengths
3.2 Interna
weaknesses
4 Market analysis
4.1 External
oppoatunit
es
4.2 External
threats
5 Marketingplan
5.1 Newproduct
ideas
5.2 Prcingissues
5.3 Sales
targets
andmarket
share
targets
5.4 Geographical
d versification
5.5 lmprovements
to distrblt of channel
q 6

A.lwarti<i^^ .imnr

6 Operationalplan
6.1 N-"wplantandequpment
process
6.2 Effciency
of production
6.3 ProduCrivity
lssues
6 4

l.lo:< f^r <:vi^^

.^d<

proposals
6.5 Outsourcing
6.6 Quality
issues
7 Financials
7.1 Cashflowforecast
7.2 Profitandlossforecast
8 Resource
requirements
8.1 Humanresources
8.2 Capital
investment
8.3 tT
9 Appendices

22

nn<

9 PLANNINGAND SETTINGOB.|ECTIVES

Exercises
9.1 Finda word in the text oppositethat matcheseach
definitionbelow Thewords aooearin order.
oi a
1 a thoseDeoD
e who havean interestn the success
pan, systern
or organizatio
2 (tuvawords)a cautseoI actionth.t youwill takeif
in thefuture
..
somthing
badhappens
3 b e l f st h d t a r eu s e da st h e b a s s{ o r 3 n d e a .b u t w h i c h
may not be correct .
4 qrad!al changesor deveopments,tendences

5 (farmal)laws
6 makespeoplenotcesomething
andthinkaboutit
taket
7 a factoryor burdingwherean industriaprocess
pl.,e.. d dl rts'e.w n..h *.y
8 lh: g\ lrdl yourryto acqeve
contexito
9 (n^7o
words)phrase
oitenusedn a business
mean'n thetuture'
Now do the samefor the 'conten$' pageopposite.
10 predrction
9.2 one verb from eachgroup doer not 90 with the
noun at the nd. crossit out.
checkany unknownwords in a dictionary
1 cut, esttnate,tmplenent,rccovet aosls
get holdof wthhold lnfo.maton
2 access,
achieve,
3 cansi.let,keepopen,meet,5u99e5t opt ons
4 be basedan, <atryaut, da, make researd
5 identify,mininize, quantift,rcach tiskt
generate,5et
6 boast,farecast,
up sales
9.3 Matcha group of verbs1-3 and a group of
adie<tivesa{ to the nounsbelow.
Checkany unknownwords in a dictionary
1 achieve,
exceed,
fa lshortof, meet,reach
iackle
dealwth,d scus!,
explore,locus
on,raise,
2 carify,
3 conreup wth, go aheadwih, mpement,keepto, plt
a ambitlous,
contngency,
deiaied,fve-point,long'term,
realstic,
nrategc, threeyear
b ambitous,
annua,high,nital.reaistc,sales
vital
c basic,cntral,complex,
irucal,main,side,!nresolved,
iil l- tarset l-1L-rpl.n

|!l

9.4 Rewriteth senten(esusinga verb + an adjective


from exercise9.3.Keepthe samemeaning.
1 Wewill go abovthe tarqetwe hadar the beginnng.
target
our . ........1!l!al
Wewili
2 We wil go beow ouryeanytargel
targel
..
we w -.........
J w e d F ( r d F do , l c n ( f e p l . r f o r r l _ Fr e . . . h r e e) r ' s
the
...
W decded to

plan
4 Wew ll hdvto stopour pl.nsfor thefuture(dthoughwe
mlghtcontnuewith them ate,
Wewill hdveto
p|ans
5 Thissuethattheyw.ntedueto consder s very
Therssue
thatthey

s very

9.5 Matcha group of verbs l-3 and a group of


adie(tivesa-<to the nounsbelow
1 arrange,
follow,9o according
to, revise,
stckto
failin,fu fil, meet,reach,set
2 achieve.
plan,redLrce.
3 .pprove,c!t, increase,
5tickto, subm1
pr mary,specilic
a clear,key,limired,long-tem,majoroverall,
b annual,draft,fxed, limted, ow t ght,marketing
y
c ambitious,
busy,strct,tight.!1/eek
'
schedule I I bldgel
objective
9.6 Rewrirerh sentencesusinga verb + an adjective
from exercise9.5.Keepthe samemeaning.
I At thispointwe justneedto decideour gneraobjectives
our
At thispoiniwe jun needto
.
ooleclves.
) Weri ,{ leep(o t'e sc'eorle- r_Fre.ony t-ste_o.gl'
theschedule t5 very
3 | h.ve to givea provislonabudgetso thal they can makea
d e . i s o n .( i c a nb e c h a n q e da t e r . )
I h"ve to
budget.
See pag 147 for some dilcussion topics.

issue

"Drnr,I

inkIak Pldn B.'

Leading and motivating


What is leader5hipin business?
Clearly, an entrepreneur shows leadership. They siart iheir
own business,and then build it up from scratch.But the
head of a ieam, deparimentor lalgc organizationcm also
show leadelstup.what do thesepeoplehave in comlon?
A good $ay io ansa'e! this is to look at the difference
betweenleadershipand maagcmcni. To simplify greatly:
irr Leaderslook at the big picture,wclcomechange,ale good
at motivating and influencjng,and ivork well alone(or at
the head oi teams).
1 Managerslook at the deiails,welcomestability,.re good
at supervising,and wolk well as team members.
In addition, managelstcnd io gct their authority from their
role (a bosswith subordin.tes),a'hilc leadersget their
a(ihority from their personaliryPcoplejust tunr io l..ders
fo. guidance,regardlessofthei! position.Thev hale. quality

Eight characteristics ol a good leader


I Vision: this meansgcnc.atingideasabori the wny ahead,
and then Scitirg buy- (= commitmentto a shared8oa1)
from other people.
ll Moiivation: as {'cll as oblious thin8s Iike salary this
n r l u J c - p r J F p .J p p r . c r . r u . ni - d ( c o $ , n i t i o ' .

Emotionalintelligence:this usd to be calledempathy or


intuition. It meds 'reading people' knowing what they
Empoweringothers:tell pcople rvhat you expecthom
them, gile them the tools ihey need to succeed,and then
get out of their way. Leam to listen,nothing is more
empoweringthm bing head.
Being trustworthy:your behaviourshould be consistent
rlith yourbeliefs,othetrise people won't trust you.
Actionsspeaklouder thm aords.
Taking risks and managingchange:leadersneed io be
changeagenis- in a fasFmovingworld, any organizahon
that siandsstill will fail. Butchangebrings rcsistance.
Leadershave io explain why changeis necessa!,
establisha process,involve everyone,providc support,
communicatethe outcones and sharethe bencfits.
Focrs and follow-through:this involvesseiting priorities
and doinll whal you say you will do. Unfortunately,many
lea.tersare poor finishcrs.
A s e n s eo f h u m o u r :t h c a b i l i t yt o l a u g h . t y o u r s c l fi s .
good ilay to b.ing othcrsalong wiih yo!.Ii dcnonshates
a degreeof self-knolvlcclge.

Motivation
A survey by Kabsn
Consultlngaakedpeople
In a wlde |angeol Industry
sectoG whet medelhem
teel good al work. Here are
the resulis:

The Esearchersdrewthe followingconclusionsabout


Noticelhe dominanceotthe lop threcalegorles:
motivation:
achievemeni
A senseof achevement,
and havingthat
working
Positive
recognizedappeff to be strongmolivatorc.
Ina task-oriented
busnessword, it3 mportantto
lhai
financial
psandthe 'er.otiona' dimensnf
relatonships
areaso importantNolicealso
remernber
that relaiionsh
rewardwasonlyrankedsixth Thisls quitesurprising.
to workarevery mportant.
Theresearchers
thenaskedpeoplewhatmadethemleel
Recognition
andpositvefeedback
arethe oxygenof
bad at work Here the mostcommonresponseby tar was
'a negatveexperience
wlh colleagues.A rangeof olher
success
and
Employees
.sk, 'Whalsin it for me?'Blsinest
company
factorswerea so menlioned:ack ot recognilion,
facloK.
s.tisfaction
did not appearasrnotvational
customer
po lics stress,boringwork,elc temslhatwerementoned
Motivation
anddemotivation
arenot equalandexact
essoftenincluded:ack of support,havlnga bad boss,lack
whle
wasthe
opposites.
Forexample,
aclrievement
of d recton and unsatisfactory
evelsol pay.Thesed d noi
was
rarely
mentioned
asa
motvator,fdLlure
stronqest
seemto be lmportantdemotivalors.
24

1O IEADING AND MOTIVATING

Exercises
I0.1 Finda word in the first two sectionsol the text
oppositethat matcheseachdetinition below.Thewords
appearin order
/wa aonls\[ ar t'e begrn-rng
7 rhrcewards(he^holertJaton._olt-srorF padoI i
3 theway n wh ch someones nvolved
in an aclivity;positon
undeGtanding
howotherpeopfeel
5 knowedgethat |5b.sedon feelings
ratherthanfa.ts

6 o vrnasomeone
morccontrclovrthirlifeandwork

8 results
'10.2 Thetext mentions'praise,appreciationand
rcognition'asbeinga part of motivation.which one of
theseis the strongestmotivator?
10.3 Learnrsof Englishoften usethe word
'sympathetic'whentalking about someonesuchas
a good lader Put a tick (/) by the detinitionwhich
matcheshow a native.tpeakrusesthis word.
1 friendy, n ce
probemsandhelpthem
2 wi n9 to understand
someone3
1O.4 Makephrasesfrom the'Motivation'sedion ol the
text by matchingan item lrom eachcolumn.
(morivalor)
I posiiv=\
achievement
'eeobaclf'on yourbo., 'n ol vdlorr
\
2 neqatve
3 senreol
recogn
tion(demotiv.tor)
(demotivator)
4 lackof
experiencs
wth colleaques
5 company
orientdbu, nssword
6 physca
7 task'
8 f nancia
10.5 Completeeachsentencewith the corect form of
the word in italics.Somtimesyou will needto usea
negativetorm (de-,ur-).
a tb the. .. . ....................
company
ln ihef eld
b t3 the market
c SheshowedexceLlent
ability
a Sense
of achevements probably
the numberone
t offeredno few challengs.
I was

c h a n g en a fan-moving
world snl
b Thissituationis out ol control It5 compietely

sansly
a A lob welldoneg vesmea qreatfeelingof
b Myworkng condtionsareteribe. Theyrelun totaly

a Shesgoodat separatjng
d compexprobleminlo its parts
shesvery
b On llrewrole. "greewill yoL
10.5 Readthe text about influencing,then answerthe

people.lts a hiddelsk.ll
I eadersdregoooarrr' renc,r9
L - vF y mpofl"rl orl ole1 rgro'ed lrlJercTg my
rakelhe iorm ol persuadingpeoplto adopl theirideas
inspirng peope to achievece ain goals, or crcating
Inlluencing
requires
a mixol interpersonal,
communicalion
presenlalion
sk ls Andmoslimportanlly
andassrtveness
you need to be abe to adaptand modilyyour personal
stylewhenyou see the eiict its havingon others You
can'tlorceyour deason otherpeope - theyhaveio teel
andappreciated.
acknowledged
undefslood
There's
Theydont
a kindol buzzarcunda good nfluencer.
moan,blameand complan. Theysee whal needsdoing
and
andthensladtalkingto othersto lry 1ogel agreement
aclionFinda word trom the text that meansi
I reach,succeed
in gettLng
2 abrly ro e<pessyo-rrdeas'rr.rlly
a1dconfderly

4 (infonal) Ieelingol p easureor excitement


\ , n f o . m a l l c o m p L a1r _a n a _ 1 o yn q w a y
Se page 147 for some discussiontopics.

lnsuranceand risk management


Everybusnlessfacesrisks,and mmy of theseare insurabte.
lnsurancemav be obligator)ro. optional,bur it is cerrainly
a part ofprudenirisk management.Thereare il{o basic
types of businessisuance: liability i$umce dd propertv

Liability insurance
Liability insurancecovcrsdamagecausedio otherpeople.
An employeetuight suffer a work rclatcd accidenr,o! a
visiior might slip on a polishedfloor and brcak m arm.
In either case,they can sue yo! and {'ill trv to p!o!e
negligcnce(= failure to take eno!8h care).Thclc is also
product liabiliiy insuranc(in casesomeonesucsyou aficr
usn18a product),and professionalindenlnity insuanc.
(AmE malpracticeinsu.ance)in casea clientsuesvou for
making a costly mistakcwhile advisint rhem.

Property insuran<e
Propertyinsurancecovcrsdamageto rhe insureds o{,n
proPerty.Dam.ge miBht bc cnusedb), fire, landansm, crc.
The cohpany might also nccd automobileinsurancc.
Somepolicisinclude ihe serviccsofa lawyer (AmE
attorney)in drc cvnt ihat youlc sued,while othersdon't.
And it's impo.tant to remcmbcf that your p(neciion is
limited to thc maximum on thc Folicy.lfa court awar.ls
damagesthat cxcccdthis fiSurc,then ]'ou're liable for the

Strategic risks

Policies
wlen you takeouta insurancepolicy (ie contract),you
make a regllar paymenicalled a'premiuh'to an insurer.
The policy stateshow much will be paid and under which
ctcumstances.Readit carefullt checkthe small print, and
h particular checkany exclusionclarses.After a year,before
the conhacicxpires,you willbe scnt a renewalnorice.
tnsuranceis availablethrough scveralchannels:agenrs(who
work direcilv for one insurancecompany),independent
brokers(who scarchfor the bestpolicv amongstm.nv
alternati!es)and dile.t selling (oftcn over the Internet).
Atcnts and brokcrswork on conimission.

claims
If vou need to make a claim, yor fill out a form and waii for
it to bc pro.essed.If thc insurance.ompany suspectsthat
you're underinsured,o! cl.iming too much money,they can
i p p o i n t J 1 o . .i d i u { t c r / A m l . l i , m , . . L l J U s t lpnr p, \ I n i n p
thc situaiion.Ercniually, they pa), out and yot receiveyour
If an insurer feelsihat thcy have takonon too much risk, thcn
they can to io a reins!rancccompany b providc covcf fof

Integraton probemsarisingfrom a mergeror acquisiton.


Changesin the marketsuchasa new competitoror changesin demand,
New technologres
that threatenyour business
mode.
Poltical/ Economicinnabilrtyin an export market.

Operational risks

Brcakdow,nof key equipment.


Supplychainproblems:latedeliver!qualityissues,
erc.
lT failurc:lossof data,damagedue to virusesor hackers.
Pooraccounting
that failsto showthe realfnancjalsituation.
Employeeissues:
recruitrnentdiffcuhies,lack
ofpeope with the right skillset,
etc.

Financialrisks

Cashflow (ie iquidity)prcblems.


Bad debt
Increased
bankchargeson a loan (more expensive
credit).
Changesin torcign exchangerates.
Embezlement(= when someonestealsmoneyfrom ther own cornpany).

Failure of compliance
(with new laws)
26

New employmentlegislationNew heahh and safetylegislation.

I1 INSURANCEAND RISKMANA6EMENT

Exercises
11.1 Finda word in the text oppositthat matcheseach
detinitionbelow.Thewords apparin order.
1 snsib
andcare{ul
2 "gdl 'e"oo's,b 7 fo 'on "t ,ng
3 st.rt a legalprocess
to get moneyfrornsomeone
4 torrnalprotcton dgann lossor damage

6 (twowordslmakesa decislon
to g ve someone
cornpensaton
7 (twa words)se.lansat a contractthatsaywhat snt
covered
by the contract
8 fiwo words)writtenrernindr
that a contractis qoi.g to
endsoonandyournustpayif youwantit to co.linue
9 (phtasal
veb) gre noneydsthe resut oi an i.surance
clam
10 moneythatsomeone
recevesbecause
oi damagethey
Now do the samefor words in '8ut you cant insure
a9ainst'opposite.
11 (rwowordr)moneythatw ll nevefbe colectedirom
t2

(tatndlt ,tF ptatvF af obA),-g a taw

11.2 Make phrasesby matchingan item from each


column.
for ihe dLfiefence
I be oallv-\
2 trv to prole
damages
\ \3 a*a,d
obtiged
lo do soTetiirg
4 be Liable
5 take out
6 take on

thesmallprint
8 check

11.3 Crossout the item which hasa differentmeanin9


1
2
3
4
5

ta dispute,file,put in, subnit a da n


Ia neet,pay,reject,settle a.ain
considerable,
high,potential,seiout significant tisk
Ia avaid,face,run, take a I tk
io asses'measuremnimize,weighup he $ks

11.4 Underlinthe correctwords in italics.


1 Howmuchisthinsurdnce
to /o, yourcar?
2 Doyouhaveinsurdnce
forl to dnyoneto drvethe car?
3 Youhdveto takeout / rakeup buidingandcontents
insurance
dsa conditorol the mo(gage
4 Thispolicyprovids
insu'arceagan* / in favoutaf lotsal
danrdqe
byl up to 5,000.
5 We'vensureda our lT equpmentfor / wrthovera m lion
6 Canyoucaimthd.m.geb// o, yourinsurance?
7 Ihey did / nade . cair' for / of danages
8 lhere s d riskto / of consLrme6
b/ / fromtheseproducts
We w I haveto wthdrawthernfrornthe nrarket.
9 Weareat / w,thr sk to be / af beng sued.
l0 Youshouldqo 1ocourt/ thejudge yarha\e a ight /
11.5 Completethis text about risk managementwith
the words in the box.Checkany unknownwords in a
dictionary
plan damagelimltation escalation
prc.edurc
contingency
exposu.eta lsk .enedialaction r6k.ssessmenfs
Somecompanies
havea risk-taking
cLrlt!rc,
whileothers
want essI
. . . . , B u tn a n y
case,the seniormanagers
oi arcecompanies
arelikely
to prepare
regular'z
rypicallool hereis a riskmap.Thishasprcbability
on the
horzontalaxisand mpacton the vertcaaxis,Keyrisksare
-'e p
bralstornd o-d lhenp ortedon tle rap
ort19
process
helpsto clarfythe risks,andthenleadson to a
discuss
on abolt riskmanagement,
of el minated,
Someri5ksc.n b reduced
otheKwi haveto
beaccepted.
Forthosen the lattercategory,
the company
j
(= backneedsto havea
up p an)forwhenlhinqsgo wronq.Ths coLr
d involve
some
initialmeasureg
andihenan
a5thesituation
deterorates,
moresnor
LWneTe
manage6
f t turnsinto. crsis.
takeresponsibility)
Andcrisesdo happen- managers
h.veto respond
to fastmovingeventsand lake 5
(intendedto improvethe situaton)on ihe spot. In a wo6t
case$enario, thewhole thing just be.omesa

S e ep a g e 1 4 7f o r s o m ed i s c u s s i o tno p i c s .

Manufacturingand engineering
Manufacturing
Manufacturingis the transformatjonof raN materialsinto
fnlishcd products.It happ.ns h fachnies,plants (= large
.!ri\J 'ndnil./u.-d'or'f..i. .. ,-1p..e..- .'nJ
The aud 'manufacturing'is oftcn associitedrLith indrsiries
iike aukrs,ch.mi.als, non and sl..l. Thesen ustries,base.t
on nnss produ.tion, \rere.nrccnajor emplolers n areaslike
Anrcrica's'RustBelt' (lllnrois,ltu1i.rr., \Ii.higin, Ohid and
England's'WestMi.llands' rcgiors.sso.irte.i lrith renliil!
. vrilalrlc .oal, labou an.l nrland \1.{en!.rvs (=..nalt.ln the
perlod.ficf lhc ScondWb,ld \\hf thcscn rstriLs prori.l.d
jobs ror lirtc numbersofbluc.oll.r ('orkers, sorknrg in
jobs nnd trct.ctcd trt lnions. During
sennc, u,cll"pa1(1
t h l 9 7 0 s f f d 6 { h t h e s en l d r s i i r s t r c c a r nucn p r o i i . b l . i n
A'tr.ic. fnd Europe.P(lluciior nrcthodsNerL.in.r.singlv
ouklatcd, and this tr_peof hciv! n ustr! srLit.hedto othcr
.ountrics, pa icul.r y l.if.rn.
l f l . ' p a ni f c $ a p p R D . ht { ,n r . n u f n . t u r i n E . n t r g . d I t h a d
rn.ry l.,bcls,brl T(rlotn l)r({lncnon Svn.nr rL.s thc nron
c o n r n o n .K c v c l c n r . f t so f t h i s . t f r c . c h $ c r c c l i m n r . t i o no f
!!.st(, (.jrci.g in\lnory k\ fls, .rnd incrcasnrtcfli.i.nL!
l h k { g h t h c s i n r p l i f i c i i i ( ni nr d s t . ) n d i , d i z i i n nor f p r ) . . s s c s
inLl p(,.odu(s. \4nny of thc c.r' .on.epts nill m use

comme(a aid res,deird bli d.!s


bf dgs.rc.ds {AmE h,Bhwayt.dins

Tljs n.r.approach led to a.enaissancein manufactlring alt


o\er the rrorld, and eloh.ed int.r modern-dayphiiosophies
suchas Lcan ivlmfacturing and just-In-Tine (lIT) These
areasar. exploredin xnit 16.
No$a.lals ihe term 'nin!faciuring has. mlch wi.ier
s.ope Ii nrchldesiercsp.cc, autonotne, biotech,chemicals,
ck)ihing and fooiiveaaelectronics,food and belerages,
pater and printing, pharnaceuticais,plasticsand polymers,
shipbuilding.steelin.1 textiles.

E n gi n e e r i n g
If. conlprni m.rkcsnrass-p()ducedprcducc, il s g.n.fally
refered (r as a'man(f..t!ring (ompany'. lf ir's rcsponsiblc
kr.oniflc\ projecis$ ith a high dctrcc ofcunomization, ii's
\ , n , , . 1 1 ,r , 1 1 1 rI r . i . . - . ' ,1, r r . n , , , ' n Fi . I n t L . ) .
f r , , , I n i . A . i] n r l * , . n . , 1 .r ,. . , . \ . \ . \ . 1 , . , .. , ' ! .
b u l l d l n g . r n dt c s t i n gt h i n g s E
. n i t i n c c rasr c i a s . i n i t . d l r y h o s ,
ind h'h! thnrgs{!.k.
r \ s i n \ t i f l f d b . . i k d o w n o f t h en r r f ! b n . h $ o f . n 6 i n f . r i r A

aLtomobies anc.aft.heai ng aid .oo n!


sl3lems r.dun.alequpmem r.d ma.n n.r r

power p.odud on a.d d st.blr o.

n-kneindlstriaprccesesmoreeft. e.t
pbdlcts e6lefto manufacrlre
andmore
qla ity in(easlngproductvily

28

i o d a ! a r e l a p i n e s e s o . d s s u . h a s ' k a i z e n( c' o n t i n u o u s
impro\ement) and 'kanban' (.heckinginventotr levelswith
sinplc \ js!al signals).

plast.spants pharmi.eltcr s
agncutural
chehcals.loodproce$ne

landmanagemeni
water.rndsewige
sydemspo !t o., wnne dsPosa

databdesa.d opeatng ststems,.omp!ler


g.aphrcs,
embedded.omp!re6 n everyoay
prccu.tsmo. bris
and contro l.g ndlnria

12 MANUFACTURING
AND ENGINEERING

Exercises
'12.1 Finda word in the txt oppositethat matcheseach
definitionbelow Thewords appearin ordr.
1 (tuvowardl na].uasubnances,
belorebeingmadeinto
somernrn9..
2 rcdsubstance
thdtformson metawhen t getsold or wet
3 wolkng cass. .....
4 organizdtions
that represnt
theworkrsin a padicular
industry
5 r o rr o d e ' F r o J g r o b P L . e f . l
paceistock
6 a the tmsn onepartic!ar

12.4 Matchthreverbs(onelrom eachcolumn)with


a similarmeaning.Theyare alltypical activitisof an
en9rneer.

establsh
exdminsuptuse

-qo

carryout
oue,
puttogether
getrd of
of
bein charqe

manag-o

weqn !p

7 . I the thingsthata paaricular


sublectdealswith; range

worKng oroer

8 nformation
that hasbensparated
intod fferentgroups

In genefal, are the vrbs in th third column more {ormal

Now do lhe samefor the words in 'Typesof engineering'


opposite.
9 wa ls blilt across
a rverto createa lake
(NOT'equipmenl')
10 m.chnesor toosthatdo a specaljob
11 the pfocessof getling r d of somethng
12 fixedf rm y and deeplyin lometh ng e se

12.2 Make phrasesby matchingan item trom ea.h

2 wel pad
3 heavy
5
6
7
8

contin!o!s
wide
residental
consistent

job (proiecied
by unont
(egsteel)
industry
(of a philosophy)
concepts
produclon(methodsn indultry)
quaity (of industalproductt
(='kaizen')
mprovemenl
scope(of a subjector actvity)
(inc vilenqineering)
buldings

12.3 t,nderlinethe corre<twords in itali<s.


1 Machnes,especia
ly largeones,ae ca ed equipnent/
machnery;
a theloole,machines
etcthatyou
andclothes,
needfor a partic!arjob arecaledequipment
/ ma.hinery.
2 A series
of actonsth.t havea pa(icuar reslltis a process
/
proceduret
a wayof doinqsomethinq,
especia
ly ihe correct
or usuaway,is a proce$/p/ocedure.
3 Usless
maiefalsandparlsthat are eft afir6 process
s
fin shedarecalledpoliuilo/r/ waife;damagecal]sed
lo ihe
environment
by turmfLrlchemicals
is calledpol/utio,/ waste.

12.5 Complet the text with the words in the box.


e@nomiesaf scale nould
rellability tisk
tun
upgtade up and tunnlng wo*tarce

A lorgeis a placewheremetalis heatedandthenpoured


- rt3thefrrn stepIn the slppy
chan for manycarparts.Andthe bqgestforgeln the world
is BharatForge.in Pune,nda
Thecompany
wasfolndedin 1961,and n the early
ga neda repltationfor quaity and
decades
Then,n 1988,it spenta huge
-. , - ..threcr
German-enqneeredpant. Along wlth th s investmeniin
^. {. m
.afpowe.
Tradltionally,
Bhaf.tForgeh.d employed
. pooryeducated
t
. ort ^od 'r s-anForepd(,tg t-e.r
wth white-colarcollegegradlates.

Whenthe outsourdng
waveh i the .uto partsndustryin
rhe 1990s,Bh..aB".w pla_r\^as6
andrcadyto compete.
in
Morcrccently,
it hasbequna straiegy
of acquisitions
production
nd
a,
EurcpeandChina.t\,{ost
of its
s stil ln
7
its
but
with
................
. .. . .
andlow abourcosts,
reduces
the additionofsmallplants
nearerto the custorner
3
supply
chain -..
-,.....
see page147for somediscussion
topics.

Productionand operations 29

@,*o"afactory
Study ihe diagrm of m automobile plmt nd the notes that explain what is happening in the ditrerent
deas- It is based loosely on the Volvo Trucls plmt in Gothenbug Sweden, md some of rhe voabdary
below is speciJicto the automobile industry. (Check in a dictionary if necessary) The assembly line staits
on rhe left fld moves io the right, md veious assembly statlons along the line are shoM by small sqrares
a. this ir wheE the Gbs (= the front pan of the
ttuck whee the drirer 5tu) are delivrd,
they arive on a daily(hedulejon likeallthe
other comro.e.b Hee itemseuchaelhe @b
arelNered down usinqderhe.d.ran6. and
the ntte6 hake surerhar they dock
(= join tosdher) coredry. rhe/re securedin
olacewith bolls 6nd nute.smallercon@nents
.r .tta.hd with s.res. ThefitteR h.w .
rangeor 5panne6(AmEwenchet to help

i. Goo& reception:ircm heE in@mi.q good! are


dinributed throuqhout the factory.Traroponto
the statiohsrak* placeeither by forklift truc& or
on conpute.cont.olledautonated@rie6that
followmaondi. raik hiddeninthefler
2, Storaqearea:parls .nd
componentethat dont 9o diE<ily
to th. a$embly line are stored
here.Jbe.e ir no ne.d for a brge
wareholR a ,urtnn.Tine
method5me.n thar there is very
linle inlentory in the pla.t.

i0. fin.r.a,6lled Theo.sn,


Ga rel.xation.Ea for workeE.
planttandevenlre.s,
It hsegreen

l.crori.'.a 3oppl.n.nr.d
with vadou <omponen$.

e.glnc fiansmi$ion ..d


axl6 arealljoinedto the
3. This is the rtlrt of the
backbone
of the truck
(= the cha$is)are poduced

4. Theengine are joined to


the ftansmlsaonlyrtems at
delivered- tully tened -

This particular factory is a very modem fac ity md rhe


finished hucks ar tailored to specific customei orders. lf
there arc no problens the plani can achie\ very high levels
of ituoughput perhaps 200 bucks .oling off the line every
However sometimes the lire h6 io stop md the machinery
is idle. Of couse the mchinery i.sdesigned for healT use,

30

(eqplpes,valvet
7. othe. components
wning,t nkr tyret are.tchd at
difie.nr ttations down the llne by teams
of skill.d tittes. At the end ol ewry
stationthere6.n intomationbo.rd
rellingthe fineu howrhy'rcdoinq
tidewi4, and h@many unibstili
rmainto be built duringthe.udent

bur lherc h tll dlwdy5be some sea! and leal A simp e


rnechanical fault may be easy io fix, bui if a key piece of
equipment is out of order then ifs a very senous problem.
Delays are very expensive, particularly when there is a tuI]
order book and the plant is working at maximum capaciry
The system rclies on regda. mainienance so that downtime

13 INSIDEA FACTORY

Exercises
13.1 Finda word in the text oppositethat matcheseach
definitionbelow.The wordsappearin order
process
1 largefactorywherean industrial
happens
2 peoplewho put togethrof fepairmachine!or equipment
10

(tnforma,a sufiix(= lettersat the endof a word)used


with manynounsandadjectives
of or
to meanSpeaking
'referring
to'
perod of worktime n a placewheresomepeople
workduringthe dayandsomeworkat n ght
5 d fferencesbetweenth ngs that shouldbe the same

6 a buidingusedfor a partcuiarpurpose
7 madespeciay for someone's
partcularneed
8 the amoLrnt
of workihat s donein a pa icularperiodof
tme
9 /phrasal.e/b aovrng sr-.adilyorr
1 0 not beingused(machines
or factoriet
(threewords)damagewh ch happens
whensomething
is
lsed a ot
12 the periodof timewhena machine
isnt working
13.2 Studythe languagebox below' lt showslanguage
tor describingobjectrin a fa<tory Checkany unknown
words in a dictionary

Howbig s the steelbaf?


rl
2w
8: It's100centimetres
by 15centirnetres
by
1ocentmetres:h
l'm sorrythe noisein the factoryis veryoudl Didyousay
thdtthea
s 100centirnetres?
I Yes,andthe 5w
is 15 andthe6h
is 10.
OK,thatmeansthatthe arcaof the 7cr
150%
e cenlimetres.
B :That'sight.
8 : tt'qw

s 82 kq,'or

ed up to the nearenkiograrn.

13.3 Studythe languagebox below.lt showslanguage


for des<ribingproblemsand adjustmentsin a factory
Checkany unknownwords in a dictionary

A balt haswo*ed bose.


A bladehassnappedoff.
Ihe sctewshavecane loose.
Theleverhasjanmed.

ltslength/ width / height/ depth/ thicknessis 30 cm


Its 30 cn long/ wide / high / deep/ thick
Its 2 m longby 1.5m wideby 1.2m high.
Thepipeb 75 cm )n diametel
Theareaaf the cross-se<lian
is 4 squaremetres
Thevolune (capaciv is 8 cubicmetrcs.
It weighs2A kg - roundedup ta the nearcstkilogran.
lE wetghtis 20 kg.
shapes
1r5Ildt (ulad. sqrat.,.tKula,kaund).rc<1anquld.
cylindrical,L+haped,shapedlike the lettet L.
Covefthe languagebox abovewith a pie<eof paper.
Now look at the diagramat the top ol the next .olumn
and fill in the missinglettersin the dialoguebelow.

Thepaftshare run aut.


Weneedta dismantlethe unit.
Canwe lengthen/ shorten/ widen/ tighten/ laosenit?
Gn we speedit up? Canwe slowit dawn?
|t'swotkingOK,but now we needta resetthe machines.
Now matchtheseverbswith the delinitionsbelow:bu6t,
be iamned, run out seizeup, tnap off, wotk loose.
1 not haveany more eft
2 breakofi with a short loud nos

y
3 breakopensudden
4 becomenot firmlyfxed

5 no longerworkbcause
somethnq i5noppingthe parts
6 suddenly
stopworking
see page147for tome discussion
topics.

Productionand opefations 3l

Procurement and purchasing


Procurement or purchasing?

Global sourcing

T h e h o r d ' p r o . u r e m e n ' n e a n . f i n d , n 6d - d p - r c h r . . 1 B
suppliesor equipment,espe.ialtythings th6tare difficulfto
get'. The woid 'purchasing iside that definition is a formal
woid foi'buying'. The job iitle 'purchasingmanager'is
still used,altholgh thesedays this personmight be calleda
'supply chain man.ger'and
have broaderresponsibiliticsfo!
soucing, logistics, etc.

The related tem 'sourcing' neans 'finding and e\-atuatint


supplierJ.'Outsourcing'is subcontra.tjng$'ork to cxtcmaL
companies.Iftheseexiemai companiesare in &other
comio, then itt 'global sou.dng' (or 'ofishoring').

Procurement
Procurcmcntis a crucial function in business- it's p.obably
the a.eawlt. costsavingscan be made most easily.
i Fnldhg suppliers:you may make direct contaci{ith
potentialsupplicrs,o! you may lse public adlertising in
the fom of a Rcquestfor lnfomation (RFl),a Reqlest for
Qroiation (RIrQ),or a Reqrestfor ProposalGr-P).
I Baclground rcscarch:oncea number ofpossible slppliers
have beenfound, you need tu discoler more information
abort thcir product quality and also thcir track recard
fd insiallation,mainten.nceand warranties.You may
examnlcproduct samplesand perhapscarrv out some
Negotiation:you ncgotiateprice,availability,
customizatim possibilitics,delivery schedules,etc.
A contr.ct is dr.wn up.
!ulfilmcni: ihc supplier prepares,shipsand dclivrrs ihe
prcduci. Any nlstallaiionand training is carned out.
We often think of procuremninr a manufaciuringconiext,
invohing all ih. items that go to make up the finished
p.oduci (ie raw materjals,componnisand parts).But ii
happensi'r every business,and includesihe purchaseot
n wide l'ariety of goodsand serlices- f.on low value
items like officesupplicsto compler and costlyiietus like
Proclrement is the areaof businessmost open b co.ruption:
.ilher a backhanderfrom a supplier to a manage.as a thank
you for being chosen,or.ollusion betweenthe two to falsify
pri.es, qualjty levels,et.. The EU has a very st icisystem of
.ompetitive tendering(= biddjng) io avoid theseproblems,
aDd many companiesalso operatea three L'ay checkof
papemork. This involvesall invoicesand deh'eries being
verified by a purchasingmanageathe accomts payable
depa ment md the plant manager

32

Clobai so{rcinlj is conboveGialbecauseofiis impact onjobs


- a lalge numberorproduction and back-ofiiccjobsare lost
onshore.However,if the companybcconesnorc succcssful
asa lesultof its lower costs,ihen ne{ jobs (egn salcs,
markethg, .onsulting,projectmanagcment)can bc crcated
onshole.And certainjobs arenearlv.lways belterdonc bv
onsholestaff thoserequiringcreativityand flcxiblc thinknlt.
Offshorccomte.parts tend to rigorousLyfollow instructions.
TM reccnttrcnds in global sorrcing havc beenl
The mov.m.nt offshoreof lT{triven setuicesec(rs like
banking, tcl.communicationsand nedja (ie notjust
Ne.l.shoringraiher than offsho.ing,for lcasonsofpolitical
prcssurc,high fuel costs,logisiicsand mnnagcment

Globalsourcing
Benefits
Bigreduction
in labour
costs
Superior
seMcelevets
(eg24-hour
support)

Drawba(ks
CompLexity
of
communications
between
peopleof different
cutturesdispersed
around
the wortd

Abilityto undertake
smaLter
(prevjousLy
pjeces
unprofitabte)
of

fxtra transportitioncosts
(ojl pricesaffectshipping

Improvedaccess
to skitts

:osis)
Extracosts(eg travet
and livingexpenses)
for
offshoreworkersvisiting

Synergy
fromworking
with a partner
(eg a transformation
of
Issuesof securiwof data
processes
business
arjsing
andprivacywhenother
fromnewideasandnew
get jnvotved
companies
waysof wo*ing)

,I4 PROCUREMENT
AND PURCHASING

Exercises
'14.1 Find a word in the text opposite that matches ea<h
dfinition below. The words appear in odr.
1 a wr ften naimnt of xactlyhow much money
somelhingw con

2 tuvoward) ar oraanization3
successes
andfailures
over
time
3 extendedperods of iesting
4 suppyingthe thingsthai havbeenordrd

'14.4Completthe words by addinga prpositionat the


besinning(asa prefix).
In a business
context.
we canusethe wordI
snoTe
io
mean'in/from anothercountry',
th word'? shoreto mean
'in /frcm vourown country',andthe wordI
shoreto
rcferto a countrythat s geograoh
calv closto yourown,or
to a regonor yourown country

moneythat you pay legally.nd secretyto get something


o o n e ;D ro e
secr-at
actvitiesof peope who work iogtherto do
somthng d shonen
(forma, procelsof nvting suppliersto bid ior a contract

8 documents
for goodsor workdone
9 ihe nternaloperalion!of an ofganizatlonlhai
are not accessibor vsib e to the genralpub ic

Now do the samefor the words in 'Globalsourcinq'


10 startto do a pieceof work
11 extraeffectswhenpeopleor businesses
cornbine
andwork
IOgetner
12 disadvantages
14.2 Completethe sentences
with the mostappropriate
word from the box.
I

estinate prcposal quatationlquote tendel

1 lf youtellsomeone
how mucha Jobwil!con, andyorl
rnityoursefto thatamount,thenyougivethema / an
f yoLJ
telisomeone
how mucha job wil cost,but you
reserve
the rightto changelhe arnount(egif circumstances
thenyou
changeor the worktakeslongerthanexpected),
givethema /an
prolect,
lf youproduce
a forma p an for a morecomplex
te ingthe clstomerhowyouwill carryit out andhow much
it w lcost,thenyoumakea /an
lf youdo thesameas n #3, but in response
to a
pLrbllcnvtatjonto bidfor thejob,andin compeiiton
wth othersinrar companles,
thenyouput ln a / an
14.3 Complete the simplified explanation below with
these words: sourci'fg, procurcment, pwchasing.

14.5 Studythe words in listsA-E. Checkany unknown


words in a didionary Thenanswerthe questionsbelow.
A ro

give(somebody),
askior,get,prpar,
provide(somebody
with).submit,accept

drawup,male,accept,consder,
-R r^
-pul forward,oudrne,retect,
subrnt
c to

nvrte,bidfor,put sornething
olt to,
announce,
suom[,pu! In,awarc,wn

D a /.n

key,externa,arge.foregn, eading,
pr ncpa,
major.outside,
over9eas,
offshore

protracted,
unguccessfLil.
E a / an lengthy,
lruites9,prolonqed,
ve
unprodLrct

(a)tender

suppler

negotaton

1 Divde the wordsin listA, basedon whthrthe suppleror


1" qroup:
Dividethe wods in listB,basedon whetherthe suppleror

Dividethe words in In C, basedon whetherthe supper or


1''groupl
2'" gro!p:
D vide the words in kt D, basedon the meanng.
li group:
5 Dividethe wordsin ist E, basedon the meanng.
2'" group:

see pag 147tor somediicussiontopi.s.


Productionand operations 33

Supply <hain management and logistics


What is the sqpply chain?
The srpdv clrainis the florr ofparts and ra$.m.terials trom
thcir point of origil to the ractor! gntes,then thtuugh the
factorv as work nlpro.ess, and iinail! olr oi the f.cnrr as
iinish.d goodsto bc deh.ered b ihc lhal customer
A modern manuracluriig ope,iti.D nighi hile hhdrds
ot suppliersprcridile differ-Antpirts and.on\urents, ind
eachof thesesupplicrsq'ill n1t!m h.n. their o\I srpflie6
p f o y i d i n qs i m f l c r p i r t s , , ' a $ n r n i c r i a l s , . i cT } i s , s t h e
lpsirea,n enll of lhc supph..hanr Snnilarl\; tlre do\rstre.n1
cnd of the chinr might.onsist of dislritr!toF, nhltiple
c!noDrers,et., ind ill nr\ ol\e bitch.s of goodsbenril
shit}.d it dlfffr.ni linresto diffcrcnl placcs

Supply chain management


lluring ih. ilholc pir,..ss, fronr beginnifg t() cnd. inrcnr(B
i r ' | . r l s . r n d t o o ( 1 5 )f c . d s l o b ! s n n c ( l r n $ ! r . h o u s L ' s
tfd dislrib!ti(nrc$t.cs.r
thon hnnsfoitcd ns rL.L\1.d
All ol ih s involres.r h!.:c iD(trnl ot comfulcnz.d
i f n ) r n . l j o n . r h \ r l t h c l o c n t i ( n ro f i n r u l o r \ t j t s . \ f . . r . d
.rri\n lior'.rl lh. n.\t foirl, el(. Ihrsifi(nnritnnrhisl()tr.
s r . ' , . r 1, r . h s s n r . r n ! d i t t . f . f l . ( n r f . n i . \ n n d I I n c h l o , l s :
s!tt (rs,.ust(rn.rs, lhi
p.|1\ l(i8isti(\fro\ki(rsnnd the
.r\irrt,r'lLLrr' llsclt. Ihc .Dnngenreft ol thi\ nloDDlr
r\
.rlli(iil lo lh. s!...ss (ii (he h!siness

I n( rotnl)tf Yu) ol log?\l)(.r


l 1 i r t r ( n \s( b , n hn r b u r n t ri n
l d
(n,r|lr'rrlg,rnl\.
I r i , , c 1 n , l t \R l r N c l ( ) s ( r i ( s ( n ,

E>

\ r h c ng o o ( l \ . r l u r D c { l ! ) r h .
mrnull.Lu.r ( ithd lreuu*, (n
.Ntonlel l cluD{. o. ofe|\kl'li.rl
inlrnkr\ rr ih..craileB. or ourl^rcd
mo.lur(lin:
rhar .rtr ,r) 1(rrg.r \.lll.

{u

rt'l'l\
.ll]tll

i, lt iD\olves ,doidiit{
irenr\ fiun onc Dexns ol taDspoi
andlo!.ln,gonioarod,er'lhn.aD
bed.disLribuLion
..r!e of a \{f.ho!\e.
Tl,e.c rf. rlrrc. posibir'!es:
Hub and spoke

corsolidation

tr'lat-pr.tt aG
b r c l q n t] n t a . . e
.e.talla.atian
antl then 'ofted 1.t
.leli@tyta. raiet|)
at detnnatbns

A nxetf oi {.aLl.l
t . r p m e . l Ja / .
..nbinetli.taane
l.tgpt shtDnent
l.t e.onant af
t1.'span

:i@."@
l+

Deconsolidatjon

50, supph ch.rlr nnnagemeni (SC\I) nakes suie t] t rhe


risht items are iI the right placcat the right time.nd nl the
rlght quantitics.Thereare ofroursc rvider str.tegi. issues:
Ho$ man\ supplie6 should thcrebe?And where?
i\ihere should ihe ptull,cti(nr iacjlities,distflbutron
.enbes an.l rlrehoGes be locatcdl
l\'hat distributionchannelsshould be !sedl
lVhi.h logistics.omp.nies shoul({te used,both (p*ream
.nd !l.nvnstrenni?
Ho\ (an 1Tbe $ed b ifteg.nt. ill the pro.esses,nrke
thetu nrcr. cfli.ient, fl:g !rf poicntirlbottlenecks,gi!e
.lerr signils oi deNrnd do$nstr.nn. etc?
I I ( n r i s ( i s h l l o $ n n d p i \ h e n t i o . l l t h e p a r t l e si n v o l v e d
in the n,tph chnin !.ing to bc nnuged?
I h . . l m o i S C N Ii s l o . o l h b o r . r t tr,! i t h . l l l h c s u p p l v. h a i n
p i r i n c r \ n , i n \ r o \ . l h c l i s i b i l i t vi n d ! c l o . i t v o i i n v c n i o r v

Logistics
Ihc $od loijisii.s'rci.s to t]l pr.ct c.l iss!.s surorndifB
t r n n s p o r t i t i ( D ,$ r r c h o u s i f g i n ( l i n r ( n n ) N n i . r n i B c n r . fi .
\ \ ' l r c r ci h . r . l s r n e \ l . r u l l o . ! s i t ' \ n r , ( o r l ( s s n
s \ n o n l D f ( n S C f v l ,b u l i l . . r n ! L n r h . r r r . f r n l | m . r Li i ) . u s ,
it.lling Dr.iieri.rlslr..r sit. r\ lo sitr ll ifsld. .r .omp.ny .rt
Lliiiircnl sriges ol thf Lrusircss fn).ess lhf trrn loljisti.s'
r\ .rl{i r$fd nr in.rlkr.onprri.s
whcre '!!fply .h.rin
Nrnrg.nrrt
seefrs nn) Srrn(l

I r i , n ( n r r \ r r d k f i a l s h r n ( l l i r ! g i I i i r k r h c t ] . r 0 r r : g ( n x l sa f c
p l . r . , l { r ' t ) r l l c r sa n { l n ! ^ . , 1 , ! r r , n r l , n , L n l l i l i o l , . l s .
l i , t r o l \ . \ i , t r c r ! ) , \ r i l r a g . u u , r i r o . , r ' s r n g c u s i , , sI T .
T I i r n r h r l ( 1 r h c r b i l i s r , d . r k i r ( . t r ) i\ n r f u n s i r .
lri.'\JI,,,-,r,i'.,Ir,|
I r . i r i . . . rt i . r , - , ,
"|''|,,,
$ pur.hr\ing,trd phlr Iul.rg.n!!rr.

{rl'

lr itrr,,lr.srcl,onl olnrcxtrsol urr'\txnr: rn. (,ring\Ila:ial


c.r-9,, rnln,e\)i {r'r (rLjdr .onrnrerl {ar k..l op .D ftrp .l
. r c h o r l t , ) r ' o i . l ( u n \ , o . r r ! . L \ \ s i r hl n i l . N ) j i i l ( | \ i n g
N r g o n s/ ' I i e i g h t . r N ) .
. It inrohcs ! (le.i\n,r rrlr.ther or not ro rs. i tl,'r{r
par$ logisLic\ l,unl.f
(ilPL). These (rnpr.n s pnnj.k.
nt.gnred pi.k-rDd-pa.k- rearhousilg and.lis|iburn
.
th.r can al$ a.t xs fonrar.ling igen$ r) handlc \hifpn,g

15 SUPPLYCHAIN MANAGEMENTAND LOGISTICS

Exercises
'15.1

Find a word in the text opposite that matches each


definition below. Th words aDDearin order.

15.4 Completeth text about logisticsusingthe words


in the box.

I dt an eaner stagein a process


balancing ensuting

3 groupsof thingsthat aremade(ordealtwith)together


l . 9 e b J i l d . n g \ ' o ' . r o r iq g o o d \
5 ftwo n?ords)bu ld ngs lrsedfor ihe srorageoi goodswhich
w l l d r p rb F , h i p p dr o . p r d o u r e r :
(fau wor.ls) exretnal tr'Tlt that prov de specialist
servcessuchas transportationand warehousing
7 (phrasalverb)*aw atent on to something

8 dlaysin onestageoi a process


that makethewhoe
process
takelonger
Now do the samefor the words in 'Thecomplexityof
logisti(s'opposite.
9 comingtowardsor arrivingat (ega factoryor airport)
10 fforma,goodsfor sae
11 takinggoodsoff a vehcle
12 fthreelrordi)the designof the
paftandInegcornrng
wheel,
wth a central
out of it
13 f at woodenstructLir-.s
usedfor movingor stoinqheaw
goods
14 (twowords)\ehicesw th specialequipment
at the frcnt
for lift nq a,rdrrov19 l^eavy
obtefls
l5 followthe progfess
of
16 (phrcsai
vetb)ananged
intoa neatpie

t 7 backseciionsof irucksthat can be separated,and are


usedlor cary ng heavl,objects

t 8 processof siariingwith a argequantty of goods,


sort ng them a(cordingto d ffereft deninations,and
ihen re-packaqing
them wth new shippn9 iabes

1s.2 Readthe definitionsand .ompletethe examples


with one of thsewordst.argo,frcight.
1 goodscarriedby shp or alrcraft[+ ofl
Ev.a"..lple:
a shipcarryinga
ot ail
2 qoodscarriedby shp, tra n or a rcraft;ihe system
of movlng
rneseqooos
Exaraple: ...................................servltes

'Logistic!'
isa tem that is usedin manydiffercntways.
Usinqa broaddefinition
it canincludeal of thefollowing:
the rightproductisat th ight pace
at the ght time.
Demand'
and planning
Determining
the quanttyof goodsthat needto be ordercd
Inventorymanagementand materials3
by
Keepng thesupplychan ilowinq,with no boltenecks,
'e'ent
quarrty
r(e'1s
rhe
o'
aro
"
locatonsanddifirentstagesn the process.
Communication
te(hnology
the orqanrzatron
to rlssuppliers
with lT,lor example
to provde lnlormatonabouidemand
patterns
lo facilrtate
Just-n-Timede very.
Transportation
6
the ben meansol iransportation
(ieair,rail,ship,truck).
Pufthasing

with suppiersaboutprice,avaab ity,

Locating
anddesigning
faciltiesthat alow efficientstorage
anddistribution
Allthe aboveactivities
mustbecoordnatedpropery.
- essof onethingand
hevitablythere
will betrade-offs
moreof something
els in ordrto achieve
the best

see page147for somediscussion


iopi(s.

-ffi
::=-;-4-

liiir

15.3 Make phrar$ by matchingan item from each

2
3
4
5
6

s!pp v ----\
f nished \
f na
logistics
d nr bulion
forwardng

forecasting handling
seleding watehoustng

##il
aqent
qoo0s

:*L

'

,vl,
1b,rJ,t bt $e bB naw,

"

Pfodudion and operaiions 35

.*" production

The Toyota Production System (TPS)

Just-ln-Time(JlT)

TPSis the basisof modem manufactuing. It was developed


at Toyota at the end of the 70s and during the 80s, but is now
used right acrcss indsiry T"S focuses on two thinSs: adding
value and eliminating waste. Value is defined as any item
or fealu.e for which a cstomer is willing to pay- Anything
elseis wasteand has tobe removed.TPSidentifiesseven

In is a closely related concept. Here, paits and components


are delivered orny as they're needed: at ihe iight time, in
the righl domts and in ihe ight *quence. Delivery to lhe
factory gate should be Jn, as should delivery to individual
work stations on the assembly line. The aim of IIT are:
minimizing inventory produong item at a rate set by
the customei, eliminating any urnecessary lead time, md
generaly optimizing the flow of materials from supp[ers
through prcduciion and up to the point of sale of the

1 Overproduction: ploducing too much, or too soorL or too


quicll).O\erproduction
i \ m i t u m r / e db y u s r n g a ' p u U '
system; this meam ihat work isn't performed unless the
part is required downstream so in the end produts are
made only as a dirst result ofcustomer activiry.
Materialshandling:inside and outsidethe plant-t Movement;performing task manually thar ould be

A1l of theseideasare rcycledin the modem concepiof'lean


production' (lean= with litde fat).A leanmanuliactureris
constantly tryin8 to leduce manpo'vet materials, money,
machines,time, space,mjstakesand effort.

?, Waiting:idie time betweenwork stationsalong the

Kaizen

5 Over processingrdoinS more than the customerrequjred


or is willing to pay for
tj Invntoryrexceedingone-pieceflow. One'piecenow (also
kflown as 'continuousflow') is when iiems are processed
one ata timc and then moved directly to the next pro.ess.
i Defecis:rework, repan,or wastein its simplestform.
Defecisare rigorously analyzedto make sure that they
don't happcnagain (ie 'error-proofing'the system).

Behindall the techniquesdescribedabovelies the idea of


'kaizen'.
This is rapanesefor'confinuous improvement'
- m a k i n gc h a n g c lsi | s m n l l .i n c r e m e n t a l i r e p t>l .i r i r j e e r
asbeing done through teamwork,peruonaldisciplineand
rnvolving workcrs drrectlyin the procesrof improvin8
quality.Apractical impiementationof ka'zenis'the five
S'approach to workplaceorganization.Sebelow This is
derivd from five Japansewords beginninSwiih 'S', and
Englishhanslationshave tried io find five 'S' words.

52: Set ln Order


arrangeverythrn9
in a neat,tidy.nd

53. Shrre
Oncethe workareahas
beensonedandsetin
order,cleanit up sothat
shineslClean
everything
the areaitsell,aswellas
equipment
andtools.

S1: Sort
Review
everything
separarng
wnai rs
needed
lromwhai is
not.Remove
anythnq

Pdnciple:a placefor
everything,
andeveMhingin
|t5p|ace
Keyideas:discipline,
simplicity,
pride,standardization
and
repeatability

36

54: Standardize
Createclear,s mpleand
v sualstandards
for 51-53
Example1: shadows
on work
surf.cesandinsidesiorageboxes
showwhichtoolsshouldbe where.
Example2: a re-order
card(calleda
'kanban s attached
to an iem and
)
pa(edsomewhere
afterihe item
is used.Thisgivesa vsua
signalwhena newltern
is needed.

55.sustarn
and mprove51-54.

16 IEAN PRODUCTION

Exercises
'!6.1 Find a word in thetext
opposite that matches each

:6.:

definitionbelow.Thewords aooearin order.

in brackets.The new form may be a noun (singularor

r oaord i -" ^f"-r a -dcf -e r(- ^o.rgo.


!sed
2 the cont nuousrnovementol something
I

r
4

b"r1g

r d . i , r Lo ^ " r o ^ l p . h , q . - : d "
m a k r n qs o m t hn g a q a n

5lrynqtoavod(orprotectaqann)futuremstakes
6 t a k e nt o a p l a c e( e qh o u s eo, f f c e ,f a c t o r ya) n d g v e nt o
7 (rwo worctl time that mln be a owed for .omp et on of
ar operalon or process
8 a lhe workersthat are neededto do a p.rticularlind oi

Fill in the gaps with a different form of the word

p l u r a l ) ,v e r b o r a d j e c t i v e .
( ndlstry)
I T P Sh a sh a da b q m p a c lo n
processes
rn mafy secroEor rne
( e c o n o m , :G
) e n e r a l yi t, h a sm a d em a n l f a c t unr g r n u c h
2 l i i s r n p o r t . n o m a l e . d e t ae d
( . n ay z e )o f w h c h i e m s a n d f e a t L r r easd dv a ! e , a n dw h c h
d o n i T h e r e3 n o p o n t m a kn q
( m p r o v e )f t h e . l n o m e r ! n t \ , ! i n g t o p a yf o r t h e m
I n . bad y rln fartory.m.ny procies are
(\,v.ste)afd eves of invenlory.r
(de ver)to the fdctoryqate or
(assembe) l ne rsrnddeon y wlren

4 w th lll

9 I n c r e ansg g r a d u ay
Now do the same for the wo rds in The five Ss opposite.
1 0 h d v ed b r i g h t a
, t t r a c t Naep p e a r . n c eprr o c l u c(eo r r e l c l )
rgnr
I 1 t h n g st h d t y o u h o d n y o u rh a n da n d u s e1 ( )d o .

1 r. it Comp lete th text about the 'Theory of constraints'


with the words in the box.

bartlene(k btan.h .ustamrze.lshape straight


rub-,rsrmbrersynchrannatian

12 (two wotds).anra netswhere th ngs are kept unlrl they re


15.2 Make phrasesby matching an item {rom each
I add
2 bew rno
3 delvr

wane (irom a process)


. 1 a ! L( m . n u a v r
v a l l e( t o. p r o d ! . t )
po
o r o r o .o J q d ' a

5 makesure

1op.y lor someth


n9
s o m e t hn g d o e s nt h a p p e na g a i n

(us,nqI T)
nventory
( l s i n qI T )
thefow ol mare.alq

8 clean|]p
9 errorproot

t,l
+
t
t l , l t a
r t t t
t t

t h e e q up m e n ts o i h a t l s h n e s
a synem (by rlgorols analyst
a kanb'n cdrdto an (em

[o

l- -t
t
t

(TOC)
The'Thory
of connraints
s anoiher
approach
to
marntai.ng fow in prodLr(tonA constra
nf 5 a
Lna syslem something
that n ts
f ( l e ' o 1 o 9 , "T. O C d . a " , r r , " a r o "o o r ' b e o l a ' r r
ayo!1s,where th productron nes nsde the plantare
a r r a n g e dn t h e l
t h ea l p h a b e(t, A , V a n d T )
A n - p a n l s t h e s m p e s t H e r e t. h ew o r k i s d o n e n d

m.tralr(nsrde
a plano

1 0 h a n de

Ao

t
t
t

lineTheconstra
nt s smpyiire
s o w e E ot p e r a t i o n
Next s an A-ptant Many i
convergefor a f na assemby. Here,the probem s
'
, w i t h c o n v e r q L nnqe s a r v n q

[t

I
o
Go

W i h a V p l . n t ,o n e r d w m a t r a s m a d ei n t o m a n yt n a
p r o d L r d sH.e r et h p f o b l e mos c c u ri m m e da t e y . f t e r t h e
divergen(epoint any operaton along one
ol rhe V can rob (= srea) mdreral
"
me.nt for lhe olher bfan.h.
Finay, we havea Tpant A nLrmberof baslcunitsar
producedon . ne and then 7
at the
end. Ihere s a wide varityof fin. producis Th s type of
plantcomb nesthe problemsof rnorr of the othe6!

BrI,LACD TOOLS.{}'tDlt IJSD


s e e p a g e1 4 7 f o r 5 0 m ed i s c u s s i o tno p i c s .
P r o c l u d i oann d o P e r a t i o t s 3 7

@ o"",,o
What is quality?

The word 'quality' has m everyday rneaning ihat has to do


with features,reliability,performance,durabiljty,aesthetics,
value for roney and conJormanceto requi.ements. It has
more specific freanings, palticulaily those in the next few

Quality cohtrol and quality assurance


Quality controi is aboui detecting defects after they happen.
It invoives random samplirlg, spot check, inspechon and
Qualiiy a$urance is abouiprcvention rathe! thm detection.
lf a failure happens,then it's isolated,the causesare
analyzed,and thereis a redesignof the processor of thc
Prrlc to InJlc \urp ir doe-r r hdppcn agan Thc drm rs /ero
defccts,to Bet things riBht fi.st time.

Quality managemnt
Total quality management(TQM)is a philosophythat
was very popul.r in the 1980sand 90s.It aims to put an
awarercssofqualiiy ai the heartof all organizational
processcs(cg cusiome.service)and notjust production.
It puts an cmphasison a coniinual increasein customer
salisfactioncombindwith lowering costsby eliminatinS
wastc.1tis similar in rnany ways to ihe 'deasdiscussed
in uniis 15-16:SCM,ToyotaPrcductionSystem,Lean
Manuficiuring, kaizen,etc.

EuropeanFoundationfor Quality
Management
This organizalionhas taken the ide.s of quality management
and is kying to apply them to allorSanizations,including
thosein the servicesectorand public sectoi It has a
franework for assessingand improving organizationsthat
is basedon eisht conceptsofexcellence:resultsorientation,
custoner focus,leadershipand consiancyofpurpose
(ie benrgfaithful to aims and obje.tives),managementby
processes
and facts,peopledevelopmentand involvcment,
continuousimprovemeni and innovation,partnership
de\ e-upmFnt.dd corpor.rrecocidlFsponsibiliry.

A variety of approaches
As can be seen,qualiry is a topic that occursunder ihe
umbreUa of many differcnt philosophies. This is good
news for the alrny of coNultmts called in to explain and
implement ihe latest mmagement fad. But certain things are
common to all ihe apprcaches:measuringand systernatizing
processes;reducing lariatior! defects and cycle iimes; and
employee involvement md teamwork.
The differences beiween the approaches (and others noi
mentioned aboee, like Six Sigma) are related to which tools,
chsklists, measuremenis md training they lrse.

38

Qualityisnt fre it comeswith a cosr But if mereare no


qualityprocedurs,then
the cost is muchhiSher:continuinS
problmswith the product,a lossof confidnce
in the brand,
and Gwer salsas a resulL Here are just some of the ways
tnat companis
havto spendmonyand dme to ensure

Engineers
haveio spendt me wth marketers
dwng the development
of new productsto
facilitate
desgn-lor-manlfacturc
Therehave
to be supplie.capabity surveys
to makesure
that suppliers
canachieve
the qualtylevesthat
theycarm.The.e
haveto be regLr
ar meetngs,
ed--"L,ord.o ra,l,ig rbo .r qLdhr/r p o.e. e' r

The companyhasto inspectand tetr Incomrng


materal,materiathat is being
fn shedproducl.There
is aso the cost of buying
anc serwcrng
anyeq!'rPment
usedfor meas!dng
andrcnng.

Theremaybe scrap,
rewo.k re,nspecton
re-tenng,etc. i lhesecontinueat a h gh evel,
thenpelnaprtherewill be a fundamental
review
ot suppiersandmaterias.

'w

Timeis neededto process


customercompaints,
to processcunomerreturnsto dea wth
warantyclamsandto handeprodLrct
rccalls.

I7 QUAIITY

Exercises
'17.1 Finda word in the text oDoositethat matcheseach

17.3 Makephrasesby matchingan item lrom each

definitionbelow.Thewords appearin order.


iniercnedin; selllng
is particularly
1 thinqsthata customr
2 a s t n q ao n g t m e
expect
: ffhreeniordr)beingsimlarto whatcustomers

2
3
4
5

spot
zerc
right
results

for testing
4 t.frng occasion.smaI qudntrnes
(haowords)examinng a process
y,without
sudden
warnng
andhaveno use
mdteralrthat areleft aftera process
7 setof ideasor ruleson whichdecsionsarebased
sales
especialLy
on achevempnts,
8 (twa wofds)an enphasis
andprcfts
for a shofinme
that s popularor fashionabe
9 something
ony
10 ftwo words)how longvariolsactvitestake10complete
(e9oneprooucr|ofrun)
Now do the samelor the words in 'Qualitycosis'
opposite.
11 lookingat how easyit is to makea newproduct,notitrst
the leatures
12 fthrcewords)asklngqlestonsto iind out if
yoursuppliers
areableto meetqua ty slandards
I 3 m.ieralsor smaI partsthatareno iongeruselul
because
for example
14 ftwo words)the returnof products,
thy'refa! ty or dangerous
17.2 Fillin the missingletteru.Most of the antwersarc
not in the text.
ng quality.
1 lf qlalty is r. y good,thenitt outst
thenits
2 lf qua ty is usuay good,bul not always,
e qlality.
vari
thenIs
f qualiy sn'tasgoodasothersimilarproducts,
nf
r qlality.
lf qualityis bad,theninneadof saying'bad'we oitensay
p r qlarry
hasquallty,
thenyou
lf youmakecertainthatsomethinq
lf yo! mprove
the qualityof a product,thenyou
enh ceihequaity.
lf yousratihe quairythatyouwani in an exactand
detaiedway,thenyouspe fy the qualry.
to
lf youregularywatchor checkthe qualiq/ol something
f nd out whatis happenng.thenyoumon or the quality.

lilst t me
samplinq
tir.e

8 cycle
9 warranty
10 product
17.4 completeea(h definition belowwith a pair of
words(and phrass)in the box. Eachterm in bold is
commonlyusedwhen dis(ussingquality.
puru^"t", r u",y rro^ tn" no^
)
conplian.eleltitied
nethadology / elininating defects peienhage rbe5ta1a653
d:tklspails the appeatance wan.ntr.lains I inprove quality
neasues / thtoughout buslness predkt / fewer nistakes

your
Senchmarkings measuring
be5lm./ars
againstothercornpanie5
thatare
to
andthenusingthe nformation
Tolerance
isthe amountby wh ch
(egsize)can
beforethe piecebecomes
standards
of quaity
3 ISO9000 s a setof lnternational
with
canbe audted lor
Companres
oneoJthe nandards,
andthenpubiclystatethatthey're

'rso9000,

i5whena requrementhasnot been


Non(onformance
met.lt doesnot needto be a serousdefect,it coud

qua iy
six sigmaisthe namof a well-known
. t takesa highlydiscplinedapproach
Theierm'sx
n manufactLring.
to
slgma'originaly comesfrornnaiistica.
Key performanceindicators(KPb)arestatsiical
s
of howwellan orqanization
Theterrnis partruarlycornmon
dolngin partculararas.
In p oduclro'] oppd ions,b,t i9u{Fd
"nd
Leadingindicatorsdr" l\ose that
Forexample,
evesof staffsatsfaction
a futureoutcome.
A morernotvated
areoftena leadingndcatorofquality.
workforce
wil make
lagging indicatorsarihoseihat showa result.For
...area aqgingndlcator
exampe.
of qualriyFewerclaimsmeanthat earlieractonsto
arenowworking.(A 'lag'is a delay
betweentwo evnls).
topics.
Seepage1 for somediscussion

Productionand operations 39

Sales
What salesthinks about marketing!
Salesconsultanisi{ill quickly tell }'ou how fteir job is
different to markeiing.They'rethe oneswho hale dnect
coniact!'ith the cusrome.s,ther,re rhe oneswho reallv
know what is goirl8 on in the market,and of coursethel"re
l l r no n p . w h ^ I \ . * r t L t h e i n \ ( u r i n o I - t e . r : r l - e r ,a - d
commissions.Thc marketing guysjust sitln their officeson
fixed salaries,drcaming !p fancvpromoiions,or rhinking of
ncw prodlcts thai later researchrvill rell ihem no one $ants.
tl only the niarkcting guys spokc to ihe salesglys more
ofien, the busincssworld do so much better.

What qualities does a salespeEonneed?


A salcspersonneedsio be:
(of Urecusiomerand tlrcirneeds,of rhe
Knowledgeable
being
sold,and ofthe indusrrv.nd iechni.alarea)
Products

Visibl),well prepared,orgdized and well,prescntedto


inspire confidencein ihe oiher person.
Reliable(eg fiey phone backwhen they say they aili).
llexible (eg tiey're able to respondto changinScustomer
needsand offer tailor mad solutions).
Ii is an oldjashioned clichaio think of a frodern sales
consrlt.nt as behaling like soncon who sllssecond-hand
cars.Thescdays an aggiessivchard sell verv rarely rvorks.
Custoncrs rvant to be helpcd to make their own decisions,
not to be pushedbeforethey'rc ready The bor below gives
someidcas for modetu salcstechniq{es.
Thereare a \arietv of meihoclsio closethe deal:a cli.eci
reqresi,a com'nand,a reierenccto an immediite gai., fear,
presentingnltcrnatiles,a suhmary and finally sinply an
assumptionthat ihe customeris toing io bry (iebehalin8 as
if ii's true cycn though the cuskrn.r hasnt dchrallysaid yes)

Solestechnigues
Gene|"otpoints
TfI lo idenlf/ lhe d llent .oles nsidei companl Who G
l h e d e cs i o nm a k e . ? W h o saed v c ew i l t h e y i i s t e .t o l W h o
w |cul I be usn8 lhe p.)dlcr?
Trr<limc to soc,aze and bu,ldrappol . lhe fljt fes
nomcnLs h parl c! rr show .lcresr rn rhe clstomci:

Discovering customer needs


Hrvc bB e.rs and a s.na mourh Ask ors of quesrons
L stcn i.lvey:locus yo! i11ento. on the other pe.son
and take notes K.owedge of.lsromer needs s a m.Jor
compettve advantage lln as mpola.t as rhe p.oducr
rear!s or LnePnce.
Che.k ncedsby restatngthem
Refefto the nfomato. you h.ve co ecredrhmlghour rhe

Presentirg the best cdse


Brd.".lo^
odFoot^
needs,rathefthan work ng f-om a sffpr
Be.ear and prcdse ludgethe eve olderail rcqu red.an.l
Emphasize
benelits(ie what a product does how !t will
make le better fo_the cqstomer)and .or lusr feat!.es
(e what it s)
u.-

e - . . r , . - " i e c . o a . 1 D . o ' b e , e .L
Sellthe prce by demonst,-at
ns va ue fo. mofey (Be,ng
c n e a Ps , ? r e l a v r n u e . )

D,ficrcntate
f , o m t h e . o m p e !t o . w l h o l t o p c n y k n o . k n g
show how fou. c.rses tn orcd.
Bec"edo. 'o^ oloc-cc.a p,.

o,.t

o. cagc ..c

give attentronro detail


Mrke lolr.:'te belelabe b), refering to some lorm of
p,oof a demonst.ato. of the p.od!.r i me.r on of othcr
satisledclstome-, givn! the rcsulteoftesrs and rescarc/-r,
unngthe powe. or.umbers (cs 00,000so dr 20 yearsln
R e f e .t o a i o . g o . g a t o . s h r p w r h l h e c L s t o m . r :

Hondling objections
V , e wo b l e c t o . sa sa . o p p o r u n t y t h e y r c a s g n o f
nte,sta.d are ncvitabe Flrst acknowedgethe po nt.
L l e o o J r_o '
s g n n c a n c eo . t u . . I r n r oa P o s t l e .

closing
iooto. roro, z z.ea.y readyto makea decisionl
The clnome. makesa .eferenceto the p.oductin !se,
pehapswrh an asslmpton n the r way of ta k ng ihat
TL-. ,one'".
r ' c e . r ' ' r ' - / o o p Fo
"oo.
a.h eve afte.thet havebeenlsingthe prodlct fof some
The clnome. ask afteria es qlestions,ie qlenons about

1A SALES

Exercises
18.1 Finda wod in the text oppositethat matcheseach
definitionbelow Thewordsaroear in order.
1 expensve
andcomplicated
Now do th same for the wods in 'sales techniques'
3 a rlationshp in which peoplelike, undeEtandand respect
achother
4 fnro words)somethingth.t helpsyour companydo better

5 wr ttenwods, I kethe onesthatactorslse


wordsusedby peopein the sameprofession
that a.e
d iiicui for oiherpeopleto understand
7 crticzing
8 accepithat somethingx sl!
18.2 Mat.h th techniquesl-8 to the salesconsultanrs
1 Responding
io the cunomerbneedsi!
2 Sellngthe prceby showinghow t canbe dividedinto
smalerpartsi I
3 Showinghow a featurehasmorethanonebenefit
4 Seln9 t1e p'ce by showi^ghow roney canbe saved
5 Se ng the prceby offeringsomething
extra:
6 Saying
somethng whenyou'reunabeto givea tarloFmade
soutionL ,
7 Acknowedging
an oblection l
8 checkingundeGtandinq
i
'BecaLise
yousaidthattimingwasimportant,
let metake
that pointnext.'/ 'Yousad earLie.
thishadio be cost'
effect
ve,so.,,'
'ls thatc e. r?'/ 'Wouldt be usetuto giveyoumoredetail?'
'Thi5
your
hasmultipeadvantages.'/'This
willalsoirnprove
exsting...'
'Yo! knowit wouldcosta lot of moneyto do it thatway,
andyouwouldlosethe exceptional
valuefor moneythat
you?egettng here.'
'Yo! getthisplusth s.'
'Yo! canspread
the costsover...' / 'Theusecanbe shared
by differentdepartments.'
'lt will helpyouto reducecosts.'/'Thisw ll eliminate
the
'Yes,thatscerlainly
something
we needto review'/'Yes,
thais a fair point.Letrnegiveyousomebackqround
to
explan whywe do it thatway.'

18,3 Techniques
1-7 are all ways of closinga dal.Match
the techniqueswith the salesconsultant'scommntsa-9.
1 Dnectrcquest
I
ga n
3 lmmediate
a Fear5 Alternatives
t l
7 Assumpton
i
'lf yougivemethe go'aheadnow.thenI canhaveit up
andrunningwilhina week./'We havea speciaofferthis
'Wehavthemin stockfor immediat
deivery,but you
knowtheytesellingvryfast.'/ 'Lfyoucan'tgivemelhe
go-ahead
today,the delivery
t meyouneedi5goingio be
difficult.'
'Riqht.letsget thisorganized.'
/ 'Letme havewrtten
confirmation
assoonasyo! canandl'l startthe ball
rolling.'
'Shall
/'When
we go aheadT'/'How
mLich
wo!ldyoulike?'
shallwe
stanT'
'Areyoumoreinterested
in the regLilar
modelor the
executive
modelT'
/'Do youwantto schedule
thisfor th s
monthor nextmonth?'
'Yes,I canseethatthisi5goingto wofk reallywellfor
you.'/'OK,if youh.veno morequenions,
I'l lustgetthe
papeNorkfrommybag.'
'So,th s solutiongivesyousomethng thatworkswellwth
yourexisling
is easyto install,andg vesyou
equipment,
significant
costsavlngs.
Canwe go ahead?'
18.4 Underlinethe @rrcct(or most likely)words in
italics.
I So,ii lookslikethissolltionworkswellfor you.Sh. we
ga in frcnt / ga aheadl
2 We canhaveit up andrunning/ up and gaingwithna
3 ldon't wantto knock/ c,Ucthe competition,
but this s a
mu(hbetterproduct.
4 Thisisthe actua// /atestmodel.
5 Yourc lucky- it'slorsale/ or ialeth s month.We're
runnrng. spcarpromoron.
6 Yes,the onin the shopwindowis for 5a/e/ on sa/e- yo!
7 Inthe weekbeforeChrstmas
we usually
seeveryhlghsales
valumesI quantities.
8 NorthAmericacountJfor / accaunts
for 4AoAaf orl
Seepage144for somediscussion
topics.

Salerand marketing 41

Customer service
The phrase'customersrvice can refer to pre-sales
(eg enquiries,quoiations),sales(mit 18)dd postsales(eg order pro(ess g, rcturs. complailts.
warranty.laims). The phrasc'cusiomersupport' is
usuall]' limiied jt$t io posi sales
au{orn"r -en 1" .i.et b-rress ru.lion fidl b
ofien overlooked.In an agewhen nanv compciing
goodsand sen'icesare very similar ihc qualii] oi
customerserli.e can frake a big difference.Cood
cuslomerservlcecan lead to .cpcat busin.ss,i{hcrcas
unsalisfiedcustotuersiell all thcir fricnds. Ir thc box
oppositcvou will find some tips for tood cusiomcr

42

Litire
lhings that mare a BIG ditlerence
*

ll customershaveto wait,olfera drink,magazinesand a


comfortablechair

Be fiendly: use narnes,rememberpreferences,send a


b nhciaycard.
P.ovde somethng kee: coffee,biscuits,pens samples.
Alteran expensv pLrrchase,
lo low Llpwith a quick cal
just to checkthey re happy.

Customerrelationship management
(cRM)

Providea ife tiraemoney-backguaranleeA most


no-oneactuallyreturnsproducts

Cusktncr scrvic. oflen makesusc ofCRM softw.,c.


This albws ihc comp.ny to provide a unified face
io thc cusioncr regardlessof their.hanncl of
.onmunicition - ielephorle,cnlail, or facc b fac..
Thc cuskrmcrlray h.ve ar injtialenquin, an ordct
d r a , r c n d h c n tt o . n o r d e r a c o n f n m a t i o n
ofan ordet
i cancellationof an oRicr,ar enq!iry alrort dclilory
dciails, an ific. s.lcs cnquiry nbout lsing th. pr()d!.t,
or. conpl.i'ri Wiih . good CRM svsi.nr ii makcsro
diff(rrrcc - in o!c.y cilscihc dri.ils willg.t loggci
n) ihii inv nlomborof staffcrD imm.diatclv s..
"
tcoftl of ih. c.sc.lla!ing this nrfnmation nrsiaDtly
.v.i1ablo on-scrccnis a huge advanlagc.Whilc lalking
tu a cusbmcr vou knoh, which prcducis ihey ha!.
bought bef.nc,io what v.lue, hor! thev paid, etc.You
ci'n also seea rccord ofBhich quesinnrsthev hare
asked,whether they h.ve ever ade a .omplaint, and
ifso how it was rcsolvcd.

Rernernber
to providean FAOsectionon yourwebsite
and sa es lrlerature.

Don'tlorgetyour existingcustomers

Active listening

Akey skill for customerscrvi.e st.ff is actile


listening.This means:
:i Use ihe other pe$on's name.
I e r ' h e c u s l u m r, p \ p l . i n r h e - : u e a n d p a v t u
. , l r e n l , ^ n\ h l e r h " y ' n . f e J t I n B .D ^ n t i 4 e . r u p , .
exceptfo. .1)clarificationquestionsand
b ) o . a - n n J l b r e f' u r r n . r i . - . l - e - e - - n r , r F show you're lisieningand are on common gromd.
,r Make wdtten notesofley points.
' ff thereis a pioblen, rcsistthe urge to argue,
defend of excuse.Apologize sinceielyand
a.knowledSeany inconvcnience.aused.
;. If the conversaiionis face-lojace,maintain good
. r e . o n r . II d n d d r ,o p e - b o d y p o - . r Fr i p F d n i f g
slightly torvardsthe oiher person).

* Get lhem to upgradetheirproduct

Dont give cuslomersthe run around:il yolt can t


personalydea wth somethng thenstaywth the
customer
whie youhandthemovergracelully
to a
co reague
Rememberihat Ihe thing thal makescustomersmosl
annoyedis whenlheyle passedfrompersonlo person
on the phone.Takeresponsbi ity.and it you can'l dea
wiih I, lhen say you I caLltrem back (Youmay need to
reter I upwardslo yoursupervisorlor a dec sion lirst )
\,4akespeciliccornmitments:
not. We I gel back to you
in a coup e ol days, bul 'WeI get back to you by spm

Oflerthem a bulk purchased scountin the future


Evefytime you ship a product nc ude a flyer catalogue,
spec al offer,etc ns de
Haveperiodc promotionslor'preferredcustomers'.
Invitecustomersto an event:it cou d be a product
demonslralionor seminar,or I could be a soc a eveni n
an ad gallery/ historic
buiding/ interesllng
locaton.
programs,and mai frequent
Havefrequent-buyer
buyerswith a periodicnewsletter
Ask your customershow you can improve.Use
customersatisfactionsurveys(and provde an incentve
for them to be relurned).

t9 cusroMERsERvtcE

Exercises
19.1 Finda word in the text oppositethat matcheseach
de{initionbelow.Thewords apparin order.
1 entedasan officalrecord
Now do the samelor the words in'Customerservicetipt'
2 (phrcsalveh)
askyoutbossto dealwith an issue
3 prcmises
to do sornethrng
(twowords)whenyoubuysomethinq
in laEeamounts
printedon paper;small
5 advertsement
of announcement
19.2 Makephrasesby matchingan item from each
1 'olow -p _---\
2 provrde
3 be passed

-'-

guarantee
a rfe-tirne
a purchase
with a qurckcali
anyinconvenience
caused
the urceto argtie
specific
commitments
irom personto person
a flyerinsideeverypackage
detailson a cRtVsystem

5 include
6 log
7 resst
8 acknowledge
'19.3 Completethe squencewith lhe wordein the box.
a canplaiht ah initialenquiry infomation
an invoice(withfre goodl an otdet theorclel
thepayment theNobbn a guotatan the quotation

19.4 Makephrasesby matchingan item from each


1
2
3
4
s

body-----_\
channel
(ommon
on-scleen
pfered

6
7
8
9

prc-sales
bulkpurchase
money-back
satisfaction

\
\

-':

customeE
grcund
information
posture
of communcauon
guaranree
enquiry

19.5 Fillin the gaps.


1 Thewonds'goarantee'
and'waffanq/'haveverysimar
meanangs.
However
a
!suallyhas
a timeperiodthatcanbe enendedandthe word s
a
usedin bothAmerican
andBinshEnolsh,wh-a'eas
is more
oftencannotbe extended,
commonin BritishEnglish,
andcanbe usedwith a more
'a
abstradmeaning
0ike promise').
2 FAQstandsfor Fr
3 lf a customer
asksyooto do somethlng
andyouavoid
givingthema definiteanswetthenyou'givethemthe
| --a_ . _d'(infottal).
19.5 Comoletethe deflnltlonswlth the words in the box.
expectatons expeience feedback layav
requirenenE satisfaction suNey

'I customer

profjle

= thefeeling
thata customer

getswhen they?ehappy

2 customer

= whena customer
always

bulsfromthesamecompany

3 customer

receives
the goodsand
pays

= nforrnation,
advice
or

fromcustomers
or g ven
criticism,
deliberately
collected
informally
by them
= a setof questions
youask
4 customer
to find out customers'
opinions
= whata customer
5 customer
feesand
remembeE
thevhavereceived
aboutthe service
= how peoplethinkthey
shouldbetreated
customersaccordingto age,llfestyle,eic
= clstomer needs
8 customef
Se page 144 for some discussiontopics.

Salesand marketing

What is a market?

What is marketing?

The phrase 'the French market' is jEt another way of saying


'lhe population
of France', but marketing professionals rhinl
of a mrket in a more specific way. The whole population of
a comtry cm be broken down into market segmnts.

Mdketing begins wiih 'the fou Ps': produt, place,


promotion dd pri.e. These combine to form rhe lrEkeiing
mix for my one product or serice. Elemenis of'the four Ps'
are shom in the table:

In a B2C (business to consumer) company, customeF cm be


divided according to:
o Demographics: age group, gender ethnicity,
income,oc.uparion.socialclass,maritai slatus.
. Psychographics: pe$onafity, attitudes, lifestyle.
i Geog.aphics:natio.al or rgionatdivisions,
city-centre or suburban customers.
i Bercfits looked for by the customer: price, overall value,
sPecific features, image with peerr eas-of-use,se(ice, etc.
o Current purchasing siruation of the cusiomer: brands used
now how and where purchasd, how and when used.
For a B2B (busineEsio business) conpany there may be othr
factors. For example, a B2B company needs to know the typ
of c$tomer (eg manufacturr, relaile.), the industry group of
the customer (eg toy manufacturer or clothing manufacturer),
their slze (eg salesvolume,number of retailoutlets),the
ownership (ie pfivate or public)/ etc. B2B custoners are less
interested in image and more hierested h ihings like ability
to mer changing patterns of demand, consistent quality, Justln-Time delivery, etc. They're also reached in very different
ways suchas tlade showsand by kavelling salesreps.

Who should we target?


once a conpany has decided how
to segment the market, it can then
do any one of the following:
. Target the mass markel the
comPany tarSets one rarSe
market with a single marketing
sbategy This was popular in
the early days of ma*eting
(eg consurner products in the
50s and 60s),but rew compmies
today view this option as
Targei multiple segments:here, each segment will have
its own marketing strategy. Most large cosmer products
firms do this - they offer muliiple products at different
pnce points with different messag6, all within the same
Targei one egmmi: a niche market- The compmy ta4ets
a small market, often with just one or two very sp{ialized
Targei individ@l customers with tailormde prcducts:
there may be a peEonal dialogue to establish sp{ializd
requiremenis, or the compmy my us data about
previous purclEses (eg Amazon's b@k Eommenclabons
based on what you have previously ordered from their
site). The lntemet has bem the catalyst for this approach!14

. Features and associated

a Retailer

. Branding (ie product


identity)
. Packaging (eg *rer nay
be a bag inside a box)
. libel (eg printed
on the package)

. B2Bdistributor

. Advertising
. Salespromotions (eg
special offers, discounts)

Extemalfactors(e8
ehsnciryof demand,
customerexPctahons,
products)
competitor's
(e8profit required,
marktsharerequired)

As wel as'thefouI Ps',the term'marketing'also


includes
marketingstrategy.At its simplest,this includes:
. Analyzhg the businssnvironmentusing market
. Dvelopingnew productsand new markis.
. Rspondhgto extemalforcs:the economy,activity of
competitors,innovation,cultural change,etc.
'The four Ps' arecoveredin moredetail in the next fou

20 MARKETSAND MARKETING

Exercises
2O.1 Finda word in the text oppositethat mat<heseach
definitionbelow.Thewords apparin order.
partr
I separaie
,

rhc f).r

.l h.i.n

m: a .. {om: p

3 peopleof the sameageor who beongto the samso.al


group
a (fornal) bry nt)
5 lrhreewordslthe waysthata productis
neededn dlfferentamounts
at d fierentlrme\
a

20.4 Complteeachsenten<ewith a word partnership


from the previousexercise.
1 lf the governrnent
doesn'tinterfere,
thenprcsaresetby

..farnal pboptatohose prodJ 15,o a corpa^i

7 try to nf uefce;a m to h 1
8 possib
e andlikelyto succeed
prcesth.t havebenspe(ialy
9 (twonords)particuLar
I o.P1/egrq o0 o i 90)
1A bi/o wordi s.r,allgtoupof potental cunomBwho have
s milarneedsor nterests
I 1 eometh
ng that rcsuts In mportantchanqee
Now do the samtor the words in 'What is marketing?'
partsot a product
12 rmportant
13 peceof paper(orothermalerial)
withinlormation
on t that s attached
to an oblct(orpr nredon o
14 (thrcewads)how mrchsaesvo umechanges
whenyou
prce
change
the
20.2 Write achof thesewords nextto its besr
definition:advertisirq,ma*eting, prcmotion,publi.ity.
1 allthewaysusedto encoLrr.ge
demandfor a produci
(the most qenetai word)
an activiy thai attractspeople3attenton io a product
(oneaspectat # 1)
tl ng peope about a product(eg of th ieevisiof,
n magarines)in orderto peruade them to buy it
(one aspe.t af t2)
any nformaiionthat m.kes peope noti.e a product(thE
may be unp anfed, out of the coniro of the companyand

'Thfour Pl g ve th

for a partcul.r

3 The percenlageof the marketthat yoLrhaveis your

4 Sponsored
inkson Gooqe (when. customer
s-"arches
ior
p
Fffecl.e
odLCr
lype'r'
a
\ef
,oJr
20.5 Readwhat a marketersaysabout the historyof a

we choseto locusou. strategyon people n their ate


teens and so we aunchedthe productat a seresof big
rock concertsoverlhe summerWe soongainedmarket
share.and afterlwo yearswe were lhe marketeader
But afiera whileconsumers
wanledsomethng d Iterenl
Ourcompetilors
noticedth s betorewe d d, andoursales
dropped dramatcallyRetaefs stopped stockng our
Wehada
brandandwe hadlo stopmakng theproducts.
big meetingand thoLrght
againaboLrlour wholeslrategy
Weagreedlhalwe wouldtry onemoret me
Th phras5blow <anall b uied with 'the market'.Put
lhm into order(1-8)5o that they matd the orderin the
a be torcedout ol
b prJla productonlo

e decideto target
q f. I to seech.nqes n
20.6 Divide the phrases in the box into three groups,
based on their meanings.
be drivenaut ol apen up .orner wittulaw frcn
entet .apture penetrate doninate

20.3 Matcheachword on the left with five words on the


right. Checkany unknownwords in a dictionary
dqency
gn
carnpa
seepage148Iorsomediscussion
topics.
marketnq

nrateqy

s a r e sa n d m a , k e t , n g . 1

Product
'Product' is
the tust of 'the four Ps' of marketing. rn
markehngterDs,a prodrct is a solutionfora rargetmarket.
The word covers goods and servicesdd cm also include the
waffan\, .tsto'ner support and anv complmentarv products
(eg add-on itemssuchas a casefo. canying thc product).

Four key factors


feaiures are.haracteisticsof a produci that offc. bcncfitsto
the cusiomer Takethe cxanple of a telelisjonl
Benelit
screensize
scrccnresolution
slrround sound

allows for nlorc distnni ri.nnrg


clcaamore realisiicpictur.
cnhancedsensort,expcricncc

The bcn.fiis .bove are callcd 'Iunctbnal benefiti In


dddition, thereare pslchologicalbenefits.Theseicidrcss
necdssuch .s stdtus$'ilhin a g& p, risk rcduction,scnscof
nldeF.ndcnceand hipFincss.
Branding
R r . r n . l i njgr v o l v c s e s t a b l i s h i nagn e n t j t yf { r a p r o d u c t$ i t h
thc go.lof disijnguishnlgit fronr.ompetikr{ offerings.
This is cssentialin nr.rkcts {,hcrc productsir. similir dnd
c o n r p c t i t i oins f i c r c c . l i ' sp . . i i c u l a r l vi n r P ( i . n l i n h . b i n g i ( )

posinon ihe prodrct: high end (= upscale/ up narket),


mid narket, or low end (= economy/ down maiket).
Thebrand itself may be the name of a product, or a familv
ofproducts, or of t1rccompani,that nakes rhem. It usually
inclLrdesa designelemntsuchas a logo or a symbol
(g Nike's 'swoosh').
Brandingis traditionallvassociatedwith B2C,bui recenrly
B2Bcompanies(cg rntel) hale also srari.d ro hvesr in
Packaging
l'ackagingis veN important. It prctecrsthc product during
shipping and handlinS,it gives lisibility to ihc p.ocluct
(nttraciingaiteniion on thc sheh'es)and it ca. adcl valuc (by
nriknrS ihe product eisicr to usc).
Labelling
Thc libcl is .tt.rche.ltu or p.intc.l on the packageor the
product. Ii can attlact nttcntion $,ith griphics or crtchv
$ods and p(x i.tesinro.mation i{) di.t a purchasedccisbi
k t s i z c ,t a b r i . ,w i s h i n g i n s k u c i i o n sf d c l o t h e t I t ! s u . l l y
includcsa code f(tr use it thc chcckout
For minv pro.tu.ts (eg f(\)d, phima.cuticdlt thcrodr.
legil requircnNrts fd ih. libcl .clating k) the listing of
nriy.dicnts, nulriii()nil informat()n ind instructi(nrsfl)r usc.

AI [45

ADVANTAGES

STRATEGIES

Stage1 (brand=benefit):
whenthe cultomerseesthe
brand,
theyassociate
it with
the benefitsthy recejve.
Stage2 (benfit=brand)r
whenthe customer
needs
a
sotutjonto a probtem,they
automaticalLy
think of the
DTan0,

BrandloyaLty:custornels
arelessliketyto switchto
atternativebrandsin the
future;protectscompany
fro'n

Individuat(stand-atone)
branding:'rew
productsaregivennewnames,with no obvious
connection
to otherbrands
or evento the
company
(eg Proctor
and6ambte's
range).
Famitybranding;newproductsare ptaced
underthe urnbrelta
of an existjng
brand(most
products,
consumer
eg Cittette).
partneuhip
Co-branding:
with another
firm
that hasan estabtished
brand(egVjsacards
carrying
the nameof another
orqarization).
Privateor Storebranding:supptiers
produce
for anothercompany(eg retaiIstoressetljng
own-b.a1d'te_s
madebv a1 outside
company).
Brandlicensing:othersareaLLowed
to produce
itemscarrying
the brandname(ega chitdren's
moviecharacter
licensed
to a toy or food
manuftcture4.

Brandstretching:new
productscanbe addedunder
the same'famjLy'
brandname.
Erandequity: oncethe brand
hasa financiat
vatue,
it canbe

21 PRODUCT

Exercises
21,1 Finda word in the text oDoositethat matcheseach
definitionbelow.The wordsappearin order

21.5 Fillin the missingletters.All the words descibe

1 givenfree
2 mproved

lt usesan
camera?
f$ ttaveyouseentnisamazing
'inn
ivelensmechanism
to get 6x optic. zoom.That's
amazingllt3 2fu y auto
c, andhas. 3bu i'in flash.
It3 alsooneof the mostap tabe cameras
l'veeversen it's
so5co d that it easilyfitsin a shirtpocket.lt usesown
bnd,6rech
ablebatteies.lt's. really7
3st
of the-a ple(eof kit.
9t
'integr
t'ue
seenan
d fddgejreezer
that l'm thinking
$J
aboutbuying.Theshelves
areroadl ableandit'svery
'1e
to cl n. lt comeswith an rzopt al icemaker.
tts ren
y-efl
nt.sorrw be 4e(
cd toru_.
andtheysaythe materials
canbe rlec
ed ater,sothat
makesit very16env
allyf
ly.ltb madeby
le manutactJrer,
a rlel
andrts 3t
dblerr a
99
r
ol cotou,s
rshigh-per
ce sneakers.
They
SJ t wanta pairof
2owatefp
haveto be
f.Aso,ldoa otofjoggingand
don'twantto injuremyknees.So,the solesghoud be really
'?rhi -t ch - youknow,'??sh. k-abs bent
aswellasbeing'?sh. d-w. ..fing.And I don'twantjusta
'zasta
d pair- myfriendswouldjustlaughat me No,
theyhaveto be reallyz5styl - i. fact t woLd be
gooorf treywerea i5 'n' eo edit'on
99

3 easyto remember
Now do the tame {or the wods in 'Brands:aims.
advantagesand strategies'opposite.
4 changefrornonethingto another
21.2 ComDlete
the definitionswith the words in the box.
associatian awarcness equity inage
leader loyalry nanaget stedling

I brand
/4agq ......= the ideasandbeliefrthat
peoplehaveabouta brand
= a person
2 brand
who is rnchargeof
developing
andseling a b.and
= the brandthathasthe largest
3 brandnumberof saesin ts productcategory
= the supportthat peoplegive
4 brandto a brandbycontinuing
to
to buyit r.therthanchanging
otherbrands
= thevalueof the brandon the
5 brand--...-..
.--,
balance
sheetof the company
= usinga successful
6 brand......
...
brandname
to seLnewtypesof prodlcts
7 brand .-. .--..........- = whatpeople
thinkof when
theyseeor hearihe nameof a brand
8 brand- --.---................
... = the degreetowhichpeople
Knowabouta brand
21.3 Finda 'brand ..,' phrasefrom the previousexercise
with a similarmeaningtol
1 brandr-ccognition

2 brandexiension
21.4 Writ eachword in the box next to the word in
italicswith the closestmeaning.
ben-selling econony exdusive fawuite
leading luxury traditional upnarket
upscale vlue-for money wefknown

3
brand

phonefor myttudy I wanta


55 fd likto geta cordless
r e a l l y 7 ' ur t
yone.wt-ar3l g-a igbary.
I wlll prcbably
addmorehandsets
later,so it haslo be
good
able,
and
it
would
be
to havea
"erp
soone-t ch speakerphone
in the baselor when 'm
workLng
)9
at my desk.
21.6 Matchproducts1-4 with their packaginga-d, The
underlinedvo<abularyrefersto packaging.Checkany
unknownwods in a dictionary
1 lomFceran'csboJghr'roman open-arr
rrarle.
2 recordable
DVDS
3 meatboughtffoma sLrpermarket
4 a smallquantityof pacetamol
tablets
Theycomein a blrIel!4k, wh ch is itselfpackaqed
in a box(= carton)madeof p4erb94d (th nnefth.n
cadboard).
l
Thissitsin a cardboadiray,covered
bytransFrent
.elloohane.
lt hasa lablthatshowsthel[:pbyutiLllate
andthe 'usebvtiare (of lc:lbctaElbje).
!l
c Eachonecomesn a plasiiccase,but usu.ly youbuyseveral
pack.il
in a shrink'waoped
d These
werewrappedn bubblewr.o to protectthem,and
thrswashed in placewth gqfr&le {. typeof ductiape)
see page1,r8for somediscussion
topics.

salesandmarketins 47

Distribution (place)
'Place'is the secondof'the four Ps' cxstomelsmust
be able to obtain the product easily and conveniently.
This depends on the djstribution chamel.

Retailing
There are a varietv of retaii fomais:

Distribution channels
There are ihree broad categories of companies
lnvolved in dishibution:
Resellers(calleddistrjbutorsor dealersin som.
rnarkets)who purchaseproducis and sell them
to others.Thereare various types of!6eller: a
retailer (who sellsdirectly to the final consufrer),
a wholesaler(whobrys from a meufacturer and
sellsio a retailer)and an industrial distributor
(in the B2Bmarkei).
,l Intermedi.rjes(eg .gents and blokert who don t
aciuaily purchaseihe product.Thcy bring suppliers
and buyers togelherjn exchanSefo. a fee.
.1 I-ogisticscompanies.Seeunit 15.

(An E Mon-and- Pop state)

CHICKIN

'{tilt,,t
aashand Grry (AnE Watehoue

Another option is di.eci diskibution, whcre thereare


no resellersand the manufacturerscllsdi.ectly to the
end rser Exampleshere include:
, Direcl marke$rg: the cusio'nerplices an order by
visiting the company'swebsite,or ordering from a
catalogue(AmE catalog),orb]' dialling a toll-frec
ielephonenumber.
rr Direct reinil:where a companyoperaiesits o&n
retailoudets (eg H&M, Zara,Applc).
r Personalsellingrthosecases,common in B2B,
whre the salesperson
aciually takcsthc order and
arrangesdelive.y.

'+

d'-

lJ:!

E.,a;----;^-

Coveragei mass, selective or


exclusive?
Largecompanieswant masscoverage,buionly a
very few can rca.h all potcniialcusiomers$'ith their
dis[ibuiion .hamels. lt is simply unrea]ishcin terms
of cosi.Agood exanple of a companythat ieally ce
make its produ.ts availableelerlar'hereis Coca Cola.
\lore..
Y o u c i - I i n J , r ' n > u p e - m , r - k e .ro\ .n v c r i F n c e
vending machjnes,restalrants,hotcls,etc.Most
.ompAnieshave to settlefor selectivecoverage,wtth
lewer locations and a more fo.used iarget maiket.
A ' e r . o m p d n i c "- t h o . Fh r l h h i g h - c n dp ' . d u . l .
- choose exclusivc coverage. Here the product is only
availableat seleciedlocaiions,perhapsintemational
airportsmd a fea'siores in fashionableshopping
l o . o n p p \ r . n t t h el n t e n e r h d . g i \ e n d l l c o m p m i e ihe potential to reach a mass market. Ho{'evet this
isn't as easyas it appeas, becausethev stil hale to
fighi a) io distinglish themselves from other webbased firms and b) for visibility by having good
search enghe opiimization so that their nde
appears high up the search results.

48

Retailingis highly competiiive.The following facus can all


conbib(ie to slccessor failure:
r' Abiliiv to identify what producis .ustomerswant.
',1 Layout and atmosphere(cg light, sound,decor).
' Productpresentaiioninside the store(nerchandising).
' O r e r i l l c u - l ^ m p .$ r t f J { r o n w i t h t h es h u p p i n gr \ P p - i . n c
' Building 'traffic' thJoughadlertising.
r Keepjngpaces'ith technoloSy:logishcs,databasesof cusioner
buving behaeiour,imtore technologyat ihe check-out,etc.

Channel power
Thiss a key ssue.
Whohasthe powerin the d nr buton channelT
powr
has
Product
Thisiswhena brand a hiqhlevelof demand
hasio nock i, regardless
of the con to them.
andth retailer
buysa largequantity
wholesalpower:Thisiswhena wholesaler
at low con, andcanthenmakea largemark-upwhentheyrese to
small,powerless
retailers.
frommany
Retailpower:Thisiswhenthe retailefcanchoose
suppliels
andso drivesdownthe prceit paysto them.

(PLACE)
22 DIsTRTBUTION

Exercises
22.1 Find a word in the text opposite that matches each
definition below. The words aoDearin order.
1 moneythat you payfof a sefvice

places
2 ftlvowords.)
whercproducts
arsod
3 (trvowords)\\hen a argepercentaqe
oi peoplearereached
by a disiributionchannl

4 (phrasalverb)
a(epr samethlng
that isnr exactly
whatyou
s the way in which lomethinq s arranqed
6 r h e . \ 1 " o ' d F . o r a l o - a n d f . r , l L ' p n a b L L d iS

7 (threewordl (han}n9 asfastassomething


else
Now do the ramelor th words in'Channelpower'
a @hrasalverb)
$et aglessivetactcslo makepicesf.Ll
22.2 Matcheachdescriptionbelow to one of the retail
formatsin rhe list opposite.
1 Sma nore,goodlocation,
but
opent ate,fastchckoul,
llmitedrangeandexpenrlve
2 A sma, prvately'ownd,
fam y-rLrn
store- oftenin a oc.
neighbourhood
3 Onlne'ony retaiersuchasAm.zor]
(egsports
4 Largestorecarrying
lLl'toneproductcategory
lood
Emphasis
ison value-foFmoneyi
mainly
origlnaly
reia ng but increasingLy
movingnto otherareaslike
crornrng
Similar
io a s!permarket,
butwith a grcatervanetyof
products,
betterquallty,
h gherpicesandbettersetuce
eves
Requir-6s
buyers
to makelargep!rchases;
lmitedproduct
slecton;mayrenrictentryio ihe gefera pub c
g vesprmission
A company
for someone
to usetheirbrand
name,products,
eic in exchange
lor partol the proiits

22.4 Readthe text about technologyin retailingthen


answrth questionsbelow.
Technology
is changingthe lace oi retailng.Herearejust
someof the newdeveopments:
Electronic
slgnageA smallLCDscreencan
beincorporated
inloa tag hanginglromtheanerchandise,
or intoa stand-up
sign posilionednearit. The displayshowsprce, pfoduct
prornolions,
information,
etc.
Sott securitytags A' Fe, lror'. Lrypildrc- lag s
incorporated
into a garmentat the po nt ot manulacture
fhese tags are iexible and papef thin.A deviceat lhe
poinlol-sae(POS)automatically
deaclvatesthe tag.
Selt-scanningShoppersuse a hand-heldscannerlhat
rcads lhe bar codes on itemslhey buy.They can pay
automatica
ly with the sarnedeviceand have a special
exp.esslaneal thecheckoul
VlrlualshowroomsCustomers
viewcomplterzed mages
haslhe
ot roominteriorsand furnishingsThe technology
polenlial
be d sp ayed
to oflerthousands
olitemsthatcannot
ofthe
on theretaillloorAlso,it canreplicale
lhe dimensions
cuslomer's
ownkitchen,balhroom,
etc and showhowlhey
wouldlookwilhthe plannedadditions.
can rl1x
Customers
aodmatchcolours,stylesandpatterns.
Finda word in the text that meani:
I fforma,the useof signs
2 asmaLabel
3 ffolDa, thingsfor salein a
4 fforma,a pieceof clothnq
5 a m.chrneor roolthatdoes. specralob
6 pacewnereyo'rpayIn . srore
1 thingrin . roomslrch.s furnitLrre,
carpets
andcurtains

8 ffiree words)put thinqstogetherin d llreniways


See page 148 tor some discussiontopics.

22.3 A store buy3sornethinglor 10and .ells it for


15.Fillin the gapswith one of thesewords:mrrg,in,
1 The
s 50o/oThe cosrpri.e (10)i5
increased
by a haf (5)to decde the se nq pdce(15).
The
. ls 33%.Theprofit(5) s a thid o1
the sel nq price(15)

5a!e5and marketing 49

Promotion

The aims of promotion


'Promotion',
ihe third of ihe four I's of markering,can ha\e
a varietl of differenraims.lrs classicairN are:
To build awarenessof anew ptuduct.
To.einfo.c. a brand.
To stitrulai demand,ciiher b), getrhg nei! customers
to try a p.odud {eg frcc sample,f'ee triat),orby getting
existinlicustomersto but
tsutpronoiion can {<trk in more subilc, ofrenunintended,
r'.ys. For e\ample it cin createan jnitial intercstin i prcducr
categotyard tlren convince.ustoh ers that ihe! ha!e a need
for it befoc ther think abort specificbrands.

Promotional activities

Public ielations (PR)


This has larious frmctions:
Monitoring ihe medja fd any col-erageof rhe company,
and malntainin[iconhcts $,ith peoplein the medra
(eg issuingnews.elcasesas part of a presskit).
Keepingin coniactrvith customersand / or employees
th.ough companvn.lvsleiters,in,houseblolls, etc.
Crisismanagement$'hn sonlethinBhappensthat
thrcatensthe conpanv image.
Orgadzing specinleventstu buil.l both b.and awareness
and biand lovalty.Elents might inchde p.rries, prcduct
dcmonstrations,stunts,setrinarc,etc olten ln unuslal
Builclinggood'vill thlough cohnunity progranlsand

T h e r c . r cf o u r n . n r i v p e so f p r o n o t i o n a l a c t i \ i i i , :

Other targets of promotion


This ircludes thc ahole !arictv of nedia ouilers:tclc\isior.
r.dio, print (g ncwsparrcrs,m.gazires), lnte.ncr (ic $,cband
cnliil), dire.t niijl, outdoor (cg trilllurrds, buscs),ir oor
k'g ijfports, nl slorc),product placement,nlobile dcriccs and
l-argcconrpnf0s rnrcly h.ndlL thcir oi{n id\.rtising, thet
!nr.rllv usc thc sc,vi..s of rn idvcrising igon.v perhaps
!snrg diffc..nl igcncics f(r diffLreni p(xluct tnrs

Who does what in an

advertisingagency?

Trendsin

Account managel:

advertising

works with the client to devetopthe strategtr

Changing media choices:

Creative team:

ceilphonescreens,sociainetworkingsites
Podcasting (audio and video).

generateideas and take the initial concept through


to the final advertisement
Market researchers:

Digital convergence:

assesst}le clent s market situation and test creahve


ideas.

everlllrng w . coMect to the networ\ \rot jusr


computerstelevisionsand celiphones,
but also
wallets,fridgesand cars).

Media planners:

Auclience monitoring:

actually place the ads in the various media and


negotiate deals with them.

tracking ajrd measuring how consumers respond


to advertisementsis becoming easier and more
lmponant.

Salesp.omotion6
Thisincludescoupons,
specialoiiers,conresrs,
tovaliv

Thiscanbeeitherfa.e to faceor via thetetephone.


See
unit 18.

50

! i n a 1 h ,i t ' s i m p o r L r nttu . c m c m b e rt h a tc u s i o m e r s . r e n
t
ihe only targetof promotion.Other iarSctsof a marketing
nressigcmighi bc news nr.dia, spccialintcrcsrgrdlps
(cg enrircnmenLrlorEanizations),
opinnn Iorm.rs
(.9 do.(rs tor thc phffma.cuti..l n !nry), tfad.
n s s o c r . t n h sf a, r t n e r si n t h c d i s i r i t r ! t i o nc h ; , n n c l
(.9 retarle.s),iny.skrs,etupl()yces,.i..,\n oircn ovcrlooktd
a.ca is ih. imFortin.. of in housepn)m,tnn (\plihinB i
ncs pRrfuct kr ihe snl.s f{)rcc.rndmoti!iring thrd k) sctl il.

GPS in personal mobile devices:


this allowsousinessesto push larqetedlocation
specific ads (eg restaurants.bars, specialist shops).

23 PROMOTION

Exercises
23.1 Finda word in the text oppositethat matcheseach
dfinitionblow Thewords apparin order.
1 largeboards
for advertisemenh
n an outsldepubhcplace
(BrEhoardinqs)
2 providng moneyfor a specal evnlor a sportsteam n
orderlo advertse
a brandname
3 newsabolt somthng on the llevison,on the radio,or
n r e s o . o e r g. 1 d 1 d g d r ter .
4 (1:tuo
wads) nforrnationgivento repoarers
that contdins
new5p u5 supportingmatral(g backgroundiniormatron,
5 s y or lnLrsuathingsth.t are done to 9t pub c attentron

6 (fortra,kindfeingstowardsd prsonor orgdnization


7 the practice
of 9 v ng noneyandhep 1opeopewho ar
pooror n vouDr,o
8 a situatonin wh ch th ngsgraduay becom
verysirnar
9 fo owingthe deveopment
or progrers
ol someone
or
somethng
10 a system
thatusesrado signa
s fromsatelestoshowan
exactpostonon theEarlh
23.2 Makephrassby mat(hingah item from each
1buid--\
2 nimulai \
3 take
\
4 p ace
5 ssle

23.3 Underlinethe verbsthat makesensein the


1 Theagencycanjed/p/acedI published
/ put I ran/ toakout
an.d namagazrne.
(5 conecranswers)
2 Themagazlne
carfled/plaGd / published
lput / ran/
(3 corc.r answers)
23.4 Th itemsin the box ar all methodsot sales
promotion.Mat<hea(h one to its detinitionbelow.
discaunt layaltyptagran .antest petsanalappeaQn.e
fteesanple nadeln freeptadud @upon frcetrial
1 a compeiiton!vh.ethe w nnerqetsa prize
2 smallpece
whrchyoucanu5eto buygoodsat a
ol paper
prcerdLrclon
I sho(-term
4 experencing
d sma qu.nttyofa product
w(hoLrt
purchasing
t
5 expefiencing
a servcefor a sho( tirnewtholrt plrrchasing
t
6 buyone.getonefree
7 wherecunomeEareoffereda reward(e9d scounl,lree
^t^^

n contactwilh cuslomrs
demandby ofleringa lree tral
awareness
or. new prooucr
how consume6respondto
a n i n t i a c o n c e ptth r o u g hr o t h e l i n a l
iargetedads to a mobrledevce

.n

lN

lG^

8 wherea celebnty
appears
tn orderto generate
sornewhere
9 usinqan oder productaspa(-erchanqe
for a newproduct
23.5 Studythe tabl below carefully.Thenlabeleach
column1-4 with one of th5etypsof promotional
aclivity:advertising,peEonalselling,salesprcmottons,
Pa (mediacoveragsuchas storisabout the companyor
reporti on spcialevnts).
Of (oursethere may b xceptions!

c.9e@o

Paymentmodel

paid

aqqrn9r

'lagging = developihg hate slorrly

o.e way

two wry

non pard

pard

no. personal

p6oia

agqrng

quc(

poor

veryqooo

hgh

m e du m

h 9 h ( b e c a u s e . opnad )

hgh

'- ctedibili\ = the qLatty af being belieled and rtusted

seepage148for.ome discussion
topics.

S a l e ia n d m a r k e t i n g 5 l

Price
The importance of price
'Price'is the last

of,the four Ps'ofma.keting, and is


probablv the one thatmarkete.stall leasiabout.It doesn't
seemlike an ex.itingpart of thejob jn facta product's prlce
mighi simplybe generatedb! a spreadsheet.
But decisioN
about price are importani formany re6sons:
Prl.e is the tuost flexible.nd idjustable part of the
ma.keting mix it can be changcdrery rapidly (unlike,
sa)rprodrct or disf.ibutnrndccisions)
,, Pricing decisionsare critical for rcyenue:set a price too
1owand lou triss out on profits, sci it too high and lot
losesaleslnd trarkei share.
Priceis importrni fo. fnst ifrpressbns:a cusiomermav not
considerthe whole productofferint if they hale.lismissed
. l i r i r i . ' l l \ b . c . " , , Hr ' l l L / p r i c <,. q u r l \ i h . \ h . r i , p m J \ - . i r
,(tuality and enco!ragethe
cl,sbfrer t(r takein interesi.
Pri.e is an important pa,t ofsalcs Fonlotions. Seeuit 23.
So,wlrnt are ihe facn)rsthat hare b be i.ken in(,
considerationwhcn sctting a p,icc? Sonreimforiant ones
are describedbeiow

Internal fadors that affect pri<e

md marketing the produci) Bui this return may noi be


imporiant -for examplewith a nes prodrct that isn't yet
esiablished- as long as revenueat leastcoversihe costs.
Markct share:. price may be set artificially low in orclerto
gain a hoLdin a new nark.i, or $'hrtherc is a pnce war
Consisiencywith narkcting siraiegy:if thc company's
o\e..llshate8v is to posiiion itselfat the hig]1end of the
harket (and cmphasizcnon-plic. benefiislikc quality,
sen ice,etc),ihcn p.ice aill be kept high.

External factors that affect price


Elashcityofclcmandrin an clasticnarkt, a small chanije
in price resultsin . big changcin dcman.l. ln an nlel.sti.
market,a shallchange in p.ice hasliitLcinipact on
demand.The trick is io find the particularprice level at
iyhich prcfits (r other objectives)a.e marimized.
Crsbmer e\pectations:renlembc.that 'custumers'here
also includesdistribLrtionpa.hrc6 thcyle often the ones
ilho set the finalpricc that the cnd uscf pays.
Competii(rs'prcducts:cvc.y companyhas kr watch whnt
competi(rs arc ch.rgint. Thc mafkct lcallcr oiten i;ets
. r . C l *i r j m . , , I L rr .1 d r l ' ( ) , c u { L , l l y . , 1 'rl u
( chir;, i

I ' r ) f i l a b i l i t yn: c o m p i n yl s u i l l y r e q u i r e a
s mrnrmum
r c l u m o n i l s n r r c s t n r . n(i i c i h . t o t a l c o * so f m a k i n g

Setting a pri<e
5
,.i.
^krrrcrc.l. flrro b. e,rr o.rmcii
f{e.r !.s rr. ir h!r o. a,rir..4l
W h r rn r l r h o d ! ! o r l r i o b . r s . d l o r
. r e n a r o . r r J t n ) e . r 75 c e! . ' r - 1

4 : r' ,
r i l h e r e q o . r rr o b e a p r o h o l . n l
f 50 nre f.lotr' n! rre a opr o.r
lVa.kdown:offer
a ower pr..

,:i .rt,it..r.j.,1i!::
I a rr : r .
r,/r'haI5 o!r nra'[.r po5i onr L]ow.
{a.t.ror i or m.ilcl5hir.)

:
2
: . : r .- i i r i : r r i i n i i i n i t r i { .
5dni..r a L.lllreio our.! ma!

FreeFrodlct t(o forIh. pri.e


5aes promori.n .o!pon5,
olrlry prolGms er.
B!nd e pri. n9 ollersevera
d fferentprod!.15aI lhe !rme

Sa.kirardpr. nq (= rhal the


mark.I 5 ri .q to pall
P 5 y . h o o ! i . ap r . . 9 l e g t u s l
bcowa,o!.d.!mb-{)
F r o d l c t n e p r . n g ( e d s tn . t
pri.e po n6 for d ffeientmod--ls

L o $ e a d e rs e b e o w . o n r o
attra.t .lnomer trarT. n a nore

C o m p e l I v eo r . n q ( t a kn q
i n l oa . . o u n I t h c o m p e u t o r s

3 r: i:r.:. 1.:,r..fi.ti:!
5omeor; oirhefolofr ng.eed ro bfixed:
s p . . a r e o i e . r d r o u . I ( e 9r u c e . a l
pricn9 1e9.e.alseot
Ceog.aphl.n
| o.a r,i._osiafdari5i.
diifre.ce5

5_2

24 PRICE

Exercises
24.1 Finda word in the txt oppositethat matcheseach
definitionbelow The wordsappearin order.
2 income;tlrnover
3 (phnsalverb)osean opporlunty to do or havesomething

24.4 MatchEIg verb from ea<hcolumnso that all three


havea similarmeaning.All the vrbscan be usedwirh
increase--\
lower
\
set

workoLrt
pu1up
setlleon
brnq down
oelerrnrne

establish
.rriveat
/7_

r gureour

is enouqhto payfor
5 fhree words)obtan rontro or power
doing thingsin the sdmeway
cever and efiectiveway of dolng something
(threewatds) askIot an additonal amouft
oi mony,abovethe standa.damount

24.5 Write each word in the box next to the word in


italics with the closest meaning.
attractive bargain budget
exarbiEnt fai
inflated list

excessive
rcasanable

Now do the samefor the words in 'Setlinga price'


(iethe percentage
9 an ncrease
ln the priceol something
by
wLr.Llh". orrp.(e s (reasedr
l0 afLro
r ord, nLmbFr
"^drrg n0
11 a groupof prcducts
th.t arep.ckagedtogetherandsold
l2 th ngsthatencourage
youto workh.rdernart a new
24.2 Make phrasesby matchingan item trom each
1 lose------\
2 take
3 rcquire

6 poslton
7 set
8 sell

--\

a m nimumrelurnon yolr nvestrnent


saesandmarkeishare
the costswth saesrevenue
iactorsnto consderalion
several
yoLr6elf
at the h gh endof the m.rket
belowcostto attractcustorner
iratfc
a holdin a newmarket
the linalprlcethatthe endlser pays

24.3 Radthis short explanationof dis(ounGand


underlinethe (orrectwords in italics.
1 A Nanpt / prapetpaymeftdiscolntis qivenro helpwith
- any
A quanttyd scount
encour.ges.
arqerpurchase
economies
ot volume/ scaleGr 6e passed
aver/ passed
on
to the finalcustomer
Tradediscounts
arefor partners
in the disrdbuiion
Se.sonal
d scounts
aregivenduinq dack/ /ooseperiods
of
theyeator duringthelanuarypronotions/ sales.

24.6 Complete what a marketing manager says about


prices with the verbs in the box.
agteed to dtop frceze held down natched
reeivedcanplalntsabout rc-thought
set unde.cut werc forced ta 'alse

thouqhl was a rasonable


leve. Thenour cortsstarledto

we could,blt eventually
we r

ourpnces
Toras ongas
them
th newprcesfron'rour

lmmediatelywe 4
custome.s.Theyiold !s ihat o!r pricesweren't comptliveany
r o , e u p t o h d rp o 1 r w p d a o w i ) <
o - r c o m p F l r r o .pt r , " . . o r " v e ns l ' c r l y 6
thern. But no more.We \,1/ere
in danqerof losingcustomers,
so we 7
our whoe prcing strategy.

We coudn t afiordto 3

down to ihe prevousleve, and anyv/aythis wouid have


lookedvery bad n the mdrket. nnead,w anno!ncedthat
we would e
the new pricesfor tweve
months,to give somestability.Neary alloLrrcustomls
'o
th s, a though theywerent happy.
See page 148 for some dis(ussion topics.

Salesand markting 53

Marketing management
Understahdinga business
Marketrsmust first have a detailedanderstandingof iheir
businessin order to developiheir marketing strategies.
This
is often done using a '5Cs' analysis:
'
Customeranalysis:ihis ini-olvesbreakingdoryn the
market inio scgmcnis.Seeunii 20.
i Conpany analysis:malketersneed to understdd
their company'scosi struciure,lookathorv profih are
generatedfrom differentprodrct lines and different
clstome. accounts,and identify corecompetencies
h ihe

changingprice points, or moving displayswithin a siore.


Websites also offer mdv opportunities for collecting daia
clstomcrs' bchaviour on a site can be easilytracked.
r' Qualitative rcsearch:the compmymay carry out individual
intefriews, or f(ns groups. A modern tdnique is io use
observaiional resedch where cusiomers are watchd in a
naturil settingas ihcv shopor useproducisat home.
1 Sondarvrcscarch:data can be colle.tedfrom olher
sourcessuchas consuliing firms, trade dssociahons,
nagazinc articles,gorernmeni statisfics,etc.
ri Tesi markciing: this involveskying ortnew productsm

ir Collaboiatoranalysis:ihismeansprodu.ing. profilc ofall


the channelpalhcrs (eg suppliers,distributors).
'i Competitd analysisrmarkeiersbuild profilesot each
competiktt focusiig on their relaiile sirengthsand

Developing a marketing strategy

ia Contextanalvsis:as wcllas theeconomicandsdi.lconicxt,


this includcsihings llke poientialihreaisin the indusiry
(cg substitutcproducts,new entrants)and ako the
changnlgbnrgainingpower of suppliers.nd customers.

Oncc a companyhas done the kind of rcsea.choutlnled in


the two secilonsabove,it's in a bettcf positiorlto understand
its cusiomerbaseand its conpehtivc position in the indrstry.
Marketing managersare then abLeto dcvclop a strategy.Thls
I Identifying new markctsand gapsin ihc mafket.
, DevelopinSnes, prcductsand idcntifying thcir dcsired

Market research
In order to collcctall this daia, jt's neccssaryto do market
rcsearch.A varicty of tcchriqucs arc uscd:
Quantitativeresearch:thc most cofrmon rescarch()olhere
is a survey ihat capturesinformation nith a questionnairc.
hrf(rmatnnrcan also comc fron doing smill scalc
exprrimentssuchas looking at the effecion salcs()1

'', Devlopingthe company'scompctitivcndlanLl8es.


I MaximizinSrevenu.san.1prcfits.
' C i i n i n g m a r k e is h a r d .
The secondof these,new product dcvelopmcni,willgo
through a prcc$s that inchrdcssomc or all of ihc st.gcs in

New product development


7
:.:.,lrj,.i;,riz;r,ji,
lhc d sfiblto..ha.nek
a r et l e d w I h d r e p r o d ! . t

2 i r i di . r e . i r i j r !

.u{omets, comperro6,

Markelenhale toask 5omebas.


qlenio.r toscreenrh in r alidas,
eq rlo,r,, L clnome6 benefir?s r
r e c h n c a l yf , " a s i bteo m a k e ?D o e 5
ths earydeaook le tw lbe

a o.are resolr.esandpan
en!ineer.9 operarion5

3 C.n.!Ft.b!elo,jnerr
AIth5 sraqemarkeretr.eed ro rhink n
mlch qr.arerderai abourihe.oncepl, e9
w l r o e r a . t y s r h e t a r l e tm a r k e r l' H o w w I
ii fir wirh othere! {n9 prod!.rsl

5 ttn t.5rii:g ir.


irir nci t.!iiil
At this point the companyprodu.esa
prototypeand tens the prod!ft n !5e
Markererswllhod lo.!s qrolps
Adjlnmenrs wi be madeon rhe
bA5 ofth-'seiesis,anda more
lfa ve6 on olfie p.odlci
m q h t b e s o dl n a
test market.

4 r ' r! i r 1 . i : : : r : j : s
Heremarkeler work.loseiy
wirh .o leaqlesfiom sales
and tinanceto t.y to estimale
rhe li[ely 5e i.g Pri.e,5ales
voLumeproiirabiity and

Markete6worl w th otherco eaqles to


seelt thereareanyprod!ction 5sues
Somei.forma teni can bedone by
5lmpiyaskng prospective
clnomers
w h a lr h e yI h n k a b o u i
rne..ncepr

25 MARKETINGMANAGEMENT

Exercises
25.1 Finda word in the text oppositethat matcheseach
definitionbelow.Thewords appearin order.
1 (fl.vowords)thingsthat a company
cando we,
2 th ngsthdtcoud causedamageor harm
3 setof questons
thatyouaska larqenumberof peoplein
orderto f nd out theirop nions
4 a writtenlistof ques|ons
5 rlatingto th ngsthatcannoteasilybe measured
wrth
numbers
suchasop nionsor attitldes
(fl.vowordi) smallgroupsof peoplewho a askedto
discussand give the r opinionsabout. particularsubject

7 (1x\/owords)thingt I6aI helpa companybe mor


successfulthan
others
Now do the samefor the words in'New product
development'opposite.
I checkng sorneth
ng to seeif itb suitable
to takefoNard
to the nextstage. . .
9 fnr'lowords)tirnewhena productearnsjustenough
moneyto payfor itscosts
10 fnro word5)testingsomethn9 by givng it to a few
customers
io try sothatanyprobemswill be tound
_ew
I ' 'irsrdeqg' o' so.rletlrng
12 decideio urea particllaramountof time,money,etcfor a
parlrcurar
purpose
25.2 Make phrasesby matchingan item from each
lcost,---r\
3
4
5
6

coTe
\
b.rg.ning
quanttative
locus

9roup

8 competitVe
iest
1l beta
12 technca

advantage
polnt

25.3 use phrasesfrom exercise25.2to completethe


sentnces
below.The Dhrases
are not in order.
1 Theirlocaton gavethm a huge

2 A supplier
of specializd
components
hasnrong
Theydecided
to sellsomesmalbusine5s
unitsandlustfocus
Afterthe initialidea5havebeenscreened,
we moveto
the
where
we
stage
th nk aboutthe
productin muchgreaterdetail.
Theadvertising
agencyhaveprodr.rced
somenewideas
tor outdoorposte6. wantto showthemto the nxt
..
andsewhatpeopesay.
Bythetimethe newprcductgeisto the
\'aoF .hp n arl.F.ea h.ra done rheir

job andthe oprations


peopetakeover
25.4 One word or phrasefrom eachgroup in italicsdoes
lEt makesense.Crcssit out,
I We are up agarnsfcane up against.loa\ totualcJsfacea
lot oi competition,
gain,prcnote,stinulate
2 Thislegislatio.
willencourage,
3 We'redo ng our bestto <opewith, handle,respandta,
treatwlththe competition
4 We lry \o avoid,caffyot)t, stayawayfrom, steetcleataf
marketsegments
wherethereistoo muchcornpettion.
5 We face cuf-throat,fierce,intense,pafticular,severe,strcng,
tougt compettron.
6 We welconrefai free,healthy,lage, open canpe\lion
25.5 Put theseverbsinto the mosrlikely .hronological
orderr design, larJnch,discontinue,manufa.turc, sell,
upgrade.
I
. . .. .
2
...,.......................
/.!n.h
3
a product
4
. . . . . . .. .. . . . . .
5
........
6
. . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . .
25.6 Putthesephra5$ into the most likely (hronologi(al
orderr carry out, cut back on, put money into, abandon,
suggest the need foL see the limitations of.
l
2
3
5
6

see page149for somdiscussion


topi6.

salesand marketing 55

Income statement
Theincomestaiment
(profitandlossaccount/'the
P&L)
is oneof a compay's threemajoifinancialstatements.
(Seeunits27and28.)lt neasuresa conpany'sfinancial
performanceover a fiscalquariei or a fiscalyear In
sul]mai)tit shows:Revenuc
minusExpeNes= Profit.A
fullerversionis giren in theboxandthenexplained
beloa'.

Costoi saes
SG&A
prcfit
Aperating
+ Noftoperatng profit
EBlTDA

- Deprecaton

EBITDA
EB1TDA stands for 'eamings before interest, tax, dcpreciatiorl
and amortjzation'. or1 the P&L rve subtract thc I, T, D and A
Interest(paid to the bank for any loans)
Iax (paid to the government)
DeP.eciaiion(= the gradual lossin valuc of tnngibleasse$,
eg vetucles,nachlnery)
Anrortization(= the loss in value of inidgiblc asscts,
eg patcnts,copvriShis)

Net profit after tax / retained profit


The figure that rcmainsis the nei profit afier tax (= net
income/'the bottom linc'). To completethe P&Lwe then
subtractdi!idends (paid io shareholders),
leaving finally
the retainedprofit (= .cscnes/ret.rinede.rnings) ihat is
reinlested in the busincss.

Budget report
Netproft aftertax
- D v dends
Betainedprat'it

What is revenue?
I{evcDrc(= turnolu)js ihe nroDeyihal comesinto ihe
company from thc salc of productsor scrvicts.This figure
is retrncd io is 'thc top lirre'becauseof whcr. it appca!son
thf l)&1.'Top linc growth'refers io sal.s growlh.

Fi8uresfor ihc real lifc rcvcnuc,costs.nd profiis will bc


different from the budgctcd (- planned/forecast)figurcs.
This analysisis piesentedto managcrsin a buclgctlcport.
ln its simplestform ihis repo.t has thc first fnc lincs of the
I)&L in the box opposite,with threecolumnsshowing 1) thc
n c t u i l r c s u l t s , 2t)h e b u d g c t c dr c s ! l t sa n d 3 ) t h c v a r i i l n c e
(= differenc. b.twe.n ihe two).
Variancescan be favourablcor unfavourablc,ancl inclivid!.1
managersmay sc. this infofmition tof onlv thci. own
product linesor geographicalarca.

What are expenses?


Expenses(=.osts) ref.rs to money ihat the companvhrs to
r p ' _ ' l r o r u n l l ' e b u . i n e \ \ ' l h i . c r n b e b r o l e nJ o w a , n n . r - y
ways, but a basicdistinctionis beiween:
'/t Cost ofsales (costofgoods sold/COGS):this refe.sto the
cosi ofacbally makilg the produci, for elample naierials
cosisand labour coslsin the facioryr
'r, Selling,genemland administiativeerpenses(SG&A/
oPeratingexpcnses/overheads)r
this refersto marketing
costssuch as advcrtising,officesalaries,rent, telephone,

What is profit?
Profit (= earnings)hastwo components
l Opcnting profit (from regularbusinessa.tivities).
I Non-operating profii (eg toom ihe sale of some lmd or
shares in another compmy).

what causesvatlance?
causes
of a change
in revenue
A changernsalesvo ume.
A changein lhe profit marginon eachitemldueto
h ghef/ owerselingprices)

Causesof a changein costs


A resultof a changen salesvo ume(ie t srmplycosts
moreto prooucemore)
A changebecause
moreis be ng spentto achieve
each
1 of sales(iea genLrne ncrease
in costs- a decrease
in productiv
ty)

Causes
of a changein profit
A compex nterplayof the changesin revenueand
(o5t5 -ctud rq rh" difla."r vo$ oJ
5
:o:
The budget ieport allows mmagers to seewhere the
uexpected changes are, and which chmges are the most
siSniJicdi. The reasons for any varimce cd be identiJied
dd dv codetive aciion ial<en.

56

25 INCOMESTATEMENT

Exercises
25.1 Undrlinethe correc word5in it.lics.
I Thetrm'turnovelmeans
/ proflt
the sameasrevenue
2 Theterm'earnngs'means
the s.me.s revenue
/ prolit
3 Thterm 'overheadsrele5 to the directcostsof naking
products/ the indied.asts af sellinga produd antl running
4 Thewagesof factoryworkersandrhesalaresof ofiice
workersareshownrn the sane place/ in different places
5 A company
buysthe patenton . pieceof a tchnology
for
patent
yea6
The
lasts
for
l5
is
rccoded
$30m.
50 $2m
eachyearastan amodrzatlon
/ depreciatlo,
exppnse.
6 Thewordwhichmeans'betoreoihrih ngsaretakendway'
ls9ro5s/net. t canreferto prcft, salary
or weight.
26.2 Completethe P&Lwith the words in the box.

EBlf

Dlvidends Castaf gnodssold

lncane taxes

SG&A
Deprec
alionandamortzaton
Totaoperatng expenses
Operatingpro{it
p.ofit
Non-operating

Earningsbeforeincometaxe5
Net profit after tax
Retained profit

7 (tuvawods) ptopenylhatyouown whichcanbe physically


ro!cne0
3 thewayin whichtlvo or morethingsdifecteachother
26.4 crossoutlhe ilem whi(h ha. a different meaning
ro bring in, earn,generate,iryest makea proft
ro boast,plough back,rcinvestptofits.
jeopardize,put at sk ptalits
ra quarantee,
ta incu, make offset,run up, suffet a as\.
a big, considerable,
fat, handsane,healthy,huge,
satisfactory substantiaI prclir.
6 a / an interin, nadest, slight, srr,allptof 1

1
2
3
4
5

25.s till in the misiing letters.


1 lf a profitis biggerthananyprevious
proiit,it! a rec d
proft. lf a proiilisfa r andreasonable,
itt a leg
ate

Profit and loss account


Operatingrevenues
Netsal-as
Operatin9expenses

25.3 Finda word in the text or box oppositthat matdes


ea(hdefinitionbelow.Thewordsaooearin order.
I related
to oovernrnent
tdxesdndsondino

t't0,219

$4,155
$480
(58,607)
tl,6't2
$65
11,677
\5/2)
t1,505
($514)
51,091
($710)
9381

lCornparethe P&Labovewiih ihe one opposileYo! w I nori.e


Ithal thereareone or two dtlerenlwofds,anda slighnydlflerent
order(parricu
a y for 'depre.ationand amorti2aton').
Thisis
ld." berate,and is desgnedto showthe varaiionthat s poseible
lin the layoutof a P&1.
I Notce a so howfiguresto be sublracted
arcshownwith a

2 Someitemswhichresut in a proiit(or oss)arenot


- likethe saleof a subsidrary
norm.lyrepeated
company,
or theeffectsof a natlra d sasterThesearecalled
'exlrao nary'or'exc iona' tems,
! lf a company
is makng a loss,we cansaythatits 'in
it w ll qo bank t (= go into
the d'. EventLrally,
liqu
on)
lf a company
accepts
thatit cannotget backmoneyi has
lon, thenil wr
9 o the loss.
Toexpress
opposite
variance,
the
of.'favor.rfable
accountanrs
oftensay.n 'adve e varance'
6 lt somegood!aresold(ora seryceis delivered)
n ihe
m ddleof December,
blt the customef
on y paysin the
m ddleof Janu.rythenthisis recorded
in the ncom
staiement
lor the e.rlierol therwo yea6.Thisfundamental
p. nclpleis refeffed
to a5'theacc al bassof account
ng'.
see page149for

n LJ

aJtu 1;am a'nting, 'n Tuo

"d

h'a i'four dqain."


company finance

57

sheet
The balance shei (BS)is mothei finmcial statement ihat
cornPanieshave io produce as part of then accouts. (Se
also uniis 26 and 28.) The BSappLiesio a single point in
rime, and gives a pictue of everlthin8 ihai a compoy owns
(= its assets)and everyihing that it owes (= iis liabilities).
Thebasicequalionofthe BSis: Assets= Liabilitiesplus
Shareholders' Equiry A tuller velsion is given in the bor and
ihen explainedbelox'.

Currntassets
Cash

Long-termassets
ntangbleassets

Current liabilities
Bankdebt
Lab itiesior tax
Short-termprovisons
Long-term liabilitie5
B a n ko a n 5
Bondspayabe
Shareholden'equity

Assets
Current assetsare thosethat can bc iurned into cashquickly.
Thcy include cashat thebank, accountsreceivable(ie money
owed by cusiomers)and inventorics(ie unsold stock).

Long term assetsare those lhat cmot be imed into cash


quickly. They include fixed asseis (eg plani dd machinery,
land and buildings, motor vehicles),intangibleasseis
(eg copyrights, patents, goodwill acquired from other
compmies)and financialassets(eg investmentsin other

Liabilities
Curreni liabilitiesaie thosethat hive to be paid within the
next year They inclDdebank debt,accountspayable
(ie money owed to suppliersand utility bills), liabiliiies for
cureni tax and provisions(ie money set asidefoi a pariicular
pulpose,eg bad debtsor a couri rulinS).
LonS-tcrmliabilitiesilclude bank loans(includinSany
frortgage)and mony orving to bondholders.(Thc principal
has to bc paid back at the maiurity of the bond.)
Shareholders'equity startedas ihe capitaLoriginally invested
to begin the business,and now ii has grown through
a) rcinvcstedprofits and b) any additional sharesihat hale
beenissued.Think of it like this: imaginethat the business
had to stop,and all the assetswere sold and this moncy
lsed to pay offallthc liabilities.What would happcn to the
remainingpart?Thc answer is thai it would bo reh'rned
to the shareholders it belongsto them. lt is their qlily
(capital).

Wlratcana balance
sheetshow?
Liquidity
Liquidly is the degreelo whichan asselcan be
conve(edto cashquickly.
Thisis oflenmeasured
by us ng the currenirat o', which is cureri assels
dividedby currenttabilities A h gh currentralio
meansthatoverthe lofgertermlhereare p enlyol
assetslo converllnlo cashio pay the debts.
A moreshori{ermmeasure
of lquidityis'workng
capla e currentassercninus cuffentliabilities

(levelof debt)
Leverage
n everyday
languageeveragels lhe useol
borro\aedmoney(e debt)to lry to increaseprofits
n accouniants'language,
leverages a measure
of
how far a companyis lundedby Loans(eg banks
and bonds)ratherthanils owncapita.On a BS
leverageis def ned as /ong tem liabilitiesdividedby
sharehalders equity.
A highly everagedcompanyhastakenon a lot of
debt Butihls isn'iawaysbad:borrowing
funds
wiselyto expanda growingbls nessis qood newsior

58

Bookvalue
'Bookva ue is a company
s networlh(ie itsf nancia
value what s lefl on the books- if il wentoul of
busness).ll s an everyday
termwth lhe same
meanng as shareho
ders equty So bookvalue
equalsloial asselsm/rus tatalliabilities
Anyonebuyingsharesln a companyis buyng a share
in lhe bookvalue,plusa sharein anyfuturegrowth.

Profitability
Thereare severalcomr.onmeasuresoJprofitablty
but oneol thecommonest
ls Beturnon Equty (ROE).
Returnon Equityeq!als ,'et pratl aftertax dividedby
shatehalderc'equity.
ROEshowshowmuchprolita companygeneraies
in
relationto its bookvalue.

27 BALANCESHEET

Exercises
27.5 Theverbsin th box canall be usedwith 'assets'.
Dividethem into three groups,basdon thek meanings.

27.1 Fill in the missingletters.


1 Assets
areth ngsthatyouow .
2 Lab itiesarth ngsthatyouow .
27.2 Finda word in the text oppoiite that matchesach
definitionbelow.Thewordsappearin order.
'l
owes
an amor.rnt
ot moneythata pe6onor company
givento peopewho invstmoneyin a company,
docurnents
promising
to paybackthe money(= the princip.) with
(=tlrecoupon) .........
nterest
reputaUon,
relationships
with customers
a companys
andcolectveknow-how(whenonecornpany
buys
anothef,thisiswh.t t paysfor abovethe bookvalue)
4 (phrasal
veb) keepftoma larger.mountin orderto be used
later
5 the moneythatyouborrowfrcma bankto buya propeny

own dsposeof build up


acqune possess reatize

have

buy

sell

27.6 The verbsin the box canall be usedwith'debts'.


Dividethm into t\/vogroups.The meaningswithin a
group are similarbut not identical.
settle build up clear honaut tncul
pay off tepay run up seNi.e
colle<t

pay back

(phrasa/
verb)givesorneone
allthe moneyyouowethem
Note pa'dback ist ttheans^er)
commonmistakesManylanguages
usewordslike'actrves
and'passives'for
assets
andliabilites.
Thege
wordsdo
not existn English.
Also,manylanguages
usea wordlike
'ob igationlfor bonds.Thisis a fakefrie.d - the word snt
Lised
in thiswayin Englsh.
27.3 Completeeachphrasewith a prepositiontrom the

27.7 till in the missinglette6.


I A business
mayhaveuseda itsfundsto buyequpment,
vehicles
lf so,youcansaythat it has
and nventory.
't d p'all ils moneyin assets.
2 lJa deblisn'tpaidback,thenthe comp.nydefa is on
the debt.
27.a Completethe text with thesewords:copyfl?ht,

1
2
3
4

a currentassetcanbe turnedquickly
'accoun6receivable'
s moneyowed
'accolntspayable's moneyowed
'financial
assets'
areinvestments

5
6
7
8

'provigong'
ncldes money9etasde
baddebts
bondholdeB
haveto be paid
.t maturity
prclits
shareholdeE'
rcinvestd
equltygrows
a h ghly everaged
company
hastaken
a ot of

cash
cusiomers
suppliers
.nother

boo. vdlue K rhe val-" ot . .orpary ' .r we'lr

IO

the long term a companyneedscashto pay ihe

youcan
1 lf youdesigna newproduct,or a newprocess,
applyfor a
Thisglvesyouthe gal
ight to be ihe onlypersonto make,useor se t. lt lastsfor
a limitedperodof time.
2 lf youproduce
an or qinalpieceof work(e9a book,design,
youownthe ..................
on it.
computerprcgram),
(.lnoUepoduLer wtho-ryo-roe r sro1
Othepeople
Therightis creaiedautomatica
ly youdon'tneed10appy.
nameor symbolthatyouu9e
3 lf youhavea unLque
yo! canapplyto register
for yourproducts,
it asa
oncethishasbeendone,oihr
peope cannoMe I
Sepage149for somediscussion
topics.

( in is possiblein #10, but isn't the answerhere.)


27.4 Doesthe term 'creditors'meanaccountsreceivable
or ac(ountspayable?

companyfinan( 5!

-lal

7<.t
-

Cash flow statement

The cash flow statement (CFS)is an official finmcial


siatement the third covelEd in this book. (Se miis 26 md
27.) InJormation for the CFScones from the P&L ed balance
sheet, but is presented in a different way. It is concemed with
real money (ie cash)-not amountsthathaven'i yet been
receivedorpaid. Genera y speaking,jnvestorslike io scthe
CFSbecauseith lessopen to the use ofaccounhng h.icks.

cash
Cashcan cohe rron (or be used for) threeareas:
l, Operations:this is money received(or 1os0from actual
/, Investing: this includesmoney spenron physicatproperty
(egplant and equiprnent),money received(or tost)by
nlvestingin stocksand bonds,and money made (or lost)
lrom buying or sellingsubsidiaries.
{, Financing:this includcsmoney made by issring ne{'
shares,noney spentby buying back sharesfrom the
markei,dividend paymentsmade to shareholders,
money
.cceivedby boftowjng from the bank and money lsed to
rcPayprevrousLoans.
A sinplificd CFSproducedat thc eDdof a fi'rancialyear
might look like the one in thc bor.

Cash flow {rotn operations


Netprofitaiterta(
Deprecration
Dcrease
n accounis
receivable
Incre.se
in accounts
payabie
Increase
in taxespayable
Netcashlromoperatons

3.600,000
80,000
30,000
30,000
10.000
- 60,000
3.690.000

Cashflow {rotn investing


Plant
andequipmeni

- 800,000

300,000
- 630,000
, 400.000
2,'t60,000

Seeuniis 26 fld 27 for locabulary in this box.

60

Looking ateach fig@ ln tum:


Net profit after tax This figure comes hom the P&L.
Seeuit 25.
DepreciationThis was subtractedon the P&Lio arrive at the
net profii, but in fact it was a'paper'expense and the profit
wasn't really redrced by ihis amount.So it is added back
hereto make the sums .ight.
Decrcasein a((ounts recivableA decreasemeansihat more
crstofreG have paid off their oeditaccouts, and so morc
cashhas entcredthe company.
Incease in accountspayableAn increasemeansthat the
companyowes more money to suppliers.This is available
lmporarily as cashinside the company.
Increas. in tares payableThe samelogic applies.If there
is an increasein taxcsowed, it is addcd on the CFSas there
i5 more cashstill inlidc thc company until ii's paid. lf laxes
havc beenpaid ofl then thc amount is deducted- thereis
lesscashin the company.
Indease in invntory The companyhas spentmoney io
purch.se materials.If this is done with cash,the amount is
shown as a dduction.Noiice lhat if the purchasewas madc
on $edit and the amount is still outstandingat the end offte
year then therewould bc an inc.casein AccountsPayable
and the amouni would show as an addition on the CIS.
P l a n ta n d e q u i p d e n t I f r h " \ u m p d n v n v e r i : r o n c y I n
assetssuch as buildings orequipment, then this shows.s
'cashout' (i. a deduction).
If the asseihad beensold, it
Issuing new stock This companyhas raisedcapiial by

Cashflow frofi financing


Stockdivdendspaid

Cashflow statement breakdown

Sto.k dividends paid Cashhasbeenused to pay a dividend


to existingsharcholders.
Bank r.paymentr Cashhas beenused to repay pariol a
Tb amout thai remainsis ihe'fre cashflow'. This is what
a cornpany has left after it has paid all its expenses.lt is often
considered to be the ieal 'bottom line'.

2A CASH FLOWSTATEMENT

Exercises
24.1 Finda word in the txt oppositethat matcheieach
definitionbelow.Thewods appearin order.
1 largemachinery
usdin ndustralprocesses
2 offcia y nrakingsomething
avalableto buy
3 (infom al) calculaliors
takenawaylroma tota amount;subtracted
5
6 money,
espec
allywhenits usedto starta blsiness
or

producemorewealth
24.2 Belowyou will ree a simplifiedcashflow foreGit
tor a new business.Notethat a cashflow forecst looks
torward, unlikethe cashflow statementopposite.
Studythe first two columns,then add thesefigurer in
the @rrectplacin the third column,

940

9,564

10,540 26,960 27,900

Cashflow from operations


Open

Saes
CapitaL
n
Totalincome
Eiq ce5

Feb

30,000 '

Opningbalance

9,000
30,000
30,000

10,500

9,000 '?
200
40

200
40

6,500
r,800

4,000
1,800

2,400
400

2,400
400
400
80
240

Directcosts

Salaries
Ofiicerent
Officesupplies
Utilites
Totaloutgoings
Net cash{low
' Endingbalanc
balance

200

30,000
30,000

500
12,O40
(3,040)
25.950

28.3 Referto the cashflow forecast{rom the prcvious


exerciieand markthesestatementsTrue(T)or False(F).
probably
I won ol the capitalto startthisbusiness
camefromthe bank,not the personalfunds
of the
business
owner.T/F
Klue bol dt the\t,,eof fio toanrcpafnent.in
relatianto the .apital in')
2 Thewagesol staffwho actually
makethe prodlct
(orservecustom6)are
fromthe
show.separately
saaryof the managerT / f
paidmonthly,n advance.
3 Rentis probably
T/ F
4 Thegasandeectricity
comp.nies.reprobabypad
monthly,
n advance.
T/F
5 ll isa convention
in account
ng to shownegatve
figLrrcs
in brackets.
T/ F
6 Thefactthatcashfow wasnegatvein lanuarys
a badsignfor th s newbusinessT / F
Continuein the sameway, answeringquestionsabout
cashflow in general.
7 On a spre.dsheet,
therewoud probaby be tlvo
columns
for eachmonth:oneior forecast
fgures
andoneforactualfgures.
T/ F
8 i youmakea salen Januarybut the custorner
takesadvantage
of onemonthScredt, the sales
frgurewouldbe enteredin JanlaryT / F
(Clue:remenbetthat cashflow statenentsusecash
a<caunting,unlikeincomestatementswhichuseaccrual
accaunting- see26 5 #6 )
9 Thecashf ow staiement
contansa lot of new
iniormation
thatisn'r.vail.blefiom the P&Lol
balance
sheer.
T/F
10 A 12-monthcashUowtorecanir a keyelement
plan.Seeunit9. T / F
in anybusiness
28.4 Make phra5esby matchingan item from each
I record------\
_2 payotl
3 .pplv

the samelogic
somihnq asan expefse
capialby issunq newshares
a creditaccountn ful

5
6
7
8

moneyfromthe bank
shares
fromthe market
fiqLire
one
fromanother
informatonin a cedainway

28.5 Fillin the gapsusingthesewords:at b, id, or, on.


1 spendmoney plantandequlpment
2 investmoney pant andequipment
3 havemoneyav; abe . . cash
I jn is possiblein #3, but isn't the answerhere.l
4 makea purchase credii
5 raisecapital
ssuingnewshares
Seepage149for somediscussion
topi(5.

companyfinance 61

Managing cash flow


Cashinflows and outflows
Ahealthy cashflon is oblioush itupo.tani fo r b!siness:it
enablesthebills to bc pai.l, the brsinesstube erpanded,and
lendersand nlvesiorsto be reassuredFoia $ell established
.ompanv,cash{.lll also bc neededto pav a dnldend to

Top10 tips for improvingcash flow


M a n a g i n gr e c e i v a b l e s
'' '

Sourcesof.!sh inflorys ar.:


Paynents fron customers.
Shareholderinvcstmenis.
A bank ove.drafl.
hterest on bank sarnrgs.

Controlling cash flow


Som of th! iicnrsrtr.\c irL'rnrlq dncct coni.ol and L;,nbc
mrntgcd on.t d.y-ioiiy Lr.sis,othds lcssso. l:(r c\;,mplc,
thc IiAt itcnl unLlercnshinflows (ic iccounis .ccc^ ;,blL')
ifd thc first thrce ilcms lndor.ish outfl(nls (('.ccounis
p i y x b l c ) . t r cn r r . s w h . r . i h f r c i s r c i l c o n i . o l . i i o { h e n
cashrntcllso. k'arcs thc coDP.u!. ()ihc. iiems rre less
nr.n.g.abl. on r day-l(ld.y basis,i bnnl lo.!i is .: stf.:rqti.
d.cision with d onel)ff inrpi.l, p.vm.nts.f s.larics rnd
u t i l i t i c sh a p p c n . t f i r e d i i m e si n l i x o d. m o u r l s
A key ilcnr lh.t dircctlv ihpdcts cashfloe is jnlcnlorr
( Sl .. . u n i t sl 5 a n d 1 6 . ) ' D c a d ' n n c D k r \s' i l l i n 8
mNna,ienrcD
on i slrclf,nr i siorerootu(,r in a $'archousr.r\tu.ls dl'nd c.sh
flow. Cashhas beentiken out ofcircllatio.. R.ducnrg'd..d'
tuveri.,r), is a lrjor wa) ihai nranagcrscan conbol caslr

Cash llow problems


Mo1busiressesfail due to casbflo$ prcblemsthan due k)
lack ofprofitabilitv, parti.ularh jn ihe earlv years This is
b..arse ofoverh-ading,in other (ords accepiingnes (o.k
ryithout harnig sufficientresou.cesb completeii and keep
the busnlessrurnnlg. A ke\'.oncept here is'workjng capital'
Irom a strict accouliing viewpoint, this is definedas .urrent
assetsmnrls currcnt liabilities'.(Seeunit 27 ) But from an
every.laymanatemntviewpolnt, ii's simplv haling enough
cashto pay the bills.

62

Runcreditcheckson all new customers.

. Haveheavilydiscountedspecia offers on sales


of old i'lve'ltoryto gene'aip cash no\a.
.i lssueinvoicespromptlyand foLowup
immediately
if paymentsare slowin coming.

Sou(.s of..sh outflo*s i..:


ll'rch.Ne ofst{,ck and ri\L mai.rials.
I'ruchns. of fixed asseis:ll cquipmert, nra.hiierv, officc
Dailv oper.tnlg crpcnscssu.h as office srpdlcs
llryments of sala.jcs,rcnt, !t:lities.
Loan ind oYc,driii paynlarts
D i v i L l . n d sk , s h i . . h o 1 d c F .
|.rvnr.ni of tares.

Aqhcustomersto nal,e a" i.ilial depost dl the


time the order is taken.

'''
'

Offer discountsto customerswho pay raptuy.

Lookfor oplionswiLhpe.ss'er_ slowpayr'rg


customerssuch as a percentageprepayment,
or cashon delivery(c.o.d.).

Managingpayables
'

' Negotiateextendedcredlt terms.

'
' '

lf yo! needto delaya payment,


communlcate
with suppliersand warnthem_
Look carefullyat your suppliers'eary payrner[
discounts.Will they reallyhelp you to reduce
overalicosts? How rnuchdlscountwill they gve
you in exchangefor taking more of your cash
earlief Thedevi is in the detail.
Leaseassets,ratherthan buythem,

Th. pnblenris this:nrF $uk irNlnvesbuyingsiock,using


cqliptueni,p.rvnrgstali,ind payiig theiixedcosisof rent
in.t ltilihei, dll b.ior..nv pavmcntscomein. Youneed
.ash (ie $atrknlg c.pital) to Llo!ll thnt, aDd.ash has k) cone
lrotu someNhcrc ll vou hrle given a new .ustoner a ldrg
credit perio.l in oftler to s'in theif busiress,or ii aDe\isting
custumeris litc in paving nt a critical tinre,ih.n you might
ha!e ver! seriousprobl.tns.
So $hat cnn a businessdo jl it has foll$ved all the tips nl the
box abole and still iituls that it hns a shoftfall lvith cnsh?Thc
lirsi stepis to take adlantagc of any emergen.yljne of.redit
andlged at the bank.The secondstepis to mike partill
palments on lessimportant bills.And n finll option is to use
a dnrd pnrtv to buv vour invojcesin rehtrn fo| them taking a
per.entageof the totaL(called'factoring').

29 MANAGING CASH FLOW

Exercises
29.1 Finda word in the text oppositethat matchesach
definitionbelow The wordsappearin order.
1 rnadeto feel ssworriedabouisomething
2 arrangement
wth a bankthata owsyouto hava
temporary
neqative
balance
3 contnLrng to do somethng,especia
y somthing
bador
annoying
4 fMo r'vordtcoststhatdon'tchangewhenproductongos
1rpor oown
5 th d fference
betweentheamountyouhaveandrhe
amounryouneo
29.2 In the 'Tips'box you will seethe commonand
usefulphrase'thedevil is in the detail'.Fromthe context,
'

rl rou lool dl l1eoprdc.yo. {r reelotsol b.d rl.'rqs


2 vodneolooo. d rl.pd.r. k ro reer_e eal9,Jato.
29.3 Make phrasesby matchingan item from each
I

havea healthy

2 be a we -ertabshed
3 havedaly oper.ting
5 takeadvantage
6 seesomethng froma strict
7
8
t
10
11
12

makan nital
runcredi
haveheaviy
havepeEisient
negotate
exiended
givean early

on a dayto daybasis
accountrn9
vrewponl
oi a lineoi c.edil

Background
Manuela3
bueness
is thrceyearsold.Herannual
.... ., is 180,000,
of which20,000s
profit.sheoperates
with a bankovdraftof up to 25,000.
Manuela
succeeds
in winningan impoftantcontfactio
supplyNovatech.
Theorderisfor 40,000a monthfor iwo
ye.'s Sl'ew I be pdd 60 ddy5at"' ?
(Note:sixtyworkinqdays= threemonths.)
She.allshersuppliers.
sheordersevqdhng sheneedsto
fulfllthecontractif the flrstfew months.
Ihe lirst month
go we l. Manuela
Thrngs
rceives
hers!ppiesandbeginsto
makethe itemsfor Novatch.
The se(ondmonth
Manuela
maksherfid delveryto Novatech
andshe's
happyHersupperscontnueto supplymateriak,
but to pay
ller .rlsl.e1a9to 'rced-eherr
Thethird month
Manuela
makesmorede vereslo Novatech,
but her
overdralt
i5.ow at ther
Thetourth month
lvanuelais worried.Shecanl payall hersuppers.
However,
shethinksshe'llbe finebecause
shebstil
delivering
to Novatech,
andtheyre pleased
wirh herqLiaty.

5Ow-payrng
cuslomers

29.4 Make pairs of words with a similar meaning trom


th list below. All the words and phrasesare used with
be-shedaf, ln aclvance,inflows, infusion, inje.tion, gene6te,
hatdings,taase, needs,paynent (n full), raise,rc.etpts,
tequtrenenEl reseNet rgt*tit:+' seftlement'shaftage'
shortfall,spare,up frcnt
b-"+tan of - run out af

29.5 Completeth story about overtradingwith these


words clear, delivery, fuffil,Iinit, outsanding, ovednft,

Thefifth month
Thefirstpaymenliiom Novaiech
arrveson rirneThirhelps
Manlelato paythe most5
b i l l s b, u i
heroverdraft
h nill 4,000overth irnt. Somes!ppiers
afebecoming
uneasy,
andone s thfeatenng ega acton.
Thebankrefuses
to 6
.ny more
Thesixth month
Novatech
arehavlngcashflow problems
of theirown,and
decideto 7
theirsm;lestandnewest
suppliersTheywriteto Manuela
io saythai unfortunately
theirpayment
thismonthwill be delayed.
A few daysater
herbankdemands
thatthe overdraft
is repaidwithinseven
ddys.Manuela
decrdes
rharshecant 3
anymorcordersshecloses
the business
andbamesthe

Seepage149for somedilcussiontopic5.

Companyfinance

63

erofitabilitv
''j1,,

"Whotwillhappento profhsifour solesvolumedrops?"

i,,

',

tlt

\ii'ii i,

a : i: I i a r:.:t
! i : a : ' ,i ' : .
All the questionsaboyecan LrcanswercdLryknoNing one
snnpLething:the relationshiFLrcts..n fircd nnd r.riable

Fixed costs and variable costs

:,,it,t, rl",tt:tfit:'

,r:::,.ti,.,',t.:ttrrtii;t?'

,' t.i r ,:t |r \/i)i|tt).


ir_ a., ',i:l'. '_,r?"

E\ e.v busincssstudentknorvs the classicgraph ot holv.osts


and rerenuc rise at a different r.rteas salesifcrease,an.l how
ihe.e is a brcak.ven point where they .rcss. The brerkeven
point is the snlcs\olum. vou needto exi.tly coler nll your

Fird costs,emain nrorc or lessthe sameregardlss01thc


lelel ofsalcs.Typicalcx.rnplesare salariesof permdnenl
e'npkryccs,.dvcriisirg, R&D, rent, iiteresi on bank l(Dns,
ins!rancc, hcntjngand lighinrg.etc.

Breakelena.alvsis c.rnbe uscll lof dccking rvhcthcrn ncs,


pnxlu.t i.teais wo.th llcrcloping. and for compuiing ihc
ne$ nrles figurcs thit wolrld bc n.cessaryif you dccidc k)
incre.seri\cd cosis(ct bv rcnting nror. officespa..).

Vari.ble costsircreasedirectly in p()potim t,) thc lelelof


sil.s TvFicil cxnmplcsare partsan.] m.tori.rls,$1rgcsof
torpor.ty cmplov.cs,salcscom'nissnhs.deliverr chirg.s.

operating leverage

Thcr. .rc ii.nrs dlit .rc Llifficulilo.alL.Boriz.,nrd nll .osls


v.ry l() sonx dfg|'(\'. Iht idrc{isnrS I(r.\im}nc is un,ill!
cofs crcd k) tr. i fir.d c{)stbccausri) it hrs n fi\cd L,ud8ot
t(r erch .ccorntirg pornli .rntl b)ad(rtising cosisfo. i
(,h)lc lrnrnd willndt bc nl.rcised or decr.asedinrm.diate\'
in pR+uli(rl to tho s.lcs of individual pnluci linrs

Breakeven analysis
Oncc vou know specifjc!.lucs 1orih. larious .osts, thL'Iirst
lhnrg youle ible k) do js i brc.kclcn anall'sis.

Opci.rting llroralr is the cxtcnt (r which n lrusincssuscs


ti\.d cosisGrscomparrd to \ariiblc costs)in its otcr.li(rs.
lf n irusincsshis hlgh fl\.d .osts, thcn i sniilL riso or irll in
s.1lcsrLill pnduc. i l.rrgcrisc or f.rlLin p(,fits l),1)t1tis nur
s e n s i t n ck r a . h a n g ei n s a l c sl o l ! n r o .
Kno*'ing tfu op.raiing l.!.nrgc giv.s nDn.gcrs n nrotu
a c c u i t t ca n a l y s i st h a nl o o k n r gs i n r p l l r l t h db r c i k c v f f
point. lt also nnrinds ih.rn k) kccp ti\o.l .osts lrw In otucl
to lituit do$!s . risk, and hchs th.tu t(r s.! th. .ff..ts of
substituiingmachin.N (with highcr fixod costs)for l.bo!r
(\!ith higher v.rdablecosis).

Contribution margin analysis


The contributnrnmargin is the percentdgeof eacheuLoor
sal.s th.t rcdr.ins rftcr the vrri.rblecosisare subtrnctect.
This
is th. amolnt thit is.rail.lble to.ontribute tuwards fi!e.1
cosisand profit. Coniibution margin is uscd iol
Comparethe p(titabilit\' oidiifercnt product liles.
Dccidewhether b add or subtracia product lile.
Dccidehow to pdce a p(rduci.
Dccid. hor{ to str!.tlre any conrmissionsGo that sales
staii arc encouragedto push more profitablehres).

Volume
Sale5

30 PROFITAEILITY

Exercises
30.1 Lookat the graph then underlinethe correctwords
in italicr in the statementsbelow

30.3 RIer to the graphs in 30.2. Undrline the corred


words in italics below.
I Reducng fxd costs(GraphA) rnednsthat more / fener
s de sa r en e e d e dt o b r e a ke v e n R d l c n g v d r a b e c o n s
(GrdphB) dosnot havesuchd biq efict on the breakeven
gap bfren revenueand cons as
2 Look.l lhe lncredsLng
salesncredsein both graphs ths s the operatng everage.
RedLrcing
var abe costs(GraphB) givesmo.e / /e5soperating
veragethdn reducingfxed cosls(GrdphA).
30.4 Study th top half oI an income statement below
It is in 'contribution format', so a) the variable costs
and lixed costs are listed separately and b) figures for
difierent product lines (A, B and c) have ben separated

Sales
1 lf pointA represents
sasof 100uni15,
thenpoinlB
2 1fbracketa' rpresents
a proftof 100,000,
thenbrackel
'b' represenrs
a profrto{ l2a,aa0/ 2)a.oaa.
3 Thismeanstharan n1eateh sale\ot 2Ao/./140'/"
prodlcesan increase
I prcII aI 20%/ 11Aa/a
leveage/ contributian
4 Thlss the phenomnon
ol operating

T l r e9 r a p ha b o l el h o w sl h a tl h s c o m p . n yh a ! h 9 h o p e r anl 9
leverageAsmallrse n saes({iornA to B)produces
a large r se
l n p r o f l s( l r o m ' a t o ' b )
5im arly a smalllall n saesfrom B to A prodlcesa large lal in

30.2 Thetwo graphsbelow are for th samecompany,


six monthslater.Notic that the revenueis unchanoed.

lrrroni's/aae,ri:ri
(trqutesin 400)
5alesrevenu-o
Costol goodssold
S.e- (oan "on
S hp p n g c o n s
T o t a l v aar b c o s t s
C o n t rb u t o n m a r gn

l i n eA
500

l i n eB
765

i n eC
830

275
80
35

325
05
30
(460)

374
40
55
(s6s)

40%

320/o

{390)
22%

Saares
Advertisnq
Elc
Operatingprof r
check the definition ol'contribution margin'opposite to
see how the ./" figures in the table are calculatd.
t x a m p e( l n e A ) :

Graph

5 0 0 3 9 0= 1 1 0

!9, rco- zzY.


500

Unde.linethe correctlettersin italics.


1 In orderto rnaxmizeprofts, theconrpany
shoud emphdsize
li",eA / B / C n ts prodlctmx
2 Saescomm6sons
on ineA / I / C maybe a litt e ioo
y toolow
3 Thesengpriceofne4 / I / C s prcbab

SalesVolume

Volume
Sale5

Seepage149for somediscussion
topics.

, o r B , h a v em a n a g e Br e d u c e tdh e
1 I n w h c h g r a p hA
adveftrsnq budget (d {xed cosl)?
2 li wh ch graph,A or B, havemdnagersfound another
s . p o 1 6^ r l L ' r 6 r p 4_ 1 "" ' r "
os.
"\"r"ol"
company financ 65

Financial markets
Stock and bond markets
Stockmarketsare the best-knownfinancialmarket,and
thet tunction is fiJstly to raisecapitai when a companygoes
public (ie issues shares for the firsftime), fld secondly to
pro\-idea placewhere blyers ed seilersof thosesharescan
ihen exchangethem.
Wller a brsiness rea.hes a ccrlain size, the origiral o$,ners
'ni8hi decideihai they hant to go public dd Lisrrheir
shares(AtrE stocks)ona stockmarket.With rhe hetp ofan
hvesiment banl<,they sell thesesharcsio lhe marketat an
IPO (hitialpublic offering).Ahrge:i!m ol money entersthe
businessas a onc-timeevent and can be uscd io expandthe
business.Owne.ship of the businesspassesf.om the original
foundersto the shareholders.
The bond market is .lso used to raisecapiral,but ir this
.ise the capital is raisedas a loan.Bondscan bc issued
by companies,governmentsand somemunicipal orsr.re
authorities.Thc iDveskr ihc bondholder- providesmonev,
ancltlis is paid b.ck with intcrestover thc tcrm ofthe lo.n.
Sbcks and bonds,which are collecrivelyknown as
'sccuritie{, are activcly
tradcd on the ma.ketsifrcr thcv have

does, you gain nore as a percentage rhan the movemeni of


the uderlying stock.Ifit doesn't,you loseeverything.
So, in exchmge for some risk, vou can in$ease your
pobential!eim. Bui notice rhat an oprionscmhact also
alloh,syou tobe nore caretulwith youi investmenis:ifyou
own a sick and it falls in vahe then you lose money-bur
$,idt an options contracton the samesrockyo! can make
monev as ihe stockfalls. In this way you have 'liedged'
(ie protectedyourseuagainst)ihc risk.

Thsearlndivduas whopurchase
sma amounts
ol securteslor
InstilutionalInvestorc

nsufancec0mpanes

Pensiontunds nveslmoneythal
peoplea.savingior ther retremenl.
lnsurance
companles
investthe
moneylheyfecelve
lrompoicyhoders
(BrEunttrusls)poo
Muluallunds
lhemoney0i rnanysrna nvestors
tarnvestn seectedcornpanies
na

Money market
The nloncy markct is lcsswll-knos'n,bui it provides
importanishort+ermliquiditv for ihe fitraDciatsvstc,m.
Conlpinicscan ftrnd thcir shori-iermneedswith a rnngeof
clebii'rs[umeDts,oftcn refen d io as 'commcrcialpaper'.
Banksusc this papcr to bo.row anctlend amongsithcmsch,cs.
Covemments,siaLs and localgovcrnmentsalsohav. accessto
moDeymarktinstrumentsto tund thejr short,tem o.ot.

FX market
tsyfar the larg.st liiancial markei nr thc world is the foreign
cx.hange(forcx/fx)narkct. Companiesneedcur.encjesto
pay their foreignbills. Centralbanksbuv.nd settcurencies
lon'qipuldr. rLee'.h"-geritF Covc'nnenlsu\ecur.ncic.
io buy the bonds of other couniries.Pensiontunos neeo
currencresto make irvestmenis ovcrseas.Speculatorsbuy
and sell cu .ncies as ihey chaseshorr-rermbends, adding a
loi oflolatility to the svsiem.And evcrybodv$,anrsio hold
their spafecashin a currencywith a good rate of interst.

Commodity markcts
Comodity marketsexistto tradephysicalprodu.ts suchas
oil, gas,metals,grains and meat.

Derivative markets
I n a l \ . t h p r er r e o p r j \ . t i \ ' $ m " r l p ' , . A d e d \ d h l p i - r
fimncial irNtrumeni a'hose value is derived tiorn (= depends
on) another asset.For example, an oprions coni.act on a siock
allows you !o mke money ifthe value of the unde.tving
sto.k rises(or falls)to a certainlevelbva certaindate.IJ it

hveslmenlbanksbuyandsel
securties
on behalol ther c ients
(largecornpanes),
andon lhirown

Oltenqute secrtive
theseare
companres
thatpoo ther.oney
of wealthy
inveslors
andact n an
aggressve
way:spec!
al ngona
shorll.mbass usng everage
(reooffowng money10ncrease
polenlial
prolts).usingderivativs,
etc.
Theselrrnslypicalynvestn privat-"
cornpanesnorplb cly sled
compan
es.Therearetwovery
d lf-"renl
lypesof activty:
+ venture
captall0slpponstan-ups
+ buyolls (where
a companys taken
over,reslflclured,
andthensold)
Sovereign
wealthfunds Thseare nvestrneni
vehicesowned
by nalonalgovernments
wilha arge
budgelary
slrpus (egbcause
of oi
revenues)
Theyinvestin a rangeol
assers(egstocks,
bonds)
Hedgelunds

31 FINANCIALMARKETS

Exercises
31.1 Finda word in the text oppositethat matcheseach
definitionbelow.Thewords appearin order
I peopp wl_o -a- a bLsners
2 d o u n F L q , \ " r l o . o n a o ^ F w L o I n v e g l r1 1 o _ a yi r

"

government
or company,
wh ch promseeto paybackthe
moneywth nterest
3 (fl1lor.vordi)
the reaton in valuebetween
onecurrency
(eg/ $)
andanother
(egshdres,
4 peopewho buyandsellassets
bonde,
currfcies,
rawmateiat n the hopeof makng a quick
prorr
5 ..ddAno're dd gF'oJ .rarget
6 P -"q " ; ng .nd"rIl_P.Jd".e
Now do the samfor the words in 'Who are the players?'
opp05ite.
7 fthr-.ewords)actinSasthe representatve
of; nsteado{
8 peope who own insurance
9 combinepeople!moneysothal I canbe usedmore
effectvey
10 (two wotds)narcy inuestedin a new companyto he p 1
11 stuations
in whicha person
or grolpgarns
contro
of a company
by buyng a or moslof ts shares
12 (twawords)whenagove.nment
receives
more
thant spendg
perodof t nre
overa parncular
31.2 Putthe words in ead box into two groups,based
on theirmeaning.
b.a!
br|| dep,es.ed.lattirg
.baofr.g.
neauntlnstng s(onq weal

Ta..el

goad,high-tisk,profttable,isky, secure,
saund, speculatlve,
wotrhwhile

31.3 Makephrasesby matchingan item from each


1
2
3
4
5

9o -\
s t \
raise
\
payback -iund

capitalby irsuingbondt
papea
short'term
debtwith commercia
sfrares
on a stockmarket
pub c with an IPO

6 manipLrlate

a startup with venture


capita

8 bLrysh.res
9 support

shodter.ntrendsn the market


rt
a company,
tfrenrestructure

31.4 Completthe sentences


about <urrn(ieswith these
woids: appre.iates, depteciates,floatt, pegs, props up.
1 li a governrnent
ts lrrencyto another,
thenii keepst at the sameeve
2 lf a qovernmenl
then t
a currency,
supports
it andprevents
it frornfallng
I lf a currency
freely,then ts vaue s
alowedto changeagainst
otherc!rrencLes
4 lf ll'e ( r6esdg"n,LLhe$. L
\ tf rl-o 4 '. 9 dgo 19t t,re $ L

31.5 Fill in the missing letters in these commodities.


gat
I E n r g yc . o i l , n a
2 Food.nd Ubr
3 Grainsand oilseeds:wh t, soyb
4 Mat:ca , h gs (8rEpigs)
5 Mt.s co ef, r
ore
31.6 Complet the txt with the words in th box.

connodtty.antrads dawnsidetisk
hedgtng levetage underlyingassel
Twoconcepls
thal arefundamentalto
modernfinanceare
everage
andhdging.
i
is usingbofiowedmoneyto buyan
nvestment.
Youinvest100of yourown monyand100
- or 1,000 oI the bank's.
Thisg vsyouenormolsproftt
good
i your nveslrnnt
sa
one,but a so magniiies
the
'
. o,ot oi everagen a rnarket
increases
volatilitylf the marketmovesagainstyo!, t's
notilsl yourown moneyyolJ'reosng,but the borrowed
qrJcky to
money.s we . SoyoLrhaveto se shares
mi.imlzelosses,
andlhisdrvesdownthe marketvery
3

meanstry nq to protectyounef
againstrisk.lf youhold, lot of shares,
foreiqncurrency
or
o
makemoneyfthe
, yoLr'llcearly
priceof the assetgoesup. Butif the prceqoesdown,yoLr'll
lose.Youc.n hedgeth s riskby buynq a drvatvthat rs
structurcd
io makemofy.s the plce of the
falls.Soil the marketmovesaqdnst
you,at leastyouhavesomeprotecton.
see page149for rome discutsiodtopics.

F i n a n c i aml a r k e B 6 7

Investing in stocks
'bid/offer

sto<ksand shares
The word ttocks' is !sed in ihc US,boih 'stocks'and 'sha.es'
]n the UK, and 'equities'inside thc industn The people$ho
(Plalers
oa'n them nre knos,n as stockholdcrs/shareholders.
in the market are shown in unit 31.)
Acompany's sharesfirst appea,on a skrckerchangeat the
IPO (initjal prblic ofierlng).lsee units 1 and 31.)Fron this
poirlt, drev begin to be.cin.el! i.adcd on ihc e\change.
Peopleb!y stocksf(r hLo reasons:
Stockspn! i di\idend. \'o! cin scc hom ihc nrconre
sLrte ent in unit 26 that sonr of thc lrcfit that a .onlpan!
nakes is returnedto ihe sharchol(lc,sere^ yc.r as a
divid.nd pa)Drent.
0,c pri.c oI lh. stockon the markei.in eo up. If lou but
lo{' ird scll high, !o! nrkc . prcfii (ie r .ipiLrl gain)
Obviousl)'r'o! can ilso m.k( a loss.
\'{.' 'i'
r . l ' i r l 1 . , . i . l r , ' _ - . 1 , ,, . . . . r "1.

indcpcfdcnt.Thcrc 'night Lir.r $cll


cn.blishcd .onrp.ny lr thc hr.lthc.ro
or rftt Niailing .er that pi!s i hlgh,
.onsistcrt (li!iri.nd ev.r\' !.ar, Lr!t
whosc s().k |ric. chrng.s lcry lilll..
litL,.rl\,, thcrc nrighi Lrc.r inillcr
.onrp.rny in thc lcchnol()gy ncl(n
w h " s c s n ) c kt . i . . i s g o i n g ! p r . p i d l \ ,
but thcy pnr no divid.fds .rlill,
b{.u{, ill ilrcif f(ifiis itu rrin\.stfd
l()helf.xp.nd ihc brsinc!s.

spread')is the protit ihai toes to the exchangeand


other people$ho handle the hansaction.

Funds
Insteadofbuving siocksin an ndivldual .ompiny, you ca.
buv *ocks in a lu1d. ru.1s hold a rangeof sharesand a
di\ersificd portfolio helps to spiead risk. The fund managcr
picks stocksilith th help ol analvstswho hale expertiscin
part'cuLnrareas,for exampleChinesebanks,or small blotech
comp.nics.or di'idend-paying.ompanies.
I n . , * r , , . . h . ^ - " ' , r . . 1 ' ^ nr i . " l . r . i - .f r h H i - h . ' l . l i n r8l -- c r l
past perfo.mnnc.. thcir m.nagea their risk proliLcan.l thcir

Evaluating a stock
PRrfessnrnal
in\esktrs k{k ii. {holc ranScof fickts when
d e c i d i n !n h i . h s t o c k sb b u v :

SWOToflh companY

l).5: rnr.r.il!.

\.rnn l) .r, ..

I ! si |r (.rfl! r t(iA,r.rllr,i( r-\ r..ri1r!


.jtl]i.i)\L]lnj]l).i]li]lljJnJ]j

A!. t! tt ..,r.r nf [](irxrir

Fin.n<lalrltu.tlon of

r r l . . r i r.L , r r i rr n ' rr r . f t
a.i r i .rl

Exchanges and indices


Ncarly clcry country h.s r stock
erchingc,.nd on lhc cx.hangcccrtrnl
sharcscan bc gnucd togcthcrto
.rakc an ntc\. ln th. US thcrc is
the Dow lon.s, thc S&l'and the
NASDAQ;h !uFp. ihe |TSE, the
DAX and thc CAC, in Asja the \ikkei,
th. Hang Scngand the Sense\.An
nrclcrcan bc uscd as a benchmark
f ( t i r d i ! i d ! a l s i o . k s : i s t h es t o . k
oL'tpertormingor undoperfoning
E!efy siock is quotcd tr'iih hvo prjces:
a bid ln ice (= the buynrg pricc) and an
offer pd.e (= ihe scllng price) The
differencebeh{.cn ih.se illo (= the

ll r.er.ri lrid r r..fI,/ari


F . . . . r i : r c j t r t . i o L r e \r r k c . . r o . r yf r o nr h e
n a c . r e5 l l n a n r l a r d b ; d . . . s f t . r
Eranrp
e \ t P ! ( e a r f q 5 p . r 5 l r r r cP
i , / Et u L! ( p r . e /
..er ..lr r;rJl lOI lr.r!r. o. ..]!iryl.t.
Market conditions

P r o r p e . ri . r d L I p a t u i . !a r i d r r r y
. o . ! r r n r r ! D e r . lr , 9 . 1 .

Ie<hnl.al analysis

! r ! d ! f g . h ; . r p r t t e f f s ! p p o , ta n dr e s i s t a n .r.r,; d n q
n!d! f9 .re!:or iei: mefr (eqpr..5 arercwerrrhen
r e . r r e r l s a t r sm o ! : b e a r s h )
a ! . e a n a , / irr i e a s c n a
i t y i e g! i o . G d o b e t t e frt o r i
I r i r e\ . c o i d h af . f a L l 5P r s d e . t ! t e r ml n o f f . l

32 INVESTING
IN STOCKS

Exercises
32.1 Find a word in the txt opposite that matches each
detinition below' The words appear in order.
1 (h,vor,vofdJlaccountifg. p.ott thdt s mddeTromthe s. e
2 d numberthal showsth
ol somethifg,so
t h a t y o ! c a n m e a s u rceh d f g e s
3 a n a m o u n to r n a n d a r dt h a t y o u c . n t r l et o r l u d gn g h o w
q o o do r b a do t h e rt h r n g s . r e
4 do nq beiter th.n
s tn/o wofdJ): r.nse of d fferenttypesol nocl5

Now do the same for the words in 'Evaluating a stock'


7 d methodusedto nLrdy.n orqanza1on by anayz nq 1!
n r e n g t h sa f d w e . k n s e etsi r. eo p p o d u ft e 5 t h a 5. n d t h e
8 p r o d L r cbt se n g p a n n e do r d e v eo p e dt h d tw

be.!arible

9 p o 5 sb t i e 5( e s p eacL l yg o o dt h r n g st h a rm q h l h a p p n )
1 0 f r h r e ew o . . / t l h n g sl h a l m a k c 1 d l f . ! l t f o r .
n e w c o m p a n tyo e i t e r . m a r k e l1, o re x f m pe t f r c
n e e dl o f , o t o l . . p l i l o . 5 p e c ., z c dk n o w - h o w
1 1 a p n . e e v e o n . n o c k c h . r l l h a l h a ss l o p p dp r e v o u s
12 ltwa woftlt \||a pata el ne5drawn on a no.l charl
l f a t c o n 1 a rlnh e p r c e n o y e m e n t o
! ! 0 r a p f i o rol l t m e

:2 I Complete the text about financial ratios with


t h e w o r d s i n t h b o x . C h e c ka n y u n k n o w n w o r d s i n a

ase6 blnf lout v/ay .apnalgain eatntngs


.ret.ict areetced ptofnnbtltt/ sha,epn.e
nvestorsnpda way to analyzea comp.ny objectivey,
. n d t e n i o rm a n a q e rIsn sd e t h e c o m p d n y .s o n e d
'
1= perform.nce nd cdtors)to monitor
t s f n a n c l ah e a t h T h 6 i 5w h e r e{ n a n c l dr a t o s h d v e d , o e
l h e yu s ef r g ! r e sl a k e nd i r c t yf r o mt h e c o m p d n d
yccounls
(= profrs),
l o g v e n l o r n r a l i oanb o ! t ' ]
g r o w l hd n d v a l l e n t h e m a r k e l T h e s r a t0 5 a s o a p p e a irn
new5reports,and f you want to I
i ndnc,you shouldal ean recognze the words passivelyl
H r ea r es o m e m p o r t a not n e s :
I E P SE d , n i . g sp e rs h a r eT h ! ! t h e n e t p r o f t a f t e r l a r
d v d e d b y t h e . L r m b eor f r h a r e st h a t h a v eb e e nE s u e d
t s d b a 5 . m e a s u roei "
. b t y t o m a k em o n e y r
2 P / EP rc e t o . r r n i n g.s. t o I h s L 5t h e . o m p . n y ss h . r e
p n c d v d e d b y t h e E P SF o r a n r n v e n o rt ! p r o b a b l y
i h . 5 n q e m o r t m p o r t . r nrtn dc . t o r t s l r o w !w h . t t l r - "
m . r k e t s w l l n q t o p . y l o r t h . a. o m p a . y ! e . r n n g 5 t s
! ! e d l o o m p . r e c o m p . i r e r . t l r es . n r cm . r k e t . h i g h
P / Em a n st h a l r h em . r k e tl r . ! h 9 h h o p e sl o r t l r e
. o m p a n y 3i L r t u r ,b" .L r i t m . ' y. ! o n d . a t e t h . t t h e n o c k
3 P / 5 P r c e - t os , : r ert d t r oT h5 : : m a r t o t h e p r e v r o L r s

l 3 h o w p a y e r si n t h e r . d r k e tf e e . b o u t . n n d v d l a l n o . k o r
l 4 a s e . r eosl e v e n l st h a l h a p p e n . q dn a n d . q a n n t h 5 r r n e
o r d e ro r a l t h e s a m et r r . e s
3 2 . 2 M a k e p h r a s e sb y m a t c h i n ga n i t e m t r o m e a ( h
I m a k e a d v d e n d- - - .\
2 quoteabd
I h a v e . d N e r sJ e d
5 rsk
5 qrowth
p e r l o r n r a n cl oel a l u n d )
8 investor

l h e . n n u : s ae s p o rs h a r e t s l s e t u l$ / h e . e l a l d t i 9
y o u n g . o m p : n r ews i r h o t s o l e a l e sb u t t t l e o r n o
4 ROERetlrn on eq! ty Th s s the net proft afier tax
d videdby the shareholderlequty lt |s a rneasLrre
of
how effcientlya companyuse5ts 7
to prodLrce
earnnqs
5 Div;dend Yield Th s s the dnnLraid videndper shar
d v i d e db y t h e s h a r ep r c e l t s h o w sy o u t h e r e t l r n n
d videndslhai you qel when yo! buy a stock Yo! need
1o know lh s I you re ookinq for req!lar dLlidendsfrom
an esidblished
.ompairyratherthan the chanceof a
3
trom a h qh riskgrowth stock
S e ep a g e 1 4 9f o r s o m e d l s c u s s i o tno p i ( r .

F l n a n c l .m
l arkere 69

Recruitment
Rccruitnent Fning) is a tev area$ithin human resolr.es.
Thc processinlolves nany decisions:

Should you hire a full-time employee on a


permanent contract?
A flli tine cmployeeis likely kr hayc a beticr skiLlsei.morc
expeiiencc,nore loyatty,rnd you wiLl hale nore control
orer ihcir iinc. On the other hand, you re taking somerisk
with your commltmenttu this individual, and you \!ill ha\e
exha costs(.9 paid lacation) to.onsidr Other options
Fixcll-tcrn.ontra.ts.
PalJ tinrc cnployees (eg students,.ciirccs,nldi!
'

uals

Te'nporaryhclp ('tmp{, re(ruiicd through an agcncr).


Indepcndcntcontractorsand f.cclanccrsh{'ho mighl work
ofr your prcmises).
Rrorganiznrgthe depatmcnt b nllocaicwork in i

What iob will the new employee do?


Threwill bc ccrt.in iolr skills thdt thc or6iniration necds.1I
you rc replr.nlg.u cxistirrg.nrplo!.o, thon.n cxit nltorrk\!
could h.lp n).larify soDa.of ih. isslos. ,Afkr nhlc inalvsis
A job .l.scripti(Jnihat gi\'cs ihc jt$ till., i {Dm..v of thr
j ( ) bi n d a l i s to t i h c n r n i ni . s k so r . l u r i c s .
A pcrRD spocificntnrnthii ljns thr knowlodgc,
exporjon.o,qurlificdtn)nsind skills thit ro! woul.l lik. a
ci!didiic io hiv.. Thest .rc oft.n di! .d nlto 'csscnti.l'
;,n(l'd.sjrablc sp.cificiin)D{.

How will you attract applicants?


Oncc you hrve.1 lob opeDing,your fini thoughisnre likelv
tu bc inte.nal applicants.li yo!.lon't ofrer opportunitiesto
cxistingemplovees,ihcy'rc likely to becomedemoiivated
and start l&rknrg clscdrere. But if vou do need io recruii
cxternal\r ihen vou can lse a !..ietv ofelecironicand print
tnediAsuchas an onlinc postingon a jobs rlebsiie,or a
classifiedad (of a dispLayad) in a newspapei You can also
usc the se(,icesof a spccialistemplovmeni agenc!,ircluding
headhuntjngfi.ns for scniormanagers.
Anothcr source of nes Nruits is referals, ie sugltesnonsmade
b)' colleagues,eisting enplovccs, etc. Bui belarE, a $'o.kptace
rviih ioo mdy friendsresulbjn a group that.esistssupenision,
covcrs up for iLsmembes, tria[zes too much, ignores ihose
n J ri , d h Fq r . . p a r d , " 6 A p . ^ b l F r - , r ( . n t . . a d n +

What kind of interview and selection


processwill there be?
You $'ilLbegin by asking for and lookjng through Cvs (BrE)
or rcsumes(AmE), lnless you havc a spsial templareor
application form designed by ihe compd\: You I'jll rher
draw up a shortlistof candidaiesdd ca thesepeoplefor

7A

At ihe inten-ieh thereare a nmber of stagesthat you will


probablr 80 ttuough:
Be$n br estabLishing
rappori with the candidaie.Thy
tyillbe nenous, and vou $,a.i to put them at their ease
so thai iher cd e$ver qreshonsprop.rll You can also
. h e . l ( L r . r b ji \ I n - ^ . i i l i / F a n d b n l l r p n , r l )
Outline the conpanv backgound and where thejob fits.
Encourag.the candidateto talk about ho$' their skills and
expcricnceare releeani.Ask opcn-endedq!stions and
keep thc inten ierv movint and on track.
Closethc nrFn ier!, and indicatc to ihe.andldaie the nexi
step and ihe iimeframe.
Ratethe candid.te $hil thcy're freshh vour nird. Kccp
Afier the inte^ ior nnd dependinilon thc job, thcrc nr.y
be furiher tests.Thcsccan incllde praciicaltcsts(ofNanuil
s k i l l so r c o t u p u t i n gs k i l l s ) . n dp s y . h o m c t f i ct c s t s
(g prcbleh soh irg, cl.isionmaking, urtcrpcrson.lskills).
Som! hrgc companisha\e spcci.rlisscssnl.ni ccntrcsto do
Fnulhr b.f(tr( sclcctingthc besi c.ndid;rie ;,nd nl.king i job
ottra,yo! mnI '{.nt k) do somc ba.kg(rncl chL(ks.,^t.
m n n n u n i h l s i n \ 1 n v ( sc i l l n r gt o r m . r . n p l o y o r sw h o w o r o
lincd bv th. c.n.l atc i,s rcf...nc.s.

Tips for a CV (resume)


Plt a Surnmary',n a box at the top one shorl
paragraphwltlr yourcur.ent pos tion and objectives.
Put'Work experiencebefore 'Education, with the mosl
recentjob n.st. lncllde referencesat the nd, of at
least a line sayingthey'reavailableon demand.
Be speclflcin yourdescriptionsof .espofsibilites in
Inc ude lots of acl on verbs.
Focuson ach evements(ie importaft tlringsyou have
done)ratherthan skills.
DONT leavegaps in your emp oymentrecord,and
DONI put down manyjobs ln a shon lme.

Tips lor a cover letter


hclude a coverletterwith your CV ]his cou d be the body
ot an emai ifyoure sendingthe CV as an attachment.
Referto the partcular vacancy(eg whereyo! saw it
Showhow your skills and experencewouldbe relevant.
Highlighta coupleof pointsfrom your CV
Saywhen youte availablefor interview
Gene.allysel yourself.
Formore help,use an Internetsearcheng ne. Firstchoose
a w o r dl i k e ' C V ' o r ' r e s u m eo' r ' c o v e re t t e a ,t h e na d d a
word Jike'tips' or 'example'or 'advice or 'wrltingguide'.

33 RECFUITMENT

Exercises
33.1 Finda word in the text oppositethat matdes ea(h
definitionbelow.Thewords appearin order.
.
liurndn,o\our.ost.ar9eot + r \
2 b . ld 19,rLdr. bJs-e9s-ses
3 decideto usea particLr
ar amolnt of money,
trme,etcfor a
panrcurar
purpose
4 e/dr r"r o. rharyoLfave pds,ed
5

i dir g 01 "bodv who tds l'e flg\r .l s 'o d sen ol


lob and peGuad nq them to ledve thir presnt lob

6 (two wofdr) peoplewho haverecenllyjo ned an


orgaf zat on
7 (phrasalverb)ptaleclssomeoneby hid ng unpleasantfact!
about thern
8 (phrasalyerb.)readinqsomethinqto find the i.formation

9 a pre'designd
docLrment
formatledfor a pa.trcular
purpose
'0 ret io
.l_o of u_de'slaldr_g
f rdhress
c_drespect
11 decideihat someone
hasa partEuar standard
or level

33.4 Findtwo words in the secondcolumnin exrcise


13.3that are usedwhen th employeedoessomething
wrong, not when the companyneedsto savemoney.
/
33.5 Underlinthe correctwords in italics.
1 A candidate
/ An appliGntha, simplyaskedfor a lob (egby
sending
a CV)ta candiJate
/an applrcarfis beng actvly
considerd
for thelob by the company
2 A classifiedad I displayad s a short preceof text; a
cbssnied
ad / dBplayad hasa boxarolnd t andcanhave
3 lI yououtline/ highlighta po ni, youmakepeop notice
it andth nk aboutit; t yor autline/ highlighta pai , you
descnbe
the man deas
3f.5 Crosrout the item whi(h hasa diffrent meaning
1 to cornplete,
fillin, fil out,submitan application
form
2 10aftend,be calledfot, carryout, get, go far an nletvtew
3 lo allacate,assign,delegate,givesomebody,setsomebody,

Now do the samtorthe words in Tips tor a coverletter'

4 ro be fa@tlwith, catryaut, do, fulfil, peiarn a task


5 ro havea challenging,daunting,difficult,hatd, thankless,

12 a jobthatisavailable

6 to talkabouta candidates
empoymentcontct,h6torJ,

33.2 Makephrasesby mat(hingan item trom each

7 loLdveanerab shedec'rrrert rerhod.pol,c)


proce.lurc,prccess
8 to havethe required
erpetlbe,know-haqnindset,skilket

1 be on -- =\
2 recrui
3 work
5 sta(

.-

work n a differentway
a permanent
contract
looknq esewhere
for a job
off the premises
a9a freelancer
tempsthfouqhan agency

33.7 Matchpairswith a similarmeaning,one from ach


box.Allthe words (an be usedwith 'experience'.

6 .sk
8 keep
9 d o
10 drawup

a shortistof candidates
on achevemenls
r.therth.n skilk
quesr|ons
open-enoeo
someba.kgroLrnd
checks

33.3 Dividethe words in the box into three groups,


basedon thek meanings.
n,akercdundanl(qrE) quit
takean temtnate,AnE)
dismiss

hand in your

apprapriate extensive firn hand


prial
handeon lttle

33.8 Matchpai6 with a similarmeaning,on6 from each


box.Allthe wordscanbe usedwith'job'.
baring challenqing decent
i.Jeal nanual requlal
dead-end

denandinq

Seepage150Iorsomediscussjon
topi.s.

Human resosrces 71

Pay and benefits


t'ay is often referredto as'salary'in I'hite.ollar jobs and
'wages jnblue
coll.rjobs. .ompanv offersa compensation
packagc(= pay + benefits)to emplovees,and this is the main
way to attra.t and retdin thenr.

Benefits
Ben.fiis,the secondareaofcompensation,are covere.ln
ihe tablebelow V.nv of thesehave a minlmum level ihat
is requiredbr las',but an opnon is for the companvto

Levels of pay
How do vou decidcnhat levelofpay is appropriatc?You
. J n - . " r b i f , , ' d . [ e o ! th r r o , h c r m l ' o \ e ' - , r . t . , . u 8
The best wav to get ihls infornation is probabh'netlLorkirg:
ask existnlgstaft counterpartsfronr oihcr.ompanies, pcoplc
.lready doirg thatjob, eic.You could alsolook at ihc job
adve'lisenentsjn loc.l nerlspipe.s and igcncics,or pcrhips
consuli with yo!r ch.mber of comnerce.
Sometimesthe salaryfor a job is fi\ed; ar other ritres it m.\
bc opcn io dis.ussion,for cx.mple ai interlie$ or *hen i job
otlc. is nude. A studcnt lookmg for their iirst job p.obablv
won t hi!e n1u.hlr.f8nnring $Ner ocr p;r\,,but other
pcople might. ln parlicular you ha\e a Fosiiionof strcngthif
you hd!c srrcci.ljzcdskills.ir e\ishlt tob, ind rou cin see
lhii the .onrp.nly n.cds yo!.
ticsidcsddc nlg how nruch io piy nds' hires,the othcr
miior conce ofcn\rloycrs is hos mlch of a ris! (AmE
txisc) kr Bivc cxistingcmpkrv..s. Thr thre basjcappr(r.h.s,
w h i c hn r c o f t c nm i r . d , . , c :
(li!e rvcryono tho sinlc
Fcrceni.rgcrisc.
( ) i l ' { . . r . r . ri ln , r r _ t . | , ' . \ l , { ' l . r F t . , ' r \ , r \ i . r
ll.vr .n inc.ntile schrnx,wh.r. p.rt of tho ris. is a bonus
brnal on p.rtortuan(e, rcsultsor profits

Pertormance-related

pay

Th. pros xnd consof optnD 3 above(ie pe orm.Dce{elded


piy), ar. \!ell known:
Pros lt providcs r si.ong nriti!ition to work well, collcagu.s
know who isn't pullirg their wcight rnd resentit if thesc
Peoplcar. p.fi the sanL'.
Cons lt createstensidr bchlccn colleagues,pe#ornlanceturr
be diifi.ult to measure,emplo)'c.ssiop focusingon qualit! of
work and jnsteadjlrst fonrs on thosefacnrs d1!i affecipa\1
It is ofcourse possibleb gi\'. a bonls to elervone at the end
of the v.ar ifcertain targeisare n1ct,and this olercomesthe
objectionabout.ompetition undcrmining team$'ork.

Laws that affect pay


Irom the 1r!man r.sour.es point of !ie(', anoiherimportant
issre is complianccwith the lax,s ihat affNi pay Therema!
The minimum rvagelan hourly rate for lor-pald
" Overtime ('iine-and-a h.U' mav be mandaiorv ior some
Equal Pal' for equal(ork (to combatdiscnminationbased
on gende4age,race,etc).

A n n L a l e a v d a y r( p a i dv a r d t o n )
Srckeav
T me off for pregnancy(mdternty
eave).b rth, mov ng hous,elc
Life nsurance- attractveto people
with la.n ies
P r i v d thee a l t hn 5 ! r a n c e
D s . b i i t y n s u r a n r (ef o rs e r o u s ,
p e r r n a r e nI rn l u r e sr n a rc a l s e o n g terrn ossof n.ome)
Pension plan
(for
rtirement)

The inployerlsua y sets!p the


p an and makespayrnenlsnto t,
but the empoyeecan a so rnake
contrbulons

Workers'
(ompensation

Proteclon againstossof ncome


(and for medcal pdy.nents)due to
a w o r k - r e a t e dn j u r y , . c cd n to r
nes5

Frangebenefits

Car
Laprop..nob e device,etc
N . 4 . n b e r sohf pa h e a l t hc u b
Empoyeediscounton the company!
own products
Reocationexpenses

E\ha benclitsofler great llexibiliiy in how you rcwnrd


emplovecs.Reselch in the UK has shohn th hc mosr
comnronbcnefitsoffe.eclby largc conpaDiesarc cmploycr
pensionpl.ns, life insl,|ance,an.l an increasednumbcr
ofannual lcavedavs.Other popular bencfiisrrludc
n , . t r - . r ' n . l , 1 . ! e l o . n p n r. , p p ,{ G n r t r F - u , h J - - n i - r r .

34 PAYAIID BENEFITS

Exercises
34.1 tind a word in the text ooDositethat matcheseach
definitionbelow.Thewords aooearin order.
1 (twa wotds)ofricelobs(atherthanfactoryjobs
2 (humanresaurce,cantnueto emplof keep
3

: <.r o< ^f

16^"1:r

(threewords)advantages
anddisadvantages
5 (thrcewards;idiam)daingthe r shareof ihe work

34.4 Matcheachword in the box to its closestdefinition.


bonus commission incone
remuneratian rcyaw salary

overttne pe*
wage vveiqhtinq

1 a regularamountof moneyth.t youearn- usedfor hourly


/ daily/weklypayments
andb ue-coar jobsfusualtusec/
a reguar amountof rnoneythatyo! earn
- lsed for monthlypayments
andwh t collarlobs

6 fee .ngry because


youarenttreatedfa fy

3 ' l 1 oer y p d r . d b y a p e 6 o r . a ' r o r g a rl a t o r o a c o . n r l

7 gradusly m.kingsomethingesseffective

4 (formd,payment
th.t yougetfor yolr work

8 rhFp'acr(eo'obe)rng
a aw
9 oderedby l.w
l0 unfairtreatment
Now do the samefor the words in the box opporite.
11 a conditon
in whichsomeone
isnl abeto usea paftoi
ther bodypropery
12 (twa wotdi I|ingsthatyo! gt in addtionto yourbasic
packa9e
cornpensatr0n
34.2 Makephrasesby matchingan item lrom ea(h
----\
1 compensation
'2 bargain
ng
3lncentive
4 tfe
5 m nimum
6 materniy
7 pension
8 end-of'year

scheme
packaqe
wage

34.3 Write eachitem next to the corred definition


belowt life insunn.e, pension, rctitement,
'I thet meafteryoupermanently working
stop
moneypaidto yourlarnly whenyoud e
moneythatyoureceve regul.rlywhenyou
Decause
or yourage....... .

the rnoneythatsomone
is paidfor the extraho!rsthat
theywo.k
an amountof moneythat is p. d to somebody
everyt me
thysella product
a payment
thatsomeone
5!cha5a writeror muscran
each
time
their
work
s lold of pedormed
9e$
exlramoneythatyou?epaidin addiion io yourusua
y asa rwdrd'o goodpeJo "lalcF
salaf' especra
yoJ$o l in a'rarea
erlraarourr o' paygiverbecaLse
whereitl expensive
to live
l0 something
extrathatyougei froma lob,vrymuchlike
a fringebeneiit,but it canhaveno monetary
vaue for
example
the chance
to trave
34.5 Crossout the qle word in itali<sthat does!91!
makea word partnershipwith the key word. Checkany
unknownwords in a dictionary

1 a / an

aftractive,aveage,basic,campetitive,
genercus,grcss,incenttve,monthly,net"
statting,substantial

) a --sab\
..

awatd band beneht.... ^*"e.


pdctdge tdage.teaew x"te

h;-

2 back low, naternity,avettime,peffomance-related,p.y


reward,severan@,
si(k, take-hone
34.5 Fill in the missingleftersof the prepositionsbelow
Her are th fetters you needt deeffinnnooooonrtuv.
t havea goodjob.I m
a salary.. . 40,000.
2 'm noi pad enough.lt'snot f.ir l'm .. . - . . pad.
jt. Hes
pad
3 He'spaidtoo mLrch.
Hedoesf'tdeserve
4 Theypaymysaiary
myaccountat thendof the
paid
5 Thecompany

my aptop.

Seepage150for somediscussion
topics.
73

,rrrr., in the workptace

The pievious two units coveredrecruitmeni,salaN and benefits.Theseare the coreareasof human
rcsources(HR). Brt therea.e a whole vadet_vof other norkplace issues,both big and sn.ll, thai HR
mana8ershare to deal s'ith. Small firrns often sort thesethhgs out inJormallv,but in a largeorganization
a uion rcpreseniafi'emight becomeinlohed. Most of thseareashale legal requnementstliat HR has
to noniior and ihe papenr'orkrequired for this mav be a ia!8c part ol the irork of the HR department.

W O B X I N GH O U R SA N D O V E B T I M E
T h e s e a r e L r s l ay c e a r n p r i n c p e b u t w h a ta b o u la s t u a l i o n
whefe there s too mlch unpad unoilicia overlime? And is t
aways c ear whelher train ng and lrave count as parl oi lhe
iob and whelher working unches colnl as working hours?
HF cou d become very unpopllar wtii oiher managers rf rt
taes to enTorcethe rlles in lhese areas loo slrclly
bLnwhnr
Leove dnd dbsen.e Agan LheP.n(pLesarc cea
dav5lwhat
lrl
reels
cokrerfterforsevera
hrppc.5 when a s.( ch
happcnslsorcone s msng wo I be.alse or sc 'ous pe'so'a
p.oblcmslWhat hiPpe.s f everfonewtrnl! 10 1akelner ho davsm
ihe samenme . the slmme rn.l ihe e rt ro-onc eft n the ofllcel
What lripPe.s 'i t hr! bc.ome the norm lor PcoPe10 lcile worl
ea-y on Frdal ate noon bui .o$ fie ncw CEQ doesnt !kc t
and wi.ts HR to do somelhng abod tl

Health

and safety

r
,\

'

. r
.i

. r r : , i r r r , l i ! i : i l r : i : l : : , i: : _ r '
' , i I : , , _- ._ ! : , : l r r i
: ..- !,ii.
ri
r i , i1 r , i l r
): : ,: :.

Dealing bith hara.sstwrt


and.bltuging
This can begin jn very subue
wavs - and tead ro a laige
compensaiionaward againsi
vou if not deatt wth prcperly

GRIIVANCE
PRoCEoIJRtS
An empLoyee
may
have concernsor comptajntsabout thejr
work,emptoymeni
terms,workjrqconditions
or rtationships
with coLteagues.
If so, they
nraywant io discussthem or bdnq thern
fornrattyto the atierhon of HR. Theywitt
expect NR to addrcssand resolvethese
gnevances.
k tlre prccedurcfor dojngthis

' lhrl qr'^'mFond'rr


snrr'"r'rr ol L','rr\"''
nlP 'lr"'r'rrri*'l
- ;.. ..''':',."' ',, ''\'rcl'l'r'
"
{lghting' f'$d
indudc
*ltt,out noticc rhoe nighr
warts t)
an
cltpl)vce
il
hiPPerrs
theli. c(c Bui lfha(
$ Nr' I rrr\I r'lr - | ! Nr
, ' n u c : ' l r g a i r r ' r' c ' ' l r ' r j ' r ' l r

: , , u , " ' r l " r l ' P " Jrlr' u ' ' ' l ' r r 'r?' r ' ' h c l
.'I",,, r" '"ri' I
i."."",''"'','" '''|l"'"" 'r"'."'
'l ^ 'n
rrr'lr'r'' lrl i
q"..'
" ""
".u',t,c"
i\{r:. IloN are ilNse rvr rngs gtrcr':

'1

"

!s!.iv rh./. tr trot..tror !nd.r rhe rw t.nj dis.rnrfilon


o n r f l l g r . ! r i d 5o r : . r , r ; ( . , . l l l r . o r i ! . n n i . f r r t d r a b t r y '
j c r l a o r . . r < r r o n i c l. l . . , . r C .. r . l
dj,xrr ,il!5 jlr \tn!d

)
t
,
d c cd . . j . . r d r . o r . n f r . t r , c . tv \ ! c r r t r ow o l k l o r cbco r p j
r h . i . r . c u n e . r ! i r ' o u r c .w
t i i . r l r h r . r L e . . . t , i r r th c r c m ! f r
D . . o r n r n c f (b5. h f d p . . / r . 5 b . L l i \t h , l , 1 h . ! . r r , . r o rn r e l o b

r , 1 . ,!

Drr4rl lr: r I

74

Discipli nan and tl isntissalptoccdures

Work-life balance
hoLr9or ob
lor workinqflexible
Arcthereopportunilles
ro
\ n d l n q . l n r r m , g n lb F r r r o o ' i a n l

'otseo-e ^c-r'0

- o " , " o ' . p " r a n ' F r u - 1 n gL ow o 4 ' l r e '


io *o r r.that one pe6on
a new baby.lf HRcre.testhe precedent
do vou slop
.an wo* lrom homeone dav a week' how
t?
everyofewantlnqto do

what happens il an employee sees evidenceol Iraud or bribery? k there a


procedlre ,or them to report this conlidentially?What happens il they do
report il, and then reelthey're beingvictimizedalterwardsIor betrayingtheir
colleagues?What happens it th.y ieel il! being covred up by the conpany,
that there is no use reporting il internally.dd so they wanr ro nake it public?
Inc.e6ing\r govemnents are putting in place legislationto p.orect whlstle
blowrs,dd HR will have to enlofce lhis.

35 I55UESIN THEWORKPLACE

Exercises
35.1 Find a word in the text opposite that matchs each
definition below The words appear in order: Iirst down
the left collmn, then down the right.
1 an organzaton that rpresents
ihe workers n a partic! ar
Inousrry
2 ."leoeooeobF)" lFo ds
3 a periodol tln whn you re allowedto be awaylrom
work
4 (alwaysusedwith the )what s lsual, averagor expeCred
s fixed by dw
6 the practiceol keepingrh nqs aroundyou c e:n
1 (twa watds;idiom)da somethnq quicklyand
r a r e e s s yb, e c a l s ey o u w d n l l o s a v e1 m eo r m o n e y
8 b h a v o uw
r h i c h s d e b e r a t e yu n p l e a s a fal ,n d w h c h
calrsessomebodyto tel upset
9 i n g h l e n r n sqo m o n e
or rhrcalen qto hultthem,
e s p e c . l yr f t h e y ' r es m dl e ro r w e a k e r
10 fhvo words)rnonyrhat a coLrddecldesEhoud be
givento someonbecdusethey haveluflered harm
II

forma, a .omp a nl that an employeemakesto an


employrabolt un{ar trealnlent
1 2 ( f o r m a ,p a ya t t e n t o nt o a p . o be m d n d t r y t o d e a l w l h I
13 lormallyask someonen authorty ro changetheir decison
14 the fact that verydifferentpeope ex n w(h,n a group
1 5 a n a c t o ni f t h ep a n t h a t s u t e d a s a n e x a m p
w h e ns o m e o n w
e a n l st o d o t h e s a m et h n q a g an
16 repo( nq i egd a.tviies within your own organizationto
s o m e o n en a u t h o r t y
35.2 Make phrasesby matching an item from ea(h column.
a precedent
--.
2 sort
Inprncp,e
\
3 nvolve

something
out nformay
a unon represeniat
ve

5 becear
6
7
8
9

andresovea grevan.e
the fLrles
nrictly
warnngsto an mployee

dpped
gve
promote
dddress

35.3 Makephrasesby matding an item from achcolumn.


1 qrievance
\

2
3 healthand

leqa
5
6 qross

3s.4 Underlinethe correctwords in itali<s.


I T a$o.d. regd.ald dr .o1 drc.oq(1rt.. b..roqol.
rlatuto4/ 15rnortorm. .
2 The words ' aws' and ' g slaton are verysim ar, blt /awil
/glJlatlo,is moreformd
3 Thwords rules'and 'reguaUonr'are verys m dr but ruies
/ regulatlonsi5 morc formd
4 lf you sayyo! drent s.tist ed, yau nake a claimt complaint
lr you nrake. demdndfor romethingthat yo! havea right
you maka c/a,n / compla/ri
lo recrve,
5 Atr in.ident/ accidents lun sornethng that happns,
whre.san 'ncrdent/ acciJert is d s!ddn evnt nwhrch
15.5 Readth text about dealing with misconduct,then
a n s w e rt h e q u e s t i o n sb e l o w .
What should you do i an empoyees conduct s becoming
a cause tor concern? Frsl carry out a iul investigalion,
l e . . J ^ s r d L e a . o c o _ s e q u e r c eos' r ' ] ea l l e g e d
breachol discip fe
T h ee m po y e e si o b e n g t h o f s e r u c e a n d d i s c i pn a r y
T h ee v i d e n c eo l w t n e s s e s
Any prevloLrsnc dents
Any mltgaling circumstances.eg heallhor domeslic
problems of provocaton
t { o r r e \ e i r f s e , r d e n c el o d e r e r mn e r h e l h e r r h e L . ' e
is seriols enolqlr lor dsciplinary measures or whethef
lhere is an a lernatve eg an nlormalchat or redepoyraenl
Fof certain seroLlsoliences you may need lo suspend an
employeewhilea flr nvestigaton takesp ace
Disciplinarymeasuresbegin with a meeling,and fo owng
thal a wrillen warnng Alter givlng a warnlng yoLrmust
allow the employee tirne lo improvethe r behavour On y
. 9 a
m o v eo n r o ' f e r e ' l s l a g e o ( t ' p p . o " d . F
' u r l h e rw a . r n 9 o r h o d i l g d l o r
dF.p.rdryhed ,lq
"
the previouswarnng has no etiecl
Find a word in the text ihat means:
| . h r e e^ a t d , a d , o 1 o { o . . y
2 (fout words;farnal) a \ lLraton n wh ch its c a med (bLrt
not proved)thatsomeonehas behavedagainstthe rules
3 (twa wordst famai) fa.Is that he p to explaI a.n stakeand
make t seemlessbad
4 mov ng tomeon-ato a differentp ace or a d lferenttob
5 oJfcia y stop sornonefrom working becalseihey have
brokenthe rLres
6 nreetnq of d committeeor off ca organzat on to i nd out
rhp tr.r< ih.L'i

(^maihinn

seepage150for romdiscussion
topics.
Honanfesources 75

Your background and career


, . ;a I mjoyed high s.hool - my grades
were good ad I got i$'oh'ed jn
a loi of extracuricular activihes.
At the age of ei8hteenI went
io uiversity (AmE college/
mivlsiiy).I got a placeat ihe
lniversity in ml' home town, allhough someofny hends
moved away to oihr miversities ed lived on campus.At
first I haicd ii, and I nearly dropped out after a few months.
But aftcr a while I made fliends and got used to wriiing all
ihe essays(AmE papers).Money was a problem- I had no
grani or other financialaid - and I wolked my rvay throuilh
collegeby donrg a little parftime work whencyef I could.
My dcg.cc was in econofrics,an.1
my main subject(AnE majo, was
intcrnationaltlide. The lecturers
(AnE professors)werc sood
and I eDjoyedihc cou.se(AnE
program)ver),much.l spcnt the
nliddle year of thc cou.scworknrs as an inicfn in a bank ihat was really uscful. It was thc only piri rvhcre I got some
rcal vocationalbanrnlg.At ihc cnd of the courseI thouBhi
about stayin8 on b do a Masic.s,but I dccidedthat the life
of d postgra.tratedidn't.call]' jntcrcst mc.It was time io
cni.r thc world of work.
Aftcr graduaiing,it took m.
scvgal months to find a job. I
was shorilisicd for a fow jobs,
bui thev never callcd mo back for
a sccondinte^,icw. EventuaUy
I was offercd a junior position
in ihe intcmationaldeparhnent

Verb fons

o t a b a n t . B e c a u coe m ) I n l e - . h r p { h u ' l p l d c e m e _ . ) l
knerv more or less what to expect in terms of the woiking
enliroment. I spentfive yearsthere,learningthe business
ed was promoted to SeniorAnalysiin my late iwenties.
That time in my ljfe was really
hectic I was iiving ihe life of a
qpical young, singlepersonin the
financialservicessecior I worked
haid and partied hard. I ofien
stayedat the officernfil eighi in
the evening,and was exhalsted at the weekends.By the age
of thiltl' I was bumi out. I neededsomepersonalspaceio
decidewhere my life was going, and I decidedto iakc a year
off.I gaye in my noticeand quii myjob.
I had savedup quitc a lot of
money from ihe job in thc bank,
and so I was able to go ilavcllinS.
I backp:ckedmy r!.y around
India and South-E.stAsiannd
had somecr.zy timcs. Bui I knew
that I had io settledown one da).,and I wanted to start a
family.So I cnmc home and staried to look fof work a8ah.
I .eSistercdlvith somc onlinc
employmcntagcncies,and
thcy found a vacancyalmost
inmcdiaiely. It was in a
similar tield as before,but
lesshigh'pressure

for talking about your career

Past simple: completed actions and situations in the past


Singleactions:
igot a p/aceat unive6in/.
A sequence
ol single.ctions:I ioined thecanpanyin Februaryfinishedmy trainingafterfourweeks,
and startedthejab prcpelyin March
SitLratons
that astedfor somenme:/ rivedon Gnpu'
Past continuous: adions and situation5 in progress in the past (ie ba(kground events)
1was living the life af a typicalyoung personin the hnancese.tar.
1was worting as a waitressin a cacktailbar.
Past perfect: making it clear that one a(tion or event in the past happened before another
t had saved up maneyfrom thejab in the bank,and so . .
t had aheady quit ny job when they ...
Combination: background situation + actions during this time
My salarywat incrcasingyearby yearandsa I bought an apartnent.
WhileI was wo*ing asa salesassistant,
anathercompanyinvited ne ta join them
Combination: one action before another
I had savedup naney andso I was able to 90 travelling.
I had aheady quit myjob when theyannoun.ed thejab cuts
76

36 YOUR BACKGROUND
AND CARER

Exercises
36.1 Finda word in th text oppositethat matchseach
definitionbelow.Thewords appearin order.
1 ettersor numbeEth.t showthe qualityof a nudnr3
2 fhro r1'ords)
thingsthata nudenrdosat schoolor colleg
thatarnot partof the course
3 (phrcsaiveh) eft lniversty beloreth (ourte had fnirhed
moneyq ven by someone,especi.ly the qovernment,for
a p a r t c L r apr l r p o s eG m a r t o s c h o l a E h i pw, h c h o n l y
refu to moneyfor study)
a courseoi nudy at a university,
or the qualifcaton that

youger
6 a studentwhoworksin a job in orderto getexperence
7 reatingto th!k lsyouneedfor a padicuarjob
8 fphrasal
verb)continlrngto do a job or a cou|safterthe
expected
timeof leavng
yourstudres
9 completing
at universty
andgettinga degre
10 busy;
lul ol actvny
11 (twowordsJ
verytiredandwith no energybecause
of
workng too hardlor too lonq
12 (fau wotds)lo d my erilployerthat I wouldbe eavingmy
job soon;resgned
'J
ra\e ed lor opd,.ra.$ rho-lr-cf _no-e).
carO'ng
everyth
ng needed
for fe in onebag
14 (phtasalverb)
sla vinga quletlife n oneplace,especially
wnenyougel marrred
36.2 Make phrase!by matchingan item from each

36.4 ComDlete
the sentences
with the words in the box.
Allthe words are usedwith'career'.
chasen concentrcteon
oppanunntes ptonEtnq

1 Youcan
a qoodcareerfor yourself
asa
l.wyer Butyou'I havto worka ot. Forthe nextfew years
yo!r career,
notyour
socal life.

2 li you havech drn,you ll needto take a career


. Butdont worry- yolr sk s are
and 'm surthatyo!r careerw
whnyoure n yolr forties.
3 C h a n gn g f r o mf i n d n c a l c o n stua n i t o y o g at e a c h ifs a
I t m e a n st h a t y o u r

careern financewil
4 PF!. b,ig!'l yo.n9 Tdr !^il'

"

very

careerrnfrontot h m. I m surehe'llrnoveup the career


very qu cKy
5 Sheachleveda ol in her

tookadvantage
ol the rnanycareer
avalabein lT prolectmanagement
andwentrightto the
top of hrprofession.
36.5 Completethsememoriesby putting the verbsinto
the corrcct{orm: pastsimple,pastcontin{rousor past
perlect.
,)it remember
thatoccasion
verywe - t waswh e I
,
l*o,k) at Omnte t was n the
(iust/fii sh) unch(write)a reportal rnydesk
(get)an SMSon my mobilephone- it
{ " s l o r . f e a o h u - u r cg g e l o j .n / r r r g _ l e r o d l r ' " r

I qet a p a(e-------\
--at
2 drop oui

throughcolleqe
un versity

3 workyourway

( l s i e n )a n d t h e n '

5 beshort-lsted
a vacancyalmon immedidtely

7 regster
8 lind

wth an on ne agency

36.3 The third paragraphoppositeusesthe word


'eventually'.Thisis a lalse friend in manylanguages.
Ti(k (/) the E!9 correctmeaningof 'eventually' lrom the

2 alternativelyf

(be)verysurprised
bec.useI
(not/contaci)any
agences
likethai
(wat) untI no-one
.
(cai)them l'm sureihey ro
(wait)for
my.. because
iheywereimmdiatly
veryfriendly.
They
(aready/ findout)a or aboui
me by doing a Gooqlesearchon my name,and that they
_
''
(*ant)tohdvedmeetngwihm..'."
s e e p a g e1 5 0 f o r 5 o m ed i s c u s s i o tno p i c s .

4 6fter a lonq time

You and your job

77

Your company
n'Len you descdbe you compmt you may choose to give
a briet infornal introduction or a full, fomal p.eFniation,
depending on the contexi. the five headings below cover the
importani areasto include nr a tull presentation.

1 History,size and structure


Startwith ihe name and mainbrsiness actility of your
company, and the se.tor in which you operate (eg the
consumergoodssector/the businessklbusiness sector).
Saywhere ihe head officeis located.Bnefly menhon the
company'sorigins, then coler key milestones(including my
major restructuling)and its size and structrre today.
'Size'might includc the number of employees,or things like
r h c , ' u r b e r o f . t o n - A t e . h n i c J li n J i , d r i . no f , o m p . u ) s , / e
is yo!r market capitalizaiion(marketcap).'Structurc'might
include rcfclcnccto a businessgroup that owns seleral
c J m P r r i c s o. r t o \ u b r d r J r i e . o r r o - F p r r d r ed r \ F i o n "
(eg organizedby ploduct caiegories).
At this poini you may want to briefly describeihe
organizationcha.t (o.ganigram)ofyour company.Bc carcfrll:
this can bc vcry boringl

:l Market
Talk aboui the comtries jn which you opeiate. Also ialk
about your tlTical customers {for a siddard prcduct) or
clients(when the produci is specialtytallored).This may
include a reference to the market segmcnt in which yo!

r.lKey numbers
Key ntnbers include your amual turnover (= rcvenue),your
netprofit after tar (- netincome),and yourmarket share.For
an intemationalcompant breik down thc revenueaccording
io regionsor countries.It's also inte.estint kr know which
Linesconiriblte most to your revenue.

li Trends and plans


This is likely to be ihe pari ofthe presentationihat s'ill
S c n e r r t ct h e m n s ti n t e r e i . l - l h e o \ . r u 1 1m r r l e r g r o w i n go r
shrinkinS?Why? What new technolo8jesor so.ial trendsarc
shapingyour market?hrhat dru yoficompanyh plans for
Fjnall, you mny want io talk aboutyour ownjob. Seeunit 38.

7 Main products / services

SWOTanalysis

Give an overview ofyour product.angc, inchdinS an),


compeiitiveadvantages.Noto thai nowadavsthereis Iittle
diffcrencbctwcen thc words 'produci' and 'se'r!ice'(cg ),ou
c a Dh a v e ' f i n a n c i .pl r o d u c t s ' ) .

A differeni way to prcfile a companyis by mcansofa SWOT


an.lysis. An cxamplc is givcn bclow,but it willbc different

STRENGTHS
of the company

WEAKNESSTS
of the company

products:quatjty,vaLue,
retiabitity
promising
product
pipeline
process
modern
manufacluring
equipment
andefficient
eflicientdistributionneiwork
strongcashfLow

snaltrnarket
share
weakbrandimage
gapsrn product
range
poormanagemeni
informationsystems
insufficient
satespeople
lowspending
on innovalion
andR&D

morat,
commitment,
teadership
0PP0RTUNITIES
in the market

THREATS
in the market

majornewcontracts
growthin the o(istingmarket

.hF:nFr ("h<Hr 'tF nr^.1,'.f<

devetopments
in technotogy
competito19'mistakes
partnerships,
agencies,
distribution

78

cnan$ngconsumer
tastes
slovrdown
in the economy
< '..p(< .f 4.i(tinn

.^mncr

^r(

entryof nwcomptjtors
potjticat/ teqislaiivetrects
a shotageof keyrdwmatnak/ pats / conrponents

37 YOURCOMPANY

Exercises
37.1 Finda word in the text oDDosite
that matds ea<h
definitionbelow The wordsaDDearin order.
1 eventsthat markan moortantstaoen a orocess
2 organiznq . companyn a differnt
wayto maket more
effcient
3 (twor./otds;
finance)
Ihetotalvaue of a company's
sharcs
(= nLrrnber
x theirmarkerprc)
of shdrs
4 cor.panies
ownedor controlled
by otherlargrcompan
es
5 a shortdescriptioithat givesthe main deaswitlrout
e x pa i nn g a t h e d e l a s
6 fawonords) th nqs th.t helpa cornpanybe more succesttul
tfran ts compentoE

madelor a partcuar purpose


or person
consderingsor.ethng asa whole;lncluding
every,thing
9 becomng smaller

11 thelevelofconfdence
andpositve
feelings
that
peoplehave,especia
y peoplewho worktogether
12 the hardworkafd loyaltythatsomeo.egivesto an
or9anrzatron
13 (two words)a siuationwhenlew newbuye6canbe
14 not h.vingenoughof somethng; ack
37.2 Makephrasesby matding an item lrom ea(h
produCl
2 product
3 a siandard

5 R &

ranqe

SWOT
d strbuton
cosl
s!bsttute
annual

affotdable businssnodel ,.rtt-"r r"tt"t


1
cantinued expansion fountlet n.ome
intlustrystandard
pinelacatians
state-af-the-art tunovs

Zara,partof the InditexGrcup,is oneof the worldSfastest


growing.FiailFtr,
wfh .i nrovatNeI
thatallowsit to compete
with qu. ity brandsbut at rnuch
prices.
r
The
..
of Zara,AmancoOrtega,opened
thefirstZarastoren A Coruna,Spain,n 1975.lt was
a greatsuccess,
andOrtegastartedopeningmoreZara
sloresn Spain.
Workng with computer
expertlos6lvarla
Castellano
thycreated'instant
fashonj - the company
reduced
th timiromdsgnto distrbutionto lusi 10to
(Thea
15days.
at that trmewas severa
pfoducton

Now do the samefor words in the SWOTtable.


10 (twowords)products
thatareplanned
andwill be

6
7
8
9
10

37.3 Completethe companypresentationabout zara


with the words and phrasesin the box. Checkany
unknownwords in a dictionary

proced!res,
andw.rehousing
andinstaledcomputerized
inventory
systems
to inkthe stores
to thefactories.
All of
thismantthattheywereableto respond
veryqLrickly
to
changes
in 5
D!ringthe 1990sndrtexentered
a steadystreamof new
markets,
andby 2000hadcovered
Today,
mostof ELrrope.
Zara: present
1nover70 countres,
with a networkof
1.200store5
i. 7
in majofcities
ForthewholelnditexGroup(whichncudesMasrmo
Dutti,PullandBear,Eershka
andotherchain,annua
3
isaround10,000m lioneufos,with a
nete
of about1,000m llion.Theiotal
relarlareaof theGroJprsapp'oa(h19 2.000.000
rqJ. e
metres.
As a measure
ol the company!success,
market
capitali2ation
hasinc.eased
by 200%sinceit waslid
quoted.
Pldns'or
the'utJrcincluopo
in theAsia'Pacific
Region,
andthe openingof more'Zara
Home'stores,
sellingbedrcom,
baihroom.nd livng room
products.
seepage150for somedis.us.iontopics.

advant6ges

You and yo!!rjob

79

55 I woik

for a medim-sized, fmlly-owned business. We offer


spe.ialized seri.es to the coslruction industry. I Personaly
spsialize in lighling istallaiiom irEide buiidings my
backSloud is in ele.trical enginedng. l'Dl responsible
for the initial contact with the client - I visit them at their
offices and discuss then needs. My role is to talk to ihe
ai:hitects and the developers, to try to persuade rhem of the
impo ance of modem lighting design inside a building.
I show them how it cm create a good working atmosphere
and add to a compmy's image. I explain our track record
in tlus treld dnd .hoa them d portrolio or olher liShtirS
installations that we've done.
Once the initial contacthas benmade and the.lient is
rcady for a detailedproposal,I take a back seatfora while.
Somebodyelselook at the detailedspec'ficatios for the
installation and then another colleague researchesthe cost
of the labour and materials. Those two people work under
me, and I supervisethei work quite closely.Finally our
legal departmnt draws up the proposal. I oversee the whole
process and sign off the proposal before it's sent to ihe client.
Thereare a number ofolher people that I liaiswith on a
day+o-daybasis.We have an Office Managerwho handles
incoming calls,orSanizesmy scheduleand kccps on top of
the filinS a.d administration.And ihen outsidethe company
I have closecontactwith the alchiteciEand with the projeci
managementteamresponsiblefor the whole conskuction.
I report to ihe Head of BusinessDevelopmenLand she
reportsdirectly to the CEO,so thereare not many layersin
ihe company and it's not at all bureaucratic.
My work is challenging,ofcourse,becauseit involvesboth
a sales function and a technical function - and every project
is different. But the atmosphere m the office is great. It's very
informal and I'm on first-name terms with everyone, even
the CEO.
So that's me. Now about my wife. We[, she work for a
large, multinational banl with its head office in Switzerland.
It's a back-office tuaction she work in the lotu
department. Her job involves checking the.redit history or
compdies who want to boff)w money, dd then assessing
the risk of the tom. She deals with both smatl and medim
enterprises. She's doing we - she w6 promoted last yd.
Now she's in charge of a sma tem of fou people,
so there\ a matuBemcnrdnrpEion to herjob ds
well, it's nol simply nmber-crhctilnC.
tt

80

Describing your job


Adiedives to des<ribe iobs
fascinating,rewatding,satisring, sxnulating
boing, dull, repetitive,rcutine,unintercsting
challenging,demanding,had, hectic,tiring, tough
Contacts at work
boss,CEa,colleague,aavwrker,caunterpan,customea
linemanaget;oppositenunbet, projed leader,suppliel
Collocations with'task'
approachI get down to / tacklea rask
carryout I do / get an with / penom a lask
complete/ fulfil / suKeedin (daing)a rask
ds,ignsanpbody/ qrye,onebody/ setsomebadta'a,r
be taskedwith doingsanething
collo<ations with'work'
(aconpany)
Iwo*tot..
t'm wo*ing on ... (aUoject)
I work with / alongside ... (co eaguet

to be in wo* / out of work


yau rc ill)
to be olt work (because
I leave for wo* at 7 3Aam.t go to work bt vair.
I gct to wo* at about 8.45an, I'm at woft until 6pn.

3A YOURjOB

Exercises
34.1 Finda word in the text oppositethat matcheseach
definitionbelow.Thewords appearin order.
1 (fwowords)ihe thingsthata pe6onor organization
has
donein the oan whichshowhowwellthevhavedone
2 (phrasalvek) p'eparcsa ff tten document(e9a lin, plan,
3 be in chargeof a grolp of workeGandcheckthattheir
wo l i. donFsaikractory {- supetube'
4 (phrasal
verb)off (i.ly agreeto something
5 exchangenformation
sothateveryone
knowswhat is
nappenrng
6 ftwo rvords)
the process
of worknq with . lot ot numbeE
andcalculating
resuts
38.2 Underlinethe correctwords in italics.
1 A job that s chal/enging
/ demardlrgs difficult,buralso
nterest
youhaveto usea lot of sklll;a job that
ng becaLrse
s challenging
/ demanding
needs.lot of yourtimeand
attention,
but isn'tnecessarily
etherdifiicultof lnteresting.
2 fhe pftase'mylinemanager'l'mybosr'couldbe a little
1{o'ral. p..Tic-la'y f rhal pe.sor5 pre,ell(egbe,!
ntroduced
by yo!),so inneadwecan9ay'mylinemanaget'
3 Thewordcol/eague
/ coworker
is morccommonin Europe;
the \\atd calleague/ cowotkeris morecommonin the lJs
4 I6e watd caunteeaft / opposifenumberrefersto someone
with the samejob asyouin anothe.ocanization;
theword
I appatiter,Jrber .rlayhaveLhesanemeanrng,
carnLerpan
y usedfor sorneone
but is a so common
in yourown
organization
who hasthe samejob but in a differentplace
(ega dliferentcountry).
38.3 Complete1-3 with endingsa-<.
1 lf yougef downto a iask,yo! ... ll
2 lf yougef on lvdha task,you... r l
3 lf youlufll a task,you.. . ]

38.5 Coverthe oppositepagewith a pieceof paper.


Underlinethe correctwods in italics.
1 lwotk fot / on I to a family-owned
busness.
2 | spe.ialze
in / on / to lightingnstallaiions.
3 My backgrcund
is forl,, / w,thenqineerlng.
4 l'm rcsponsible
about/ for / of the nital contactwlth the
5 My rclei! forlln /to talkto the drchitects.
6 Somebody
elselooksatl on / to the detailed
specifcations.
7 Therearca numberof otherpeoplethat I liasefrom/ fo /
wth on a day-to-day
basis.
8 lreportfor / to / underthe Headoi Business
Deveopmenl.
9 Mywiie worksn /o]1/ to the loansdepalrrnent.
t 0 shedealsoflo/r / wtfi bothsmallandmed!m
l1 Shebin charce
lrom/ofl to a smalltearn.
project.
12 1'mwotklngfor / an / to an interesting
- lspenda lotof timeworklng
l3 l'ma journalist
atl forlo,
myo{un.frcmhame/ fromthehane.
14 My brother s off wa* / out of wa* - he'sbeer
unemployed
ior iwo months.My sisteriso# lrork /out of
!.r/o/k
today- she!got a badcold.
l5 tverymorningI leaveiot wotk/ thewa* .11 .30am.
I arive to /9l to workat about8.45am.'mat / n work
until6pm.
16 Herjobinvolves
checklng
/ io checkthe credt historyof
38.5 write a ti<k (/) ifthe sentenceis grammatically
correct.Write a (ross (f) if it is not.
I I'm responsible
for this. l
2 I'm the responsible
for this.f .]
3 l'm the pe6onresponsible
for th s. i I
4 Thisis my responsible.
Ll
5 Thisis my responsibility.
LI
Seepage'l50for 5omedis(ussiontopics.

a complete
it successfu
ly.
b startdoingit sefouslyor with effort.
c contnueafterstoppinq
for a shortiime.
38.4 Make phrasesby matding an item from each

II .:r"--\
taKE
J OVerSee
4 h.ndle

\
\

on top of thefiling
a backseatfor a while
nitialcontactwith a client

5 keep
incoming
calls

Youandyouriob 81

Telephoning - making and taking calls


In the dialog1rebelor{ Ccline Perez(CP)callsMaunce
Cassidy(Mc)on his direct line.

Noiice at tine I horL the reccpiionistgnes a lery turll


Noiice at llne t hos,Gianfran.o answershis inrena,

N,4C:
Mauf ce C:ssidy
cP Peo Mdur." tt..r.cprrFD","/p"".r,
N,4C:
Ce ne - how n ce to harirom youl How are thinqs
CP Fne, fine. Malrice s th s a good l,nreto 1: k? Are
you in the nr dd e of something?
N4C No, now is good lun et me c osedown ih s
d o c l m e n tl ' v eb e e nw o r k i n go n O K w h a t c a nI d o

Answer the phone


(rerepton si) Goodmorrrng,ICTlercsatpeakinqHaw

CP: The rasonI m ca ng rs bec.uie of the f rst qladr


s ae si g u r e sH a v ey o ! s e e nt h e m ?
N4C:Yes,I hdve 5a es n Frdncewere beow target,right?
C P E x . c t y T h es ae s r e p o r d
t o e s nt g v e a n ye x p l a n aotn
for that thouqht you m ght havesome deas
\ . 4 C : d o h a v es o m er d e a sb, u t i d i k e1 l rs p e a ki o A n n a n
vlarkel n9 abolt t can get backto you tomoffow

Connect lhe.aller
Ptease
hald while I try to.annect you
l'!t try het nunbe. tar you

CP: S!re.
MC OK, leaverl w th me I cdllyou tornorrowafternoon
CP: Great I d appreciatethat Thanksfor your tlme. By.
N o l i . c h o w M n u r i . os l . r r t sl h . c o n y . r s i t n n i n n h i e n d l !
w . r y . r lti n . 3 .
Notic. how Crlinc chc.ks thni ih. olher pdson h.s Irm
Noticc nt lin. l'1 how Celnlc lses n irc.l t.nguigc
(ic pisl f().nrs:rrrr,!l,rlrl.!rr) n) encouragt NIC k) gire
i n l a n n r t n r l s h ed o c s nt h . n t h i n r n ) i e . l u n d e ra n !
Ii the scconddi.logue bekN Vonila phoncsr compinl n)
isk aboul lhojr Nr.ket kseirch sc^ ic.s. Sh. speiks fin n)

R e c e p t on G o o dm o r n n q ,I C TC o m m L r n c a t o nT5e r e ! .
s p e a kn g . H o wc a n h e l py o u ?
N / o nk a :O h , q o o dm o r nn g I d k e r o s p e . kr o l o m e o n e
n yoLrrmarketresear.hdepartmenr.
Re.eption6t:Can haveyouf name,p edse?
Mon ka: Yes,t\ l\4onlkaWeber
R e r e p t i o n i rOt :K , M o f k a , p e a s eh o d w h t r r y t o
GlanfrancoMdrket Relear.h Granfranco
speaking
M o n i k aO
r h , h e o M y n a m es M o n k a W e b e r f r o m
sprinqerVleda and 'm ca ling to aska fw quesrions
aDolrlyo!r marketresearch
servces.
G anfranco:Of colrse, Monika.How an helpyou?
\.4onka: d like to know .

E2

fhe phrases you need tg

I L"1a

o\o.o

h.a

.d.-

Dapt

^.1t

5ev rj'ho'5 calling + .,vhy


rhts I
speaking / My nane is
Can t speakta . pleasa?
td ttketa tpeak to sarrean. about
Ihe rcasont m Glhng is
t n .alling ta aska few qusrionrabour
I m .alhnq tn (anne(tian wnh
r:reetings
He at Haw ate youl
How nt.e ta heatlrcn yout How arc things)n PatisT
Ah! tdt.Jn'trccagnizeyour vote!
fhanks fat caling - dtd you get ny en l?
Che.li it's a good timc
ls ths a gaad tme ta talk?
Arc you tn the niddle of sa.nethinq?
Da yau havea tecond?
E n 1t h c a l l
ls Ihercanythtngeke I can helplau wnh taday)
Thankstar Glltng / lt's been nice talktnq ta you Bye
fhanks tar yout tine
AK. leave it vlith ne. l ll .all yao tonorravr' aft-.rnoan

- MAKING AND TAKINGCALL5


39 TELEPHONING

Exercises
39.1 Covertheoppositepagewith a pieceot paper.
Now try to remembefthe words below (Thelan letteE
have beengiven.)
1 Heo Maurce, s s CelnPerez
g
2 Ce ne how
youl
e to
r from
3lsthsa
d
e t o i a k ?A r ey o ui n t h e
something?
4 lust et rn
se
wn thisdocument
l'vebeenworking
5 The

on I'mca ng s

seof thefrrslquarter

6 Thesalesrepo.tdoesn'tgiveanyxplanaton
for that.
ghl you ght havesomeidar.
7 Can
t
ck o you(= contactyouagain)tomorow
8 OK,
veit
9 Grat- l'd

th m.
arerhat

Removethe paperand <hed your answers.


39.2 At line 5 Celinechecksthat ifs a good time to talk.
Putthe words below into orderto makesimilarphraies.
t haveyoua secondDo?
2 rneDowant ateryouto backca ?
3 now rght youArebusy?
39.3 We often usea pasttenseto makeour language
polite or indired (to makethe other peEon feelthey are
underno pressure).
I wantedta speakto sameoneabaut my order
I wASjust gdil4g about the salesflgures.
(= 'm calins)
tthoughtyaumlgblhavesone ideas.
(= Doyouhaveafy deas?)
Rewriteeachsentenceusingone ol the structurcsabove.
1 'm calllngto seeif everythinq3
oK fof Fridav
2 'd liketo askyo! a quentonabouts mon

: irno*yo,rl"

n,ii'.
",",l,ilJ

39.4 cover the oppositepagewith a pieceof papr.


Underlinethe alternativein itali6 below that is more
I Goodmorninq,lcI Teresa
speakiry.CanI helpyou?/ How
canI helpyau?
2 I wantto speak
/ I d liketo speakto someonen your
marketresarch
dpartment.
3 PleaseGn I haveyov nane? / CanI pleasehaveyaur
nane? / CanI haveyour name,please?
4 /m //t3 Monik.Weber
5 OK,peateholdI waitin rne whie try to connect
you.
6 Gianfran@speaking/ l'n cianf?nca
7 I m ca ingIa knaw/ aska few quenions
of / aboutyolr
marketrsearcn
servcs.
8 Oi co'r6e,Monika.Howcan/ wauld helpyau?
39.5 took at phrasesa-e then markthe statements
belowTrue(T)or Fals(F).
a Id rketo speak
to ..
b Canlspeakto ..?
c Couldspeak
10.. ?
d I mlsl9peak
to ...
e I needto speakto . .
1 In practce,phrases
a-c arernoreor lessihe sarne
probably
rhe istener
wont evennoticeT / F
2 Phrase
d s directandlrgent,bLrts OK n busness.T / F
3 Phrase
e s directandLrrgenl,
but s OK n busnessT / F
39.6 look at phrassa-d then answerthe questions
a fhereason
l'mcalling
ir ...
yo! coud helpme.I d iketo speaklo 5or.eone
b Perhaps
about
c l'm callingLnconneciion
with ...
d don'tknow I l'm throuqhio the rightdepartment,
but I m
calljnqto aska lew quenionsabolt ..
r whch two phrasesmmedateygiverhereason
ior
yourcall?
2 Whichtwo phrases
asktor hep or general

nrorm'tion?
Readthe diaoqueson page82 a oud.Do t by yo!6elf or wiih
a colleagle(changnq roesat the end).Practseseverat mes

39.7 F 1 Speakingpracti@:listenand repeat.Rpat


eachphraseyou hearand then listento check.

Telephoning 33

Telephoning - messages
In thedialoguebelouthecallcr(C)i{dts to speakto
(R)iakcsihe
someone
who isn'tavailable.
Thcrecepiionist

Noiice ai line t0 how the call. sa1.sthc namesbeture


sp.liing them. Henring the whole wo.d fi.st helps the
Noiicc at lhe 1{ horv the se.ietary checksby repe.ting the

R:
C:
R:
C:
R:

CT'Tresa
speakng. HowcdnI hep you?
'd lk to speak
pease
to Stefan
t pska,
'lltryhisnlmberfor you.,\_\.\lleo?
H eo .
'm not qettinganyreply.lun bearwith mefor a
moment
wh e ltry dnother
number

c:

OK
'm sorry,'nr nol h.vin!

c:
c:

dny uck he must be n a


meetrnq.WoLrd you like hisvo cem. ?
No, i needto talk to h m p6on. ly.
I c a na s kh r n rt o . a y o u b d r k
Yes,pleasedo th.t ts FrdnkHaydenher He knows
O K ,l l l n m d k e . n o t eo l y o u rn a m e .F r a n kH a y d e n .
l sl h a tw t h a n ' r o r . n ' a t t h ee n d ?
l l 5a n e , ' e a s n E q y p l . H A Y D E N .
O K ,M r H a y d e n',l l t e h r . a ss o o na s h e c o m e so u t

or ine metn9
C Thankyou.coodbye
Noli.f hor{ tlrc ..r11(r'.l,rfifles lhe spclliig b\ !snrg i pl.c.

lf thc nc\t dirli)gue lh. c.rll.f (C) ilcts thnNgh k

C:

S:

C:
5:
C:
Sr
C:
S
c

r .

H e o , c a n l s p e a k t o s l e f : n L r p s k ap, l e a s e T

'm sorry,Stelant pska s


o!1 of rhe otficethis
alternoon.Th s s his secretaryspeakinqWo! d yo!
ke to eavea rnessage?
Yespledse.Can you ask hiftrto ca nre bacl )
O K . L e im e l u s tg i a p e n Rq h t C a ny o u q v e m e
y o u rn a m ea n d n u m b e r ?
Y e s ,t s E a V o q ea a r
C a f y o us p e l l t h a t ?
l t ' sE l d ,E d o u be L ' A ,V o q e . a r V - O - G - E - L - d o ! A
b l-eR
Andthenlmber?
l t 3 0 0 : 1 , t h a t ' sr h e c o d ef o r r h e N t h e r l a n d2!0, 5 1 2

6149
OK,sotlrat's
EllaVogeaar
on 003120 5126149.
That!r qht.
Anythrng
e se?
No,thdtSa . lun askh m to.all me:s soonas
possble lt'san urgentmatter.
5 : I understand.
I mdkesurehe getsthe message.
c Thankyou Goodbye
5 : GoodbyeThankyoufor callifq.
5
C
5
f

Nohce hos the receptionistand the secretaryfinish the


dirl.rgucsb) promising n.iion (I'll ..).

The phrases you need E8


.,rit ::nr ;.ll:- i. .r.,:;'i
-tustbearwith ne fot a r.roment
CanI put you an haid?
Right. sony ta keepyau v|aiting.
::::.r.: - :.r,_:!.n. i5 ,.rr.,r.il;ir!a
He nust be in a rneeting
sany. shesot)t af the offi.e /on anathetcall.
.r.ir i.: i.isrrnat;on
What\ t tn canne(tianwnh?
CanyoU qrvene yo1r name?
aan I takeyout number)
] e.\Je. $. !.:n r.je
Do yau know havr'lanq he l be?
C.r//rvampssaqer
Thists / lt\
| Lly nar/,eB Frank Hayden
Canyau askhm to Gll me back?
r.ii".
:re::ia!r
waul.l you lke ta leavea netsage)
Let ne lust get a pen
Can yau spel that (far ne)?
ls that wnh an t or an e ?
tt that t as in ttaly,ar'e as tn Egtpta
Let ne read that ba.k tn you
a11rnis...1).r1
t 11te| htm as saanas he.anes aut af the neetlng
111nake sure he gets the nessage

40 'ELEPHOI\IING- MEssAGES

Exercises
4O.1 Coverthe oppositepagewith a pie<eo{ paper.
Now completeeachsentencebelow with a verb,
a preposition,or both. The longerlinesarefor verbs
(out of is
and the shoneronesare for prpositions.
one item.)
bear
nust

call leave
need put

let nake
read speak

40.3 Put the wod5 in the right order.Write the answers


underthe corred headingbelow.
a Canmeto askyoubackhimcall?
b Doyoube he'llkfow how onq?
c Holdcheck.juston a moment
l .
d l'll surethe mesrage
makeshegets.
e l'm sorrysh'smaiern1yleaveblt on.
I Right,youwatinqto keepsorry
g She's
ai deskherat the momentnot.
h Whatsconneclion
with it in?
Atk the callerto wait

(fi tst dialogueopposite)


r c: 'd likero . ............fpqq-t
lo
srefanLipska.
please.
'lltryhEnumber
2
you.
3
Just
mefor a
I'm not havinganyluck- he
....a meeting
5
to tall to him peEonally
6
7
l'lljust
your
a note
It!'e as

Askfor information
5 (caller)

r.a

. Egypt.

(secanddialagueapposite)
9 Sr StefanLipsk.i5
the oificethisafternoon.
l0 S WouldyoLl.ero
a rressage)
1 1 S :. . . . . . .
m ej l s tg e ta p e n .
12 C: That!ihe code
the Netheands.
13 5: OK,sothatlEllaVogeaar
0031205126149.
14 CrJun.............
.....
himto callmeassoonas
15 5l l'

After waiting
2
.........
Explainsomeoneis unavailable
3
..

surehe getsthe message.

(fhe phrases
you need)
16 Can
you
......................
17 Sorrysheb......................
anothercall.
18 Letme
...................
-.-. that

hold?

40.2 Underlinethe correctwords;n italics.


I 'llteI himas/5o soonaslseeh m.
2 Canyouspe itl that?
3 s \herc anything/ sonething else
4 rhankyau fot your calling/ calling.

to you

40.4 Putthe dialoguebetween5e<retary


and callerinto
(Sedetary'sphtases)
a Sorryshesout of the otf ce rightnow
b Ot couue CanyougivemeyournameT
c Goodmorning,Logstica
d Right.l'vegot that.lts J.mesMatthews
aboutthe
containers
in Hamburg.
e lsthercany,thing
eke?
f Andwhat'sit ln connection
with?
g
h
i
j
k
I

No,that! all.Thankyo! for yourhep. Goodbye.


Hello.l'd liketo speakio Lena,plas.
lt3 aboutthe containers
in Hamburg.
Couldyouaskherto callme back?
Yes,tha!3right.
Yes,it'sJamesMatthews.
Lenaknowrme

1(s)E 2 (c)i..3 6)[: 4 (c)L] s (s)n 6 (c)[]


7 i s ) l _8 ( c ) a e ( s ) f 1 0 ( c ) f -i 1t ( s ) t r1 2 ( c ) [ :
Readth dialogues
on page84 a oud.Do it by youEef or w th
(chanqinqrolesat the end).Practseseveratrmes
a colleaque

40.5 S 2 Speakingpracti(e:listenand repeat.Repeat


eachphraseyou hearand then listento de(k.

Telephoning 85

QI
(fl

Telenhoning- checking,clarifying, active listening

Erik (E)is on a business


trip. In thedialoguebelorvhe calls
hiscolleagleMaria(M) fromthelocaloffice.
E: Maria?I m on a trainfromth aifporr.Myflght adved
M : Erik?t's 6 re.lly bad line.You keepbreakingup.
E : W l e g o i n gt h r o u g ht u n n e l sl.w a s $ y i n g t h a t m y
f ght affivedlate. I' haveto .hange plans
M : Rghl.
E Innead ot qoing to the hotelio chang,I go straighi
to the conlerencevenue.
M : Sorry,ldidn't catchthat Do you want to changethe
E: No, no. wa, ,aying don't havet me to change
my coths at the hote .eed to go straightto the
c o n l e r e n cvee n l e B l t . . H el o ?
Mr He o?
E: We goi .ut oll don't know what happenedYes,I
needto 90 nra tht to the venu I seeyou at rhe
regrstralon derk at two
|\l: understand.'ll meetyou at two o clockat the
registraton desk.
Ei Exactly.
M: Thanksfor ett ng me know
E OK, I havto go now I haveanothercal to make.see
you at two. 8ye.
, Noticc dt liDe6 how Miria uscsacin'e listening.
. Notice at lire t how M.ria asksfo. .epetitionand then
s.ys i'hat she ihnrks shc hc.rd.
/', Noiice at line l8 ho$' Maria rcpc.ts ihe ifrpo.tani

li ihencxtdialogueErikhassomegoodnewsfor M.ria.
E: He o? Maria?lt'sErikhere
Nl: Hi Erk Niceto hearfromyou.lt soundskeyou're
havng . partylCanyouspeakup a bt?
E: 'm callingfrorna renauraftli'sverynoisyin here- I
(. ) can youhearme now?
tLrstgo outside.
M:
E Good I waslustcallingto te I youthe newsaboutthe

contract.
Wegot tl We qot the conrracrl
M : Fantastlcl
Th.t3wonderfu
go ng io paytwo hundred
E Thy're
andf lteen
VI D d yousaytwo hundred
andJifty- fve, zero?
your
E : In
dreanrsl
No,two hundrcdandfifteen- one,
l;

86

live lt 5t givesusa verygoodmargn


M : And didthy.greeto thet meschedule
we proposed?
E : We , hadto movea litte on that in the discussions.
Whatexacty do younreanby'movea little'?

'

E: lsaid that we coLrldstaarwork in eary N,4arch


and
Jinishthe lnstallatonby the midd e of Apr .
tU: Now.wa t a minute Let me lun checkrhar I
understand.Ar you sayng that we havejust six
weksto do the who e lob?
E: That3 riqht
M: I se That'sgoing to be d fficult,you know
E: Well,thee is a wdy we can do t Look,my battery
is very low I th nk we'r qo ng to get cut off. l'll
g v you a car romorrow.
M: OK Greatnewsanylvdy.Thanksfor calllng.Bye.

Notice at line l2 how Maria chccksthe igure by saying


ih. indiyidual nrmbers (it is vcrv casyto get confus.d by
thi rt.. | /t Itt t y, f. h tt r/Jt)rI tt,at ).
'I Notice at line 17 how
Ma.ia clarifiesa very spe.ific point.
; Notice at line 20 ho*, Maria checksby rephrasingihe klea
in a different*'ay.

fhe phrases you need t8


Comprehension problems
I n softy.l don t understan.l
Canyau speaknare slawly,please.
Ask for repetition
Canyou tepeatthat?
Sany,l didn t catchthat.
Wouldyau mind sayng that again?
Didyou sayfifty, five-zero)
clarify
Whatexa.tlydo yau nean by ?
let 4e tu.t , h",l thatI u.de's@.d4'ata\ts4ng
CanI justga avetthatagain)
Active listening
Rtght/ lsee./lundeBtand.
/AK
Really?/ Thats intercsting
'cor'rn rg' t a rb '4\. 'ndrs'.gt1tl Ca't-,t
(pleasure)
Greatl/Fantartrc|
/ Thats wondeiul!
Technicalproblems
Canyou speakup a bit?
Its a tea y bad line.Youkeepbteakingup
My batteryis very|ov,r'.lthink \,,/erc going ta get cut off.
ltsverynoisyin here Illjustga autslde.Canyau heal
Returning after problems
Wegat cut aff.ldon't knowwhathappened.
Sotryabout that Wherewerewe?

- CHEC(ING.CLARIFYIN6.ACIIVE LISTENING
41 TELEPHONING

Exercises
4't.1 Coverthe oppositepagewith a pieceof paper.
Now makephrasesby mat<hingan item from each

Little wordi and noises


I . . . . . . .. . . ..

(firstdialogueappasite)

2
Conlirming
3

iliary + pronoun
7
8
Keywords(asan echo)
9

Showingpleasure
5
6

Askingfor dtai15
1l
12

1 tsarealy

b r e . k r n gu p .

t0
3 dLdnl
4 We got
5 Thanksfor
6 lraveto

(se.anddialagueopposite)
7 Canyouspeak
8 'lljustgo
9 Canyou
10 Whatexactly
11 Letmetrn
12
13
14
15
16

Areyousaying
tvy battery
We'rgo ng to
l giveyou
Thanks

go now
bad ine

41.4 Usea word or phrasefrorn exercise41.3to


Finda solution
completethere lelephoneresponses.
that usesone examplefrom eachcategoryex(ept 'Little
chckthat I underst.nd

Guess\,!hat! We got the

conlract
Gfeiil

gei cut oif


that...?
torca ing.

4I.2 Fillin the letter5to makephrasalverbs.The


definitionsare givento help you.
1 We got
. d o nl I n o w w h a t h a p p e n d
/= 1te'rLpred
n rfe rrddleo'the callbecause
rhe
ielephone
I nestoppedworkn9)
Canyo!
abt?
3 i's a reallybad line You keep
(= your voce is d vid ng inlo short separatenoises)
4 Can just
lhai again?
(= repeata seriesoi ih ngs n orderto ufde6tand them)
5 Please
while I gei a pen
(= wait a moment)
6 l / e b e F ,rlr i n g l o ( d l ' E . l b L , d n l
(= succeedin talk nS to him by phone)
Ques: ]f yau didn t know any af the phrasalverbsabove herc
ate the nissing letters ta help you: 1 cffatu 2 aekppsu
3 abegiknptu 4 egaotv 5 dhlnao 6 egghhorltu
41.3 'Adive listeninq'is very important in a telephone
call. Put the phrasesin the box under the most
appropriate heading in the table at the top ofthe next

And My was that? Did you? Exactly


Great! Half a millian eurcs! Hasshe?
Right/ 1 see/ Sure. Sa what clidyou do? That\ ight.
That'swandenul! vietnam! Yuh/ Mnm / Uh-huh.

wd , 'velearailat iley're
moving
alltheirproduction
to
Belorewe fin sh,dldyo! know
thatbura hasbeenpromoted
to Marketng D rector?
so wrrit vou'ri siv ng s that
goingto be
saLes
areprcbably
belowtargetth s quaner
5 Anyway. oof.deverylrhere

butlcouldnlfindth
USBstckwlh rnypresentaiion
on (.
41.5 Erik ends th first dialogue opposite by saying 'OK, I
haveto go now.l have another callto make'. Put th words
below into orderto make other phrasesto end a call.
1 l'll nop lo havethere.I havero seme w.ling someone
2 li'r ta king io you nice been And 'll lend the emailyou
wanied by deiails.Bye.
3 Anyway,you I won'i any keep onger 'm busyyou re sLrre.
4 ls ihere help you w th l can any,thinqelsetoday?
Readthe dialogleson page85 aLoudD o n b yy o u B e to r w t h
(changing
a colleague
rolesatthe end). Practise
several
Umes

41.5 3 Speakingpractice:listenand repeat.Repeat


eachDhrasevou hearand then listento check

Telephoning 87

,.r"ononing- arranginga meeting

In the dialogubelos'Monila (M) calk Ln'lu (L) to arrange

M : Hello.l'd liketo speakto Livu Baanescu,


please

5pakinq.
M Oh,qoodmorningMy name's
Monka Dannemann

ard lsentyouan emaill.st weekaboulthe


constructon
projectn Blcharest
O". .er.o o.r,p.\i.p ro hedr'ror )oL.\,4o1r1"
Yourema sounded
very nterest
nq AndI d kevery
mlrchto meetyouto discLrss
t further
great.Whaldaywoud sut youT'll be n
M : That's
Bucharen
lromthe e ghteenrh
io rhelwentyj rst
L : LetmelustcheckWhatabout]uesday
the n n,"teenth?
N,4:Thatsolrnds
f ne Whdtt mewolld be qoodlor you?
L Sha we raytwo prn?
M : Idpfeferabt dterf youdont mrndCo! d we make
L Pe ect We canmeetherin rnyoffce on Tuesday
the
n neteenth
at threeo clock
Vl Andwhereexactyisyouroffce?
L: lts n ihe centre- t'sveryasyto getto. l l se.d
an emaI to confrm the meetingandwith a I nk to
olr website.
You f nd a mapanda lot oi other
nformatton
on there.
N/l:Verygood I lookfoMardro meetng youon the
L: Bye,andthanks
for callng.
Noticcai linc4 ho{, Monikabcginsby r.lliring to lh. I.st
Noticcni linc16how Lniu coffinDstlt'dctails.
In thcnextdiak)gucLniu's sec.eidry(S)callsMonika(M) to
cnange f 'le drrangcm.nts.

s: Goodmornifg.lsthatMonkaDdnnemann?
M]

5 : Oh,he o MonikaThs s Mr BalanescLrs


se(retaryl-le

M:
5:

askedmeio caI you.Unfo(!natelyMr Baanescu


cant
makethe meetingwth yoLron Tuesday
th nineteenth
Oh,I see
Yes.Heapooglze! he hasto be olt of the office
. I day Hesuggens
thatyo! meetthefollowingday

M: Thedayafter?OK,that'sno problemWhattimeare
youth nk n9 of?
5: Anyt mein th afternoon whenever
tor
is convenrent

88

M: How about threeo clockaga n?


5: Thdtsoundsf n. Threo clockon the twentreth
iust giveyour nameat receptionand 'llcome down
to meetyou. And 'm sorryaga n about the change.
M: No problrnat al . Goodbye
Notice at line 17 how the secreiaryapologizesagiln it the

Ihe pftrases you need !9


Refer to la5t contact
I sentyau an enail last week
We met at the canfercnceand you gave tneyaur Grd
Open suggestion5
What time v|auldbe gaod far you?
What tine arc you thinkng af?
Concrete suggestions
What abaut next TuestlayT
How abaut 9 Feb.ua.y?
(instead)?
Could we make n
Wauldeleventhjtty suit l= be (onvenientfor)you?
Yes.that'sline I Thatsoundsfine.
t d prcfet a bi latet if yau dan t nind
Na, soffy,\Btt tn attaid)lcan t make)tthen.
My schedulets qune full that day
Conf'rm
(day)at . (t me)
Perfect We.an meet hercon
I sendan enallto.anfim the d-atatls.
Change arrangemente
Unfartunately l .an t nake ne\t Tuesdayt'm out at' the
ot ce all day.Haw about ...?
We havean appalntmentlot truo,but I can t make I at
Sanething urgent has rcne up. Can \,,/erctchedule?
I n softyagainabout the change.I hope it s nat a

4 2 T E L E P H O N I N- GA R R A N G I N G
A MEETING

Exercises
42.1 ln the telephone callbelow, Andy (A) cal15Bulent (B)
to afrange a meeting. Completethe dialogue with the

a little rno.e depth be ny guen by the way


n you don't mind nttpatl
meet up shal we say
soundstine suityou thinklngof thisis
ttvo Dta.Ksaway
A G o o dm o r nn g , s t h a t B u e n tG u l ?
I Ys.
A Oh he o, I
Andy CLrttn9 here We met
at the conferencen lstanbullan week. We were ntroduced
by [,']rArl
B Of course, rememberverywe , we exrhangedbusifest
c a r d sH o wd r ey o u A n d y ?
A F i n eF n e . L o o k ,' m g o i n gt o b e n n d n b u a g dn a t
t h e e n d o l n e x im o n t h C a nw e ' ?
s o m e tm e ?W e c a nl a k a b o u ty o u rp a n sf o r t h e i u t u r e
, . n d I c d ns h o wy o L hr o w o u r
comp.ny can add va Lreto your das.
8: Yes,it wou d be a good oppo(lnity to ta k sommofe
What d.y dre you a
?
A : ' l b e o v e rt h e r ef r o mt h e l w e n l y - eg h l h i o i h e r h h t h o f

oclober
B: Whch of thosedayswouldi

A: '
T u e s d atyh e l w e n t yn n t h ?
B lhat 7
W h a ta b o ! 1t h e t m e 7 s n i n e
o ' c l o c kO K ?
A I d p r e f e ra b t . t e r ,3
Couowemake
i t e e v e ne
?
B Perfect l seeyou hereat my offrceat eleveno'clockon
T!esdaythe twenty n nth And altetuardsI hope thar you

A Thatsveryk nd of you. woud reay likethat Thankyou

B o K .o h ,r r

Is rnthebusnees
d (r.i - jun
frornthe Marrott
find t Goodbye

B: Yes,
theyw
A: OK,

do yo! f now how to fnd

42.2 In the next call,BulentcallsAndy to changethe


arrangements.
completeth dialoguewith the words in

.an t make it come up ftts ny plans fot the time af yeal


'11 laak
aver therc rcKhedule sary agaln
nill open (hesethrngshappen waull be gaod
B : H e l l oA n d y . I h i si s B l l e n tG L rh r e f r o m l s t a n b u l .
A: Oh, he lo Bllent How n c to hea.{rom you How are
rnrngs
n r u r fe y
B |./pl o
r r ' h o e r . u . u "7
W h a t . b o u rt h e U K ?
A We'r havinga ovey aLrtLrmnlcan sethe trcesfrorn my

, Andy,l'rncalng about
our meetifg at the end of the rnonth.UnfortrnatelyI
'
o n t h e t w e n t yn i n t h .S o m e t hn g
u r g e n th a s5
A D o n ' 1 w o r ray b o L rt th a t 6
8: Can we r
? Are yoLrfre the prevous
day - ihe Monday?
A: Lei nre lun check Yes,thats f ne. havean appo ninrenl
b u t l h e t i mn 9 s 3
r o ry o u l
B T h es . m et m e ?E l e v e n ?
B Good l'm io
abo!ttheclrange hop
13 not a probem for yoLr
A N o , n o p r o be m , I c a nm . k e , t o n l h e M o n d a yA c t u ay i t

BOK
seeyo! on the twenty-eghth
a.d l'l sendan emaI to confrnr.
a Seeyouthen 8ye
42.3 Canyou fill in the missing
word?
an arrangernent
to seesorneone
at a pad(uar time.especaly
for a blsiness
rnet
ng or a
R e a dt h ed r a l o q l eosn p a g e8 8 a o u d D o t b yy o l r s e fo r w t h
a co eague(chanqing
rolesal the end)

42.4 ir} a Speakingpractice:listenand repeat.Repeat


eachphrasyou hearand then listento (hed.

Telephoning 89

r.,.ononing- <omplaints

ReadthedjalogucbelowA customer(C)callsa supplie!(S)


to make. complant.
C: l'm callingin connecton
wiih myorder.rcfercnc
number1N0064.
S Thanlyou oedsewd . onpro11p r wl. " I br. q yoJl
detailsup on th scren.
. . OK.Forsecurrypurposes,
canyoucontrrnyournameandthe company
name
C: Yes,itb Mr ChenfromZd]echnika.
S: That'sf lre HowcanI hep youtoday?

r . r a , e a C o no l . . n l W e p , a \ F o 1 o o o p r " \ a o , 1 9
but yolr only sh pped 80 piecs.Ihe orderwds for 100
m sorryto hearthat Can you eave l with me? 'll
ook nto it and get b.ck to you th s afternoon
C: No, I m sorry that sn t good enough.We needthose
1msLrrgenty wdnt you lo authorzthe shippingof
the m s5nq 20 piecsand then sendthem today
S u n d e u l a n dh o w y o u f e e l .B u l l d o f e d t o c h e c k
a t t h s e n d . n d s e ew h a t gg o i n go n . ' l l c a l y o u b a c k
^ r n d . r o L . .. ^ d o f c o u r s s e c a ns e ' ] dl l - e p r e c e g
aga n i necssary
C What do you mean 'f necessary'?
Can t haveyour
S

S Yes,oi coLrue,t's Sandra


Lewis.

OK,Sandra,
I expectyourcallby twelveo'clockat the
laten.Goodbye.

i Notice how ih. customcrw.ih until the suppli.r his


all the ordcr dctailson th. screcnbefffc bcginning thc
,, Notice at line t how ihc customerstatcsihe complaint
very simply and clearly
rr At line 14 ile customcrinsistson action.Th. mppiicr
shows undersiandingatline 17 but resisisihe presntrc.
r, Ai line l8 ihe supplier promisesaciion with 'l'll'.
/, Ai line 2l ihe customershows signsofmger This is noi
good. Hor{evcr gctting the name of eachemployeevou
deal wiih is a very powerful tool.

ln thenextdialogueSandrareiunrsthc cusioner'scall.
S: Ohhelo,isthatMr ChenT
C: Speakinq.
S: Ths is S.ndraLewishere,fromShro Smcondlciofi.
calingyoubackaboutthe missng pieces
C: Ohyes.
S: ldo apoogizeoncernore,wr Chef,but I havegood
newsforyo!'vehada wordwth thewarehouse
and t seemstheysenta partalorder iheyonlyhad
80 pecesn stock.However
theydo now havemore
pieces.'llmakesurethatthe missng iternsaresentto
yo! th s afternoon
by speciadelivery

C: OK.
S: l'm sorryagainfor any inconvenience
th s hascaused.
C: OK, it's torted out now Thankyou for your help.
5: ls therc dnj,,thng ese?
C: No, thai! all. Goodby
At line l0 Sandrapromisesactionwiih'I'11'.
At linc 13 Sddra apologizsagain in a full an.l lormal
At line 14 thc.ustomer remembersto thank Sand.a,cven
though hc is probablv not \{.y happy.tsIeN.ds to keepa
good reliiionship rvith Sandrafor futu.. occnsions.

fhe phrases yos need llg


Make a complaint
l'm callingtn connectianwith my arde, relerence
we receivedthe arder thisnorning but yau only shqped
We stillhavent rcceivedthe
Theres
a faultvr'lththe
Theteseensta be a prcblenwlth the)nvd.e
t n sary, thatisn'tgoadenaugh
Show understanding
t n sary to heatthat
t undetstand
hawyau feel.
t m surewe cansaft ]t out
Get the facts
Whdtexactlyis the ptablen?
Doyou havea rcterencenumbe.?
I needta askyau a few qurckquestions
No action
It'snot aut palcyta
I undetstandexactlyhow you feel,but it's not aur
responsibtlity
ta
Promise action
Canyau leaveit with me?I ll laok into I and qet backto
you thisattenoan.
I needta checkat thisend and seewhat'sqoinq on
I callyau backwithin an hoLr ls that OK?
l' senda replacement
innediateiy by specialdeiivery
It shauldbe with yoL tonaffaw
I makesurcthat...
End the call
t n sorryagainfar anyincanvenience
this hascaused.
lf yau haveanymoreprablens, pleaselet me knaw

43 TEIEPHONING- COMPLAINIS

Exercises
43.1 Make phrasesby matchingth beginningol each
sentence1-12with its.orrect endinga-|. Not allthe
phrasesappearopposite.
Makinqa eorlphill
1 I m c an g n . . L b
2 We retevdth orderblt yo! only
3 Thmachne arrivedblt ther-o3
4 W en i l . . i l
5 neprnrersnr woftLnq
6 Oneof the ter.swasdarnaqed
7 lheresan ntermittent
{aut
I lhe qualtyisnt asqoodas. .
9 Yousntmea newpart.
youbut.
I1 kepemailing
12 'm lorry,that snt good ..
on th rontro panel
connection
wth myordernumber
1N0064.
to bea problem
withtheinvoce
yourorginalsampe.
llustgetautomatc
repes.
shpped80 pieces.
in Vanst
haven'trecevedthe goodswe ordered.
enough.
j blt t doesnlft
k properyts been{ neup to now
no nslTuclron
manua.
a
b
c
d
e
J
g
h

43-2 Matcheachcomplaintabovto a responseblow.


Writ the answeras 'number+ letter'.(see#1.)
/1)
ThankyoLrPeaeewaltonemomentwhie
bringyourdetailsup on thscreen.
2
I see ls it nill Lrnder
warranty?
3
I'm torryaboutthat. 'll pui youthrolghro
the accoLrnts
departmftandI m euretheycansonit out
Ray?Thatsverynrange.'lselrdyoua pdt
bymai rqht fow andpui a papercopy n the postaswel
underrtand
howyoufeel.Bui do nedto
checkat thisendandseewhalSgo ng on l'l callyouback
withinan hour
OK. feed to atk youa few quck questions
to try to diagnose
the problem.
Doyouseeanyfashinq
ghtson the d splaywhilethe fa! t occurs?

43.3 Mak phrasesby matchingan item from each


Dealinq!vi!h a <ooElaht
1 Can you av-\
2 l look
\
3 I qt ba.k

..-it

to you th s aftrnoon.
apoloqizeonc more
wth m?

5 | ned
6 l d o
8
9
10
11
12

What exactly
Sorrydga n
s n da
' I m.k
' v eh a d
a

wordwth thwdrehouse
surthe temsaresentto yolr.

replacrnent
mmedaley.
lor any nconvn
enceth s has

43.4 In the seconddialogueSandratries to minimize


lhe problemby uting'sems':/t smsthey sent a
partial order.Rewritethe sentences
below so that they
minimizea problem.Uselhe words in brackets.
(lthink/maybe/
probemwih olr suppliers
1 There's.
ESUe)
2 ll\ go, 9 ro bF dd'i, h _o .Fnoa rA l_1r.dr rodcr

3 Thercw I be a deLaywhie we processthe nw order


(rnighi/ short)
4 Thereis a problemwih ihe nvoce. (ihere/ seems/ be /

I n e e dl o s p e a ki o m y v e l i w os u p e r v s oarb o u 1 1 h 6 .
(lust/ havea quickword wih)

It woud be easler
lor youit we simplyissued
a new nvoice
(wouldf't?)
43.5 This senten(e relers to promiling action: l7
investigate it, tind an answeti and.all you again
tomorow. Fill in lhe missing letters to write a sentence
with the same meaning using phrasalverbs.
I
i
it,s
ito
b
t you
,andg

Readthe dialogues
on page90 aoLrdDo it by youfsef or w th
(changinq
a coLeague
rolesal the end).Praclise
severaltrmes
unt youle i !ent.

43.6 F s Speakingpractice:listnand repeat.Repeat


eachDhrasevou hearand thn listento chck

,a.ohoning- review

44.1 Fill in the gapswith the wordr in the box.


ba(k
on

back fot frcn in in


on aut or avet wfi

'm calling

I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

connection

yourjob

you
Hownicto hear
Thanks
callnq.
Can putyou
hod?
Sorryshes
the offce
Sorryshes
anothercall
Caf youaskh m io caI me
I
s that'i'as
ltaly?
Ltrnereadthat
to yoLr.
Can justgo
thataqan?
back by
oP

o.

far
up

fat
Lp

inta
^ith

af
^.'h

44.3 Completethe conversationbelow usingphrasesa-h


from th previousexercise.The conversationis betlveen
a receptionist(R),secretary(s) and .aller (c).
Writethe phrasesin full (rathrthan just the letters)- it
will help you to remembrthm.
R: Goodaftrnoon,
?
Pharma
Intrnat
onal Howcan I hep yoLr
please?
C: Can speakto Robe.ra
Jarvlk,
R: l'll try hrnumbrfor you. .. Sorrythere3no answer
j
for a moment
wh ltry anothr
extension
... No,st I no answer
'z
hersecretary?
5: Goodarrrnoon,
R&Ddepairment.
C: Oh.hello,rsthdt Ms.larvks secrtary?
5: 3
C: I washopn9 to speakto Ms larviktodayDoyouknow
whenshewi be avalab?
5: 'm a{raldshe!out of the oiiicea day
4

I
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
'o

irst bear
Canyouspeak
a bit?
t3 a badline.Youkeepbreaklng
Wegotcut
Wherewerewe?
Whattimewouldbe good
you?
Whattimeareyouth nk ng
?
Canyouleavet
me?
'l ook
it andget
to you.
-eedro cfecla_dseewhd , goi.g
20 'lsenda repacement
specadelvery
44.2 Matcheachphrase1-8 with a phrasea-h with a
similarmeaning.
1 Yes,ih s s torrrame) here.
2 Please
wait a momeni.
3 'll askherio get backto you.
4 Woud youliketo speakto ..?I l
5 Can takea message?
6 Can justrepateveryth
nq to check?
7 Canyourepeatth.t?
8 Yes,thats rght.
a
b
c
d
e
f
q
h

Letmejun readthatbackto you.


shaI Lput youthroughto .. ?
Justbearwith me.
sorryI d dnl catchihai.
Woud youLiketo leavea message?
Speak
ng.
'llaskherto ca youba.k.
Exactly.

C: Yes,please.
Canyoute I herthatY Sangcalled,fromseou
Hospital
lts aboltyournewheaddrug.
' can youg ve
meyournar.eagan please?
c Yes,tsY 5an9That3Y-,newword,S-A-N-G.
5 : OK,qot that And the mess.ge?
c ld liketo l. k to heraboutyournewhea.tdrug.Theone
phasethreeclinLca
ihat hasjustpassed
trias. we m ghi be
interened
in gettinginvolved
in phaseiour trias. I needio
speakto herpersonaly
aboLilth s
5 : Right6
.Y Sang
calledfromSeoulHosptal aboutthe newheartdrug.Li's
aboutthe phasefour cl nicatri. s.

c:
5 : Doesshehaveyournumber?

c:
5 : Fine.3

tomorow

c :Th.nkyouverymlch for yo!r heip.Goodbye.


Whenyou finish,readthe conversationaloud.Do it by
yourslf,or with a colleague(changingrotesat the end).
Pradiseseveraltimes until you're{luent.

- BEVIEW
II4 TELEPHONING

44.4 Completethe conversationusingthe words in


brackets.Nikos(N)callsMr slavicek(S).The re.eptionin
(R)answers.
R: Goodmorning,Nt]t Fruits.lvanaspeaking.
Haw canI hetpvauTlhaw thel?l
( / llk/ speak)toMr slavicek,
please.
N:
(while/tryl connect)

.r\.h.1

5 : M i a n Sa v i c e k .
N : H e o M r S l a v c e kT. hs s NikosKarcuzos
fromSeven
Seas
S h l p pn g .

5: Nikoslr

(how/ nice/ hearfrom)l


(how / thinqs/ Athen!)?

Ni Fine,tine.And in Zagreb?
S: Good.We?everybusyat the moment- lotsot new
business.
lt seems
thateveryone
wantsfruitfromCroatia
(this/
N: That'sgoodto hearLook,5
goodtime/ta k)?Doyouhavea second?
(ust/ give/ moment)while
Sr6
lfinish
(ahead)
something.
OK.7
Nr3 .....................-.,-.of yournext
keason/ca ling)because
shlpment
thatwe?ehandling.
ltl for fo!r containeE,
at the
endof November,
S: Yes,that'sr ght.
N: Wel, e. .. .....-.......-..........in a
- (thoL4ht/ might)interested
wayto savea bt of money,
S: ro
............
....(course),
Nikos,l'm alwatsinterested
rnsavrng
money.
N: We havea sma shipleavng Dubrovnlk
oneweekearlier
We havesonespaceor thatshrpfor yoJrcorrarners
S: '
. . - . (let/ jlst check/ unde6tand).
Are
yo! sayng that if we cansendthe containers
oneweek
earier,thercwil b a differentprice?
N: ExactlyForeverycontanerthatyorisendon theearliership,
we'llgiveyo- a 2voditcourton tl^eprcewe quoted.
5: r'?............. ...(ust/ go over/ again)?
Youmean
ihat f we sendallfouf containers
we will
rn midNovember,
get a iotaldiscount
of 8%?
N: Thail r ght.
S: OK,ihrtl veryintercst
ng,but I can'tgiveyouan answer
(l/ getback/you)in a
righinow 'l

44.5 Readthe dialogueabout arranginga meeting.Choose


the ben word/s to Iill eachgap from A, B, c or D below.
Ann: Hilim- '
Ann.
lim: Hi.
Ann: Jim we needto meetup somtim-c
to discuss
the
Frankiuft
TradeFair
iim: OK.Whattime2-..------- be goodfor you?
Ann: Whataboutr.--.---ft,londay?
lim: Letmesee.No,sorryI cant a
then.Couldwe
5meeton Tuesday
?
Ann: t!,4y
schedule
is quite6
on Tuesday,
but l'm
freelaterin the afternoon.
youbest?
lim: OK.Whattimewoud 7
Ann: 3.........-- we say6pm?Or s thattoo late?
iim: Well.it is really.
l'd prefera bt ear er if youdon't
lstve OK?
Yes,
thatlo

oK.r,

fine.That'smuchbetter.
sendan emaito confirm.
calng.

I Thisis
B could
B at nex
B makert
5 A alternative B in place
6 A lull
I occupied
I suit
8 A will
I shall
9 A mind
B care
10 A couldbe
B 5eems
me
1 1A l
8fd
12 A Thanks
for I Thanks
for your
2 A should
3 A the next

C Hereis

D Spe:king
D can
D riext
C on next
D arrange
Cbe
instead
D insteadol
C
D engaged
C cornpete
prefer
D advantag
C
D what
C how
D troube
C worry
feels
D sounds
C
DI'm
cl
your
lthank
DNce
C

N: That'sf ne.
5 : r a- .

(islelse) we needto discusswhile


line?
N : N o ,I d o n ' tt h ink so. That3all.
( t h a n l s /c a l l i n q )N. i c e
S: OK, Nikos,ls

talkng to you.
Ni,6

(lts / n ce / 1. ling / too). Bye

Whenyou finish,readthe conversationaloud.Do it by


yourself,or with . colleague(changingrolesatthe end).
Practiseseveraltimes until you'refluent.

Telephoning 93

Mdija Novak is looking for a job tluough an online


Kruitmeni agency.She sends an email with her CV md a

sreven
rHillhopeyoutewer
Ei
This is iuslaquicknoteto asklor somehelp ve been
L-T
applying
lorjobs n Londoiusngonineage,rcies
butl'vehad
lt
no luckarall.lney iusrsendbackrhesesra.dardemals its
l
reallydep@ssing
]
3Anrvay,
l waswondeingii yo! colld hep me?ltholghtyou
mightknowof someLondon
recrulme asercieslhalhavejobs l
inlheiinanceaa Canyousendmesomefames? d realLy
l
appreciale
il
l
aThanks
io. yourhep.
]
5BeslwishesroT,Assa
]r
Ma{a
__]

I
l - w l 1 9 r " r " g " r or o . o bv a - a E y? t r o l O N O O 9 6o2n7
]
/oi I a4os[e.^s reqFsreo arrlr aycv
-1
zl leelconlidenl
thalmyskilsandachlevements
area verygood
fit rorthisiob prclie.
'Peaseieelifeelo contactmeil youhaveanyqueslions
allooklorward
lo hearng fromyo!.
Maria
- : . Novak
...:.:
:

A rccruitmentconsultantreplies:
r H i M a r j a . g r e a l t o hrer c m y o ! a g a nm
. I n e- j L r sglo lb a c k
lromvacation
in MorcccoAmazng!
2Anyway,
hanksloryouremailImhappytohep- askalew
peopleandtryrohink ol sorneagencies
youcoudny
3shalllalsosend
youa copyollhe LondonYelowPagesf lh
ral, Sotrerimes
irs brt.lfa.o.r.le- [s ve'ycomprserive
and ists oadsol agencsandolherinformalon
al i. one

DearMariia
rThankyou
yourCv wewl looklhrough
verymuch1orsendlng
I caretulyafd conlaclyouagan lnecessary
'?Peasebe awarelhallhejob
markels extremely
compelitive
andlhalwercceive
manyappicalons
iorou vacanlposllons.
3lllcan ofieranylurtheradviceof assslance,
pleasedonr

lcood luckwilhlhe huntng


iob

Themailsaboveusepolit,formallanguage.
Comparethem
with theemailsbetweenMarijaanda friendon the right.

Thes last two emails are friendly and informal, but note
how Mariia startsparaSraph3 of her email to Steren- she
usespolite, formal languaSewith her friend becauseshe's

The phrasesyou need B

94

More formal

More informal

Firstline

DearSirot Madan / Deatlname)

Hl . / (jrrt the name)/Jnoth


ng at"lD

Friendlyopen

It wasa greatpleasureto meetyou tn

How'sit going?/ I hopeyou?ewell


Greatto hearfran yau again!

Thankyou verynuch for sending


Futtherto aur earlierconvetsatton,

Ihanksfor your email.


folbwingyou<all,...

Reasonfor writing

I'n writinq with regardto


rn witinq to find out nore infornation about .-.

fhis isjust a quicknote to say/ askfor ...


Reyou enailbelow ...

Request

I waswanderingif you could.. .


lwauld be gratetulif youcould...

Offer help

wouldyou likeme to ...?


lf you wish,I wouldbe happyto ...

DoWu wantme to...?


lf you needanynorc infornation,just let ne

lf I .an offet any fufther assistance,pleasedon't


hesttateto contad me.
Pleasefeel free to contact ne if tou have any

Justgiveme a ca if you haveany questions.

Friendlyclose

I look foMard ta heaing fromyou.


Givemyregards
to.--

seeyou soon./ Thank for your help.


Goadluck with .- / Bestwishesto ..-

Last line

You6sincerely/ KindrcganlsI Bestwishes

BestwishesI All the best| (ust the nam)

l
l

45 EMAILS- BASICs

Exercises
45.1 Coverthe opporite page with a piece of paper.
Now makephrasesby mat(hingan item tmm each

45,3 ComDlete
the thre emailsbelow with wordsfrom
the box.
an altachment a5 requestd don't hsltate
do you want futther assistance qet bac* gntelul fol
grcat pleature heanngfron
please re
relation to usefuldis.ussion very imprcssed
wonderingif with regatd

1l'mwriting-\
fromyou.
!o hearing
please...
2 Please
feelfree \
furthefassistance,
I lool forwdrd \
to contactmerl ...
a Th.1l youvey mL(h -wrthrcqardto.
yourCV
for sending

i ; i;... ; i&.!.|r-tiil--..-..-...1..

I r6
7
8
9
10
11

I hopeyoir're
Thisisjusta
| waswonderng if
I'd rcaly
Geatto
sha

youcouldheipme.
hearfrcmyouagain.
sendyoua copyof ...?
appda |l.

45.2 Lookat the numberedparagraphsIn the four


emailsopposite,Write one of the paragrephtypes in the
box on eachline b6low The paragraphtypescan be used

Badyaf enail FinalconnenE Friendlyclose


Friendlyapen affet help Prevbuscohtact
Reamnfor witihg Request
Fi6t emall
lst para
)",1
Badvof email
",,'
para
3rd
arh n,r:

Fflendlv clase

Secondemail

i;;

lo you planslo setLrpan


invstmedfundlor Inda. Atterouf verya .--..-...-.....-.......on ihisEsueI nowneeda litle.0," Ou"lg,ornOnlorruiioi.
youcouldsondmeacopy0i
lhe consolidaledaccountsfor yow qrclp oi companes?Also I
wouldbo5 ----------anyiniomarlon
rhatyo! havs
abourregulaton
ol rhDubaiStock
Exchange.
llooklotuad lo 7
... yousoon
SanjayGulali

---

eqrl
.' i r".,.j gqr,er
sobi.cta.D!_BffiE_,_._,--.---.:--.:-,.:-l
!--E!Ll
Manylhanksloryourenai andlor you.kndwods. twasa
lor !s lo welcomevo! her6 i DLrbal.
Dleasure
, Im sendln!youa copyoiour

2nd pafa
3rd para

'o theExchange,
lhenwebste is
wW ditx.aoandlhishasal lhs nlomation
yo! need.

Thirdemail
ist para ---&9!4L spcl
2nd para
3rd para
4th para ---Fientllv close
5th para

:ra para ---!{|j

--J

llwasar
lo meetyouandyoLrr
tearnn
Olbailastmonh.You hospilally
wasverygenerousand was

1stpar.

Founhemail
I st para
2ndpara

suo;e"r!-'Wlmqr rundioi|;a6

-,

locontaclmeii I canbe olany

l.....l

5end

e/P

youremal, contacted
llr
Abdullah
andhe sentmeIheiraccounts.llreyte
allached
here.

4th para
Notce how the bodyof the email(includinq
.questinq
and
offeringhe p etc) s lramedon eithersidebytheopeninsand
.loslngpaEgraphs.
li is rareto haveonlythebodyofthe email
wth no framing.

to meil lhreareanyissues.l'fi1

leavinglhiq lo yoL I havFm . L" rrN ro read accoL.ls

m el o c a l a m e e r i nwgi r hB h s l a ri na
wek or soto disclssalllhis?
G@dlLckwth he accountsL

Seepage 151for somewriting tasks.

Emails 95

Emails- internal communication


Emails u*d iside a compmy are often short ed direct.
ll)ok at the following example:

Serrd I

subjectj

Hi Bfell

Justaq! ck nole1oremindyouIharlts theendol lheqlarler


Peasesendmethesaleslguresbrokendownby regon.as
Canlask youto aso showsaesaccordin!10producline?I
w o u dr e ay h e pw h e n c o m p l e m y r e p o r l
Tha.ksioryourco-operal
on

Herc is the rEply io thc aboveemajl:

setrd

The level of fomality of iniemal emails depends on the


:ud,er,edd Fd.on for hriruS. t
rhesryle..L-l
"udlJ
neuhal, but hereis d exuple of a formal and an infornal

subjorr linanciaresults
m p easedto te I you thatour tfanc a resuls lhis year have
bee. very poslve woud lke to thankyoual lor yourvauable
lwould aso ike 1olake lhe opporlunlylo le yo! aboutan
imporlanrsralichange Parca Nascmentohas beer appofled
as Maftelng Drectortor grazl to repraceFitaCosta.Shewl
work lo slrenglhenolr prese.ce n Laln Amerca
This s an exclng lme 'or ourcompany.and m surelhal can
counlon yolr conlnu ng commitmenloverlullre monlhs

slbjec! BerOuanerysaesI gures

Susan hereslheiirslseloiiiglresyo! wa.ted allachedasa


spreadsheel
Thesecondsel- saesby produclme willakea
e ongerl0 colecl I sendlhemby theendol lheweek
Nowlor somebad.ews Unlonu.arey.
he saesslallareleling
usthalnexlquarlers ikelylo be sgnlcanlyweakerDoyou
wanlmelo gellogelher
lorJuy-Sept
a revsed{orecasl
L l m ek f o wl h e r e sa n y l h
n ge s el c a nd or oh ep w i r hr h e
&ett

Goa <a-o a
(.

b ; ,r "

v d,o /oai - ie.!1.d, _

Goran- ooksike ie lI nelworks gornglo be dow. nexr


F day Folr.e mainrenance
lheysay Whata hasse
Weve9ola videocon'erence
a(angedlorFr pm Sha ca
everyo.eandlfy 1oreschedu
e lorMonday?
Gelbacklo rne I
youlhnk rs a qooddea

fhe phrasesyou need B


Remind
Justa quick nateta rcmindyau that
|'d liketa rcmindevetyone
that..
Request
Please.. / I needyou to ... / Id be gtatefulif yaucould.
I wonderif you couldgivene sameinforration?
Can I askyau to .. ? / l woLldappteciateyau help with thts.

Give news
l'n pleasedto tellyou that

Be helpJul
Hetesthe.. yau wanted./ I veaftached
..
l'll .. / l'll get antait rightaway.
ShalL..? / Doyouwantne ta .. ?

Friendly close
Please
get backto ne if you needanynare infomatnn
Letne know if theres dnyhing elseI canda

Thank
I would liketo thankyou verynuch for ..
We done! Yau'vedanea greatjab.

96

/ In sureyau will be pieased

Thebadnewsis that I Unfattunately,


...
Wauldall staff pleasenate that
I t\/ouldlike ta takethe appattunityta tellyau about ..
Thereasonsfot the.hangesarc as fallows:

fhdn|s ag"in lat aI lau holD I rca r apDrc"ara :t


Thanks for your ca-apetatian.

46 EMAILS- INTERNALCOMMUNICATION

Exercises
46.1 Completethe very short emailsbelow usingthese
wotd' advance,co-operation, know, Iet, 'll, qui* note,
please,rcmind, say.
that I got youremailand
speakto Fernanda
aboLrtt whenI seeher
youthat
2 JListd
lo
tie ledn nPplrngs roTo"ow at 9dr
bring copiesof my repo.t with you.

3 Justto
you ...................... . lnar
therewill be a frrcdr I at somepointnextweek.Thankyou
tor yor.rr
Theemais above,ike the fid oneopposile,beginwith 'jun' 1o
lshow a shorrmessage.

46.2 Coverthe oppositepagewith a pieceof paper.


Now try to rememberthe wods below.(somelnrs
havebeengiven.)
I Sus.n5 thefl6t setof figuresyouwanted,
a
ed asa spreadsheet
2 Nowfor somebadnews.LJ
ly.the
salesstaffaretellinousthat nextouarteris likelvto be
s9n
ly weafer
qettogetherarevsedforecast
3 Doyou
lo.
tme
Juy-Sep?
4
t me
w f there3an!,lhng
e I cando to hep
wth thercpon.
5
cal everyone
andtry to reschedu
e for lvonday?
6
t
k to me f yo! think t's a good dea.
46.3 Put the words below into the corre<torder.Write
allthe answercunderthe correctheadingbelow.
'm to tellyoLithat pleased..
woud alsolikethe oppoarunity
to taketo tell.boui you ...
woud liketo thankfor youallyourv. uablecontrrbuton.
Thanks
fof allyouragainhelp. appreci.te
it realy.
youwi1b sureto heafth.t ..
I m pleased
you'dthoughtto knowthai ...
I be ntercsted
wouidallstaffnoteplease
that ..
'm verything
youhavedoneverygr.tefulfor

45.4 Completeeachsentence1-8 with the bestending


I l'm suryouwii be . . . F
3 l'd liketo remind. .|
a canI dskyou...i5lwouldapprccate...:l

a to let Paulaln HRknowyourholldaypansfor the summr


asap?
b everyone
that redecoration
oi stalfofiicesw begn on
Monday.
c pleased
to hearthatI havenegotiated
a d scountfor a
empoyees
at the localiitness
centre.
d a meetingoi the seniormanagrnent
tearna5trnonth,it
hasbeendecided
to reorganize
the depanme.t.
e thatanyonew shing10benefiifromthisdiscount
should
regisle'ar rl'e cenrebefortt e endo' ALgusr.
{ movealltablesanddesksawayfromthe walkto a low
.ccessto areasthat need1obe painied.
andthe proposed
newstructure
arein the
9 for the changes
attached
doc!ment,lwould begratefulforanycomments
h yourhep w th th s aswe needto makesurcthatveryone
doesn'tgo awayon vacation
at the samiirn
45.5 Makelour short,<ompleteemailsusingthe
answeEto the previousexer<ise.
Email1: iaj + 8-J
Emall2::c/l+ l
,r",0,

t ' t-

see page 151for somewriting tasks.

Announcinggood news

t h np1:.?:,:!...!P
.le!Lv-ul!i!,

Announcinggeneralnews
3 .-.....
.
4
5
Thanking

Canyou find three phrasesfrom the table in Hnri


Devereaux3emailoooosit?
Emaik 97

Emails- commencial
ln ihe exchmgeof emailsbelow a custome.makesan
enquiry md the supplier replies:

tt ln email 3 ihe customer confims details that have been


covered in pievious discussions.
o Seemii 3 for the lmgrage of intemational lrade (CIF /
leiier of credit etc).

Email 1
'.;,
!rrr.

To... nio@pot;iaacaaom
subrd: qpqi' ,:o:19,p9t:,pq'l

lvsted yourslandal lheEnergy


TradeFairn Hanover
andwas
mpressed
by yourranqeolpowerpacksbasedon luelcel
r"c5 olo9,
lp ckedup a brochure
al lhelair andwoudnowlke somemore
delaledtechficalspecI calionsioryourrangeol fue ce s ro.
smaI lrandlreld
devices
powerpackssuilable
In padicuarlwoud ike10knowabout
ior
a ponabbDVDplayer
Peasesenddelas ol size energyoutplt elc
I ookiorwa.dlo heafng lromyou

The phrases you need E


^

Email 2
D a nB a e \
lo..
slbjecrr r.io re powerpacks
| _ r'.ar -q a doc--e l -. 9\es
lu delas ol ourrangeoi powerpacks
Canldrawyourallenlonro modesFC68andFC72?
These
wo! d be dea Jora srnalhandheld
devce
I wourdwelcomeie opporlunry
rodrsclssyourneedsm more
dela May suggesl
lhallcal you n a dayor !wo?
I n l h e m e a . l m pe e a s e d o n t h e s i l a l e l o c o n l a c l m e p e r s o n a l y
l youhaveanyqueslonsMydnecl .e s gvenbeow
send

,t/,The personwriting email2 willbe a salesconsultant,


and they use the enquiry as a chanceio enterinio a sales
dialogue.ln the follow'up conversaiionsthis person\!ill
usesaleslanguagefrom units l8-2'1.
Aficr further telephoneconlersaiionsand emailsthe
customernow pracesan order:

Enquiry
t ti\tcd ,ar s?.d at
dnd ^dt np,e.s-d b)
lwauld like sane detailed specificationsfar
ln particulatlwauld liketa knaw
Pleasesend details of yout product Gnge and ptices /
discaunts / delivery times / terms af payment, etc.

Replyto enquiry
fhdFttar tar)ou! emdttot t/' tcbtuat p.quning
1n aftachinga documentthat glvesfull detailsof
CanI drawyouraftentianta .?
Ourstanclaftjtermsarc paynent within 28 days,but we
affet discountsfot promptpayment Wealsooffer
quantitydiscauntsfot large purchases.
We can shipwithin one weekof a ftrm arder
1would welcane the oppaftunityto dtscuss
yaur needs
Wehape thatyau find au quotatiansatlslactotyand
laok farMardta rccetvingyour arder
Please
dan t hesitateta contactme persanallyif you
haveany questions
Placing an order
Follawingour rcaentcanvesations,pleaseflnd attached
ouronet na.... rcl
,n srccl.please
ll lou doaI navph. trcmsteqtresred
adviseusinnediately.
The gaods nust be deliveted by
canfim yau delivety date.

lf any of theseconditionsarenat net, pleasercfer ta the


dc!"iledr.tm, n au ca. act rat aanns that^. ae

Email 3
!
sond

lo...
subjert

S a e sd e o a r l m e n t
order lor modelFcT2

pleaseiindalbchedour
Folowng olr rece.rconversalons
o.derno JX034tor25000ile ce s modeFC72
Weagreedthalthegoodswi be senlby sea(ClFB!san).
seclreypackedin 25cases01l 000 lemseach
Thegoodsmuslbedelveredlo Busanporlby 24Apllal lhe
ll anyot thesecofdtonsarenolmet.p easereieflo lhe
delaiedtermsInourconlracl
toraclonsthatweareenlI ed to
Wewl payby nrevocab
e ellerol credl Peasesefd copiesoi
theshppn9 documenrs
a.d lnvoiced rectlyromeas pdlllles
Please
acknowledqe
recept otths order
yo!
Thank andwe ookfotuardlo dong morebusiness
wilhyou

98

Please
a.knawledgercceiptof t s odel
Shipping an order
Thegaodswill be sentby sea/ an / road/ rail and wil be
secureiypackedin baxes/ cases/ .rates.
Welook forwatd to doing morc business
with you in the

47 EMAILS- COMMERCIAL

Exercises
47.1 Covrth oppositepagewith a pieceo{ paper.
Now try to rememberthe words below (Someletters
havebeengivn.)
l lvsitedyourn
at the Enerqy
TrddeFdir
2 | p ckedup a bro
e at the fair,andwouldnow I ke
somemoredtaledtchnicalspe
s for
yourra
ot fuelce s
3 In p
r, I would keto knowaboutpower
packssu
le for a portabeDVDp dyer.
4 CanI d w youra
ion1omodehFC68.nd FC72?
5 In the ma
me,please
dont hes
e to contactme
personay ii youhavanyquenions.My d
1
I e s qlvenbelow.
6 Fo
nq olr recentconversatons,
please
I nd
a
ed our ordrno.JX034.
7 Thegoodsrnustb d
ed to Busanportby 24
Aprilat the I
t.
I lf anyof thesecon
ns.re not met.ple.sereferro
the detailed
t
s n our contract{or actioris
thai we are
9 Please
sendcopesof thesh
nv
o rccIyto me.
10 Please
ack
edgerccept oi thisorder
47.2 Write one oI the setr ol initialsin the box nxt to
eachphrasebelow.
PR(producttange) DT (dehverytnel
PD(prices& discaunts) P (paynent)

1 c F Eusan l'j )
2 the goodsmustarrveby . at the latest
3 av. abe in sx colours
byb.1l rans'erto ou dL(onr 'JrbF'
5 trr"'F^rl bean add,to.alupple-1e1t'o.
6 the executivemodelfeatures
7 we w ll makea promoiionala owanceif you ma ntain an
8 we offerverything
from to ..
I latepayments
wi ncura per'ralty
of
t 0 w a ^ . h o ^ r l t . n t 0 $ o . t r . g d d y (o l .
1 1 o r ir -io J<Fdes,gn edr hdsd"valoped
1Z letterof credt (l/c)
1 3 y o u . a n t r . d e i n y o u re x i s nt q m o d e l a n dr e c e v eu p t o
1,000c.shback
14 payments 60 d:ysafterinvoice
15 a depositof 25% s requredfor ..

47.3 Make phrasesby matching.n item trom each


1 if youhaveany
2 l'm coniident
3 | ako noticethat you
5 we do offer qldntty
6 | havbeenlooking
7 l ( a n t r n dn o m e n t o n

47.4 Usethe phrasesfrom 47.3to completthe


exchangeof emailsbelow.
write the phrasesin full - it will helpyou to remembr
!hem.
.
slfd

10...

Sals

s o b j . d : O r r c es l p p r e so . d e r

andam nleresled
n orderngso.ne
n p a r l c u a f , I n e epda p ear n dc a r t d g e sl o rC a n o n
pholocopers
andvariolsma .g andpackaging
suppes
'
d e s ka n dw a c a . d a rw
s l ha
companyogo bur wouldneedsorneassurance
abodrlhe
Yourflces areshownon lhesite bulr
payhenrrermslor argepurchases
andexlended
Peasesend
l l o o kl o N a r dr oa ne a r yr e p y

10..
sublert

[/'cheLe
Younc
Re Officeslpples order

Thankyo! loryouremarenqlnng aboulollce suppes


'
alyou prodlclneedsand ook
yo! asa reguarclsrorner
lotuardrowecoming
lor argeordersTheseareona s d,rg
scalebeg.nng al2% lorordersover500
andgolngLrplo 8"/.
Tradecuslomers
sdchas yourseves
aregive.30days1opay
ourinvoicesbut6
tnsrWeaso ol1er
alt.actNe
earlypayme.tdscountso. theseacco!.ts Forllrlher
peaseclck on he nkbeow
lnlormalon
on lradeaccounrs
n relalonto olr personazedcae.dars
produc!loryoulo ookat Please
send
mesomearlwo w thyourogoasa g I fle andspecly whelher
Youwanla deskorwal caenda[
Thankyo!onceagainloryourenq!ry 3
Peaseleeltreelo conlaclne
s e e p a g e 1 5 1f o r s o m e w r i t i n g t a s k s .

Emaile 99

Emails- customerissues
In the email beloa'a supplier is forced to giee somebad
news to a Poienhalcustomer:

5!rd

Td... !11!!rg!?kq
subje.1: V6l lo osak"

lm so.rylolel youllral have1opostpone


myvsi oyour
olTcesnexlweekThereasons thalmy inemanager
wtt be
awayand wi be lakngrespons
biityiorlhedepanme.l
in his
'm
However sl verykeenon comngto Osakato meetyou.and
m conldenlthatwe caf eslabsh a goodreralonshipbetween
lhopelhalwecanreschedue
themeel.9 . the.earrullre
colrdmakel anylme in eanyJunePeaselelmeknowwhch
Soryaga.lor lhe fconvene.ce

?, Notice how Claudia apoloSizesand cxplai,rsat ihe


bcginning,and then apologizesagain.t the end.
a Notice how Claudia rcassuresMr. Tanakaeith posiii\'.
l a n g u a g e/ :i , s l i / /i , f ,Vt . . o n . . / h " c o l t f i d . t t l n t . . . .
"
ln thc ncxt mail a cusiomermak.s a compliinr. In rcply, ihc
s{pplicr npologizcsind promiscsaction.
"
lcnd

P e f i oC a s .
b...
subj?.t:Compa,nl

lm Mring rocompia.aboll thepoorseNce lhalweve


recevedllo.nyolr company
=
Y o ui n s l a l ead. e w a r c o . d t o n i nsgy s l e m
a to u ro l 1 c e sa s t
monlrrAllera weekI slarledeakngwalerthrough
lheceiino
oJou receplonareaYourlechnciana(ved andremoveo
al
l h ec er . g p a n e l sn o r d etroc a ( y o u at s e r v c eb.u ld l r . g r h s
wo/klhepanelsandsupporls
werebady damaged
Tlrs hascausedusconsiderabe
nconvene.cea.d the
panrs
damaged
crealea poormagein olr receptio.area
l m a d ei l c e a rt ot h el e c h n i c rtahna w
r eh o dy o ur e s p o n s bl e
or
panes However
repacng he damaqed
ths hasslitnoroeer
Peasetakelrgenlaclon1oresovelrrs marer
Yolrs ChrslneLagarde
Chrsl'neLaoarde
send

subjdl

R,Coirdlrfr

m verysory lo hearlhatyoLr
!e hadprobemswth youra I
conditiofng syslem.
WeI be at you officetomorow1oJI new
lndersland
y lharyoLrre.epto.areaneedslo be or
complele
therrgrreslslandarda.d canassureyo! lhatwewil eavelhe
Onceaqan,peaseacceptmys.cere apoloqieslor
any

100

at The tone of Chdstinet complaint is dnect, shong fld


tactual- but noi angry
-{ Pieiro'sreply is short and simple,avoiding co lict.
4 Nohce ihe first paragraphof Pietio'sreply.After
apoloSizinghe immediailypiomisesaction.
4r Notice how Pietroendsby apologizingagain.

fhe phrases you need E


Customer complains
|'n writing wth rcferen? to .
|'n wnting to canplainabaut the poar servi.ewe've
.eceivedfton
Thereseensta be an enot / nistake/ nisundestanding.
There'sa setiousfauh with the
ThBhascausedus considerable
inconvemence.
ThEhashurt aur salesand our rcputation
I nade it.leat that. .
Customer demands action
I nust insistthatyougivethtsmattetyouturgent
Please
takeuryentactianto
Letne renind you that thisptoduct is stjllundel
watranty.So,the bestsolutionwouidbe ta ..
Supplier 9;ves bad news
l'n satryto tellyou that.. / Uhfattunately,
...
fhe rcasanis that . / Thisis due to
Supplier apologizes
t m vetysatryta hearthat...
t wauld like ta apolagizefar .
t wasvetyconcetned
to leatnabaut ..
Supplier reassuresand promise5 action
Im canfident
that
I can assurcyou that
lw nake surethat.
supplier ends
Sarryagainfot the inconvenien.e.
Onceagain,pleaseacceptmy sincercapalagiesfot any
tncanventence
caused.
Thankyau vetytuch far bringingthisnattet ta ny

48 EMAILS- CUSTOMERISSUES

Exercises
48,1 Rewrite the sentencesblow with the corct word
oder, beginningas shown.
1 l'm to tellyousorrythat I haveto postpone
nextweekour
meeting.

i18.3 Study the stsong complaint below. Try to 9ue5s


the single missing word in ea(h gap, Wite your answers
lightly at the side. Sveralanswers may be possible,
frol
Fnd,ewwrkinGi
su6ect lDetavtooroa

t'm

--*--'
-- -------.l l

2 Onceagain,p easeapologies
for acceptmysincere
any
inconvenience
caused.
Onceagain,
3 l'm ordered
to tellyouthatthe itemsarenow in stockyou
pleased.
We'llyourorderbeshipping
today.

I phonedyo{ lasl wkaboutthisand you


6
Thisdelayis causingus considerable
as wele unablelo coniinueow ooeratLons
withod the oans

possible
4 l candorngeverything
youthatweareto
assure
resolve
thisissueaspossible
asquickly.

lcan
5 You'llbeextending
our onlinesalethatwe arepleasd
to
hearforanotherweek,
You'llbe
6 l'vetalkedto the involved
staftandl'm confident
thatour
proceduret
arerobustandprcpey working.
l'vetalked

informyouthatwe regretto cannotprocess


yourorder
dueto onyouraccount
a largeoutstanding
balance.

I Thank
verymuchyouto myattention
forb ngingthis
maIIet
Thank

l'll be phoningyouagainlaterhis atlgnoonand I hopthat


by thenyouh6vesomegoodneolor me, lf I donl rcelva
Bsponsfromyou,l'l b6

l{ow fill in the gapsabovewlth the suggestodwordsin


ihe box below.
atrentlon assuIed delivery furced
inconvenience irsist bng-Em rcference
tales satisfactory shipped nill
48.4 The tEply below hastn extra words. Thet"rc elther
grammad(ellywrong ordon'i makesense.Crcs5them
ouL

t Tol lGrola-sarfias-l ---tmoor


suqcct lne oatav

48.2 Write sentencenumbers1 to 8 from the prvlous


exercisein the boxesblow.
a Goodnews n I
b Badnews [] n
c Reassurance
! !

d End

lhat ylu 9 v this malteryour

nn

I wEsveryconcenedlo l6arnaboutlhe so latedelveryol the


Partswhatyouodered iromus.
l! bonspokento ourstafl in he packingdoparhnt and
lm loo conlidnllhat lhe g@ds lefi he@lastwek.I can only
asure it hat lhereis an issuew h rhecourier,
r l ll contactwid,llhempersonallyand nrakesurethattheyeso ve
once again,pleas acceptff'al my sincsrapologieslor any
inconvenience
causedyou.
Shouldyo haveanysomequeslions,pleasedont hestate to

,i.:1.

Seepage 151for somewriting tasks.


Elnails 101

Emails - arranging a visit


Much of the lmguage used for rnaking auangements by
email is similar to ihal usedfor naking anangernentsby
telephonein unit 42.

Host confirms ever]4hing


Jusllo co.rnh yourv sitto uson . al
A drverwil be
waitngioryo! at thearport.hodng a sgn withyolr nameon t. =

Below is a typical exchanSeof emailsfo. ananging a


businesstrip. Only shori extractsare shown.

-oor.6

rd-6,o,o)o-.0. odF

brqro,

6p

Shoudyouhavea.y problemsmymobe phonefunrbers

Host makes an invitatioh


|^".aoo;opo.

_
Tt" ",t le,oL.

n Chinawed be verypleased
ifyoucoLrdvsl ourcompa.y
ll woud bea grealoppotuntyloryo! lo lookarolndournew

Guest accepts
Than(youiorlheknd nvlalon1ovisl yourcofrpany d be
very nterested
in seen9yourlacrorya.d seenglhepoduclion
n lacl l lbe . Chnatorn lo
Peaseermek.owir anyol
thesedalesareconvennl
loryou

Host suggestsan itinerary


wasverypleased
1ohearlhalyo! l be heren Chinam
JanuaryOl coLisewed be de ghredrowercome
yo! ononeol
- peaseseelhedetails
ve pullogelher
a provsio.altrnerary

Howdoeslhs soLr.d?
Pleaseerrneknowwharyo! rh.k
A so.wed be happyto arangea ocalholeloryo! il yo! w sh

Guest replies
Thankyousomlch iorthecarel! tholghlyoupotrntopla.ning
an lferarylorne ll looksiine lheresi!$ onesrnarchange
tharrwo!d suggesl
n relatonto theho{e. fnakemyownamngemenls
ooktoNafdverymLrch
lo seengyo! if ..

Guest contacts a hotel


rnmaiingyouoii yourwebsleOoyouhavea roomavatabte
loronepersononthen ghroiWednesday
22January?
Prease
lelmekrowthep.ce otths ncluding
breaklasl
d a l s ol k et o k n o wl l y o u .

Guesttells host the details


Yes,every,lhing
s linazed.ow
l'n travelngonil ghtLl1788iromFra.kllrtloGuangzho!lls
d u e n a t l 1 3 0 a m I b ea r v i n ga t T e r m i n a t 2
Im slayngat theMarlonWhenlgetlhere I neediusthallan
hourorsolo freshen
up.llrenI cancomeslraghlto yolr oiiices

102

fhe phrases you need E8


Host to guest
We'dbe verypleasedif you cauldvisitau canpany.
Ive put tagether
a pravisianal
itlnerary.
A drivetwi pickyou up fron / dropyou aff at the
Doyau know whenyou re planningto arive?
Gostraightta the rcceptiondeskand asklar me
Shauldyou haveanyprcblens,my nobile phane
l'n afta.hing a nap
Guest to host
Thankyou fot yau kind inviznon. l'd be veryhappyto
visityour offices.
1n I'a,elng on f|'ghtnrmber1H-88.ore . al
I neediusthalfan hourat thehotelto frcshenup
Guest to hotel
I n nailing you ofl your websiteDoyau havea rcom
availablefot the night of Wednesday
22 Januaty?
Id alsoliketo knowif youhavea swinningpaoland
gymnasiun/ 24 hour reception/ a.autesy shuttlebus
nom tne atpon
I needa viewof the . / wieless lnterneta(ess / an ian
tn my rcam wnent arnve.
other vocabulary
a wndow seat/ an aisleseat
a tngle / returnttip \BtE):a one way/ round trip lAmE)
a booking/ to boak lBtE);a reservation
/ ta reseNe
{AmE)
Leavethe motorway\AmEfrceway)at exit 12.
Keepgoing for threeblocks,thenturn left.

49 EMAILS- ARRANGINGA VISIT

Exercises
49.1 Completeeachsentence1-8 with the best ending
a-h.
1 lt wasa gre.t pleasure
to ... E
2 We'db verypleased
if I
3 I'd beveryinterested
_.
4 I'vepurtogether
s A driverw I pickyo! il
6 A driver
w ldropyou. . !
8 l'l needto freshenup
a
b
c
d

i I

a provis
onaliiiner.ry
at th hote f rsr.
n seeingyourfaciory
meetyouin Germany.

i to the receptondeskand.sk for me.


9 up iromthe airport.
h youcoud vistourcomp.ny
49.2 Fillin the gapswith the prepositionsin the box.
al

at
ln

5
6
7
8

at
in

ar far for frcm in


ot'l on on to whh

I wasveryp easedto hearthatyouwill be here


China
l.nu.ry
(orfrom)yourwebsite.Doyou
l'm ma ingyou
havea roomavaiabe
onepersonon the nighlof
Wednesday
22 ianuary?
'n travelllng
f qht 1H788,
Frankfun
G!angzhor.
TheJightleaves
11.l5am
21 J:nuary
is dLre
. ai 9 30 on Wednesday
22 lanuary
lt arrves
Terminal
2.
I'mstayng
... theMarrott
A driverw ll bewaitn9
you
the
a rpod,holdng a sign
yolr nameon t

49.3 Crossout the 9!C word in eachgroup that is !9=t


(o ect.Checkany unknownwords in a dictionary.
1 Yau.an get / catch/ take/ miss/ lose/ be baokedon /
board/ boak / resetuea flight.
2 A tlqht can be averbooked/ be delayed/ be held up / be
divefte.j/ be boundfar somewhere/ leave/ depatt/ take
aff / anive/ land/ be full / be ha(-enpn/ / be an timeI be
cancelled/ be annulled

49.4 Marcusis telling a story about his businesstrip. Fill


in the missingletters.
Thtaxidiver dro ed me o
at the wrongterrnina
,
and t took mesomet meto findthe rlghtch
ior myai ne.Theni hadto payan exc
baggage
cha
bec.Lrse
mysutcasewdsso hea\ryAnyway,went
passport
thr
controlandthenwa tedfor agesat security
(AmE,ne).Wh | waswating
therewas3 lonqqu
for my9 e to be ca ed, dcdedto do someshoppng.
I d dnI noticeihe t meqo by .nd I hadto
th to b
d the
f ight.Durng theflght we h.d d ot of reallybad
turb
ce- whenwe tou
dd
I wasshdkingike
a leal.I pi d up mybaggaqe
andwntto the cabr k
outsdthe trminal.
On thewayto th hote we got st
in
traffic,andthenat theendthe diver triedto I meo
t andhe wasnt verypleasedI checked
intothe hoteland waslookng forwardto an e ly ni
blt the d sco n the hote ba5ement
rnadethat mpossble
49.5 Themail below givesdirections.Fill in the gaps
with the wods in the box.
blacks exit follow maln miss
signpasted turn down fat far
Leavelhe
1 2 F or o wr h eh a n r o a d , 3

frc-.way past

at,

!
abourfourmlesunriyoLr
come
lo a argeShelgasslalononyolr rightYoucant
r g h li u s 3
t
l h eg a ss r d 0 na n dk e e pg o n gs r r a g hor l r o f l c e s a r e a
shorld sla.ce'

yolr ngnr
Whenyoua(ve arthe"
gare.Seclrty
willgiveyouavislorspass '3
theroao
rou.dto lhemainreceptonwherehereis a vislofs parkngol
Whenyooqetio receplio.iuslask ,
ne - fteyllbe expeclng yo!
gve mea cal
lr youhaveanyprobems.
't
rnycet pnone
younextweek.
L@knqioeard to meeling

see page 151 for rome writing tasks.

Emaih 103

Emails- review
50.1 Fill in the gapswith verbsfrom rhe box.
appreciate .antact do
atter pastpane renind

teel
shal

50.2 Write the numbeEof sentencs1-10from exercise


50.1in the boxesbelow.
(afacror some
a Thrcephrases
usdto give nformdtion

hesitate know
take wonder

**t

1 Please
.. .
freeto
me Tyo! lravednyquestons.
we reschedule
th metingJor
|
..
if yo! could glv me some
inform.tion?
lf I c.n
..
any further adviceor
pleasedon't
assrstancei
to cont.ct
lust a qLrcknote to
yo(] that itl the
end of the quarterand the saes figursare dup.
Let me
it thres anlrhing lre can
the

opportunity
to tellyouaboutan imporrant
staffchange
8 | would
yourhep with rh|5.
9 Please
that I will be awayircm the
officelof thewholeoi nexrweek.
10 'm sorryto tellyouthai I haveto
vsit to yourofficesnextweek.

b Twophr.sesusedaspad of a request
II. l
c Twophrases
usedfor makinqaffangements
L i I
d Threfinal,frendy comrrents
li
Now do the samfor sentences11-20.
e Onephraseusedin d customer3
in tia enquiryI
i Threphrases
usedin the supperSreplyto this nital
enquiry i i
g Twophrass
usedby the cunomeraftertheyhavedecided
tobuy_ i
h Twophrares
usedby a customer
asp.rt of a complant
i Iwo ;hrasesusedbya supper aspartof a replyto a
50.3 Completethis internalemailandthe reply with the

attached aftend cnculate ca-opetation done


evenl tnalized get back nuke sue
nate
put rc rcnlnd te|

Continuear before.
subjp.(:

accept acknowledge assue clck dkcuss inttt


nattce affer tesolve sentl rale welcome

you lhal lhe a(angedenls lor

11 Can callyou n a dayor two?| woud


ihe oppoltunity
io
yoLrrneedsin moredeiar.
t 2 Pease
copiesof the shipping
documeft andrnvoice
d rectyto rne
t l Please
urqentactionio
. ..
thismatter
14 1....
on yourwebsite
thatyouc.n
personalize
deskandwallc. endals.
15 lcan
youwe aredo ng everrrhing
we
16 We do

...

lheO. neMaderngsem.arhavenowbeen
rl wl lake plac. on 28 Apr

ThrsI

s partot olr o.gong sratt


p easeencouraqe
peoprelo

rneedlo k.owapproxmat
numbers
asap
lo meon lrrs by theendot nexrweek
Thankyo! lor your3

quaniitydiscounts
lor targe

17 must
..
thatyougiveihismattryour
urgentattention.
18 Forluirher nfoffnaiion
please
onthe
linkbelow.
19 Please
.
.....
receiptof thisorde.
20 Please
.
.....
mysincere
apologies
for any
nconven
encecaused.

M'q ,"

-a ls of

Youvr!
l h i sW e l d o . e
| '

"

..

thepdlto everyo.eco.cernedand
lhaleveryone
knowsaboltit
Canyou I
...
meilthereis any imt
onnumbers?m slre lherewiibe a otoi .lereslin our
T h a n kasg a n Y
. ouver!

r04

a l o l o f w o r kn r o o r q a n i z n g

...

agreatlob

50 EMAILS- REVIEW

50.4 Match eachtormal phrase 1-14 with an intormal


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

l'm wdtingwith regardto yourlastemail.I


Furthertoour earlierconversation,
..- n
| wouldliketo apologize
for ... U
lwould be glatefulif youcouldsendme ..- fl
ls nextF dayconvenientfor you? [
Peasedon'thesitate
to contactmeif -., I
Thankyoufor the kindinvitation.
n
| waswondeng if youcould...?n
| wouidbeverypleased
to come.n
| wouidliketo Emindevertlnethat ... n
|willcont ct youagainin the nearltitrre.I
We wish you everysuccess
in the future,n
Please
findattached... fl
| wouldliketo thankyouverymuchfor ... . I realt
appreciate
it. []

6 l'm surethat lcan count-your


continuing
(= during)futurc
commitment
months.
7 We willcontactyouagain-the
nearfuture.
I lhavebeentookingyourwebsiteandam
interested
ordering
someofficesupplies.
part,culat
9 I needpaperandcart dgessuitable
10 l'm writingto complain
the poorservice
we've
your
receNed
company.
please
11
the meantime,
don'thesitate
to contact
you
questions.
me if
haveany
12 We arestillwaiting-delivery
these
pad5.
I 3 Thegoodsmustbe delivered
to Busanpon-24
Aprilthe laten.
14 Pfea5e
calfmemydirectlin,1234567890.
15 Goodluckeverything.
5O.5 Compleie lhe $nten<es by putting a verb in the
box into either the -ilng or th6 .ed torm.

a
b
c
d
e
f
9
h

Thanks
for askingme.
Goodluckwith everythingl
canyou,,,?
Please
contactmeif ...
Reyourlastemail,,..
l'l get backto youvery5oon.
Sorryabout...
Following
up yourea iercall,...
Let me know f you canmakeit next F day.
j l'd loveto come.
k Thanks
againfor allyourhelp.Muchappeciated.
I Justa quicknoteto remindyouthat ...
m l'veattached...
n Please
sendme ,.,

afta<h buy aause conceh do fallow forward


get 9e heat make request use wondel
I Youcanfind lurtherdelailsbv__gqlg_-*

if you@uldhelpme?
youa copyof our
l'm sending

2lwas

3As
accounts,

usconsiderable

4 Thishas

our recentconveEltion,
flnd
olease
attach

50,5 Fillin the gapswith wods frcm the box.


about at at back W fot fot fot
fron in in in in in of on
an aver te to to widl with

ro oJr

motebustness

youin thefuture,

for

to
job vacdng/
I l'm writing --@
Egard
ref.no.TH729.
job vacanq
I'm writingrelation
ref.no.TH729.
3 Nlanythanksallyourhelp.
I wou d be gratefulanyinformationyou have
on mts,
Havea goodlookat the reportandgetme if youhaveanyquestions.

it clearwhenI spoketo youlast


wekthatwe holdvouresoonsible,
8
9
10

DHL,IJPS
or FedEx
as
to learnaboutthe late

delivery
oI the pansyouordercdfromus.
11 Thankyoulor
backto meso quickly.
12 We are interestedin
from Fairtrade
organizations
suchasyoulselves.
I have
a copyof our brochurc.
14

to us.

Emails 105

Presentations- opening
Thereai a greatvariety of presentaiionconiexts:
Col p.., pr.'pnrJ
m i u r p r o d L .r s .
harkets, plans for the f!ture).
. Produci prescniation(featuresand bencfiisof a nei! p.oduct).
rL Internal presentationreporting financialor salesfigu.es.
a Internal presenlaiionanalyzinga problem and sugteshng
1r Welcomingvisitols.
' A - \ , ' ( r . . o r h e r F \ n - - p F a lc l l . n t t h h . rm , . r u r 8o r .
1I additioll, dre.car. a \,arieiy of presentaiionshles:
/:' formal, sfructuled,rehearsed,iaking qucstionsat thc end.
/r Info.mal, partly improvised,interal:tint {'ith the nudrence.
4, Somewherebchrccn ihe h!o: using a basicstructurc,but
alownrg occasionalopportlnities for quesiionsind inte.action.
Which style yot usc dcpcndsnot onlv on your audiencean.t its
cxpecLrtrons,
tui.lso on vo! ard lour per$nali\r
Itcad ihe opennl8to i t'clcomnrg \isikrJ presentihonin the
n.\t.olunrr. (Th( miin body and ck)seof a prese.tationare
.ov.r.d ln lrits 52 53 )
Noii.c ho$ thc prcs.ntcr begnrsby giynrg ans\Lersto a11the
ph.ii.ii qresti(insthat nright be nr ih. aldience'smind
l c t \ \ h a t j s t h L ' . i mo f i h i st . l k ? I l o w l o r g r ! i l i i t I a s t ?l { i l l
th.r bc a IrrLIk?Who is ihc pcrn)n spe.king?Who is ihat man
The pr.s.ni.r thcn givesan outlinc of lh. siructurL'orth.
Finally,befd. bogitulnlg,the presoter makesii cl..r $hcih.r
au.jiencenxrnb.rs can iitcrrupt rliih questioDs,or kcep them

well, good noming, eyeryone. On behau of BCC


lnternationalI'd like to welcomeyou here to our offlces.
Cd elervone seeat the back?OK.
T h p J n o l l h F . h u f l l d l l r . t o B i v ey o , i n o v e d i e $
ol our companyand its products.l'11speakfor abolt
thiriv mimtes, and then rvc'll iake a break for coffee and
biscuiis.After that, ni aroud ten thiitt we'li take you on
a tour of the fnctorv
Before$,e begin,just a few words aboutmyself. My
name is Anna Edelmam and l'm in chargeof public
lciations hereat BCC.I'i.c b.en with ihe companyfor
h{che vears,and I sokcd in ihe salesareabefore
l should also iniroduce my colleagueMiAndersen
over thcre in the comer Mr An.lc.senis our plant
manaSe!and he willbe lcading the fa.tory tour.
l'v. dn'ided this presentitioninto four sections.
First l'd like to show you a timclnreof our company
so you can seehow we'vc g.orvn an.l developedover
thc vcars.fien I'll talk a littlc about our markel and
how it's chanlling.After th;rt l'll move on io disclss
customization,and ho$,we fecuson tailoring our
productsto our customcrs'noods.
F i n a l l , I ' l l g i v e y o u a l i t t l c t o c h n i c abla c k g r o u n ido
help you understandthe n.w technologvthit you'lltrc
seeingon the factory kNr
Ii you haveany qu.sircns,pleascfcclfrec k) intcrrupL.
OK,lefs begin with ihis first slidc,which show5...

fhe phrases you need gg


Cet attention anC inler,651
OK,letsgetnafted Goadnornlngeveryane
andwel@neta
Letme askyoua questian(+ rhetorcaquenon)
Caneverybadysee)
Takea loakat thispicturc Whatda-.sn rcllyauabout. ?
BetareI begln,1d like ta thank(nane) for )nvitlngne heretoday 5omebo./y
orcraicl 1+qlotation)
Onbehalfaf BCClnterhatianalI d like to v/e\(oneyou hercto
Didyau knowthat ..? (+ slersing ndtrttl:)
tt's gaod to seeso nahy peopleheretaday.
l'm veryhappyta be here.
Personal !ntroductio|1s
Letne staftby introducinqnyseif l\,ly nameis
lust a few wardsabaut nyself,
Perhaps
I shouldjust intrcduceonear tuvopeoplein theraam
Ll!?iert;re
Thetitle af ny presentatian)s .
ThismatningI m going ta talkabout . .
Thealn af thisshoft talkis to . .

106

Audience ltreneii't
I hape thispresentationwill enableyau to ..
8y the end of ny talkyolt will
itru.ture
I ll speakfot about thiny minutes.
, .".litd"d

nt GlL ." a fou! n"t pdfi. s.c\ar.

Thenl ll talk a liftle about ...


After that l ll movean ta ..
It you have any queslons, pleasefeel frce to tnteffupt.
Ot ].t b.oi ^ah the ltt , pa.t
Lde ^n.cr 4

- OPENING
51 PRESENTATIONS

Exercises
51.'l Coverthe pageoppositewith a pieceof paper.
Makephrasesfrom the presentationby matchingan item
1 On behalf- ---\
2 cdn veryone \
: lusta few
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

'm n charge
',dtk

l' lalk
l ll move
We iocls
L'l g ve you
Let! begin

seeat the b.ck?


of publicrelarions
-\of
Bcc rd tikero

with ihis filst nide


on tailo ng our products...
on io d scuss(unomizaiion
aboui o(]f marketand how ..
a ttle technicalbackground

51.2 Threare manywaysto deate an impactin the


first {w minutesol a presentation.Matchtechniquet
1-8 with phfasesa-h.
1 rhetorcaquenion I
5
2 thankth organzers I
6
3 surpris
ng statstic I
7 useoi visuals
4 audience
invovementI 8 quotation l
a Takea lookat thispicture.
Whatdoesit le youabor.rt
teena9e
lashion?
b Everybody
who thinksihe nternetw killtraditonal
- putyourhands
adve(sing
up.
Wo! dnt youI keto doubleyourua, if justtwelve
month5?
Charles
Datuinoncewrote,'li is not the strongest
of
the specesthatsurvive,
blt the onsmortresponlrve
io
change.'
I'd liketo thankOlgafor allthe hardworkshehasdoneto
makethiseventpossib
e
lwantto share
something
withyou.
yo! to choosethe most
wrllenable
I I hopethispresentaton
con'ffeciive
T soution
70% ol al Amerc.nssaythatthey'recarrying
so muchdebt
that its makingther homelivesunhappy

51.3 Makepresentationphrasesby usinga verb 1-'12


with the words a-I.
l b e r
s gve. I
9 ndd..:l
2 takea break..
6 introduce..
tO
tute l l
I dlvide
I tay.. :
1 1 r h : n k. .
8 speak.. i
12 wecome t ]
a a few wods aboutmyself
b .ny qLrestons
at the end
d for aboutth rty m nuts
e for cotfeeandbiscuits
t (nane)fot nvitng me heretoday

mytalkintofourparls
I oneor two peope n the roorn
k by inircducng mysel
51.4 Createdifferentways to opn a prsentation,using
the verbsin the box.
deal
autline

dl5a55 fill give laak


repaft show take talk

Gaod moning evetyaneand thanksfot.aning. Thismoning


I

,ri,ii,.i

t h e i s s u o f f s k , a n dw h a t y o u c a nd o

you an overvew ol the companyand

yo! how to sel moreelfctvey io

aboutinvestmeni
funds:howto
choose
them.\,1/hen
to buythemandwhento sel them.
5
backto youon our progress
with the
6

at a varetyof greentechnologies
that
d " '"lp no ro corrballhe t! edto' qlob. \ad,rrrrg
you n on the background
to our
involvement
n the Brazianrnarket.
a ookat howwe got intothe problem
wth our ocalaqenrs
ln theUKandhowwe can
ih"t,,.(,,esLt.

lromour consumer
survey
10
sornedetaledrecommendat
ons
abouthow to reorqan
zethe department
1l
o!r newmarketrng
strategy.
12
wth the temouistdnd
ngfromolr
astmeiing:fundinqour R&Dactivties.
51.5 6 6 Speakingpracticerlistenand repeat.Repeat
eachphrateyou hearand then listento check.

,r"r",rr.aions- mainbody

'Th phrasesyou

ned'below shows someptuases


that can make you presentation easier to follow You
will have to supply the contentyouself of coursel
4/ Signposts: these ale phrases ihat say (here you'ie
8oh8 in rpm\ of lh. mrin rup( - ol \ our r.rL
,? DcvploDi .op( tn, -e D"ri.e. d'e rrui-srCnpo-rwithin a topic. By cxplicitly saying what l.ou re
gohg io talk abouinext, the audiencecan follow

''

... Or, ters mou" o. to rhe nexr poini, which is wmo enelgy
ieclnology. The mdkei for wind tubines. is shifiing toom otrhore
to oifslble. It might be Getu1 to give a liiile background hde. As
you cd s@ on this ncxl sLide,onshore wind fams have several
draivback: tust you ned a ieLiably windy iftatioo seondthe
l d t u Ld . . ' " r p \ - - c l p o u u d . r . a n d t l u d t n p r ea r e . o m es e r i o b
enginc.ring questions.
What are these engineering questioro? Basically rhere are two
issues.Firstlv,the stabiljtyof the struciuieas you make ir bigger md
sccondLythe problemof hai ing the bladesalways facingthe wind.
So the trend is towards offshore wind fams, ano nic are some
cnginee.ing.haUenSeshere.Have a look ar this slide it shows thc
designfor an offshorcturbine that sits on the surfaceof the sca.
It's threetimes more
efficientthan an onsho.e
tu.binc oi equivalentsize.
What is the reasonlor ihisT
Thc reasonis that it usesa
completelydif fereni design
that isn't dependenton the
wind clirection.There is a
Ia.gc V'shapedst ucturewith
rigjd'sails'mounted along
its length.As the wind passes
over thesethey act like ahfoils" and rhis gcnerateslift and htrns tho
structureas a whole.
I would like to stressthat this designis not yer in commcfcial
production,but a prototype is currently being resredoff rhc coasrof
Scodand.
OK. Are therany questionsso far? Doesanyonehavc any

(, Focus:theseplrases are also mini-signposts.


Youle saying io the audience:'pl.ase pay extra
alieniion for thc next few fromcnts'.
't Question answc. askinga qusiionand rhen
irFhpri.ri',our,lIi.d.anddrd rc.hni.lup.n
publi. .pp.'\in8 Th. tuej ,'n , -clc, interer r
ihc tnind of the listcnrs,ihe answc. providesthe
satisfactimof closure.
I ttcfer to visralsr bc carefulnot to rclv too much on
your slides.s thcy can sendpcoplc into a tranceof
bordom.Di.cct aiiention back to vourselfofien.
Ask fd contributions:stopat scvcralpoi'rts
during the frain presentationkr takc questiors- it
(rcai.s rnter.st and makesthe p.csentationmore
R..Lt thc presrntationextrnctin thL'ncrt columr,,
q hich showssomc of thcsctechniquesand phrascs
nr contc\t. The contc'ntin ihis cas. is rechnic.l
- about wind en{rgy rcchnohgy.
It Lookingjust at dlc first half of ihis cxtrad, norice
how thc p,seDtorguidcs the audicn.cr signposting
t l r ' n . ' i n l ^ p i . r . ' r ' n g l h . r l! , m . b d c ( B r ^ u n d, :
. u m i n gn c \ r .d i n c r i n gr r l e - n , {tru d , i d o r . ,- , n g . l
qlrestionto createintcrest,focusingon iwo issues.
Allof this makesthc preseniatioreasi& io follow.

r \rinJ rurbinr:lallsrn'.trtrwrh pirrsrlrrato iumcdby lhewind,uscdtor


"

atlojl:.ud&l

pid on af air.rnfi s wing rhir helps ir kl.i*

in thc air

The phrasesyou need B


Signposts
AK Lets nave an to Iturnaur
attenttanto .. / takea loakat . .
Thisleadsne to ny nextpoint, whid
EarlierI nentianed ..
l'llsaynorc abautthislater/ t'ltcome
backta thisin a monent
Justto digrcssfor a nonent, . .
Develop a topi(
It might be useful ta give a liftle
Lets examine this in n,are detail.
Let me explain with a.ancrete
lt4y awn view an this is . .

r0E

Easically,. / Toput it sinply,


5a, tat me,thenain issuehercis ...
Ithinkthe,earethreequestions
to
I would like to stress/ enphasi2ethat

Reter to visuals
As yau can seean thb nextJide .
l'd like to highlighttuvothingson this
table/ chan/diagtan ...
What]s lnterestingan thls slidels . .
I d hketa clrawyour aftentbn ta ...

Ask for contributions


Are theteanyquestionssa far?
Question-answer
Whatb the rcasonfar this?Thercason Doesanyonehaveanycomments?
Hov\/doesthis relateto yau own
Haw nuch is thisgoing to.ast? Well,
the figues shaw ..
50 whatcanwe do aboutallthis?t'11
tellyou Weplan ta

- MAIN BODY
52 PRESENTATIONs

Exercises
52,1 Coverth oppositepagewith a pieceoI paper.
Now try to rememberth words below.Sometetters
I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Ths I
s meto my nextpoint,whichis ...
EarierI rnen . ...ned...
'll c
b ...to th s pointin a moment.
justto di
s! (= sdetrack)
for a momnt,.
Let'sexamine
this m
de
L
Letmeexpainwith d con .le ex
| th nk thereErethreequenions
to f
lwould keto st
(= emph.size)
that . ..
youc
s
on thisnexts de, ...
'd llketo high
t two rh ngson thischart.
W
inieresting
in thisslideis ..
Howdoesth s re te to yourown particular
cont t?

52.2 completethe presentationextractwith the words


in th box. lt is an alternativeveEion of the presentation
opposite.
enphaslze havea laok
li.u'"o"tii
gs so an nyavn view notice

'
ar tns nexl
55 or, tet
s ide. t showsthe desigiior an offshore
tubine tharsitson
the surface
of the sea.
I'd keto z
. on thisdiagr.m.
Firnly,3 .......
theV*napeo
struct!rewrth'sals' mouniedalongitslength.Secondly,
thiswholestruct!recan
turnon its base,poweredby theactionof the windon the
Thisis howelectrictyis generated.
sails.
.-.......
. on thisis thatthe design
- lt'smoe efficent
is. bg improver.ent
on earlier
versons
|n
termsol energyproducton,anditk alsomorestabewith it9
so d b.se.
Bythe way, mustjult b
......that
ihisdesgnis not if cornmercial
pfoduction.
7 .....
oK, afethereafy questions
3......
No?Then
....
to the nextslide,
wh ch is a graphshownq the prciected
demandfor ofishore
windenergyoverthe nexttwentyyears.!t

Theext.actyoujust lookedat showsseveralpo nts about


relerringto visuas:
. Thespeakerintfoducesthe
s de ctearly.
A tongpauseat
lheendoi thefilstparagraph
woud be good givingthe
audiencea chancelo studythe s de sitentiy.
. The speakeruses firstly and secondy to tsl points.
Again pausesaftereachseparalepointwouldallowthe
listeners
timeto absorblhe information.
a The speakermakesa personalcommentfhis creates
Interestand is one way to avoid lhe dangerof lust
readingthe texton the s de
. The speakergivesa chanceior questionsaboul ths

52.3 Readaloudthesetwo versionrot the same


sentence.In the se@nd,put a strongpausewher
you seethe // symboland a strongemphasison the
underlinedsyllable5.
Ve$ion A Themarketfot wind turbinesis shifting from
Ve|sion B Themarketfot wind turbinesis shifting// from
glshote ll to qffshare.
Canyouheara diffre.ce7
Thesecond
versionh;s moreclarty
Mark with a // symbollltCg placesin this sentence
where you canpausefor clarity.
1 Asthe windpasses
overthesetheyactlikai.foikandthis
generates
lift andturnsthe siructure
asa wholp
Underlinet!49 syllablesin this sentencethat you (an
emphari:eto c.eateimpa<t.
2 lt'smoreefficientin term5of eneGyproducton,andit! also
morenabb wth itssolidbase.
52.4 'l'd now like to discuss
...'The words below canall
replace'discusi'.Fill in th missingvowels.
1 m v
2 t l k
3 d I
4trn
5 t k

n t
b t
wth
my tlnt nt
a l k t

6
1
8
9
l0

xpl n
c \ |
c . n sd r
mnt n
t..cs n

52.5 S 7 Speakingpractic6:listenand repeat.Repeat


eachphraseyou hearand then listento (heck.

Presentations- closing and questions


The following sequenceprovides a guide for how to end a
Preseniation eflectively.
i Signalihe end: lhis meansusing a tignposi' ptuaseto tell
the audicnceexplicitly thai you're Soing1ofinsh. (See
unit52 for ihe meaningof'signpost phrasc'.)
:' Slmmarizc: summarizethe main points, md .dd a fcN
obsen,ationsor detailsfor inte.est.fcrhaps hale bullci
points on a final slide,and then girc a ]ilely commenl
aboui whai reallv matiersf.r. cachone (a'i.ke-hone
Concludcryou can concludewiih. fliendlv commeni,
a fnlalslidc (wiih a shong inag. or mcssagc),b!
mentioninglh. benefitslorr talk h.s Encn thc audicncc,
or by l@king Iomad to the futu.c - Mith a call io action
or an nispnaiionalmessage.linall)t a strcng 'Th.nk lou
all fo. coming' $ill hopefully p.oducc somc ipplausci
Invite queslions:'Do )ou hire inv qucstions?is usunlly
Dc.l s'ith qu.siions: tho b.sic ran8. oftechn\ues.rc:
1 ltcsFondpositivei\,',
thrn ins$'cr
2 Cli,ify / Ask for repctition.
:l ltc.lircci io thc qrcstioncr
+ Itodirccii() lhc g(ntP.
5 Dolav an i,nsx'cr
6 C o n t r o lt h c l i n i n S .
Itead ih. prosentitiul cxhaci in iho ncxt colunu, $r1,.n
sho$,ssonr. of thcsctcchrrquesind phriscs in contcrt. li is
t h e c l o s i n gp . r t o f . ' w e l c o m i n gv i s i i r t r t p' r c s c n t a t ( .

Right, that brings me io the end of my presentation.


Justio summarizeihe main poinls again:Ibeganby
telling vo! a littie about the hisiory of our compant
and you saq' our growth from a smail family firm to the
intemationaloperationthai we are ioday.
f \ , r I r . ' . l p da D o - lu u r m J r l e r , . o h o w n p r .
technologiesare openingup cxciting possibilitiesfor the
Alter ihai I erplained horv customizationis at the heart
oi our businessmodel our dienis all gei tailormade
solutionsbasedon their individual needs.
Finally I gale vou somc informaiion about our
manulacturingptucess,.nd volr sarvhow we achleveour
erceptionallevelsof qualit_vand pcrfornan.e.
OK, l'd like to finish by savint thai it's . great pleasurc
ror us to welcomevou heretuday,and I hope thai you
enjoy the factory tolr which ac'vc plannedfor ),ou.Wc'lL
siart on the toui after n sho.t brcak for refreshments.
Thank you all for.ominS. (nptln!s.)
l've 8ot somehandolrtsherc- l'll passthem round.
Thcy show all the slidesI uscd in my talk and my conrrct
ctctailsarc at the back.
Do you haveany quick qucstionsbcforc wc brcak?
Yes,the gentlemanat ihe back with thc rcd iic.
Comparu
l h o o p . n i n gi n u n i t 5 l w i t h t h . . l o s i n g c x t r a .kl )
thcsanreprus.ntntion.bovc. Th. pr.{ntcr ktd thc.udifn.a
sllat shr s.! going to siy nt theopcning,.nd now hercit
thecl(){ shorupoitsthc main pointsagaitr.lhis rcnrforfts
the kev casnndm.kcs thcn easierio rcmembc'.

fhe phrases you need t


Sign:ll ih,o enrl
Right,that bringsne nea y ta the end of my prcsentatian
5umnr:rize
Just to sunnaize the rr,ain pointl aqaln,
So, ta sumrnatize, we laoked at fout main points lbegan by
tellitg yau a lttle abaut . Then I talked about
Ahel
that I explainedhow ... finally I
td hke ta finish by taying
Sa,tn canclusian,I hape that thls talk hasgivenyou ...
Naw we haveto . / t'n askinga af you ta ... / our joh is
Thankyau all for caning I hape it's been useful

110

Pr.!'iiczl inrtlerr
t vegot samehandoutsherc.
Heresmy emailincaseyauwantta get in tauch
jnvite guestions
Dayauhaveanyquestians?
Yes,theqentienan/ ladyovel
the,e^lnhtherccltte/ the blackjacket.
Ilow if yau haveanyquestians,l'11do ny bestto answel
D e a lw i t h q u e s l i o n s
Thats a verygoadpoint / l'n qladyouaskedne that
satry canyou explainthatagain?
5a, I I understandWU caftectly,you'reasking...
Thatsan interesting
questionWhatsyaurawn apinlonT
Hasanyaneeheexpeiencedthe samething?
I thinkthat outsidethescopeol thispresentatlan,
but I m
happyto discussit with you afteruvards.
OK,lthtnkthete'stine fot anelartquestian.

- CLOS|NGAND QUESr|ONS
53 PRESENTATTONS

Exercises
53.1 Completethis extractIrom the dose of a
presentationwith the words in the box. tt is an internal
presentationabout departmentalreorganization.
genetateda lot af dis.ussrcn give the flool
taak at sane aptions nay be forced au job is ta cansider
that coversevertthing thereis the option to
the next steps somedifficult de.isi.ns w)uld lead ta

6 6 R q h rt ,r h i n k '

I haveto

say.Beforcl fin sh l' lustbriefy summaizrhekeypoints,and


tirenwe cantry to cometo a dcsionandfocuson

53.2 Studythe phrasesfor dealingwith questions


below.Tryto 9ue5sthe sinolemissingword in eachgap.
Write your answerslightly at the side.Severatanswers
may be possibie.
I Thdt'sa veryqood .........-(Thinkof sonething elsebesidesquestion'.)
2 Sorrycanyou
thatagainT
3 Hasanyoneese . .....
the samething?
4 OK,lth nk there's
trme
........onlast
5 That'san interesting
quenion.WhatSyourown
' 6 sorryldidf'r

So,rightat the beginning


I saidth.t the a m of my
presentaton
wasto r .
for
reorganizrng
ouf saesandmarketing
operatons.
Andl
expainedthe reasons
why.
Weexplored
threealternatves.
Filrty,we lookedat keeptng
botha salesdepartment
anda ma*etingdepa(memin every
countryasnow,blt rcdLrcing
all budgetsandlookingfor cost
possble.Spendng on advertEing
savings
wherever
will be
clt backconsdrably,
andwhenpeopleleavethe company
theyw I not automatically
be replaced.
We canexpectthat
everyoneS
workloadwill increase
a
Secondly,
brcakup the
natonalmarketing
teamr,whilekeeping
the salesteams.Al
marketng carnpalgns
wo!ld be run centfally
fromheadolfice,
eavng jlst a skeleiofnaff in othercounrer.Thisoption
.
thatmanyof
, andI sense
youfee it'r too drasuc.
However
itt theoprionthatolfe6 the
grcles'cost
sar19s,dndwe o
Thefina opton is the possbiity of mergingsalesand
marketingnto onelargedepanmenrn everyma*el This
greatercoordinaron,
some
costsavrngs,
but . so a lossof foc|]s.I wouldlikeio hearmore
d scusson
aboLrt
whether
th s optonisviabe.
5o,in concuson,now rsthet meto take
. .......... l'masking
all
of voulo eo'e deoarr.leltd oy" iesro ore sroe
...........
ihe futuresutuivaand
proftability
of the comp.nyasa whote.
Thankyou6 ior yourattntionNowt'll
.. to youior your
quenions
a|1dcommnts.
tQ

....
rhat.
(hink of somethingelsebesidesundestand')
Ithinkthar's
outside
the
: of this
psentation,
but i m happyto discuss
t wth you

8 Im ...
. youasked
methat.
9 | promised
to f ni5h
t me,andI see
thal it3 nearlyten o'clock.
10 You....
qute a lotabout
. havethought
th6. Whatconclusion
haveyou
to?
1
1l Couldyoubea lttlemore
12 Anyoneiketo
on that?
l3 | dont havethatinformaton
to
Can| get
s ihatallight?
14 So,if I undeGtand
you
askrng
,.
Now fill in the gapsabovewirh rhe suggestedwofds

aheMatds back .atch


conedty erpeiehced explain
nust an apinian palnt

53.3 Malch phrasesl-14 from the previousexerciseto


the te.hniquesblow.
positvely
a Respond
[- ,-]
b clarify
/Askfor repettionli-li-t.
c Redirect
to the quenioner
f i .
d Redirect
to the groupI : l
e Delayan answerrl rl
f Contrclthe
timng: i l
53.4 S 8 Speakingpracti(e:listenand repeat.Repeat
eachphraseyou harand then listento (heck.

The languag of trends is important not iust fo. presntatids, but ako for business leporls. You may
want to des.ribe movemats in financial indicators (eg I,rofits, co6ts), sales md f,a*eting indicators
(e8 sales,markt shaie), or @nomic indi@toE (eg inbrst rats, unemploytlmt). Often this lan$age
wiil be used to explain a graph or chart
Many verbs descdbe the dtuction of movemerll

st bility andInsrability

Movementup and down


I kll
90 doM / decrease

+t\y'\+

\
tatgEr movemer{ up and
doubleI takeofl I b@n /

Jf

Altemativel, you may want to rctur to tulnhg points or individual points:

-l-

'#is"""""lf V
Hrhr"*.
"". "poln$

Indlvidual polnts on a

Someverbsdescribea changein size,and othe$ saywhetherthings argood or bad:

'm#,Tx!,r*'t^y
h,
I i;0,."".
Good/ bad

Ctrangein siz

o-O*o

I sales

To makeyour descriptionmoracurateyou canthen talk aboutthe speedand amountof dange:


co|EidenblyI significantly
n&Btely I to sone adent

-r-

Try alsoto get the piepositionright:


Salesstoodat 1.2n
Saleshercased
W il.2i, | 15%
Salesroselfttn 1.2to A.4n

Thqe was atinq?tse in s,'lesol 0.2n

And finaly think about the verb forE|Time pedod complete (past simpl)
satesmse W 2% last quttet.

Action / situ.tion in pmgrss in th pasl (prst coniinuo8)


Things wrc ersiet in the conwry alew yarc ago,while profts wee tui'tg.

Time perioil noi complete (pEsent peifect)


Pnfts haoe n6efl EignifranttV this vear.
kernt reEult of a pdt action (pr6nt perfect)

Showirg that one pat vnt happened before dother (past pe ect)
B4oft tte cEo ftsignd ptufts had tbeady lo enby20% h'awr.
'will'tulur for geneial bliel6, prdictioB dd lads

Pncesh@e nsen because


of highs naterhk risLs.

On dt lpditors ui

Action / situation in prcgBs

now (present

Infatiofl is tising at the ,noment.

lace ttu *nE Wbbig as us.


'going to'frt|E
when there is stroag Fseni evidene for a
pEdiction
E eryW tu?s o1Enew plodu.t line - 1'1nsffi it's goins to be o succ5s.

All the language above Efers ro describing tlnds. In lmit 55 you'tl s some language for analrzing trends.

112

- TREI\IDsI
54 PRESENTATIONS

Exercises
54.1 Matcha verb on the left with a verb on the righl
so that they have the sanoemeaning. Not all the words
appearopposite.
1 g
2 fall
3 mprove

5
6
7
8

movh gher
eveloff
shrnk
edgedown

disappointing utouraging
enormaus
yadual
nadeate
Epid slight

rise

stabilze

fall
ht a low

Pastsimple

5 grow
6 expand
8 improve
10 vary
11 tuve
12 deteriorate

4
5

2
3

54.3 Completethe table with the correcifo/m ofthe


words,You may needto usea didionary
go up
grow
rise
tal

8tG

FAST
l

54.2 Matcha verb on the left with a verb on the rioht so


that they havethe oppolite meaning.
1 boom__=\
-----cr.sh shrnk
2 double
vary
4 grow
drp
5 improve
detenorate

1
2
3
4

..

be stable

lf thereareanyverbsaboveoroppositethat you arent sure


about,.hecktheirmeaningcafullyln a dictionaryForexample,
the word'dec ne'- not mentonedin thisunit - meansboth
'decrease'
and 'getworse'.Alsocheckto seeif the verbcanbe
you cannotsayWe.ore our
usedwith an object-for example

6 peak
7 staythesame
8 fse

54.4 Write the adjctivesin the box in the corred space


below.Not allthe words appearopposite.Che<kany
unknownwords in a dictionarv.

Pastpanidple

!eILUp................9p!e..c?...._

SLOW

1
8
9
SMALL

BADNEWS

.t
54.5 Rewritethe verb + adverbsenten<es
as noun +
adjective sentenes.
grewslowly.
1 Sales
la^ 9t94!! ..
Therewas
--,. , ,r sales
2 Costsrosesigniiicantly.
in costs.
3 Prcfitsdete oratedrapidly
We sawa .-.-..--.--.......,.-, in profits.
4 Marketshareimproved
siightly.
We hada -.-.-.
- in mafketsharc.
5 Our5ales
forecasts
variedconsiderably.
Therewasa ..
in olr saes
54.6 ;ill in the miising prepositionsIn the presentation
campaign
at the startof lvarch
55 Afterthe marketing
salesroseI ........
...... an initiafigure'?
4.5m
r
es.um by lune.Thatmeanstheywentup
a
5
15olo,
tle bigge$inc.ease
saleso'ary
6
rccentcampaign.
Theycurrently
stand
a3n.9)
Note.the pteposilionin $4 6 often mrstedoL/|n rpeech.

-qe]1.4l

S.7 Underlinethe correctforms in italics.Eachverb


form is used once.
so far tnisyearwe 'saw/ haveseena ot of volatility
ff
in thefinancial
markets.
Thecurcntsitlationin the world
ecooomy2is.ausingI had causeda greatdea of uncertainiy
in the mindsof investors.
No-oneknowswhatthe future
twill bring / is binging. Lastyearthingswerc verydifferent:
aharbeen/ wasoptlmistic
5were
everyone
andihe markets
risingI haw risen.Of <outsewe knownowthai our current
prcblens6haveaheadybegun/ hadaheatlybegunwell belorc
lastyear.

99

Sepage 15Jfor somew.iting tasks.

Presentations - trends ll
Unit 54 gave somelanguagefor desc.ibingtrends.But in a
Presentationor report vou will probablv alsohaye to gire
someanalysis.Yo!, nray irali b gn,e reasonsfor the hends,
to show iheir results,o. to Biveadditional information.
Rcid ll'r- p\r-.r lror in .-rr1r,lprp.ent.rri. . 1rl\/. .B

rSalcsfor ihe fn'sthalf of the


ve.r $'ere disappointing,
mainly becauseof the lack ofnew prodrct lines.
':How.ver,r! launchedhro new lines in
]une and
p r o no r . d l l ' e n s , r h r . l r o l g m J r le r i r L. i n p r r A n o l e r
ihe surmer. rAs a res!lt of lhis cimpaign, snlesbeganto
imp.ovc. {Ev the end ofAugusi th.\'r'ere 10.r higher on
: ) c J t r o r F y ct.,rFr i - ./ l l l ' o u E hl h . f e L l l " . r ^ r B . r i n . \ p r
Septenrbc!and Ociober
Scntcncct h.sthestrrctl,rc'.csult' (lis.ppoirting s.lcs)
'rcison (Lr.k of ncu
|.oducl lnrcs) Snience3 has thc
'res!lt (salesb.gan
sltr,clurc 'r.ison' (ihis c.nrpiign)
l(' i'npu'c). Thd worls /',rr,!s. (t. nsd ^r/r o/ nnd dr. r,,
. . f a l l L r cl n i i f R r i ( f c c I i n d s . n i . n . . 3 i n . s i t n i l a r
S.ntcr(L 2 lr.gins with ,onti).,,.rn!l ihis $or!l adds aa
. r . r r L ' n ' u - J r r ' \ , r , r n ( . 1( L l . , i l r r h t . ( \ r { r .
Riton.u. fhf ilo'l1s ,.rfa
drdl,d,ris anli.r(, !, c<1n
. r l lb o u s o . li n . r s i n r i l . rw i r l h c \ . ' r ei l l f ( n l ( \ ! c d t r ! . 1
Sontcn.crt hasdl/l,drr/,ii thc middlc of th. scnirncc This
wdd
t()l'lucesan idta th.t is su$risnrg afier n pre\ bus
idL'nin thc snm. s.nicrc.. Comp.rc Mith /],)nr'..r (hich
rcius backtoil differcDlsonllrrcc.
,4lir.rsr..n nlso b. nscd al thl' bcginning of n senien..,
blri ih. N\o cont|nstnrgid.as .rL'still ii thL's.mc scnt.n..:
Altharsh srlcsroft ltish.tttt th. aitl of Arlrit, th.ttl.ll lr[k
,Srn' t, -st/.rlb The sards r//ror.!/, .nd d., rrdr.!1,cin
be uscd nr a snnih. sav
Now read ihis ne\t e\tract from ihc sam. prcs.ntation.
5Thisdrop h srles over Scptcmberan.]
Octoberled
to a seriesofmeetings s'herewc cxaminedour whole
shategvin d.pth. !'Chrishnaswas approaching,an.t the
Chr;tmas scasonproducesa largc p.rt of our amual
sales.TMoreovcr,we h,erelosing narkei shareto our main
.omPetiior 3As a result,we in.reasedour advertjsing
budget for Novcmber and Decenber and chalgcd ou
use of differentmedja.'yOutdooradloiising on biilboards,
b$es and bus stopsinc.eased,while our a.1lertisingiI
magazinesand newspapersdecrcasert.
Sentcnce5 has the sblcturc 'reason (drop in sales)
'result
Geriesof treeiings).The sentenceusesLhelerb
'lead io' io expiessthis.
The lerbs /.ad lo dd,"rr/1tr ce
be used ina similar Far.
1i.{

Senience7 usesMdfurc/ to giv. additional information


that supporis the previoussentence.Th words Molcoret
Furthuinrc anll Llladtliti can all be usedin a similar
sa\: Thevle all folloved by a coma.
Sentencc6 usesAs d rerrll b give ihe rsuli of the
oltltir
Pre\ious sentence.The wotds As n rc.uU,Bccnuse
and T/,.relof.can allbe used in a simihr rvay.They'rc all
foll$led bv. comma.
Sentencet has r'/ril. in the middle of ihe senience.This
n"r,\.. -ir.lp,.-ri.
lFl*.cn tw,, .! \..(.np.rr.
with dllllorl.q/l
$,herethereis a scns. ofsurprise ) The
rro.ds nt!/. and a'llRrr c.n bc uscd h i similar way.
The tablebcloi! prsentsall this languagctogcthcf.Noic
that some$ ords lik. A.drrs. d/ and tr sfilr, (,farc foLlorvcd
immediatelvbv n noun phrase,whilc othcnvords likc
8.n s. and 1,,sril!..,tir. /ir.r rrri are rdlowcd by a subject+
B(rt!
8&?r!
,t:tit.
ht :pit.

t)f the nrketu'g.rhpnip n lrn(,!rt\,., n\$ttt.


r,c tdd d ,!rt.rtr{ tdkl i! h llrt, srtt! r\.nns.d.
offhe poor tu.nth.t i't ltu,
t$ ...
ol tht tit(t tllat th.t. ens pot t\\ttl1( r1 lrl1t,sdl$ ..

fhe phrases you need t


Reason result {ie (ause
consequen(e)
Because
af / Dueta / As a .esultof + noln phrase,
8 F Q u , a D u a- o - h p . a .rtr a + , . b a r , , a . o
reIetrn9 to the prevo!s sentenc
Eecauseof ths. / As a result,/ Thercforc,
lea.l to / rcsult in
Result
reason (ie consequence
becauseof / as a rcsuhof / due to

cause)

Making a simple (ontrast


. whtle / whereas
Adding a surprising or unexpected idea
Hawevet,/ Neveftheless,
/ Evensa,
]n spneat / Despne+ rcun pftase,
]n splteaf th-. fact that / Despirthe lact thai + sublecl
. , although / even though
Althaugh / Eventhaugh
,

Giving additional information


Morcover, / Fufthemate, / ln additian, .

Seeunit 69 for other e ords like As r r.srl, Horrdoel and


&l.r?dfdr that begin a senten e by making a link to the

- TRENDsII
55 PRESENTATIONS

Exercises
55.1 Findand correctthe e!9 mistakein eachsentene
below.lt couldbe a missingword, an extra woro, or a
I BecaLrse
ourconsiderable
cost-cuttLng
masures
ast
quarter,
protts roses ightly.
2 Becalseof we cutconsconsderably
an qua(er,profits
roseslighty.
3 Earnngsfllby8% astyeardLreour ncrcdsed
mairdls
4 Earnngsfellby 8% lastyearasa rcsultfrcmolr ncreased
5 Diffcuitmarktcondtion5reslrled a siqnificant
declnein
6 Thesgnficantdeclinin markersharcresuted of diffcult
narKrconoronS
7 Thischaftshowsthat brandawareness
increased
in SouthEastAsia,wheret fl in tatinAmeica
8 OurcompetitoB
aregainingmafktshare.More,theyhave
a whoe newprcduct ne comng out nextmonlh
9 In spilethef.ct thatwe delayd
the l.unchol our new
o o d L ' 1 ' dg e ^ e s l

Ldd odo.ab4r.i,ril.<ryeal

l0 Despte we del.yingthe laun.h of oLrrnew p.oductrange.


we nill had reasonable
resultsast year
55.2 Complete the presentation extract with thse
words: ar a fesurt due to, even though, howevet, in spite
ofand morcover. Use a capital letter where ncessary
Be carefull Readthe whole text before you begin, and
wfite your answers lightly at rhe side untilyou're sure.
W e . ' F o p ea t l g i
"r"r/d'1c-rb-srnesse-vro-re1l
and ihis s argely'
the hiqh priceof
o i l E e g , . o s t (a e o 1 e o r l h e b g g F s lc o . r sr . o J r b r s r - e ( < .
'
we ve introduceda ot of enerqyefficent machinesn o!r factoriesover recentyea6.
this investmeniin technology,
energyst I accountsfor :8% of oLrrdired cons - and
1
its vryd fiicLrliio ncre.seprofir
margns. 5
, i's noi a bad news Market
sharis grow nq dowy and we've signedsome mpo(ant new
cont.ads.6
, our recentacquistionof a
compdny n Brazlgives us dccessio the Latn Amercan
markeifo. the fid time.
N o t c eh o wa p h r a slei k e ' a sa r e s L r l t ' d oneosl a w a y sh . v et o
comeal lhe beqnningof a senten.efollowedby a comma.l. #4
_.orp\ ! rle. oolF..'- d o Vd\ '
o I e^ 'e 're Le d!
"
wo! d meanthat tlre presentation
doesnot low so well.

55.3 In unit 54 you saw two simpleforms for the future:


wi andgoing to. Howeverthe future is not certain,and
to makeforecastsfor trendsyou needother language
that showsdiffrentdegresof probability.
Matcha sentence1-5 with a sentencea-e with a similar
meaning,
I 13hghy ikeythatwelmeetourtargets.
2 Wete I key to meetoLrrtargts.
.'
3 1 mightbe thatwe meetourtargts.
4 Wete unlikely
to metourtdrgeh
5 ltb highlyunlikely
thatwe'llrneetourrarqers
a
b
c
d
e

]heresa goodchance
we l meetour largts.
Thersalmostno waywe meetour targets.
Thersnot muchchan(ew meetou. targets
we realmostcertan to metoLrriarqets.
There's.50/50chancewe m-oet
our targets.

55.4 Completethe presentationextractwith the words


in the box.Thisexerciseindudessomnew languageas
wll as languagelrom units 54 and 5s.
axit a slighttnctease akhough havebeenttat
hiqhtght highlylikely lnpli.ations in linewith leadta
notie nate tapidly rcacheda peak roughly while
OK.havea ookat thisnextgraphThereare
twohnesThegrenlin,wth vaueson th eftvrtca
showssas Thered ne,
wrthv.lueson th rightvertic.aris,showsprolirs.
l'd keto:
rwo
th ngsherelhe Irst s ihe sale!graphAsyoucan
see,sdlesrosesteadily
lor manyyears.but they
roundtwo yearsaqo
i
Since
then,sales
w1h
5
qu.rler
in
rhis
lan
lust
Nowookat profts.'

_o^ p or,ls 1 'pd Pd -

salestor severalyears,
but theniheynarredto deteriorate,
(ow.y dt rrr r drd 'ro_3
li, the last year this drop in profits has been s gn f icani -

5%.

not dorngenoughto controcosts.


thesaesfgurestaken
d ore do _ oor Loobdd p.o'ir.rell(l-e edt .tol.
It is a diffic!ltnrarketenvronmentandwe rnustacr|ow
or tt rr
thatwew ll
loseour competiiveness
In th longrermth s wil
a sirlaion whercth
futureof th company,
andourjobs,arear risk.
Seepage152for somewritjngtask5.

Presentations - review
s5.1 Matchthe beginningof each
phrase1-10with its correctndinga-j.
1 oK, et's.. t2 l{ youhave.nyquenions, i
3I'comeback..
4 I v d videdmytalk. .
5 Jlst to digress
for
6 LetSexamne this.
8 My own view.. i
9 OK,that'sa want..
10 Right,etsbegn ...
b gel n:rted. Caneverybody
see?
d rntothreeman pans.
f
g
h
i
j

on to the secondpoint
please
fee freeto interrupt.
to thisin a rnoment.
w1htheli6t 5ide.
to eayaboutthe frrstpo nt

Continuas before.
I I Asyoucanse
l2 beganbytelllng
yoLr.
l3 'd likeusto
14 J!stto summarize
15 Letmeexpain ..
16 Now do youh.ve..
17 Rghi,ihaibrngsmeto..
l8 Thank
yo! all..
19 Thisleads
me ..
20 Whats thereason..

56.2 Completethe diagrambelowso that it indudesall the twenty phrases


from 56.1.Youwill seethat ight phrasshavealreadybenused.Findand
write the othertwelve phrassby matchingthem with a pictureclue.
Openir|g
AK, bts get statTedCaneverybadysee?

4t

2\^,nru

frrR
l

First po;nr
tet s begin $/ih the fist slide

ff+,:-'
m il'

/(D1

I V4

<l-\ ,\

.AE; q I |

0(-

du
5e.ond point
6
)t

k a ttle about . Then explained


how
Afterrh.t talkedaboui

l'11came
backta thtsin a moment
8
Id likeus to focusou aftentionan
two thingson thischart
Third point
Thisleadsneto ny thid point, which

focusour attentionon two th ngs on


for cominqand hope
for th s?Thereason
is .

fn

{WJ

'w

e At(

p
the ndof my presentation.
the man po nteaq. n beforeI fin sh.
to myth rd po nt, whichis . .
t wth a concrete
exar.ple.

Justto summaize the matnpaints

Righathat bringsme to the end


),,

ai*>
* (

Now,da yau haveany questions?

whn you finish,look backat the whole sequenceand readthe phrases


aloud.Canyou seehow thse'signpostphrases'helpthe audienceto
lollow the presentaiion?
Il6

- REVIEW
56 PRESENTATIONS

56.3 Fill in the gapswith the words in the box.


about

at

back
an

in
an

55.5 Underline the (orrect words in italics in this extrart


from an internal presentation.

ln
ta

This next chart shows saies for our hvo main product
lines, the Micro rdge and the Neka mnge. 'Mdrk / Noltl?
the scale on the vertical zaris/dile ii shows the number
ofrrtits/lnili6
sold in thousmds per month.
1'd like roa.lrna / ntakeyotr attention firstly to ihe black
line, which shorvs sals of the Micro .ange. You can see
how last year sales trose/ ll aoe trse 6stedttlJ
/ stetrdil! all
through the year Since ihe beginning of this year they
/conti!1ucdhareconti,lEd ro nse,3altharyh i,t spiteol ar ^
/
/

1 Takea look
. thispclure.Whatdoesit tellyou
ourcompanyT
2 l .F divdedllv l. l
foJrn dinp"rr .
3 Right,etsbeqn
... thefirsts ide.
4 LetSmove
....
the secondpoint.
5 Ths leadsme
.. . . mythirdmainpoint.
6 l'llcome
..
ih s in a moment.
( an is passiblein #6, but isn't the answerhere)
7 My own view
th s s simple.
('af is possiblein t7, but isn'tthe answerhere)
8 | h rl lLrea'erhreeqJe,ro o fo,u,
9 As youcansee
th s nexrslide,...
('in'is passible
in +9,but bn't theanswerhere.)
10 So,
conclusion,
l hopethat mytalkhasgiven
youa goodovfviw
our company.
youa I
11 Thank
coming.
12 Heresmyemailaddress
caseyouwantto get

On balance,iheseresultsare good 's.cddy/sipadily


''gror,/gron,i, is what we like to see.This
Senerally
postile picturc is "d!.lo /d!.tdfl ihe performance
and reliabiliiy of the Micro lan8e, and the fa.t that ou!
competiiorsh;ve bccn slow to respond.rzEr., solEo.,r
r/'o!Sr, ive cannotbc complacent.We have to bujld on
this successgoing foNarcl, and I want orr nrlesieams to
really focusrrdi,orirl0, the Micro range L{drcr4ro,r the
I'm Boing to set an ambitioustarget- 10takesales
of Micro p.oducts from thcir curent levelof30,000per
month rsrdl!,rii ai1{Sr//r/,rrl bd of 35,000by thc cncl of

56.4 Completethe sentences


with the pairsol words in
anyane/ cannents btings/ end dlqress
/ noment
exantne/ detail explainI agaln expldin/ conctete
highlight/ .|iagrcn question/apinian scape/ ahpMa te
tine /questian useful
/ backgraund start/lntrotiucing

mysell.

2
: tmghtbe
Let!

to givea tlle
In6In more
with a

' d l i k et o
1 Does
8 Right,that

iwo thingson this

haveany

sorry,canyou ...
thal
.....'.'.'
'. ?
10 ThatSan nteresiing
own. ... ........
?
11 | thinkthat'soursidethe
of this
presentation,
but I m happyto discuss
it with yo!
12 OK,lth nkthere's

O K , n o w l e t ' s r T l D k n r / l o olk. ' t h c p u r p l cl i n c o n t h c


chart,which shows salcsof thc Ncka rangc.As you know,
we launchedthis rangc in Dcccmberof l,lst ycar,.ncl salcs
''tookoll u.r. tokrtgr,ffimmcdiaicly.For ihc lirst lcw
/
months thin8s "'jzucru
/.tiiy looknq Sood
/hitl ft,nllr laokctl
We were cxpectingthis becauswe lDrrcf.,lon,S/ rd,1
,good.
do,rta lot of market researchbeforethe launch.':rHd?r.!.f
/ Wl,?nns,for no obvious feason,there2n,rs/ ,ns 1,c.,a
asudttat stddeily'1tdrap rs.l!.. in salesin reccntwccl<s.
/
/
The quesiionis ihis: can we find out the:5ixoii".s/ ridlrrs
and what can we do'z6nbolr4orit?
tn d nomrnt I'm gomg io open up lhp d - u\\io.
and ask for your ?Tconuerts/ conne atics.B'rt the
implicahonsare .lear: ii's 'z3high
thal
/ hishllJ'1echanc.
/ likclJJ
we won't mei our ttrget of 25,000roby//o/ the end of th.

Meetings - opinions
Readihc extractf.om a meeihgin a household
Froducis
company.nroine(A),Brigittc(B)andChrts(c) are
discussing
theircomplnv'smarl.iing straieg\r
A: We needto do something
radca to devlop
our
brands.
TheretaileG
arebecoming
moreandmore
powerful theybly frcn usfor whatver
pricihey
want,andsllto the publcfor whatver
pricethey
B: Absoutely.Ourprofitmargnsaregettng thinnerand
C: I totdllyagrewith youabolt the powerof th rtale6.
Afd it'snotjLrnther prcingpowr lts alsother
own abe prod!(ts.Whyshouldpope pdymoreior
(emslk oursl
branded
A: Bascay,we havto lookat brandrng
n a whoenew
way h ny op nron,we l-rave
to go byondmarket
resedrch,
beyondla krnqaboutqua ty,dndbeyond
" . e d d \ p r r ' n o l o a d n d t I n r r 9 o . d )r . d e
n e e d1 0m d k ea n e m o t r o n dc o n n c t o n
wth contumers
W e n e e dc o n 5 ! m e r1! ol o v eu s ,n o l l u s tt o n e e du s
B I nr not so slre about th:l We slldelrgnlsand
' ' o ' o ' " I o a " - o ^ F - o r o - c . p L e aL 9
products)We're not a .ompany ke Apple or Nikewho
m a k ee x c i n
l 9 , l e n y l ep r o d l c t sW h : l d o y o u t h n k .
ChnsT
c: t seems1lrme thal we haveto do sonrelhnq we
c a n ' 1 l u scl a r y o n d sw e a r e 1 n a y b e l r u e t h r l o u r
produdsaren't veryexot nq. bul we aho have10
r o d ! . r sa r ea n i m p o r t a n r
c o n sd e rt h a t h o L r s e h opl d
part of fam ly lIe, and fdm liesare nearthe cenlreol
oLiremotons Aclua y, I do think o!r advertisng could
appearmorero peopes emot ons
B OK, OK You re probaby r ght But what did you h.ve
i n m i n d ,A r t o n o ?
A W e n e da n e w ' f a c e ' f o ro u r b r a n d qA. c e l e b f i t y
Someonewho the pub c oves To put rt s mpy, we
needthe mon famols footba I player n the wond to
appedron screen,Lrsingour products.
B: Re.ly? Do yoLrth nk so?You th nk thai if a famous
l o o t b dL e rc e a n st h e r t e e t ha n dw a s h e tsh e f o o r , u sn g
our products,the pub c wil love us? | thlnk ihey w I
auqh at us,and at the footba er.
f: Obvouslyit wou d haveto be done careiully,and a
f o o t b ae r m d yn o t b e t h e b e n c h o c e .P e r h a p s f. l m
startrom romantc comedymovieswould be better But
i n g n e r aI l l k e A n t on e s i d a .
B: OK, I can sewhat you nrean,but don t you think thi5
is a golng to be veryexpensveT
A: Thatbtrue. r wil be. Blt iron my point o{ view lr3
worth t. An emoronal connectionis the onlyway to
lustily a premum price.

The phrasesyou need Ag


: r i t i : r- i i : ' . ! , r ; r , ' ? ; . r What da yau think, Chns?
Chris,what'syau apinrcn?
Whatdid yau havein mind?
Cr: iri tr.. ir.ri;.itrn
What l'n tryinqto sayts . / The palnt is
tnmy opinian /rhewaylseeit..
gasi.ally tEssentially
A.tually I As a matter af fa.t ..
Abviously .. / Clearly
ln generat / Arctall
Io put it sinplf . / ln short
':irrir.ij
.1 rii.iirioi. im.r. !.r:r5li,:,1
/r 5eemsto me thal
fran rny paint of iew
..- -..,r):.1
t totallyag.ee '|ith yau / Absalutely
It s nat tusl , it s also
Yau te prcbably right
r , : i : e i r i . ' , r . : 1 - 1 :ri ,. ii ag.ee up ta a potnt. bul
OK, t .an seewhat you mean,but don't yau |hink a
tt may be true thdt . but we ako haveta cansidl
a : .:a.' -.:.- j: ::::
Realy?Da you think ta?
t m not sa suteabaut that
t m sony,that nat how I tee t
I rcaly .an t agree 6/ith you there
\dhce thc difiercnt wit,s to gne an opnrion nr thc box
.bore. NlaDvoI ih.se phrnsesappear in ihc cxtract.
\ohce thc.lifferent wavs to agre. an.t disagrccabovc.
\fan! of thes. phr.sesnilpear iD thc cxtract.

57 I|EETTNGS- OPtNtOt{s

Exercises
57.1 Underlinethe correctwods in italics.
1 Chris,whatl/row isyouropinion?
2 What did you havein mind/ in Wur nind?
3 lt seemrme / seemsto me that we haveto do something
we can'tjuslcarryon aswe are.
4 Frcn,ny view/ ny point of y/erf, its worth it.
5 | am agree/ t agreewith yau.
6 YouJeright / Youhavereason.
7 | agrceto a point/ up ta a point,buL..
8 | canseewhatyou meanI you?eneaning,btltdon'tl/ou
thinkthisis goingto beveryexpensiveT
9 lt may/ canbe true that our productsaren'tveryexciting,
but we alsohaveto consider
...
10 l'm not sosureyy,fh/aboutthat,
57.2 Look at the extracts from meetings below. Wrlte a
phrasefrom the box nert to a ph6se in italica with t|te
samemeanlng,8e carcfrrll
y 8y theway Howevet ln g$e,al
Actually Easica
ln nyopinton Luckily Obvioudy lhe pointis ln shon

serousssues
thatwestillh aven'tdiscussed.
, the projectis
threeweeksbehindschedule,
not two.
3
, we haveenoughtime,
Clearly/
they'rc
oot aschapas
,
othersupplers,
but theifqualityandrcliability
is much
0elter.

, it3 a verypositiveproposal,
but therearesomeimportant
detailsthatstillneed
clarifynq.
WhatI'n Wng to sayis/
, Juneis a
nuch bettertimeto launchth s oroductthanAor
Essentially
/
, its a goodideaaslong
,s t3 not too expensive,
WhilewE'reon the subject/
didyou
geta chanceto readthatrcportlsentyou?
Thewayt seeit /
, the wholethingis
a complete
wasteof time.
Toput it sinply /
, profitsarefalling

overall/
6
7
g
9
t0

57.3 Write one oI thes next to each sentencebelow:


Polite disagrcentent,Stong ditagreement, Not
Wnaticaly possihle.
'l lreallycan'tagrcewith you.
2 l can'treallyagree
with you.
3 l can'tagrcreallywith you.
57.4 Put the phrasesbelow into order:1 is the most
polite disagreementand 4 isthe strongeitdisagreement.
n l'm sorrythats not how lsee it.
Doyouthinkso?
I Really?
l'm
not
sosureaboutthat.
n
I
really
can't
agreewith youtherc.
n
57-5 'l think we need to make an emotional aonnectioh
w'tt .otsumerr.'Study the diffurenl replies a-{ and then
do the xerdse below.
--) a Yes,justlikeAppleor Nike.
J b Yes,youle right.
J c Ye5,theyshouldloveour prcduds,notjlst needthem.
products
do
+ d Maybe,but how cana household
cornpany
that?
-f e lsn'tthet ideetoo abstract?
Wouldnlit be betterto
focuson something
mo practical?
+ f Doyouthinkso?
+ 9 l'm sorryl don'tagrcewlth you.
ilow matcheachreplywlth a te<hnlquefor agreingand
disagreing below.
A9|in9
phrase
1 Usinga standard
fl
2 Saying
the samethingagainusingdifferentwordsn
3 Givingan exampbn
Dlsagreeing
phrase
4 Usinga standard
n

s Yes,
but...i1

6 Askingan openquestion
lo showdoubtn
(whereyourown answeris
qiJestior
7 Askinga negative
clearly'yes) n
57.5 Q 9 Speakingpracti.e: listen and repeat. Repeat
eachphraseyou hearand then listento check.

d_d coslsare 'iqingand we haveto do somerhing- {an.

Meetings 11

Meetings - making things clear


Readthc cxiract fronr a meethgbetween threescnior
manageF from differcnt departhentsin an h\.cstmenr
bank. Agusih (A) h.s somc bad news to announceio his
colle!gles Briar (B)dnd Cecilia(c). Brian and Ceciliacamot
bclievewhat th.y're hearnrgl

Well,qoodmornlng,everyone.
B Goodmornng.
c : Goodmornlng.
Youre probaby wonderng why I calledthis!rgent
meetrng
at sLrch
5hoftnotc.I havesomebadnewsfor
you We havea roguetrader.
B Sorry,
I n ssedih.t Couldyou,ay it aqainT
I sad we hava roguetr.der LikN ck Leeson
at
Barir,95
aid Jerome
Ketulat
Socte
Gnraie
We
havesorneone
who hasbeentradingbeyondh s
aLrthority
C : C a nl g e t t h i sc e a f ?Y o u ' r es a y i n gt h . l t h e r el r a sb e e n
A Yes,it appearsso. On a ndssve rralp lwo billon elros
C Sorry,how rnuchdid you sayT
A I ead two b on eurog
B Ho$?d d yolr arrve al the igure of 1wo b hon?
a r t sl r , s r : q u e s s
8 : W h a l e x a c t yd o y o u m e a nb y ' g u e s s ' D
? o ni y o u
A : T h ep e u o nI n v o v e dw a st r a dn g c o m p e xi n a n c r a
nslrumenlsDerivdt,veslt s veryd lf icuI io enrmatethe
C Correctme f 'm wrong. bul yo! seemto be s.yrfg
that yoLrhaveno c ue whal this personw.s ir.drng and
no c ue how much moneyhe has on
A : P l e d s e . l o wm e t o e x p a , f . c a n n o tk n o we v e r yd e t a , l
ol eve.ytranlacton oTeverytrader I havespokento
t h e n d v d u a l sl n m a n a g etrh A m o r n L n ga,n d r h e
f qlre o{ two bi on ooks ke a reasonabe gless.
B Yo! mentionedthat the personwas trad ng comptex
derivdilvesCou d you be a litt e morc specifc?
A: At ihis nage, no
B: 5o, n othrwords,yotr don r Lrnde6tand
rhe rrades.And
prcbabythe line managrdoesn'tundeEtandether
A: PerhapsI havent expldned myselfceary Whdi meafi
was thai wele nvenigdringrhe matter Thereare
certainaspectsof the t.adesthat seemto haveescaped
oLrrInlerfal controls
C r C o u l d l u s ts a ys o m e t h i n gt?d o n ' r b e l e v ew h a t t , m
hearinglDoesanyoneln this pace know what they're
do ng?
A: Cai just f nish my point?Whar I was tryingto saywas
that this is a very seriousmatterand I cannororame
rndividuals
or 90 into detaik unt lwe haveproof.
Br ljust hopethat the mediahaven'rfound out about this
'

120

A: Thereare threejourn, istswait ng in my office

Nohcc the differentways to make things clear Ai tinc 7


Bnan asksfor.epefihon. At Line12 Ceciliausesh.r own
words to check(paraphrasing).At Iine l5 Ceciliaclarifies
an indi\ idual point.

fhe phrases you need t8


Ask icr reDetition
Sorry t ntissedthat Couldyou sayit agan?
Sony, 1don't undetstand, .an you expiain that again?
Can you run thrcugh / ga aver that again, please)
Use your ov/n wordt to che(k
5a. rn ottier v/otds.
It I understandyao caftectly,... ts that tiqht?
Can I get this .leat? Yau rc saying that .
Catrect me if l'n wong. but yau seem to he saying
C l a r i { _ vi n d i v i c l L r a l D o ' n t s
'orty. how mu.h .Jid yau say?
Sary. the praje.t wi statt when?
What exactly da you nean by ?
Haw dtd you aniveat the frgue of ..?
Yau mentoned
Caul.l you be a littie nare spe.ifi.7
Corre.t a misunderstanding
Im sarry,thats notwhat I neanl
No, sat.y. there 5 been a slight nisunderstanding.
Perhapt I havenl explatnednyself clearly.
Pleaseallow ne ta e\plain
Let me prt tt anatherway,
WhatI meant vfis
What I was tryinq ta say was
Get your turn to speak

Cautdtjust saysonethinq)
CanI lust flnkh ny patnt)

5A MEEIINGS- MAKING THINGsCLEAR

Exercises
54.1 Readthe dialogueoppositealoud severaltimet
then covr it with a piece of paper.
Now try to remembersomeofthe missingwods below.
Write your answerslightly at the side.
1 Sorry
l.
that.cou d you
. . . . . . . . . . . . .-. . . . . . . . i a g an ?

2 Canlget this
thatthe.ehasbeenfraud?
3 Sorry....
How d d you

ddyou
by

'girss'?

7
8

9
10

.. ......... m ei l I m
but
yo! seemto be sayng thatyouhaveno cluewhatthis
personwasvaorng.
Please
. .........
meto
I ca_norI noweverydetd.o'everytrdnsa.tion.
Youmentioned
thatthe personwastradingcomplex
deriv.tives.
Couldyoube a
morc
?
Perhaps
I haven't
mysel{
. whatI mantwas...
C . nl l u s t
my
WhatI wastryingto saywas...

After you have remembered whatever you can, use


the pairs of words in the box below to @mplete the

allow/expiain anive/ltgue
clear/ sayirg cone{t lw.ong
exactly/ nean explained/clealy
flhishI point

hownuchlta!
lryl:E!,,

^':::!lt:y

58.2 Fill in the missingletters.


I Sorryldon'tLrnd
d. Canyoue
agaif?
qulckly)
2 Canyouftrn .. . ..- gh that again?(= explain
3 Canyouqo .. r thatagain?(= rcpeatit in orderthatI
canunderstand
it)
4 No,sorrytheresbeena sl
t m sund
5 Letme
il another y.
6 Canl.
here?(= enterthe discusson
/ intenupt)

58.3 A team laderis speakingin a @nferencecall,but a


<olleague(Bob)doesn'tunderstandvery well. Complete
Bob3questionswith the words in the box.
where
hownuh

which wha
how aften

Teamleader:
Thismeetingtodayisjusta quickbriefng sothat
everyone
understands
theirzxhkqfbeforethe prclectstarts.
Bob:Sorryundebtands
their'
Teamleader:
Theirroles.Ye5,aslwa! $yinq, il'sjusta quick
briefng it'll on y lastaroundkfxhzqminutes
Bob:sorryz . .......
. . .......
...
d d yousay?
Teamleader:
Arolndthirtyminules.
OK,soihe prcjectwill
ttaft.t the beginning
of qxkfzh.
8ob:Sorrythe projectwill start3
Tpamleade' At tl'e begrn.rngo'Ma (h Ald o_cF rs runn
ng,
we'll haveto meet regularly,xhkzqia month.

Bob:Sorrya
........
.........
d d yousayT
Teamleader:
Oncea month.OK,f2xhqkwill be n overa
chargeof the bldget.
Bob:Sorryt
..
w ll be in chargeof the
budget?
please
Teamleader:M;fiha. f yo! haveanytravelexpenses,
fil
in tom qzfxkhandgiveit to her
5
Bob:sorry
form?
Teamleader:FormTE30.lf youth nk youw ll spendmorethan
fzxhqk,youshouldget myauthorzatonf rst.
Bob:Sorry7
ddyousay?
Teamleader:
400euros.Copiesol theformcanbe folnd on
hxikzq
Bob:Sorrywe (an findthem3
?
Teamleader:
Onthe company
intranet.

58.s S 10 Speakingpractice:listenand repeat.Rpeat


eachDhrasevou harand then listento check.

Meetings 12

- probtem-solving
rvreetings

Readtheertracifroma meetingjn a minhg compan\l


A t r e F / A ) . B e r ' 8 ) " r J C a u d . , C , c ru. -d-.uB d \ - u .
of so.ialresponsibiltl
A: Ourgeologca studis
haveshownthattheresa lot
ol goldin thisarea,but the lora populatonis aganst
us thylay our minng oprations
w I denrcythe
enMronmenl.
Thereareseveralways
we co!ld dealwith
this.I d liketo openup the d scLrssron
andhearyour
B: I th nk we shouldofiertomemoneyto the loca mayor.
underthet.ble t3 workedbefore
A: 'm sorry,I dont th nk thatsa goodidea Whatwo! d
bth consequences?
Thismayorseme
honestand
hecouid!o slraighl1oth newspapE.
1twouldbe a
d saster
B Yes, suppose
you'rerght.
A C aude?AnysLrggestofs?
C Wel. il1.J i

"r

d e d .b . l ^ l d

d b o L _o D r " g r o . r p

s o m eo f o u r p r o f t st o s u p p o ret n v i r o n m e n t a l c h .ersi l?
We cou d give moneyto organzat ofs that protectthe
ra nloresr,that sort of thing
A : T h a ts o u n d sk e a g o o d d e a ,b u l d o n l t h i n k t w o L r l d
w o r k i n p r a c t c eL. t s o o k a t t h e p r o sa n dc o n s O n
t h e o n e h a n d ,t w o r r l dm p r o v eo ! r p u b l i ci m a g e t, h . t s
lrLre.But on the other hand.peoplewou d see 1 .s a
verycyncal genlre And t doesnolh ng lor the lor:a
p o p ! a to n I n i h a t . r e a
B C a nl m a k e a s u g g e n o n ?n n e a do l b e n g d e l e nr v e ,
!L. do1

$e90o

h"i_"..

hdogoP.dapd,g

A : W h a td o y o ! m e a n ?
B: We
ook at the benefitsrhar our operationrw I
bring We'll br nq lobs to the lo.a community,and our
emp oyeeswrl pay taxesto the governmentWe're on
thesde ot proqress
A Let'sthink careJLrlly
about ihe mp icationsof thal We
wou d havelo spenda huge amoLrnloJ moneyon
pressand ry advertjsements,
and we're only a small
c o m p a n yW h a td o y o ! i h i n kC l a u d e l
. r q e l e d i l . o J d s l , t e d g o o o r a Faa- h o J o - a g r e e
t h a t t h e c o e tm a yb e t o o h i g h .l t h i n k t h e b e ( w a y
tolward s io get a moredetailedest mste of how much
a o l d h e r i n F , d r p o d - c d 1 d r La r w F I . b F i n a
better posiUonto dcde aboui ihe PRcampagn.
A OK, let3 do thar. After all, we havea fumber of
-or
ooriols
e{drolc, we (o,rld in . io, dt pR.ampaqn
i r s t e d do J d r o n r o n e . J \ t F 1 p h . ! i - i r g - h e r o b s
"
B: OK The nextthing to do is carryout a morc detailed
georogrcar
suwey.r aqree
Notice the processof explorjngoptions,maklng
suggesiions,reacting,and acceptingor rejectingthe

ltl

The phrases you need V


P r e s e , T ta i ; l i o n s
we havea nunber c)toptians.
ftEre are severcl ways we could deal with this
Eaianre an arqurneilt
LeI'sloak at the prcsand rcns.
An the one hand,
But an the ather hand,
tn generat . ahhaush
On the whole , but
ivlake .l su.Jgesiiorr
t thtnk w"" shauld / couid
CanI nake a tug.testion?lnsteadaf .. , why dan't we .. ?
It\ lust an tdea,but vlhat abaut (+ ing)?
What wauld be the consequences)
Let\ thtnk.arefuly abou! the impli.atiansaf that
A(.ept

a su!!qestion

Yes.I thnk that would vr'a.krcallywell


Reje.t . s qlqestion
I can see ane at t'Na prcblems with thal
Thatsaundslikea goad tdea,but I don't thinkit wauld
I m sa(y, t dan t thnk that3 r qood /dea
I think the ben way fatwatd is
What we ve gat to da now a
fhe next thtng ta.lo B

5 9 M E E T I N G S- P R O B L E M - S O L V I N G

Exercises
59.1 Coverthe oppositepagewith a piecof paper.
Now try to rememberthe words below (Someletters
1
2
I
4

Thereare sev
\rayswe couldd
'd lke
to o
1 r t h e d i q c u q s oann d h e a ry o u fv
Yes, su
seyou re r
t
Th.t s
s k e a g o o d d e a ,b u t d o n t t h r n kt w o u d
w
p
r
(= advantaqes
5 Let'sook at the p
and co
and
dis.dvdntdges)
6
th
e
d , t w o u d m p r o v eo l r p l b l c m a g e .
thats trLre But
the
I
d. peope wou d
r:yn,:a
lery
gesrure
see I ds d
7 Can
on?
d o l b en q
t we go of lhe allack with . brg PR

59.4 Completethe table by writing thesenounsnext to


the verbsthey go with: a suggestion,a de.ision,
a prcblen, a solution-Checkany unknownwords in a
didionary
an.l!ze,approach,
avoid,befa.ed
wlh, cause,
consider,
expore,
fnd
a w.y round,qtround,identt.
l o o l ' l o .o v o . o r o p " . "
wth), tolve, run into
Gomebody

qn n the mda?
canrpa
8 Letsth nk c.refuy dbourthe mpl
(= possrb
e futLrre
rcsulttol th.t
9

n g
il soLrfds,ke a qood rda.a
9h
a q e t h . t t h e c o n m a yb e 1 o oh q h
10 thinkthebt wy f
d5toqetamor
d e t al e de 5 1 m a l
s9.2 Make phrasesby matchiog an item lrom each
I
2
I
4
5
6
8
9
l0
ll
12

OK, lefs
...
'\\
what
Thals a rornp ale'.
Why
'.
Ys,that wo! d
Sha

wane of trme
work re.lly well
aboLrl )

C a nI
I can see
Imnotreay
T h a tr n r q hbl e
l d o nt t h n t t

worth try n9

donr we
do thal

a g r e e{ o n ) . : r r v ea t ,c o m e! p w t h ,
lgure o!t. f nd, ook tor,ofier,
produce,propose,
put ioMard,
reach.work towards

'

ccepl,acl on, agreewlh, come


! p ! M i h ,c o f s d e rm a k el,o l l o w! p .
9o alongw(h, lendweiglrlto, put
torw.rd,rle.t,respondto, rule
o!1, lake up, we aorn

a ler,.iiNe at, be ia.ed w rh, .ome


ro. .onf rm. 9o backon, hestar-a
over,gnore, mplement,lunfy,lie
behnd, make,postpone,reach,
recon'oer'.eve6e'laKe

5 r . 5 r i l l e a c hg a p w i t h a v e r b f r o m t h e p r e v r o u se x e f c i s e
in the (orred form.

w o ud w o r kI n p r a c i r e
one or iwo probem! !^i(h ihal

59.1 Wfite the phra5enumbersfrom the prvious


xercisein the (orrect(ategorybelow.
d Makea sugqenion
lr Accepta slqgenon
c ReJect
a suggenion

3 stlat on $/hereyou h.,,'eto da wrth t


mrke an eilort ro de.lwtll I lnetaphat t'rcn t'oatball)
lf yo!
a b o u ta p r o be m u n l i ly o u | . d t h e . n s w e ro r L r n d e r 5 t . n d
wh.t hrs happened (= watk out )
4 f yo!
a s o l l t o n , y o L dr o
lhrngt that he p yo! to make progress
5 f yo!
a s ! g q e s r o ny, o !
I

6 i somethinq
' o r o . d - p . d " r c eo . d l p . 6

a suq9e5rLof,
99pror.4p. Le.

..ion io pui n ntopracrce


8 f somethng
s the trLrereasonlor the decision
59.6 @ i Speaking practicerlisten and repeat. Repeat
earh phrase you hear and then listen to check

Meetirgs tll

Meetings - leading a meeting


Thc personwho le.ds the mccihg ls often called 'rhe chaiJ',but other comhon termsde 'moderator',
'facilitaior' and 'presidnrg
offic.r'. Belos'rou ryill flnd sometvpical exh'actsspokenb\.this prson

Opening the metin9

Closingthe meeting

Rrght,i5 everybodyhere?Good, think we can std.t


A F l l o o o d n o , 1 9 " v p r o rp . a r d h . 1 1 , l o r L o a r ' 9
L j n f o r t u n . l eA
l yn n e k es a n d s e n d sh e r . p o o q s
Justa coupleot houskep
nq lh ngs beforewe beg n
&D 'a.p. \ho b ""r dro.rd r"r lL I r. dro . r
to { nishthe meetifg on I me. at twelveo'clock Trre
b a t h r o o ms d o w n t h e h a o n t h e l l
O K D o y o ! . h a v a . o p y o f l h e a g n d d c?o o d C . n
someone
l a k et h e m n u r e s ?I h a n ky o u .V k r a m
lun beioie we beg n, 'd ,ke io nlrodLrce
Agnieszka
from our Warsawo{l ce Wolld you I k to e:y a few
w o r d 5a b o l l y o l r s ei A g n e r z k a ? O K .t h a n k s
Rght Our oble.l ve today ! to plan the launchol the
n e w r a . g eo i a r q es c r e e lne e v s o n sa c r o sas o ! r E ! r o p e a n
markel! lve preparedsomebackqroundInformationthat I
hopew,ll be lselul, and l' distrbLrtel roundthe tabe now
You can seefrom the agendathat we havea lot to qet
t h r o u g hs, o w o L r l da s kt h a t y o u k e e pa l l c o n t i b u t o n s
b r e l a n dt o t h e p o i n t
OK, ets mov(raight to the lrsi item. Henk,woLrld

OK, everyone,lth nk w (an nop there

t3 nea.y tweve

l'd like lo sum up Therare three r.a n concu5on5


lrom the meetng. F rrt,
5condy.
And finally
n trmsoi .ctron po nts, we v decidedto
lenn fer
you re go ng 1o dea w th rhal - and we've i so .greed
that Mrquelshouldprpara reporton
Are thereany other po nts that anyonewants to make?
Havei nr s5eddnythng?
We , thanksfo. you. input, everyoneWe'vehad lots
oI good deasand think t was a vry lsefLrlmeetng. 'll
crrculdlethe nr|n!tesas soonas I get them from V kram
W h a la b o ! t a n o t h em
r e e t i n gC
? a nw e l x a d a t en o w ?
R i g h tw
, c o s el h e r . e e tn g h e r e E n l o yy o u rl l n c h
C at . o n a . c a nl l u s t h a v ea q l Jc k w o r dw t h y o u b e f o r e

Managing the meeting


B.hveen the op.n and tho.los. thereis thc wholc micldle
so.tnrr oi ihe nrttting whorc thc chnir dnndgesrnd controls
tho rliscussn)n.'fh.tablcb.Low conta,nsphraseshr this.
U n i i 5 3 ( N l , t k i n gt h i n g sc l c a , i s a h o v e r y . e l e v . , nht e L e .

Ihe phrases you need !9


Ask {ol. reactions
Whatsyout vtewan this, Nadin-b?
How da you feel abaut this,Kiaus?
Antanta, thisB yout field.ln a few wotds. canyou tell ut what you think)
l,tike, aftet we ve heard fran Rasa(an we have yout iews? | know yau
havesane erperien.eaf thisprablen
Deal with interruptions
Caul.lyou just hang an a nomenrpleare?
Ane at a t)ne, please Fist Miella, then Ciaude
Pavol,couldyau just let Nikolainish? t @ne backta yau in d nonent
Keep moving
Perhapswe couldget back ro the nain paint?
I m not surethat\ televant
Lets leavethat asidefat the moment.
Can we cane ba.k to thk later?
I think we should nove an naw

r21

Focuethe d;scussion
1thitk we needto loak at thlsin nare detdl
Weneedta analyzethtsin a little moredepth
WiCn the discu13ion
ls ttrercanghingelseweshauldcantdea
what ather waysarc thete ta appraachthis?
Check agreement
Canwe go raund the tableta seetf evetyane
Da weal agrceon that?Gaad,that'ssettled
S mmarize
5a, basically,
whatyau rc saylngis ..
AK, bt\ go overwhat we ve discussed
sa fat

60 MEETINGS- LEADINGA MEETING

Exercises
60.1 Coverthe opposite page with a piece of papei
complete the sentencesfrom the opening oI a meeting
with the Dairsof words in the box.
agenda/ getthtough
backgrwnd / usetul bathroon I hdl
btief /point
cowl agenda housekeepingI begin
ill/ apologies kick I off tight I s6rt sayI words
straight I iten take/ ninutes

iseverybody
here?Good,I thinkwe
Annekeis
2 Unfortunately

60.4 Make phrasesto close a meeting by matching an


item frcm each column.
mainconclusions.
I I lhinkw----\
th minutes.
2 l'd liketo sum \
--can
stopthere,
3 Therearethree
5
6
7
8
9
l0

Arethere
HaveI
| thrnkrt wasa
l'llcirculate
Canwe
can ljust have

missed
anything?
a quickwordwith you?
of aclionpoints...
anyotherpoints?
up.
veryusefLrl
meeting.

hef-

3 Justa coupleof
4 The
on the left.
5 Doyoual havea
6 Cansomeone

thingsbetorewe
is down the
of the
the

7 Wouldyouliketo
8
9
10
11

aboutyou6elfAgnieszka?
preparcd
infomationthat I
l've
some
hopewill be
Youcanseefromthe
lot to
lwould askthatvoukeeoallcontributions
andto the
OK,let'smove
to the fi6t

60.5 C.overthe opposite page with a piece of paper Put


the words into order. Wdte the answrs under the correct
heading below.
Ithink in moe detaillookat thiswe needto.
lett for the momentleaveasidethat,
Couldyoua momenthangon jun please?
15anything
therewe shouldconsider
else?
Oneat time,a please,
can we if everyone
agrees
9o roundto seethe tableT
otherih s?
Whatwaysarethereto approach
Letsso far what we'vediscussed
9o ovet
can !! laterto thiscomeback?
we needto deDththisin a littlemoreanalvze,

Dealwiih interruptions
l

Kp moving
12 Henk,wolld youliketo
?
60.2 find a wod or phrasefrcm the previousexertise
that matchesthe deflnltlons blow.
at a meeting
1 a list of the subjectsto be discussed
makeat a
that Deople
2 a writtenrecodof the decisions
forrnalrneeting
3 (p/rrasa/verb)do; f nishdealingwith
4 oneof seveElthingson a list
s (phrasalveh) begin
60.3 Write ArEGritish English)or Amf (Ametkan
English)on the right line1 bathrcom/ restroom/ washroom2 loa (infomal)/ loilers/ gents/ ladies/ wc

Foaus$e dirausslon
S I lhlnk we need lo look at hE n fiore deta'l

widenthe discussion
1

cheakagrement
9
Summarize
10
50.6 Q 12 speakingpracticelistenand repeat.Repeat
eachphiaseyou hearand then listento check.

Meetings l2l

rvr..tings- negotiatingI

$hat do )ou think of *fien you hear the s'(fd 'negotiating'?


You p.obably think of thjs process:ta'o sideseachhale a
- r r , I n j p o ' i r o n . l h H l l h " \ n r d l , r - p r i p .o l . o n c p . .^. n .
(= things they give ln order to reachm agreement)until thev
find a cohpronise (= an iitreement a'her. boih sidesaccept
ihat they cannothave everything).
But ihis processis more nccftately callcd 'bargainjrg , and
ii'sjrst one of thc phasesof r negotiation.Thc phasesare:
I Relationshipbuildjng: getting to knor! the other person,
F \ , 1 - a n r , - !i n r o r n. r r i . , ni - . , , l t h c n \ o ! o r n p . n r i p . .
discussnlgth. market,and genclally tiuiLdingirlst.
Stainigneeds, .xploring initial positionsand asking
questuns. In a conmerci.rlnegotjatnrn,thc supplicr
. \ f l . . i n . h c p , u d u .I i . o H p , h
'l'us- u\ rtbnr!.
"-d
valu to the custoncrh business.
' Barganring n.rt just on price,bui on a .ingc of linkcd
issuessuchns quantitv,mnlinlunr ordc., discounts,
deiivcrv innc, sc!!ice planlsand Narr.nljcs (Suaraniccs),
i e f l n so t p i v n r c n t , x c l u s i \ i i yi r . p . n i c u l a rm a r k e i ,
the length ot thc conn?ci,nansport costs,nrrangcnrcnts
f d s h a r i n gi d l c n i s i f g c o s t sp, e n n l t i c isf . i a u s . s i n i h c
conthct i'1, nol rcsP!.ct.d
Itcid thc dialog!f bck)w,lLhich is in .rt.act frdm ph.so 2 of
i typical snlcsnogoti.riion.l:(r ph.rs.s3 and .1,s.c !nii 62.

126

\otice in this earlv pari of the negotiationhow ihere ar.


a loi of qlestions, and how the speake.smovc fr..ly lrom
one toptc to another

The phrases you need Vg


qtate your needs
Far us, the pnonties are
Aur nain con.e.n is ...
We think the best aptian wauld b,.
We'd ptefer ta seeI have..
We need
Can you t1o that?
Erplore positions
What exa.tlydo yau need?
What da you havein mind?
How wauld yau feel abaut . ?
How flexible.anyou be an .. 7
when you say , what doyau nean)
Canyau be norc specifi.?
Letme Just.heck I understandyau cat.ectly
Ask s'recifi. queqtion5
What satl of quantityaL.yau thinkingof?
What kind of nmescalearc we loaking at7
What satt of figu.earc we talkingabout?
What kinclof guaranteecanyou give us?
Weve beenquated a ptice af
Canyau nat h that?

SupplierOK, ets get down io businessWhat exacllydo

SLrggest alternatiu:5

CustomeF
r :o ru s ,t h e p r i o r t i e s . r eq u a l i t ya n d r e a b l i l y
5 u p p l i e rW
: h e ny o u s a y ' r e l i a b i l i tw
r ean?
y 'h, . i d o y o L m
CLrstomerI meandeliveryOn t me, everytir.e Can yo!
do that?
Supp eri Yes,we can OLr cunomersarc well-knownf rms
who trust !s afd come backto !s
Cunomer:OK.
SupplierWhat sort of quantityare yoLrrhinkingof?
C u n o m e rA
: r o u n d1 , 0 0 0p i e c e isn r i a y . B ! t i h a t m . y
-ianoe Ho/ fF,rb'"
ca- \o 06o qJo r,r/
S u p pi e r :Y o ur a n c h a n q et h e q ! a n r i t yu p t o f v e w o r kn g
daysbeloreth agreeddelive.ydate,dnd we needa
m i nm L r mo r d e ro f 5 0 0 p e c e s B l r q u a n t r y i s n o r a
p r o b e m O u r m a n . o n c e r ni s t h a ty o u d o n ' rc h a n g e
the basc specfic.tioneof your order
Cunomer:Right,I undeEtand.And in termsof delivery
what kind of timescaleare we look ng at?
SupplierTwo weeksfrom your f rm ord-6r
Cunomer:OK Anotherqlestion We'vebeenquoted d
prce oi 950 per p ecefor. very s milarprodu.r.Can
yo! matchthat?
Supp r: We offer qudlityai a reasonable
price,not at ihe
cheapenprce We donltry to cornpeteon price. t3
aboLrta relationshp belweenqualiiyand price.
Customer:Of course I seethat. But wh.t kind of
guarantecan yo! give !s in relition to yoLrrquality?

Can1sugqestanatherway af navinq forward?


Thercdrc a coupleal altenativeswe d liketo pul
Perhapsyou woulrl like to tty the praduct an a tnal

I
6,I MEETING5- NEGOTIATING

Exercises
61.1 Readthe dialogueopposite
aloudseveraltimes,
then .over it with a piceof paper.Now !ry to remember
someof the missingwords below.Write your answrt
lightly at rhe side.
1 OK, ets get downto
2 what
do youneed?
3 For!s, the
arcqlalityandrc ab ity.
4 when yousay'reab ty', whatdo you
1
5 our clstomersarewl knowni ms who
usanocomeoacK10us.
6
cdn you be on qrantly?
7 You can chdngethe quantity!p to fve work ng days

orderof 500pieces.
(feelifgoi worry)s that
9 Ourrnain
youdonl change
of youroder
thebascspecrfcatons
whatk nd of
l0 n termsof dllvry,
we lookng at?
( - l o d ) a P r c eo t 9 5 0

perpie.efor a verys m ar
l2 Canyou
thatisequa)?
ir

\^/p .ffo

that (= providsomething

51.3 Compltethe four mini-dialogues


with th words
and ohrasesin the box.
a liftle law haveln nind pre-paynent
prcduction schedule quite hlgh rc7ulat custanes
so lonll somethingarauntl standatdfat this market
su(h la.ge dbcounts tems af payment wete you expecttng

Price
Supprer:Thepriceperitemis 140.
r
sems
cuslomer:That
whal sortof pri(e7
Supplier:
120
SlpplerI th nk you f nd ourprces.r
Discount
over5,000and
suppief:W glva discolntoi 3% on orders
s% on ordrs
over10,000
Customer
lsnl that5
SupplierWhatk nd of dEcountwereyou ookng for?
Cunomr:5% on our orderof 6.000.
S!pplerWeLl,
we don'tnorm:y gve

^ ': rv :i ,

14 Butwhatk nd of
relaton to yo!r quaLiiy?
After you have remembered whatever you can, use the
words in the box below to complete th sentences.
exible
bu'net
cancen dehvety etactty
guarantep nat.h nean ntntmDn pnannes
guoted rcasanable tines.ale tust
61.2 Fill in the missing letters in the phrase! below'
quo'rr!,
rrl,nq
.,
"",o.l
what L
ol
:
.
dr.,
o , a w F G r- q
l times
l
are we ook nq

t merssx weeks.
Supprer:o!r delvery
I d dn t expectrrobe
customer:
SupplierWhatexactydrdyo'r
s
1
in fourweeksCanyo! do that?
Clstomer:W needdeLivery
t me- our
S!pp er:Thatdoesn'igiveusvery.nLrch
i5 verybLrsyat the

a r e5 0 % i n
Supplier:Ourro
.dvan(e,and50%30 daysafierde very.
cunomer:
coudn'tyoubea itemorefexble?
Supplier
whatdo yo! mean?
clnomer: We'dprefer,say,onelh rd
oneth rd alter30 days,
and the finalth rd after 60 days.
Slpp r: l'm sorry bul we on y offer conditonslke that to

61.4 $ rl Speakingpractice:listnand repeat.Repeat


eachphraseyou hearand'thenlistnto check.

Meetlngs

l2i

t..r,rrgs - negotiatingrl

The dialoguon page i26 in un 6l showedsomephras.s


ior the earlv part of a ncgoriafion:sratingneeds,exploring
posiiionsand asking qucsiions.The dialogle below.omes
from a taterpari of the samenegoriation.ttsho$,s ph.ases
nr bargainingand closnrgihe deat.
Bartaining is a processof making offers ('proposats'are
tuoreformal 6nd more ftral rhan offers),$fth rhe othe.
slcleacceptnlgthem, refushg rhem,or comhgback $,iih
a counteroffeL lnexpericncednegotiarorstend b $,ork
through issues(eg price, i.rms, deljlcry)one by one,\Lhile
horc expeirenccdnegoriaiorslink issucs,$,iih alt the picccs
of thc przzle only fitting toSetherritht afthe end. This
allows much grcai.r fleribjlity.
Expericncednegoiiatorsalso tcnd n) tr.kc f.cquent use
ofs!nnarizing. Sunmariznrg can be !scd kr chcck
unLjersi.ndiig, tivc yorrsclf time n) think, kccp a positi\e
ntmo+trcre bv rcvicicing P.ogress,breik a d.adlock,.n.j
cLoscilre negorinliof.
Now.c.d th( dinlogle.
Supp er: Yes,our minimumorderis 500 preces.
Cunomr:Ihat\ a blg riskfor us - we,d preleran in ti.
o.der o{, say,300 piecesWe can ook ai fu(her orde6
S l p p r : T h a t sn o t r e a l l ya v a b e o p t i o n{ o r u s . r e n o r
cost-effective
lof us to do a producton run of just 300

:l

I'i

r,

12lJ

CListomer:
/ see.And earlieryou rard thal you need50%
pr,paymentfor f ret l me customers
S ! p p e r : T h a t sr i g h i
Clstomer: 50% s a lot of moneyto p.y LrpfrontI m sorry
w e c a n ' ia c c e ptth a t
SLrppier: We d be preparedro offer beter rermso{
paymenl,b!t on y if yoLrn.redsedyoLrrorder
c r n o m e r :w h e n y o u s a y ' b e t e rt e r m i , w h a t d o y o u h a v e
Supplier:We , f yo! order 500 p eces,we,ti accepr250lo
paymentIn advance,wnh the baiance60 daysafter
delvery Thatshoud he p wrth your cashftow.
Customer:OK, we .ou/d ...epr ihdr, bur on y or one
5!pplier:Yes?
Cunomer Thdtyou can makerhe smdltcunomiz.tion that
we ta ked dboLrtearlierar no ext.acon.
Suppler:l'm not sureabourthat dont havethe auihonty
to makethat decsionby mysef.
Customer:We l, if you can agreeto thar, we can cose rne
Suppler:OK. Can yoLrgive me a momentto makea ca ?
Cunomer:Sure.
5upplier:... Yes,we c.n makethat customizarion.
No
problem.NoW let3 j|rst take a momentto revlewwn.r
we v d sclssed.So, . . .

At iine 5 ihe Supplierrctusesan offer aboufthe iniiial


orda and giles a reason.At line 8 th Cusromerresponds
with a sihple'l see'and moves ro anoilrcrissre. Neittier
sjdc feelsit is necessaryto fhalize th. in ial order issle
Ai line 11ihc Custome.refusesan offcr abourrhe %
p.e'payment.At line 13 thc Supplierrespondsby ]inkiig
a concessionon this issueto a concessionby rhe Clstonef
The bargainin8and linkhg ofissucs continres at
lhcs i7 2+
Ihc piecesof ihe plzzle only flnally fft iogetherar Inle 31.
T L i . f p , h 1 l o - " , n e n c t o r i . . t i , , tn, )
"umm..r./irr

fhe ptrrases you need Il


Bargain
tt yau (da that).we'll /we can (do thts).
AK, we'd be prepared to (da that). but anty if you
We could accept that, but anty an one conditian
Wauldyou be wi ing ta accepta.anprom6e?
Accept an offr
OK, we can agrce ta that
Thatsoundsrcasanable
t think that thould be posslble
Refuse an offr
t m not sureabaut that
That'snat really a viabte aptian for us.
That 6/outd be very difhcult fat us because ..
t m softy, we .an t ac.ept that
Summarize
Lets lust takea moment to revlewwhat we ve
Can we iust qo thraugh / qa avet what we ve agreed
So, ..
Play for time
Id like sone time to thlnkabout it
I thtnkthat'sas far as we can qo at thisstage
ldonl havethe authorlryb nake that deastonby
Close the cleal
lf yau can .. , we can closethe deattaday.
h teactyto sign today if you can . .
]f we agree to . . , are yaL happy wtth the other paints?
fhats tt, then. tthink we havea deat.
Sa, if yau d just like to sign herc

62 MEETINGS- iIEGOTIATINGII

Exercises
52.1 Coverthe oppositepagewith a pieceof paper.Fill
in the missingletters.
1 Olf mi. . .um o
r is 500pieces.
2 Thatsnot realy a va.. .. optionfor us.lt! not
c t-eff
e for usto do. prodldionL
oijun
300peces.
3 Earleryous. d th.t yo! need50% p -pa
t lor
t. t tr
customers.
4 50% is a lot of moneyto payup
t.
we'
5 f youorder500pieces,
accept25% paymentin
ad
60 days.fterd
, wlth the bal
ry
Thatsho!d hep with yourc
ll
6 | don'l havethe au

52.4 Matcha group of verbs1-4a!!la group of


adiectives+d to the nounsblow.Chckany unknown
wods in a dictionary.
Ieach,
1 accept,
aqreeon, close,do, m.k,ofiersomebody,
relect,rgn
faxthrough,meet,pare,
authorize.
cancel,
chase,delay.
process,
put in, receive,
shp
accept,clari{y,
comeup wth, consder,
drop,explore,
outline,make,put folward,rejecl,rcvise,
study,wlhdraw
allowsomebody,
askfol be avaiable
at, be enttledto, get,
qua fy for
negotate,offersomebody,
a ternatve,comprcrnise,
concrcte,
dtaled,helpiu,
i.tercning,sensible,
teniatve,vagu
good,huge,arge,low fiveprcent,
cash,genercus,
specia,
substantial,
usua
back,film, inital,ouistandng,regular,
repeat,rush,specal,
urcent
fa r, good, ucraiive,
majo(pack.ge,
compromise,
exclusive,

ty to m.f thar decision

b m v
62.2 Finda word from the oreviousexercitethat means:
2 (infarnat)h advance
I 'e1a ri g d'rou r of n o.p/
62.3 Completethe sentences
with the pairsof wods in

acceptI candlian daseI deal 9a / stage haveI nind


just/ sign nonmt / rcvlew prcfer/ otder
preparcdI tems shauldI passible soundsI reasonable
t tat Li|ingl enaon se
thrcuqh
1 Wed

anirla
of, say,300pieces.
We'dbe
to offe.bner
of payment,
but onlyif youincreased

whaiwe'ved scussed
Canwe jun 9o
.,
whatwe'veagreedso
?
aithrs
1 0 Ithinkthat\asfaraswe can ........,

...today.

proposa
deal

62.5 Conlinuear before.


I ertend.frx,have,rrpose,(fa to) reet. mrss.pdss.set.
2 accept.
agreeon / to, arriveat, cometo, find, ookfor,
make,offer,reach.seek,suggest
fgureoul, finalze,go nto,go over,temize,sort
3 discuss,

a briei,compete,complex,
concrete,
iinal,fu , mifor,
practical,
pfecise,
rough,iechncal
generou:,
important,
key,limited,major,minotsigfificant,
sizeab
e, substantial
potntal,reasonabe,
acceptable,
f.lr, necessary
(un)satisf
adory sensble
flexible,
strict,tlght

5 W o L r lydo ub e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...i.o
''' '''''.''.
?
6 vFr, rldr
be
7 That
8 LeiSjust take a .......................
.............
. to

..

4 extract,get,grant,m.ke,otfef,win

Whenyousay'bettrterms',whatdo you
?
....in ........
..... ..
We could.. ......... ...... . .. . that,blJtonlyon one

11 ll youcanagreeto that,we can

i
'

the

details
deadline

62.5 S 14 Speakingpractice:listenand repeat.Rpeat


ea<hphraseyou hearand then listento che.k.

12 f yolr'd .................
.......................
....

Meetinss 129

Meetings- diplomatic language


ManyieamersofBusiness
EnBlishihinl<rhatitisn.t necessan,ro
kno\.
alrouiindnci(diplom6iic)
tangxage.
Theyarguethai dire.tness
is the
bestchoicein business
because
thenpeoptecm understand
eachorher
Uslally thisis i.ue.But stopto ihink abouiyou oh,nlanglagc.Compare
how you ialk to your friendsmd cotleagues
s h:
Talking
to
your
boss.
"
., Talkingto ne{' .ustomers.
', Paficipaiing
h a largencetingwhe.cyou'le'on sho\r.
: NcSotiating
a difficultis e whileirvilg ro keepa goodahosphere.
Diplomaticlantuageis aboutshowingrcspccrandatbh.ingthc other
personlo 'sa!etacc'.E\enif vou cone f.oma culturewheredn chess
is vahcd,there(ill be situations
in your fulurctrrsiness
career$.h.re
yo! will ncedb modifyvo!r nahtraldirectncss.
Diplomdtic/indncct
Languagc
shoilsothcrpeoplethaivo!1e politc,cducaieddndrespcctful
ol theiropinnrs andfceinlgs.
Comparc thc'dnect'conversa
rionexrrictbelos,e,iih fts ,sofier,\ e.sion
unde.nc.th.Of co!rsc,theerampleis exaggerntcd
io maked point.
VeBion 1: direct
Customer:
Thirproducrisveryxpefsive
Supplier:
t's moreexpefsive
thanrheod modelBurrhequatityis
much,muchbetter
Customerf we bLrylh s product,wi you9 v usa gooddiscount?
Supplier
Whatdo yo! mean?
Customer:
Wewant5%.
S!pplier:Thatwil be diflicutt.yo! owe usmoneyon youraccounr.
CunomerWe havea problemwth ourcashftow.
Suppler:Youmustpaythe moneyyouoweu5now.Otherwise
.
d scounton ihe newproductis impossibe

Versioh 2: softe, morc indirect


CusloTer.
Tooeronesr.
I s orodu'....T. qLte p,pajvF
Supplieri's a llttlemoreexpensive
rh. n the o d mode, that3true But
thequaiy i! sgnlf.anrly
beter
Crstomer:
lf we boughtth s product,woutdyoug v usa good
Supplier:What
dd yo! havenmnd?
CustomerWe werethinknq of, say,something
around5%.
Supper:Thatwon't beasy.t'mjun ookinqat myrecodshere.
Acilrally,
youowe usmoneyon your.ccoLrnt.
Cunomer:Yes, know We havea bit of a probtem
wth our cashftow
nghtnow
Suppier:Whydof't youpaysomeo1the moneyyouowe us?Then
periraps
we couldookagan ai ih discount
on the newproduct.

Studv Version2:
'
Noiice at line i how the Customerusesa
rvaming phrase'To be honest'and then
changes'is' to 'secms.
' Nohce at line 2 how the Snpplierchanges
'much beiter' to 'significantly
bettcr'.Ihis is
frore businesstikc langxige.
At linc 3 the Customerrses a gamrnatical
krm caUed'thcsecondconditional'.The pist
toms I'org/'r.nd irorld makc ihe tanguage
morc hypotheticnland indjrcct.
At linc 6 ihe Suppliersays'That won i be
easy'insieadof 'Ihat('illbedifficult'. Using
rtur+ a posltivewo.d lncieadof a ncgativc
word is typicalof nldirect Lhgrage.
At line I the Slpplicr uses. negativc
question.This is also typicalof itulifcct

The phrases you need @


'perhaps','maybe'
Pethdpswe shauld
Maybewe cauld
'would','ould','might'
We wauldneeda qualnyguarantee.
Heresan idea\,/ecouldtoak at.
Thatnight be guneexpensive
lust'
CouldI iust go backto thepaint about .
fhe.e'sjustanethingl'd liketo add.
]t seems
ta me that
fhete seensta be a prablen whh
Rephrase with 'not'
Aut competitarsarcnt verycheap
Thatcloesn'tgiveus verymuchtlne
Thatwon'tbe easy
Warning phrase

Negative que5tion
Whydant yau .?
Woul.:ln't
lt be beftet/ easier
to ..?
lsnt it the casethat. )
Past forms
Wewere thinkingaf sanethingaraund5ak
Whatdi.l you havein nind?
It we baught th6 praduct,. )

130

63 MEETINGS- DIPLOMATICLANGUAGE

Exercises
63.1 writ the line numbersfrom Version2 opposit
perhaps,
maybet
wauld,cautd,mishti,
lu5f I
seemsil
rephrase
with ,ot| :
warnns phcseill L
queston
ngatlv
pasttensel-,l

a
b
c
a

f
q
h

qulte/ a t.re / a bl. (+ adjeciive)i


a bL ofa / a silght(+ noun)

53.3 Makethe commentsmorediplomaticusingthe


I Theres
onething wanttoadd(just/like)
2 Th.t is mpossble(honest
/wou d / veryditficult)
3 Youtebeingtoo oplimistcGeems
/ me/ tlrat/ litt)
(woudn'1)
It wouldbe betlrto userdiltransport.
(actualy/ notvery)
Ih s Lnes unprolitdble.
6 We shoLr
d leavethat po nt untillater(th nk/ m ght / btter)

4 n Ve6ron2, noticelrow the speakers


arepo te.nd
yet ai the samel rnef rm and de.r In Ve6on l
respectful,
the anguages aggressve
and cleatera badatmospherc
/, Othertechnques n Velson2 incude:acknowledging
that the
olherpersonis iglrt (-cg'lhat'etrue' in line2, and 'yesI know'
(g Signfrcantlyin
in iine l0); avodanceol exaggeraton
line3)t the useol vague'anguage(eg 3ay',3omeih,.g
arc!nd 5olo'in ine 7)t and suggeningthal a problemrs
t e m p o r a r( ye g ' r 9 h tn o w ' i nl i n eI 1 ) .

63.2 Matchwhat you think 1-10with what you ray a-j.


'
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

SropspF".,rgano e re dy lolerh g'o d cha_ge


Whyareyoua waysm xingLrpisrues?
I'm se ingyourproductin myetorcs,
andyetyouwantme
lo pd) arl_hpad/pi s ng .oils .rl)sFllYoL'e Lrary
goingto ovethis
I havea reallygreatldealYoLr're
Yo! sad ihat yo! coud dlvrtheseiemsbythe endoi
yournory Typical.
thewek Nowyo!'vechanged
Thecostof thatopton is goingto be wayloo h gh.
haveno ideawhenwe cande verthe item9- theresa
problemat the factoryandno onecansolvet
Youwantit when ?l Noway.
you
Lfyouwaniquality,
ese.lmoffering
90 somewhere
a cfreappnce.
That'scompleiely
wrong.

63.4 Lookat line4 ot Version2 opposite.


lf we baught thispraduct,wauldyau give us a goad discaunt?
':
In grammar
thisis caLda 'second
conditlona
/f we + pasts mpLe,
wouldI couldyor ...?
Withthe pastformtheifsentence
is morehypotheticd
dnd
indirect- yolr'rcjustexpLorlng
an ldeain a tentauve
way.
Changethesesentencerto s(ondconditionals.
I lf we order5,000preces,
whatsortof d scountcanyouI ve?
2 lf youpay50o/o
In advance,
we w I giveyougenerous
terms
lor the remaning50%
63.5 ll 15 Speakingpracti(e:listenand repeat.Repeat
eachphr.se you hearand then listento check.

A c t u a l l y t s e e r n st o r . e
thal it m ght be a litte
d f i i c u l tr L q h n
t ow

a think t m q ht be betterlo con5der that issueseparately


b Heresan ldeawe could look at
c lnde6tood th.t yo! had theseprcductsln nock lor
m m e da t ed l v e r y
d Olr productsare verygood v. Lrefor money n relatonto
e
f
g
h

Could lust interruptfor a moment?


That doesn'tgive us very mLrchtjme.
That m ght be quite expensive
Thereseemsio be a bit of a probem with our production
facl ty ai ihe moment.
i Wth respect,that'snot qlr te right.
j Wou dn't you aqrethat its fairer f we sharesomeoi lhe
promotona expenses7
Meetings ll

Meetings - review
64.1 Fill in the missinglettersin this xtractfrom a
meting.Fourpeoplespeak:the chair.[4arek,Camille

Ihe chairwidensthe discussion:


O(, whatotherwaysarethreto app
ch this?s there
:ny
ge eweslro!dcon er?

Thechairopensthe meeting:
R
thinkwe canstan Well,qoodrnorning
everyone,
andth
s f
c
Brucesilland
a Unforlunatey,
s
s hieapo
lusta colpleol hou
p nq thingsbeforcw begin
- we l havea sh t b
k aroundtenth iry,and[...] .
DoyoLr
a hdve.c y of the.
a?GoodCansomeone
t e the rn
s?Thankyou
OK,let'Enroven
t ro the f lst
Marek,wouldyou

camillegivesan opinionl
Fromnryp
t of v w, thinkthat [. .] .

Marekpresentssomealternatives:
Th.earesverawayswe couldd
w
thrsiss
Lett lookal the p s andc s ol achopt
I. I so,in
qeneral
I m n fa
r of optionofe because
of thecosl
gh I.. I .
advantases,
.
Thechairaskscamillefor her ractions:
Th.nkyou,MarekC.mre, canyoutelluswhatyouthink?
T h s s y o u r l d a n d k n o w y ohu e s e e x
Camillspaks:
l a g r e e w l h M a r e tk u a p
l . r t m a y b e te r h a t l L
blt we a so havto conslder
1..l
sowhatlrntr gio!
isl lOr,lop
rts ly,l I
Canlc e i here?
Thechairblocksthe interruption:
Marek,
coud youI
I
Camileli
b
to you n a mornent
Camille(ontinues:
Co
t me I 'm wr
thatI ..1

? 'll c

Adrianareformulates:
Ys.I
me p it a

r?

er way,I ..1.

Thechairkeepsthe discussion
moving:
Le13le e thdtas e lor th rnoment I m not surerrs
rel
t
Camillesuggestslhe next stps:
Ithinktheb
!!ayfor
d s for usto I.. I .
The(hair asksfor repetition:
sorrycanyour
thr
thatagain?
lwanlto besure
CamillerepeaG:
Y e s .f c
,t. 1.
whatwe'vediscugsed
s

camillspaks:
Abs
y And it'snotjlst [ ], i5 a so I I So n terms
ol ac on p
ts we needto [...].

,butin

Markrejctsthe suqgestion:
Thats
s ke a qood ded,bui dont think t woLrld
w
pr
e Thep fr s[...].

112

Marekasksfor clarification:
Yo! men
ned[. ] . fould yoube a ttle moresp

r .tI

Thechairchecksagreement:
OK Canwe g r
the t
e andseil veryone
agrees?
l. I Good,thatSsetted thinkweshoudm

Marekcorrectsthe misunderstanding:
Perhaps
I haven'texp
nedn-iy f cl
ly Thatsfot
what me t WhatI wast nq to 5aywas[ ]. As a
roff
,1..l
anid

Adrianafocuserthe discu5sion:
thinkwe needto dn
ze th s in a I
le morcd th.
And
so,
because
of
that,
i
t
d
to
feel
rhat[.. ] .
t I

Thchairsummarizes:
I seenow.OK, et'sg o

q, butMarek
s

Adrianamakesa sugg$tion:
Canlmakeasuqqest3
o ln ?
of I. .1,whydont we [ ]7

LetSihlnkcar
llyaboutthe m
ionsof that.
o theo
h
[...],buton theotherhandt. .l .

After sometime,th chairclosesthe meetingl


Wel, thanksfor youri ut, evryone.thinkit wasa very
u
ul d sclssion.
Shallwe I
the t
for the nert
meetn9?[. ] Oh,yes.Marek,
canllusth
a qu
w
wth youbeforyoudisappeat

64 MEETII\IGs- REVIEW

54.2 Completethis negotiatingdialoguewith ihe wods


and Dhrasesin the box.
a viableaption are we talking arcyou happy
ate you looking be prcpated did you hare
get down havea deal insteadof
nAht be able noving faMard .eallynat surc
soundsrcasanableupfront

SupplierOK, etb
business.
So.youte interested
ln our grcetinqs
cads.
Custorner:
Yes,theArtsCardsranoe- the oneswith the
images
of famouspaintings.
SupplierWe sella lot of those.what sol1of quantities
Customerrruna chainof ejghtsmallretailoutlets.andl'd like
to put the cardson a display
standbythe checkout
at each
one.Whatqlanttiesdo yousuggest?
supper:We 3 ..............-.-......
with the stand.But etb get backto the quantity.
Perhaps
youshouldmakean in tialorderof, say,2,000cads.
CustomerThatseemsikequitea larceamount.l'd pfer to
have1,000cardsandseehowtheygo.
SLJpp
er:Whenyousald'display
nand'earlietwhatexactly
.. n mind?
CustomerA rtandfor the counter
Suppier:5.
a counter
stand,
whydon'tyouusea floorstand?Thecapacity
is much
biggerA floorstandthatturnsround.
Customef:
Yes,I thinkthatwoud workwell.Afe theyeasyto
find?
SupplielWe cangile youonefor eachstorc,fteeof charge,
but yo! wouldnedto ordera minimumnumberot cardr.
Customer:What
sortof figure
.about?
Supplier4,000cards.ll yousell100perweekat eachstore,
You'getrdofthem
Customer:
No,l'm sorryjan orderof 4,000is not
. ljust don'thavethe
cashfow to supportthat kindof purchase.
SupplierCashfow doesn'thaveto be a problem
Cusiomer:
Whatdo youmean?
SupplierYoudon'tneedto payeverything
in advan(e.
lf
youorder4,000cards,we ll giveyo! veryqoodtems of
payment.
Jusi50%3
the baanceafter30 days.
Cunomer:What
isihe con percad?
Supplier:
Thesuggested
retaipriceto the publicise.90. We
sellthemto siockinsikeyourselves
for 1 20 each.
Cunomer:Well,to be honest,l'm
ld likesometimeio
thinkaboutit. lts a lot of money- unless
we cannegotiate
the costpercard.
supplier:
l'm sorrythat'snot negotbble.

Customer:
CanI suggest
anotherwayot
prepared
to takebackanyunsoldcardsfromourordr?We
don'tknowwhichonespeopwil buy.
Supplierll we agrceto ihat.

wth th othrpoints?
Customer:
Well,an orderof 4,000cadsisfar morethanI was
thinkinqof initially,
but I guesst! posslble.
i'z
SuppherOK, we d
to take
cads,but onlyfromth firstoder,and
in perfectconditionfor usto reseL
Supplier:
That'slt, then.lthink we
54.3 Makethe <ommntsmordiplomaticusingthe
words in bra<kets.
1 Tharwill be expens
ve.
(might/ quite)
We willwanta largerd scount
(would/ signif
icantly)
Theresonethinglwant to clarify.
(ust/ liketo)
Splitting
the oder intotwo consignrnents
woLrldbe a
goodidea
(wouldn'i/better)
l'm un(onvinced
bythisestirnale.
(nottotally)
Yousaidthatwe canhavethe products
on a tral basis.
(unde6tood
/ (ould)
Whatquantitya youthinkingof?

It maybe difficulito arrange


that.
(unfortunately
/ may/ veryea!y)
We'rehavinga loi of problems
at ourfactory
(oneor two / issues/ r ght now)
1 0 We expecteda tlvo-yearwarranty.
(honest
/ expectlng)
t l I thinkthatyournewrangeisthe $me asyourold range.

(seems
/ me/ moreor less)
t 2 It wouldbe easier
to paymoreandshipih goodsby
Air Exprcss.
(wouldn't/ littlemore)

Meetings 133

"u",rr.rs

reports and proposals- reports I

There de many different types of bushess report:


,/ A sales report gires sales figues for different producis in
differcnt regions in different time periods.
/, Market resealchanalyzesa company'scompehrrle
position in the lndush y, ideniirying new markets and
etc.
Prooucrareas?
A f i n a n L i a rl e p o r lm , A l ' ld . - u - h u d e e t . . r m i p n rb e
the text that accompanies
compey accountssuch as the
quarierly or annual nlcomestaiement(unit 26).
/r A
ProgrPcsreport lport" on ll'e Droprc5..tdn ^r{oin8
l/r Acost-benefit analFis {CBA) looks at the resources
needcdmd poieniial benefitsof a fuhue inlestment
(eg an lT system).

ri, An appraisalrcport is written by managerabout an


ernployee'speifomance, biining needs,etc.
tt A fasibilily study is an invsiigation into whether a
parhcular system,project,produci linc, cic is praciical,
desnableand finmcially viable.
A b u r i n e s rp l a n d e - r i b e -I n e m c d r u mt o l o n g - t 'r m
strategyol the compann Seunit 9.
rt An inquiry is e inlesrigation into an ongoing problem,
ideniifying causesand recommendingaction.
, Acase sludy is an analysisof one palticular completcd
cise (eg an engineeringproject)that allows professionals
i, A quality report is a regularreport that monitors
standards,idcntifisf.ilings and sugtestsaction.

All thcsciypes of report haveccrtain feahres in common in ierms ofstyle,layout and structure.Seethe tablcbelow

5tyle

lactua
(areiu
baanced
measured
high vel
oTgrammatca
dccLrracy

Structurc
(langerteports)
(shonerrcpotts)
synematic
numbern9 ol
Nor:in a busnessreport
sectonsandsub-sectons Coverpage
Io / From/ Date/
the'Findings'section
w
bu er po ntsand ists
Acknowledgements Subtect
probaby be rpacedwth
(Tabeof) Co.tents
visuals
suchastables,
Introdlcton
sectonsretated
to the
(Executve)
charts,d agrams
Summary Fndings
contentof the repo(
areasof blanktpace
Terms
ol Relerence
Concusions
Forexarnple:
at the margnsfor the
Procedure
Recornmendarions
Advantages
/
reader
to makenoies
Fndings
D sadvantages
Concusons
A / OptionB
Option
Recommendations
MarketA / MarketB

fhe phrasesyou need E


Introduction
Theaim/ purposeof thlsrepoft is ta ..
As requestedin you enail af 16Novenbet hercis ny
repatt sLnmati2ing/ analyzing.. . togethetwith ny
re.ammendattons
|'m writing thjsrcpon at the requestaf . I Thisrepoft was
(annissionedby ..
h n ldd? l onststs
ot / L di\ded,nrc| conrd
It is basedan intetuiews
with .. / infomatianobtained
trcm ...
lnfarnatian wasgathetedfram the followingsaurces:face-tofaceinterviews,a questtonnaiesentto . . , internalcanpany
dacuments
andmarketreseardcarriedaut ..

conclusion
A keychallengefadng us is ..
ln the llght af theabovefindings,we rcachedthe lallowing
On the basisof the figurespresentedabave,.. wauldbe

Theteis clearlya gap in the market,howeverserious


obstacles
stillremain...
It is cleatthat thereare significantlevelsof .. Unlessthese
issuesate addressed
as a naftet of urgency,
Thtshasthepatentialtabe a sucGssful
prclectprovided..
Recommendations
Findings
Ihere ate thrcemainrecommendations
to nake
We(sttongly)rercmnend that ..
Aur researchshot\/sthat ...
TheMatketing/ Aperationsdepaftnentshauld...
Weirlentifiedthe follawingkey areas.
Fudhetrcsear.hshouldbe caffiedout to find out
45o/aof thosewho repled to the questiannatre
thought that .. . A neeting shauldbe setup between . and ..
Thesurveyshawedthe fallowingareasof.anrcrn.
I te(onmend that we pravidethe fundsfot and nove to
Thiswill inevitabiyhavean impaclon ...
the nextstageof develapment
Oneof the big a.:lvantages
af thisproposalis ..

r l.t

- REPORTS
55 BUSINEsSREPORTsAIID PROPOSALS
I

Exercises
55.'l Matchsomepossiblesectionsof a reportin the box
with their des<riptions
1-10below.
a.knawledgenents appendix .onlusians @ntents
ca@rpage executivesunnarf
findings prccedue
recomnendanons te|."]'sof rcfercne

1 a short,overallviewof the rcporttogethe.with the


(it helpsothe6to
conclusions
andrecommendatons
decidewhetheftheywantto readthewholercport)
the man bodyof the rcportiit contains
allthe information
that hasbeencolected,presented
rna logrcalorder,
andaftangedunderhe.dingsandsubheadings
incudessomeor allof these:the title;the nameof the
pe6onwho commssioned
the report;the nameof the
reportwdterandhis/ heriob tit e;the organi?ation;
the datethe repo.twasrssued;
a reference
number;the
degrceof confidentality;
the distrbutionlist
judgement
the wrter makesa personal
about
specifc actionsthatshouldbe taken- theseshould
be basedd.ectlyon the results
of the investigation
a listof al the headings
andsubhead
ngr thatare
pagenumbe6
included
in the rcport,with theappropriate
the methods
of invesiigation
usedto findthe information
(egmeetings
p!blishedreference
andvhis, intervews,
personal
quertionnaires
sources,
observation,
andsurueys)
suppofting
matefalthatistoo ong,too detailed
or too
iechnca to be included
in the mainreport(ormaterial
that s usef! asbackground
but isn'tessenUal);
it may
graphs,
incudtables,diagrams,
fiom
drawings,
extracts
otherpub catons,etc
the ex.ctsubjectof the repod,itsscope(= whai it deals
wrh, rrs.anoe\
a-d hmrtrtors,
whyir wa\wanen,
who rskedfor it, who wroteit, whenit wascompleted
ihe signiflcant
results
of the 'Findings'th s section
flowslogically
fromthe factsandpointsdiscussed
earlief

65.2 Matchdefinitions1-18with the wordsassociated


with reportsa-r below'Checkany unknownwords in a
dictionary.
1 thewayin whichte( andillustrations
arearranged
on the

pus" l
2 whena blockol textis{urtherto the rlghtthanthe b ock
aboveit a
3 an earlyversion
of a reportthatmayhavechanges
made
io it beforet3 fin shedIl
4 pictures
anddesigns
thatcanbe digitally
insrted
intoa
reponr-anothefwordfor'summary' usedespecally
in scientiic/
technical
rcports[ ]
the methodof holdingtoqetherthe loosesheetsof paper
(oftenalsoihe covefof the eport)f l
(egquestioas
questons
someone
who answers
na
questionnaire)
[.
8 an ilerr ir a lsr wrtha srrallsyrbol ,n fro'rrol rt I
9 a methodof directing
the readerto anothrpartof the
repon' l
10 letteBof a partculafstyel l
11 a noteplaced.t the boitomof a page,or at the endoi
the reponI l
1 2 information
thatappears
at ihe top/ bottomof everypage
(eqthe pagenumber,
somewordsor lettersdentifying
the
repon)
1 3 thetarcetaudience
of the rcport l
1 4 an alphabetcal
listof unlamiliar,
ized
ditfcultof specia
wordsandphrases,
with ther expanations
L
1 5 a consistent
styleof writng (andl.yo!t) u5edby everyone
i ]
rnside
an organization
checking
andmakingcoffections
io: document
(oa'rKLlary
n elator to speIngandr'(oisisrercres
1
layout)it
1 7 a sho|tpieceof writingthat introduces
the rport,written
by someone
otherthanthe mainaLrihof
i1 8 wordsprintednearan illustratiof
or di.gramihai explan
what it isI
glossary
g header
/footer
b drait
o proofreading
d caPiion
q crp a|!
binding
layout
I bu Letpoint

1 0 a paragraph
or two whereyouthankallthepeopleand
organizations
who hepedyouduringthe preparation
of
th rcport

BusiDer.repons and proposah 135

".rrin"rs

reports and proposals- reports tl

Unit 65 described the structure of a typical report and rhe


tabte there gave some ph.ases fo. the main sections-In order
. h i ' e d r . p o 1 . i r ' - l ^ ep t u l l o
$ e L r B u J B ed r e " .
"iudy
given below, although note that they'le very diverp.

Topic sentences
Look at this paraglaph.
Next ledr the ccolto'tiyis likeu ta na,r,dod,i sisniJicantly,btt
uithat! goi'Lgiito rec.$ia'l.Consulftrdena oill decr.ase
as
tcopte,sea gteatcrprcpnian oJutn incaw to soo.ar to prv ofI
debh. Ho1lctu the Toerketeutu |L'ill hcLpcr\ncrc, and atrscas
ddwfld n1Bnzjl, ltltiiaa,t.l Chi11n
/ejtnitlssnatry.
The first sentenceis calleda 'iopic sentence'.It introduces
and summarizesthc paragraph.Mostparagraphsin fomal
writingbegin with a topic sentence,and they gn'e a solid
stluctue to your writi!8.

Signposts
Look at thesephrascs.

This is a major langla8e dea coveredin more detail in lnit


i'l additioi, hooeeL thdehre, altelnatitiy, in Seneral,clurly,
i|lfnct, nt particukLa theathcthand,in cancltsionetc

Formal. impersonallanguage
The lmSuage of reports is more formal than speech,btrl not
so fonal that it is difficult to understand.IiJormal language
should bc avoided.The following scntencehas I (1oo
personal)dd a conkaction(too infolnal):
I u ditided thk reponi,no ...
lnstead,you mighi write:
Th;sr.port is tliuidcdnttu...
Waysto make your writinS a little more formal include:
Thc passive: d l..isn,r is expectedsaon
1cli!1dtff| t t .oill bc uade h Dkhbcr

Tht sur1j..vshou&1
thcft,ttau,,s thre.rpas ol co'1co't:. . .
s.ttit 12.2ofth. rq.tt i(illdkcuss thish,'arc d.tii|.

Ir + passive:

Th.sc arc'signposts'- phrasesihat hclp thc readersecwhere


you'rc going, or where ihcy need to go. They are aids to

Noun phrascs:stafl ntil,ntion/srt.i cat{ctcncc


/ tnlstlott
ttsura'tc!noctrterts/ c)ntll l! tlc sk n Ptntl
Vocabulary: Srr > ncrilc, L\1d> Ngatiu., bi! > lorJz,alot al
> catsi.l rbl., nntu! > linoEinl rcntnces

Balanced, caretul style


In a rcport you don't want io solnd too certain,or too
inflexible,in your thinknlg. lssucsin the real world are rarely
black and white. So wriiers tcnd io use words and phrases
thai producea balanced,careful,mcasuredsryle (like l.rd rd
in this sentcncc).Other examplesare:
tn geneEtl , , nowever'
On the whole, ... / but ...
Many / Sone / Several/ A najo O,ol
usualy/9picaly/often
would / could / nay / might
It is possiblethat ...
Ihe praje(t is expected ta ..
lntlatian is likely ta . . .
substantially / .ansidetably
sigdf ican tly / relatively
maryinaly I slightly

r36

Linking words

If srorldre cftphasizedtlnt...
It is rc.ommehde.llhnl ...

Repetition of words / structures


Repeatingwo.ctsin a report can be bofing and show a lack of
inaginaiion and poor style.Bui therc are occasionswhcn ihc
.epetitionofa key worctor struciureadds clarity and impact:
Snhsin ltily Llrapp.d
a littl. tast!e|r,1!]tj1esnla i SNnt
Mn,n:tt stend!. HoloR'ar,sobsi Fraitcenctnl\/ i crcasctl
b)l2%.
ln this erample, repetitionofsnlss,r l+ countrylhighlights
the name of ihe coutrjes and adds impact.
Here are two turiher examplesof repetiijon to add inpact:
Our gaolis ta ... .1) adtjtu thisgoalue hilteta ...
We ttetricd to dnelap Jleribilit! loith our . . . . HowerT thls
JleribilitV has.ahE tuith a cost

Language of trends
Seeunits !

md 55.

- REPORTS
66 BUSIiIESSREPOFTS
AND PROPOSALS
II

Exercises
66.1 Readthe following paragraphfrom a reportabout
lT spendingcare{ully.Thetirst sentence('the topic
sentence')is missing.Choosethe bestfirst senten(efrom
the three optionsbelow.
t . /Tr . so Jlor shoLd be an .nlegraled
workspace
lhati;
bothan intianetand a cenlralresourcefor our organizaiio[
a Access documenlsand intormationsecurelylrom
a Organizecaendars and schedulesin a cenlrali2ed
a l\,{eet
live,online- anylimeany\rvhere.
a sharcp@sentauons
anddemonstratons.
a Collaboratewith co-workers,partnersand clients4Achl6ving
the6egoalswillresultin increased
creativity
and
r',incras6d
elliclencv
a We needto investin an lT solutionthatallowsusto reduce
costsn everydepartment,
b We needto investn an lT solutionthatallowsusto become
the marketeaderin our industry
c We needto investn an lT solltionthatallowsusto share
information
andcollaborate
wth colleagues
mo effectively.
56.2 The extractaboveshowssomeexamplesof
'repetitionof words and drudurel'. Find:
1 two wordsin sentence
2 that refe6backto 'lT solutionin
me loprcsencnce. ........
...
2 two verbsn thetopicsentence
laterin
thatarerepeated
the bu let points
3 a two-wordphraseif the secondhalfof sentence
2 that is
rcpeated
in oneof the bullets.
wth a rlght changeto the
formof oneof the words...........
4 a wordtl^atis repeated
tl ee rimesin rhebJllprpoin6
Notcealsosomerepeating
sirudtu.es:
a a verbin th infinitive
aftereachbullet
a 'increased'
+ abstEctnounin sentence
4
A theserepetuons combnedwiih the clear,conci!style
- helpto pe6ladethe readerand givelhe pdragraphmpact.

55,3 Underlinethe alternativin italicsthat yor/ think is


moretypicalof a businessrepon
I We'vemadecors/derable
/ fartastlcprogress,
andquality
levelswill I are expededto rctlm to norma within a fw
2 Salestendto / nearlya\Natsdropa littleoverthe summr
petiod,althoughthlsprobablywan'tbe / night not be rhe
casethisyearif we continue
the marketing
campaign.
3 Verysoon/ At the earliestpossibleoppottunit/ we
will needto havea meetmgto plantheprcduction
/a
productionplanning neeting.
4 Hisperlorrnance
overrecentmonthshasbeenbadl
qule poar, at\dit nay be / w,//be necessary
to reviewhis
employment
with us.
S Iherc is a really/ relativelyhigh isk of f. lurewith this
projec(unlesswe investmorcnaney / financialresources
at thisearlystage.
6 lt is possiblethat/ Maybethe suley is not veryaccurate
aswe onlygoa/ obtalneda response
rateof 25% 10our
7 A lossol )absis / is likelyaobe one of ihe corsequerces/
thingsthat will happenil th processs automated
I foday everyoneis / nany peopleare look ng at teleworking
as an option,but it /eadsfo / typicallyleadsta a serseoI
9 Somesuggest
onsariing frcn / thatcane ta my mind
from theseresultsareglvenin a ,st / presentedbelow
10 We caffiedolt /otsoflnumeroustestsrnourtechnical
department
andthe resultshaueheenprctlygood/
56,4 Rewritethesesentenceiusinga passivelorm to
avoid 'l', 'you' and 'w'.
I We canusethe samestraiegy
for otherproductsn the
range.
...........
.. Irqs!4lelta&sllar
Lq qied ........... for other
products
In the range.
2 Insection
2.4lwill(onsder
theenvironmental
mpactof
mesecnanges.
In section2.4ihe
3 Youcaoon y do thisafterihe machines
havebeensrviced.
This
machines
havebeenservced.
4 | shouldemphas
zethatiheseresults
arcon y provisiona
that these

results
areonlyprovis
onal.

Bus'nessrepons and proposals i37

Businessreports and proposals - proposals I


What is a business proposal?
Business proposals aie wntbn when a supplier (AmE
vendor) is trying to win a conhact with a client compey,
in competitionwith oiher sirnilarsuppliers.The isriter is
trying io persuade- it's a salesdocuent
and therewiU
be strongei,more 'comercial' lmguage than in a business
ll:port. The writer wili use techniques from sales and
rnarketing such as talgeting the client s needs and offering
clearbenefits.Typicalcontextsare:
l, Trying to get the contractfor a small, independently
produ.ed piecc ofwork. Example:somemarket rcscarch
for a client compuyr'0 Trying to win a contractfor onc pari of a largE
ntcgraied project,done in closeco-operationwith the
client company.Example:asubcontractorwho offers
a specializedseryiceand will wolk under ihe client
conpany s proj(t m.na8er
Making a prcposalto forh a continuingrelationshipwith
theclient.Exanple:a pruposalfrom an adverrisingagency.
Outliiing the cascfor a morc formalizedpartnership
bctweentwo scparatecompanies.Example:wheretwo
oqunl p.riies co-opcrateto devclop a nes'product or enter

Structure of a business paoposal


A typicalstructurefor a large,scalcproposalis shown below
Shortcrproposalswillobviously be simpter
? Execuiivesummary
2 hltroduction(analysisof ihe currcni situation,tne
approachselectedand why)
Goals(list ofgoals laken dire.tly from what the client
has told you, wiih mcasurabletarg.ts thai your work
will achicve)
Pfojst scopeand aciion plan (key componenrsand
x h ^ n . r h a rv ^ u w i l l p r o ! , d e :d e f i n i n Sy o r f - o t er relationto the client'srole)
I m p l e m p n r . r i , or h
n o wy ^ u w i l l w o r l w i r h r h ec l , e n rrj
timetable/Gan tt chari; deliverablcs;resourcesneeded
suchas officespaceo! accessto information)
Areasof specialexpoiise (your specialized,md
preferablyunique,ski s and know-how that show why
you're thc ideal supplier)
Projeci team menbers (a paragraph on each peson to
establishcredibility with the clieno
Pricing (you fee, other costsfor you oi ihe dient, dd
posibly a short paragaph at the nd, emph6izing how
the prcpGal is cost-eff&:tiveand how the climr win benefit)
Conclusion(a cost'benefitanalysisshowing why ihe
pice is worth payinS)
't{l Appendix (a
list of your past projecis; tull detaiis of you
team/ihe pdcing/the Action Plan etc)

r38

The iable gives some example phrases taken fron six


different setionsof six different proposals (ABC, KL, MNO,
etc @ the names of the various cLientcompanies).

The phrases you need B


Introduction
ABCis loakingfar assistance
in choosingand
inplenenting ... [. ] Upgradingta a new systemwt
allowABCta .. and will cut inwntaty costsandshoftet
productionrun times [ ] An uwrcded, stateol the att
systemwill positionABCasa leadingplayerin the fieldof
... wfth theaality ta suppottthelaryestsizedcustones.

coals
JKL',nain goalis ta autsource
... in ordetto rcducethe

numbetof n-hauseFnplorpesrhcsecnplorap.arc
tullyoccupied
fot anlyabout60okof theyear[...]
A secondatygoal is to mininize the time thatJKL
nanages spendan prcblemsassociated
with . . [.. ]
fhesegoalsarc achievable,
and out ptapasatoffe6
an idealsolutian.Weare ableto deatwith and aul
customerserviceteamcanhandleanyprcblemsthat

lmplementation
Wewi delivetto MNOimmedtate
stockof ... and make
a commimentto supplyan additianal... [...] h addtion,
we wi ptovkleMNOwith salesflyersandstorc displays
fot

I We wI atsaconou.t a na(et,ag sutrq al

250 end use5.wht.h cdnbe usedby MNA rc


Areas of special expertise
STUneedsa conpanywith an in-depthundestandingof
knawledge
, andwe haveextensive
of thisfield.[...]
Aut personnelincludea forner . managerand twa ...
engtneerslhe enqineershavecansiderable
experience
af
wotkedon sinilatsystems
1...1Weve
in 28locatians
in . 1...1tncludedin theAppendixis a listaf prajects
we vedane andtestimoniab
hom ... .

Pri(ing
Thetotal .ast of thejoint praje.t whh peR wi be
4O,OOA.
Of this total, our fee wit be 8A,000. The
t.mant41C10,0AO
at e\pen,e w,ttDeabsatbed
t.
PQR.[ ] PQRs goalis to convettone-tinecustamers
into rcgular.ustonetsb\/ denanstratingthe long tasting
benefits
af ... Aurprcposal
shawshow thatcanbe
achievedin a cost-effective
mannett . lThe resour.es
that PQRcomnia b the proje.t will alsoallow it to take
advantageof oppotTunities
in ... na*et'
Seenext @lumn llg

- PEOPOsALSI
67 BUSINESsREPORTS
AND PROPOSALS

Exercises
67.1 Finda word {rom'Structuro{ a businessproposal'
oppositethat mat(heseachdefinition below
1 the rangeof thingsthat a parUculdr
activitydeaiswith
2 (twawords). d agtan usedn prolectmanagement
thatshowswheneachtasl</phase
shouldstaftandend
rangrbere.1srl^ararep odL(d a resLr of a p'oje.1
"5
research
reports
suchasphysical
items,desgnspcfications,
Now do the samefor words in 'The phrassyou need'.
4 verynewandmodern
5 formalnaGments,
wr tten by previous
cl ents,thatdescbe
t' db[te- of. pe'-ono corpdry
6 an arnountof moneythatyoupayfor prcfesslonal
setuices
57.2 CoverThe phrasesyou need'opposileand below
with a pie(e o{ paper Fillin the missingletter'.
1 Litinventory
costsandsh ten prodlcrionruntimes
n aq. :(:

e:

1.

.r '^ r!'. freld

3 a sec arygoal
4 we will con
t (= do/carry
out)a m.rketng su

5 a company
with an i -de
lndeEtandng oi ...
6 we haveexte ve knowledge
d
of thisf
gl0,000ofexpenseswllbeab ed
7 therem
by PQR
-eff
8 thiscanbeachieved
nac
ema er
9 | q'as ng benefitt
10 the esiab
ed marketleaderwith a 400/0markel
sh

rg
conclusion
Werecanmend
oursolutionas beingthe bestopxon
available to reduce costs over the mediun to long tem
and,e,nta e XYZ\ b,and, inaq". [.. ] thp nalkpt is
relatively new, and ta date no significant competitors
ta XYZ haveeneryed. An inproved inage should help
delay conpetitian. [...] When conpetition does emerge,
XYZ wi be seenas the establishednatket learler and
should be able to hakl at leasta 40o/onatket share

57.3 Lookcarefullyat the xamplephrassin Th


phrasesyou need'opposite.De(idewhethera or b is
1 In the lntroduction
secton,the proposal:
po nt of view showng
a iswrittenfromthe supplier3
a company
history.nd. bulletedlst of prodLrct
b iswrittenfromthe clientSpointof view,outllning
a specific
needanda specific
solutonjustifdon
In the Goaksection,
th proposal
a prcsents
,omeprcjectgoalsthatthsupplerhas
analyzed
andthinksarenecessary
b presents
someprolectgoas thatthe c nt has
explanedto the supplier.
Inthe Pricng recrion,
the proposa
:
a presents
an rternzed istoi a I the cornponenls
of the projectandtheirprice.
b ttateslhe totalcostin a simpleway,thenmoves
on to rnatchthe c entsgoalsto thiscostand
a so statean extrabeneft (A detaled breakdown
ol costsis probabyincudedaspartof the
Appendix.)
4 Inthe Conclusion
section,
the proposa:
a summarizes
the mai. pointtin a carcful,baanced
way,expl.ningagainthe differentoptionstor the
prolectandwhyth s pa(ic! af onewaschosen
b makesa strongrecomrnendalion
that linksio the
client3go. s, thenrnoves
on to identifyadditonal
vaJe beyoldrhF nmedalp go. . ande{pairs
the b.efitof thisaddedvaue.
67.4 lf you understandthe personalitytype of the
deaision-maker
in th dint company,you (an usewords
in your proposalthatare likelyto produ<ea positiv
r6pon5e.Matchthe personalitytypes 1-4 with the
wods and phrasesa-d.
1 Anaiy.lical
vauesaccurate
lactsandfgures,wantsdetailed
analysis.
2 Pragmatic:
valuesactionandresuts faccepis
3 Consensus-seeking:
wantsa decision
thateveryone
4 Visionary:
enlrepreneuria
andbig deasL'j
, likesconcepts
personalcomm
easyto use,flexible,
tment,re abe, support,
widelyaccepted,
workingrelatonship
logica,methodology,
criteria,
evidence,
oblectve,principes.
procedurcs,
proof,proven,
tested
(Lnrrgedg,crea.r,e.
breatll'ough,
e\cu_oopoo-urI,
innovative,
view oriqnal,winning
long-term
perfom.nce,productve,
profiab ity,
bottomline,efficiency,
returnon investment,
speedof delvery

BLrsiness
reportsand proposals 139

".,ri,r.rs

reports and proposals- proposalstl

In every successfulproposal the supplier sends rhre main


messages
to rhe client:

We <an match your needs as defined by


you (= <ompliance)
The clicnt wonders,'Are they prcposinSlvhai I need,or are
they proposingwhat they have?'Youwon't wir a contract
by simply describingyourproducts dd sen'icesand sayhg
how good they are.You havc io recommend. specific
solution thai will solvea specificproblem ed produce
positive businessresrlts.
This first ihcme needsto appearall thc ('a)' throuSh)'our
proposal,bui in terms of the structurcoutlin.d in unit 67,
ii needskr bc cspeciallystrongin sechons1, 2, 3,4 and 9.

We have the competence to deliver


(= capabilities)
The clicni wondcrs,'Can they do thcjob on timc and on
btdgci? Havc ihey h.ndled sitrilaf projcctsbcfore?Is there
. risk that thcy won't do the job prop$lt?' To reassure
the clicnt you can include references,
tcstinonials,a list of
clients,a.ase study of. previousproject,awards,prblished
rc!iews, reportsby indcpcDdeDtafalysts h the field, Cvs of
kcy ic.m nlcmbors,p.ojcct plans,a brjef companyhisiot,
that cmphrsizcsg(r!th ihrough succcss,cic. Aui lessis more
iD this .rc. - one good casestudy from the samcnrdusirv
showing thc sime kind of rcsulis ihat vo!r cli.nt is soekiDg,
nray bc cnough to Bin ihe coDtract.
h terms of tho struciureni unit 67, ihis thcm. is cspccially
relevaninr sections1,5, 6, 7,9 and 10.

We will giv you what you want, plus


maybe a little more, at a fair price
(= value)
Clientswant a fan price,with no hidden cosis,and no
underesiimatingof the effort and resourcesneeded.Thev
want to seewhat kind ofreiurn on investmenithev can
expect,and tlrey want to know if you're offernrgany added'
vah'e fackrrsthai go beyond the initialaralvsis. Your
proposalnlusicontah a cleAr,erplicit value proposihon an
argunent i|at shows the.lieni thai ihey getmo.e by buying
from you than the),can get from choosinganothersuppller
The tableoppositeshowshow 'value'can mean a laiiety of
things,not just financialvalue.
ln terms of the strucfurein mit 67, ihis theme is especiallv
relevantin seciions1,8,9 and 10.
Durng the decision-makingprocess,the client will probablv
use ihe tbJee $jterja abole in the order shown, ie fnst Lhey
h r l l h p l o n p i r _ c e .l h F - c d p d b i l i r i e . . d d ' i n a l y \ . l u p .

140

Financial
ger rhe oweslp'ice. edJceope.ar,4ge^pelses ircrease
revenue,improvecashiow, reducebad debt,outsource
io removefixedcoststrcmthe payro, increasethe
get a argerporlionof
absolutevalueol eachtransaction,
eachcustomeistoialbusiness
Social
Iniernal:increaseemployeejob satisfacuon,
enhancejolr
performance,
reduceturnoverarnongkeystaffraembers
reduceabsenreeism.
acceerareemprovee
lra 1rn9
Exlernal:
increasecustomerloyalty,improvebrand
recognilion.
crealea positveimagein the communly,
addressa comanunity
concern
/ envronmenlal

0uality
improvelability,enhancemaintainabity,increaseease
ol r.rse,
complywithregLrlatory
standardsconiormlo a
specificqualilymelhodoogy,
redLicedetectrates,reduce
customercomplaints

Technology
g",r" ,a" d'"","n,p"a"a or hardware
a10sofra'o
lo worktogelherpfoperlyimprovesyslemflexiblity,
implemenl
lhe mostadvancedtechnoogypreselvethe
valueol legacysysterns,
reducedownlim,add new
lealdresor capabllres,aJrorarea laooL.irtersire

Riskminimization
avoidlhe riskof lailureimplemenl
the mostproven
appfoachaddss healthand safetyissuesavoidlab ity

Compeiitive
advantage
overtakea compelilor,
becomethe marketleader,enier
newmarketsquickly,updateproducisto keepthem
competiiive,
iocuson corecompetences

- PROPOSALS
II
6A BUSIi\IES5REPORTS
AND PROPOSALS

Exercises
68.1 Checkany unknownwords in'Value:what maters
to the client'in a dictionaryThnfind a phrasethat
mat(hesthe meaningsblow.Write your answersin tull.
1 decrease
the amolntof monyowedto youthatyoucan

2 f rc yourown staffandhavether workdoneby an outside

: get ordersfor largeramountsof monyinneadof 5m.ler


anountsof mony
4 inrprove
the nandardof peopleswork
5 stop 50 m.ny impo(ant peopleledvn9 the company

6 rnaket easerto servce equipment


maksurethat your productshavethe levelol qua ily that

folow an estab sheds-"tol toos and stand.rdssuchas


the EFQMExclenceModei,the l5o 9000 series,SixSgma
oe.ol. ro ,1

. < e) o J r o d - . " n o , o q y a t o " g . O ey o u r e *

1 0 decre.sethe time during whlch the m.chinesin th


factoryare not work ng
r r . o p % ( l( e . o 1 e , 1 r ' g r h . _ 1 a sw o , . e o n d r y u n e s
belore(andso has lim ied rsk)

11 p

t2 makethe workp ace lessdangerous


l 3 redlc ihe worry that peope miqht sLreyou (= take yol] to
corir) becaLrse
of damageor inlurythat you havecaused
jusi do what your companydoesbesi

68.2 Readthe extrad in the next <olumnfrom a short


businessproposal.Tick(/) the boxesat the end to show
whetherthe extrad containsexarnplesof compliance,
CaDabilities
and/or Value.

PROPOSAL
Frcm Cltstom Computing
.Io
Big Fridge Manufacturing Corqoration
KeY goals
Big Fridgc is considcringan upgndc oiiis ERP (Enterprise
ResourcePlanninS)sortlarc to allowit ro expandir-s
manufacnringbde iD Edienr [urope. Big tridgc mnts to
kno$ whatoptionsare alrilable, and nr pafticularhow it is
pcrible to curomize a siandardERPpackagc.

Custom Computing: special expertise


Custon Comptrtinghasextersivexperienceor installing,
upgmdnrgand custornizingERPsof$vafe-a Iist ol rcccnt
projec6 is ircluded h tlre Appendix.
We haveparticularexpenisein (he doDesticapplian.(s
sector,dd recendycarriedout a similarprojecrtor QLuliiv
Cooke6.A folloiv-upsuney at QualiryCookeB i,rlicaicd
that lhe averagenanager saved1.5hotra per weckasa
re$rh offie new ERPs)Btem,and fial the systempaid Lr
itselfwithifl six monfi! a! a resultofimp.oved produ(livit,q

Action plan and deliverables


\ t prcposctharCusbm Compuringworkscloselywithdrc
ITdcpartmcnr and scnior managcmentofBig Fridgetb.
a rhl'weck period, to anal)". the optionsand cosl\ of lny
$t rvillassigDto lbB projc.t onrSenior Systems
Analys!,
I)r Kla$ Mnello, one ofthc lcading profesionalsin his
ilcld. His (lV is iDclrdd in ihc Appendix.
At ihc cnd ol thc $GNcek penod we willdelivern
repo'r t{, Big Fidge hirh {)uf recommeDdaliorN
and full

Conclusion
Big Fridgeis in r position$here ir.an m2le signilicant
ad\2ncesin borh prcdu.rilq rnd prolihbiliry asa result
ofinveshenrs i. ERPsofNar. Theseinvestmnts
will
positionBig Fndge a a leadnrgplaye.id rhe white goods
\\' .econmerd rhat Big FridgechooseCustomcr
Compurilg ro.arry otrr rhe inirial elaluarionofthe optiors
alailable.Our rnck record shoNsthar h a.e ideallyplaced
ro provide Big Fridge Nith $is anallsis.
Should Big Fridgedecidero go aheadvirh any upgrade
\ o l u r i o nC
. b ' u m C u n p ' , r i 1 t ks l l b - d F l i g r F
, d,o tJ in a
further proposrl ro carry out the work.

see the Answer key for the specifi( references.

Businessrcpons and proposals 141

Businessreports and proposals- linking words


Cofrpare the two textsbelow

The phrases you need @

Version 1
Talking abolt the Siales, the problem is that $'e onlv
hale salesguys on the coasts.And do you kno$ what?
There's some iough compeiition oui the.e. A couple of
a u . r o m p e l i l o Am e r 8 . d r e . e n t l ) t h e f n e w r o m p . u ) i s
walking all over us. Our next quarter's salesfigures are
going to be a disastei But yo! have to look on the s1lmy
side - maybe ourhead officewill find a local companyfor
us to buy' Then we have a chane.Anlyay, head office
has spcnl a 1ot of troney over there I guess thcy kno{'
what they'redoin8.

Version 2
I n r e l a t i o nl o l h c U S m d r l e t ,u u r s r h . J o r c er h e r ei \
concentratedon the two coasts.Moreover, we facevery
strong competjtionfrom localplayers.If, fa.t, two oforr
compeiitorshavc .ecentlyme.gedand the ne{'company
is iakiDgsomemarket shareaway from us. Ther.fore it
is likely that the ycar-on-yearrevenucfigu.es for Dext
quaricr willbe flat, or clen sli8htly don'n. Neverrheless,
thc long term ouilook for the US is still vcry positive
- partic'riarlyifwe can make a localacquistion to
'ncreaseour market pneiration.On the whole we are
confidentthatour investmentsin the US market will

VcrsionI is spcech.Sentences
arc sho.t. Sometimestherers
ro Inkhg ofonc scntencetu thc ncxr,othe. ti esitisdone
with simple words likc,4,td,Brt,Thdt, Ar!1M!, etc.
Version2 his very similar content,but is cl.arly from a mo.e
bnnal contexi.This could be a written report,or it could be
a spokcn presentaiiono. n contnbuiion ar. i.rge heeting.
Obvjously the vocabularyand gencraltone is more formal,
but p.y pfitic!lar attentionto ihe linling ilo.ds and phrases
in bold. Theyte used to make thc structlre of the a.gument
clear The reader/listeneris ('anrcd .bout s'hat is coming
nexr a changeot iopi. (tu '"/drio, io), a se.ond point that
adds to the irst one and reinforcesthc argument(flof.oru), a
real situationthat the writer wants io lightight (t? fa.t), etc.
lMlen using linking rvords,think aboui then position in the
Most of the examplesin 'The plmscs l,ou need'can
"
be ued at the begirDing of a sentence,dd where
appropriate are followed by a coma (ie s'here vou
wor'ld pausenr spcech).Version2 abole showsthis.
i Many of these$ ods can also be usedin the middle of a
sentenceafternrd:
..., and iherefore...
ir A te{' are used immediaiely after a coma.
espcciatty,suchas and raheteas.

't12

These include:

Introduce a new topic


regaftling.with referenceta, in relatianta
Add a related point
nareavet tutthermare,in addltion
Show a consequence
so, thereforc,asa result,fot thisreason
Givean example
eg. suchas,fot exanpte,far instance
in padicula. especiay, aboveall
Explain by rephrasing
Say the real situation
tn ta.t. actually,asa nafter of fad
Sequence
frs(ly), second(ly),
thnd(ly).finalty
the ti t <taoe . ,tap t, .

nen

dno d\e, +.al

Talk generally
n general,
on thewhole,in most.ases
Add a surprising or unexpecled idea
howeve,evensa, neveftheless
Make a contrast
tn (antrcst,an theathethand
State known inf ormation
of rcurse obvjously,clealy
Con.lude
in concluslon,on balance,averc|l,taktngeverythinglnta

actually / k4uJli/ adv***


lused for emphasizinswhai is reallv true
or what really happened:Wet,spotenot
tlle phonebul te ueneter actudllt met
2 usedLr enphasizins lhat someihinsis
surprising: l rhnlr slp actuallt) ar;reed to so
3 rpot.. usedwhen correctinga siatenenl:
It llas !6terdaJ), no acluollr it uas Mondar
aip.la,used for admiltine somethins:?id
rou spen.l much monq)? 'Well, tes. Quite a

nevertheles3 /,nev.iiles/ adv)t* despitea


iact or ideatiat you havejust mentionedi
It s a dificult t ace- Ne1ertheless,dbout 1.000
runners pafnapate eteft !@r.

- LINKINGWORDS
69 BUSINESSREPORTS
AND PROPOSALS

Exercises
69.1 Coverthe oppositepagewith a pieceof paper.
Now matchan item on the left with an item on the riqht
with the samemeaning,

3
4
5
6

therefore
n p.rticLrl.r
n f.ct
n qeneral

69.4 CompletetheseIour paragraphstakenfrom a


reportby a chief Inlormationofficer.Readcarefullyto
seehow eachrentenceand ea<hparagraphlinksto the
one betore.Write a capitalletter where necessary
(lea y

c actualy

8 clearly
10 re
69.2 Completeth sentencesbelow with either'e9'
or 'ie'.
1 Fossfues,
o , gasandcoal,are keyio pdya
smaer roe n the overalenrgym x
2 Fossfues,
o andgas.are
ikey to playa smaller
ro in the overa energym x
grata and
Thewordse9 andr havLatinoig ns(exemplt
eso.Theycan be usedin speech.s we I asw.itins
lid

69.3 Underlinthe corre<twords in ilali<s.


I Saesrosen Gerrnany
Mareaver
/ Thercfore,
andFtance.
as
theyrosen Poand,Hunqary
andthe CzechRepublic
wel
2 Saesincreased
in cermanyandFranceAbaveall/ ln
corfrast,theywereflat in PoandandHungary
3 Sasrosein Germany
andrtate. Faretrr,ple
/ ln fact,
iheyroseby overl0%.
4 ln general
/Furthermorc,
sale5
werenrongin Western
and
CentralE!ropeHowevr,
theyfellr ghty in Spainand
Po(ugal
5 Saesrosestronqly
in Germany
andFran(e.
On rhewhole
/ Therelare
\\e w opennewofiicesin Franklurt
and
Marsele nextyear.
6 Saeswere up n WesletnEutope.ln panitular / Fot this
reasor,France
andthe Benelux
countries
thowedstronq
qro\Mn.
7 Overal/ Forinstancei wasa goodyear.Saeswercup if all
8 5aeswer-6strongln BrazilEvenso/ C/eartth s wasdueto
rapidgrowthin the economy.

in paniulat

rcgading

'

the longerterrn,therehavebeen
sevelrequests
by empoyees
to changeour off ce
fromM crosoftto App.2
computers
thi5 is somethingthat we haveto consder,as App e has
r
somelignificantadvantages.
, Appe
oflersa betteropratingsynr. and is els v! nerablto

n fa.t

narcovet

on the whale

, appe compute6areakeadyin
- the two graphicdesigners
usein our organization
in the
Communications
dpartment
usethem
, w'vnotcedthat manYother
peoplebringto workthe lvaclaptopsthattheyuseat
, th s doesnot seemto create
- the officesuiterunsperfectywell
proberns
anyserious
on a Mac.
fo, e/anpte howe.et ,e(o^d|.
'

, tnee a e so'nesero-sobslacles
platformthroughoui
to adoptlngAppleasthe standard
theorganization.
Firstly,
theres the questonol pfce.
- they'retargeted
Applesaresiqnificantly
moreexpensve
at the consumer
marketwherefashlon.nd designbrlng
a premiumprice.!
, therearesome
issuessAP,'
serious
technical
, doesn't
runon Macs,andour lT supportstaffareunfamilarwih
the Macoperatng syslem.

'o

offe6
, to sumup, Microsoft
familiarity
andeaseof techncalsupporiat a reasonable
^.np.ffF,

whereas /wearez/ conjun.tonusedfor


showing thai there is an importani
ditrerence between two thinss, people.
situations ete Docrors' sarorits ha@ risen
subndntiallr, btureas nurses poJ h6

,lF!n- and

grcatersecurity
at a higherprice.Whatconcusionscan
be drawnTr'z ... ........ . . ........
ihat the best
, it seems
optionisto contnueusingM crosoftPCsfor the majorityol
staff.Wewill of course
conunue
to monitorthe stuation,
particularly
asthe Internetreplaces
Windowsas. day-todaysoftwareplatform.

Businessreportsand proposals 14:

Businessreports and proposals- review


70.1 Completthe reportextractby undrliningth correctwords in italics.
Sometimesthe choiceis basedsimplyon styleor usage.
To:
CEO AuloCorporalion
From: Che1Economst AutoCorporalion
Subject: OLrtooklor the oi ma*ei and its mp cators lor theALrloCorporaton

lnlroduction
lHansAberlander,CEAof the Auta Caea?ion, askedme to wnte this.epod / Thisrepart was
cammlsionedby Hans
Oberlande,CEAaf theAuto Carparatianlhe'1aln / scopeof the rpo.ti5to mak a lonq-lermlorecdstof trendsin the
snatket far ail t oil narket, and to analyzehow th future pnceof oi w impdctthe autonrobe indunry.a/, particular
/ Especra//y,
the reportwil look atoLrrown cornpany.the Aulo Corpordlon,and whetherwe are positoned 10 meet
futLrrechdllenges
in the m.rketpiace

Oil market
The pr ce of oi h.s bef ifcrasing5rteadl / rread,i),sincaro! nd I 999 Th s has beendrivenby facto6 on both the
supplysideand th demandsid On the supplyside,lotal wor d o I prodlcion has nowpedked,wth no 6i/9nlFl.art
/ rignifi.artt new discoveries
on the horizon lTalkingabaut denand / an the demandside,rtie grcwrh of economies
s u c ha s C h n a a n d I n d i ah a sm e a n la h u g i n c r e a r en t h e c o n s u m p t o n
ol orl
Ov aresearch
shows/ researches
show that thesetrendsewl / are likelyta .otitrnue.and that oi pricesw rena n
h g h f o r t h f o r e s e e a bfluet u r e T
. h i sw i l i n e v i t a b h
l ya v e l a f a r c e l a n l | r , p a c t o n t h e a u t o h d u n r y . w t h h q h f u ep r c e s
c a u s n g c u s t o m e r 9 t o t u r n t o m o d e s w iot hw e . . u n nn g c o n s , s u c hl i k e/ s u d a s e e N ( . . a t s .

Fuelefficientengines
At Alto CoQorat of w cLrffentlymanLrfactu
re 1wohybrd e ectricvehrces that combne a convnto nal gaso ne eng ne
w t h a n o n - b o a r dr e c h a r g e a beee c r c b a l t e r y
Saesof thesemodes havebeetl)]disappainting
/tefflble, and for ih s repo( we askedan i.dependntrrcomparyahaa
daes na*et rcsear.h/ na*et rcsear.hrcnpany ra lacaffyon / cafty aut a suNeyto discoverthe reasonswhy lhe
surveyshowedthe fo lowing arcasa1 Itanxiety/ .ancernon rhe part oi potenlal cunome6:
. T h e r e a t v e y h g h n i t a l p n c e o f h y b n d c a r s d t y p t c a lIl yt t p E a la h y b td . a r p a y sl o r t s e f i n t e r m s
ol ower fLrelcons aftr about threeyears
. Thefact that hybrd cars11areunableto go very fast/ qo slorylyThe addltonale ze and we ghr of the
batterypa.k meansthat the conventonalenginehat to be smaller
and rescuework6 will qer ecrroclted by
" The addedrsk n an accdentihat the driver,passenqers
t h e h i g hv o r a q e n t h e c a r .

Conclusions
ln the ght of the above rafaundinqs/ findings.we rcachedthe 1enext/ follawinqconcusions:
s ' z o i n u e a s i n/gnl ya r e a n d n o r e w a f i l u e ' e f f c i e n rm o d e s ,n c ! d n g e e d r ( c a | s , d u e
" c u s t o m e rw
io cont nu nq h gh o prices.
. Governmentlegh ation on reducnq the emissionof greenhoutegassby automobilesw ll a so drive
the 2 trend/ tendencyawaylrom convention. engrnes.
. Auto Corporationhas been slow to reepondto the (hallengesahead,
"because/ due ro customer
resrstance
to the currenigneratonof elecrrlcvehcles.

Recommendations
There
aretwo':rmal,/ mostt portdntrecommendalions
wewould ketomake:
! The Board of Auio Corporationneedsto take a lonqer-termvew of the market,!'paying nare
aftentionto /thinking abour the priceof oi in B nrategi. decisons
, Auto Corporatonneedsto inven considerably
rnor"noney / financialresaurces
in R&Dio deveop
a new qeneratonof safe, nexpensive
and reliabe eectr. batteres.

144

- REVIEW
70 BUSINESSREPORTs
AND PROPOSALS

70.2 Rad this elctractfrom a businessproposal then do the exercisebelow

Understandingyour stock losses


Ihdnk you for nreetnqwith us afd helpng us undersiand
the nock lossstu.tion at F.shionSupe6torn moredepth.
We proposeto conducta revewof your norc to sehow
(CCTV)
ClosedClrcuitTlevison
cameras
couldbe usedrnost
effective
y, and thencomplete
the nstallarion
of the synen.
Our approachs basedon olr twentyyears'experience
oi
provding
securty
soutonsin theretailsectoL
Key goals
Yourgoa is to redu(eshopifrlngby nstalling
wa l-mounted
camras
insdeyourstore,andto havetheseinkedtomonilors
at a centr. secuntydesk.You want to do this in . coneffective
w.y

Projectscope
The prolectwill inc ude the iollowingacrivite5
. dentifythe best locatonsfor CCIV camerasand insralth
.

dentlfythe ben oc.tion Jord centralsecurty desk,with th


m o n l t o ra
s n d a v r b e p r e s e n coei s e c u r t yp e f s o n n e .
. Rln a tra n nq progr.m lor the securtypersonne nvolved

. A specidlrcpod on how to nranagescuritypersonnel,


partcudrlywithregardto. wayskeepngthe rattentonon
Stafiing
Wewillassignto thisprojectthe followingream:
. An in noresecurity
expert,Mr BobParker,
who hasovrten
y,oars'xprence
n thisf eldandprvously
workedlor th
. Fourqudriiedeleciicans
. A trdiner,Ms Eeatrceslerne,membrof the nstitrteof
ta ning.
Fees
We will chargea lotal lee of 254,000tor ths projecrThis
includta the itemsrelnedto above,with no hddn
Based
on the fguresyou provddus and on niorrnaton
oblainedfiom prcvousassgnmente
we havecanedoLrt,we
enimalethat this systemwi pay ior itseltwllhin eighteen
monlhs.Seethe fgures n the altachedcasstldy, which
describes
a verysirnlarprojectthatwe carried
olt astyear

Conclusion
that you contractolr cornpanyto nstal
A t metabefor the diflerentphases
ol the prolecti, included we recornmend
a CCry systeminsideFashionSLJperstore.
Ths systemwil
as an append
x. we estimate
ihai the tota time requredfor
reduce
yourlosss
dr.matrcally
dueto shoprit n9.
th s prolects two weeks.
n .dditon, the syslemwill hep providea saferenvironment
Delivef.bles
for th s projectw I ncLrd
. Approxmately30 CCTVcamera!,wth two aseociated tor shoppe6.Whentheyseethe cameras
theywl feel ess
worned
.bout
dangeE
slch
as
eav
ng
their
bagsLrnattended
monrtors
at the cenvaldesk,alllu ly insialedand(he(ked
on
lhe
foor
wh
e
they
ook
at
coihes
Th
s
safer
environrnent
' All addiionalmateralssuchascabes.
ir I klyto leadto shoppeE
spending
more
time
ns
de Fashon
" A threeday training proqramfor sec!nty personneL, Superstore
andtherefore
rpendingmorernofey.
ncudng how to work the Cameras
and monrtors,
and
I w ca youon Wednesday
6 lune to d sclsethe nen neps
ful slmuatonsof shopliftng eventsandhow to dealwith
We
ook
fotuard
working
youto createa morescur
lo
with
program
them We haverun this
in oversixty
successiully
andmoreproftabeFashion
Superstore.

lmplementationand deliverables

Put a tick (/) to show which sectionsofthe proposalmenrionwhich ofrhe three


thems.Seunit 68 for the themes.
Capabilities
Understandingyour stock lorses
Keygoak
Proiectscope
lmplementationnd delivrables
Staffing

Seethe Answerkey for the specificrfrencs.


Busines5report5and proposak

145

Discussiontopics
Unit I Page6
n yoLrrcountrywhat do peoplethinkabouttheissueof free
lradevs protection
sm?What isyo!r own view?
jobs n someindust.ies
2 Freetradecreates
and unemployment
in
othersWh ch?Why?
3 Shouldcertainlndustries
be prctected?
Whi.h?Why?
4 W o r ki n s m a i i g r o u p s :
o Makeyourown listof argurnents
in favourof globazalion,
ano ar9umen15
aqarnsr.
0 Putyour st on ihe tablein fiont of you so thai everyon
can
seeit. Wa k roundthe rcomand lookat a the lists.Wl te
downone or two questions
that corneinto yourheadasyou
I

r/, Returnto yourseaisAskyourquenrons.Everybody


can

Unit 2 Page a
1 'Thecyce of boomand bun isoneoI the wondeEof capilalBm
its whatSchurnpeter
ca ed "crealve dstructionhSthe process
by which neficent nduniesget.epacedby innovative
new
ones.Attemptsby poicymake6to preventths cyclelustsupport
od fashioned
indunresand makethe economy
lessdynamcover
the longterm.Uslalytheseallrnptsto controllhemarkets
larl
L Agree liDisagree
2 Are you bul sh or beaishon the generalnock marketin your
countryrightnow?Why?rstherea parlicLrlar
sctorof indunry
whereyou hod the oppostevlew?Why?
3 f the busnesscyce exns, wherearewe on the clockon
page8 rghi now?(Thnk aboutthe folowng qlenions.was
the ast nterestralemove!p or down?ls th nock markel
rsingor falling?WhichsectoGa do n9 wellar the momenr?)

Unit 3 Page10
1 Whai areasof conflct arelhere kelyto be betweenan
exporterand theirfolelgnagenVdistr
butor?
2 W o r kn s m . l l g r c u p s i
o Frst,chooseale o{ iheseproducG:smalip anic childrcns
toys,herbamedcines,h g h definfton ry screen!to hangon
o A Vietnamese
expoderwantsto sellthesegoodsinroyolr
market,andyo!?e inierestedn beingthe r agent They
needyourlo.a knowledqePfepafe
fof
a shortpresentation
themon the opportuniiesand challenqes
theyface.
dl Useyourown ideasand strucllre,alihouqhthe sevenbullet
poinison page10 nraygiveyou a few ideasto get siarted.
o Whenyou fn sh,giveyourpresentation.

Unit 4 Page12
I Staningyolr own business
vsworkinqfora lalgecompany:
what arcthe differcnces?
Thnk of an exampeof a srnallburiness
that failed(perhaps
from peEonalexperence,or the experience
of friends4amily/
colleagues,
etc).Tellthegloupaboutthe business,
and why it
failed.coud t havesLrcceeded?
W o r kw t h a c o e a g u e :
o Youhaveeach nherited0.5mfrcm richaunts(1mtoral)
and now wantto starta busnesstogeiherDecidewhaiyour
146

o Usethe contentspageof the busine55


p an on page22 to
preparea shortprcsentation
to the restof the group You
wil explainyourbusinespan to them Youdon't haveto
covereveryissuen the m nd map.
4r Giveyourprcsentat
on and askfor questlons
atthe end.

Unit 5 Pag14
I 'TheAngloAmeicanmodelof putt ng the shareholder
firn
it badforthe employees,
badfor the communityand badfor
r Agree

.r Disagree
2 In yourcountryis therea lraditionof havng a nronq and
independent
Bodrdthar represenrs
the nterensoJthe
sharehode6andcan h re andine the CEO?
3 Whata.ethe advanlage5
dnd disadvanrages
of workingfor a
medium-szed
fam ly-ownedbusiness,
ascompared
to a a.ge
4 Faslherebeena siory n the neM recentlyaboutweak
corporategovernance
at a padicularcornpany?
Perhaps
ii ledto
a tinancialdisaslr,
or a corruptonscanda,or somethingese.
whal do you knowabouiii?

Unit 6 Page16
I Chooseone of the sx ssueslistedunder'Geopolitics
andthe
wodd e.onomy'on page16 Discuss
it wth somecolleag!es.
Whenyou linsh, chooseanother.
2 Chooreone oi the sx replesg vnin the 't\4anagment
,nd
businesssection.Dscussii wilh sornecolleagues
Whenyou
finish,chooseanother
3 'Wecannol.educeenerqycons!mplion.No-oneis goingto
voluntailyaccepta declinein the r lv ng standards.
Fightng
qloba warmingis useess Wete al go ng to fry.Lellhe
cockroaches
and ratr takeover- theywereherebeforeus
. Agree

Diragree
4 Globalizaton
hasgonetoo far.'
- Agree
Disagree

Unit 7 Pagela
Lookingal the threeb.sicmanagenrent
stylesmentonedon
page18, wouldsaythai my own stylels (or wouldbe) ...
'Goodrnanagers
areborn,not made.'
, Agree
- Disagree
Lookat ihe f ve mainheadings
under'Pelsonalqualitiet
n the
pe6onspecllcaion.Canyou addanotherfew itemsunder
qua ties.
Drawa mindmapol you own personalrnanaqement
PLrtyounf in the m ddle,then havean nnerringof headngs
lk the fve ln the pe6onspecilcation,andfinallyouter
branches
that showyoLrrqlalilies.
Useyourown ideas,butfeelfreeto usethe deasin the unrtas
Whenyou lin sh,showyolr mindmapto a coleaqueand

Unit 8 Page20
I Lookdi the listof sixtime managernent
tips in the text on
page20. Canyou add anyothert ps?Whichonesdo you
2 What isthe one ihinqthat you coulddo - nading tomorrow
-to manageyourtimemoreeffcienly?

DlscuSS|oN
roPlcs
3 Lookat what manageEmanageCanyou add anorheritemor
two underedchmainheadng?
4 Drdwyourown persona
izedmindrnapof'How lspendmy
jun think
time' lf possble,focuson tme at work Othelwise,
.bout yourt me n genera.
Whenyoufinish.showyourmindmapio a colleague
it
anddiscuss
Unit 9 Page 22
1 Plannng s the basisof spontaneitr/.'
,:) Agree ,.) Disagree
2 Harcd Macm an, a BitishPrrneMinister,
wasaskedwhat was
the qreatestdifficultyhe fa.ed. He rep ed 'Events,
dearboy.
events.G ve an exampeirom you own life of how events
yourpans.
chanqed(or destrcyed)
3 Brainnorming.
C osethisbook(everybody
exceptone pe6onor
On the board,writesectionheadings1-a {rcmthe contents
pageof the business
pan on page22. Everybody
brainstom
sub-sectonsfor
eachsecton.lt sn'ta memorytst

Unit 10 Page 24
1 'Leaders
and rnanagers
arediffercnt.'
.r Agree 1..IDisag.ee
2 A e a d e ra d m i s . b e c a u s e . . .
3'Leaders haveto takedifi cult decsons.you'llneverbe a leader
f you needto be kedby otherpeople.'
i ) Agree ij Disagree
4 Lookagainat the barchadshowngthe reslltsof the surveyon
page24. Doyou thinkthat peoplein lhe r thirliesspondedin
the sameway aspeoplen theirfifties?Do you thinkrhat rnen
responded
in the sameway aswomen?
5 Talkabouta recentoccason whef you successfully
lnflue.ced
someone(or a group).Describe
how you d d lt.

Unit 11 Page25
1 f youte working,expainthe tvvoor thleebiggenrsksthat
yourcompanycurrentlyfaces.f you aren'two ing,talk to
a irend or familymernberwhohasajob and knowslhe t
business
wel. Askthemaboutthe isks ther companyfaces,
and thenexpan themto the dassin the nextleslon.
o anyonewho madea work-related
insurance
clam?
's anyonewho failedio checkthe smal prnt on a legal
o anyonewho wofked n a companywherethe.ewasa case
oi embezzlenrent?
t youransweris 'yel to anyof thesequestions,
tellthe nory
I 'ln Amercapeoplea too quickto sueeachother'
i .i Agre il Dkagree
4 what isyourown attitudeto isk? clve an eEmde of
something
ln yourlifethat you nearlydid, but decidedagainn
becauset wastoo r sky.Do you haveany regretsaboutthat

unit 12 Page28
1 Didyourcountrygo throughthe samecycledscfibed
in the
text:manutacturing
boomin ihe mlddleof rhe lan century
then dec ne,then rebirth?lf not, how andwhy was it

I VdnyWe,re'n.ounr,eshavFoqrlarg" p"a( of rFrr


manulacturing
baseoverrc.entyea6.ls that necessaily
a bad
thing?
4 Doyou knowthe chacterDilbertfromthe Americanco.f c
stip ofthe samename?Dibertis an engineerWhat klndof
peEonality
and behaviour
doesOilberthave?A englneers
generally
likethis?

Unit 13 Page30
I 'Faclo.iesthat
makerea thingsarcthe heartof n economy.
Therefrce dndfinancidlsclo|s
arciun peopesmilingdt
cunome6and playingwilh compuieu.'
: 1,Agree
,r Disagree
2 Doyouwork in a faciory?lf 50,drawa diaqramon the boad
to showthelayout.Thenexpdinwhat happensin the different
areasof ihe lactory
lf nol, haveyou everbeeninsidea fa.tory?Descrlbe
whatyou
sawandyourgeneralimpressrons.
3 wouid you be prepared
to do shftlvorkin a modernfactoryif
it wasan nteresting,
well'paidiob requirn9 somerki ? Why?/

Unit 14 Page32
I Howdoyouthinkthedayro'day
workof a purchas
ng
manager5 dflerenllo the work of othermanageEin the fleld
ot production
andoperalion9?
prccess
2 Managersnvolvedln the prccuremeni
wi spenda lot
of thentime negoliatn9 Whai do you knowabou negotiation
strategies
and tactcs?
3 Do you knowany newsstoresaboui.ompanies!s ng bribery?
Or maybeyou you6ef havebeenin a 5iluatonwheresomeone
you to givelherna sriall'giii'lo obia n a servce?Te
expcted
4 rf youte wo*ing, talk aboulhow 9 obalsourcinghasaffected
yourown cornpany.
li you'fea student,surnmarze
what you
havelearntaboutthistopicon yourcourse.
Unit 15 Page 34
I SCMmeansthal the manufaclurer
hasto sharea ot of
commercial
infomationwilh !!pplielsand customers,
treatng
themlikepartners.
Are thercanyrisksto this?
2 Compareair,sea,rcadand r.ilfrom a ogisticspo nt of vew
3 Workwith a colleagueDrawa m nd mapof ' ogisics' showing
whatlhe lerrnrneanslo you.C osethis bookbeforeyoLrstart
and useyourown ideas.At ihe end,comparewith anotherpat
4 Makenotesto preparea presenlat
on on'Logist.s nmy
company'.Uselhe headinqs
and deasfrom exercse 15.4
to helpyou.Whenyou finish,giveyourpsentation

unit 16 Page35
1 Doyou knowanythinge seaboutTP5,J I eanprodlctionor
kai2enthat s not mentonedin the textT
2 Howcouldyou changethe orqanzationof youf own workpace
to elimnatewaste(of t me,moneyand materals)and improve
producrivlty?
Drawa m nd mapto showyoLrrideas.Whenyou
linish,explainyour deasto a colleague
usingyo!r m nd map.
lf you'rea nudent,you cando thisactv ty lor anyp.ir-t rnelob

2 Doesyourcountryhavea 'RustBelt'7Whatis fe ike in that


areanow?ls therca nrategylo rcdevelop
the a.ea?

14

DtscussroN
ToPtcs
Unit 17 Pag38
1 Whatdoesthe word'qualty' meanto you?Brainno.masmany
ldeasaspossbleandwritethemon the boad.
2 What eke do you knowabolt IQM beyondwhat is
mentonedln the text?
3 Doesyourown organization
haveprocedurcs
to checkqudlity?
lf 50,descibethem.
4'You getwhat you payfor': is thisalwarstrue?Thinkof sorne
examples
for bothsideso{ the argument.
Heres an ideaio get you started:
A packetof hgh price,brand-name
cereals
iesittingon a
supermarket
shelf Nextto it on the 5helfisa packetof the
superma*et's
own-labdbrand,selingdt a lowerprice.The
contentsarc identica- the supermarket
boughtthe cereals
ircm the manufacturer
and packagedthem.
Unit 18 Page 40
1 Thef rst paragraph
of the text on paq40 suqqertsin a
hurnorous
way that salespeopleand marketingpeople
sometimes
don'tva ue eachothefswork.In yourexpe.ience,
is
ih s true?
2 Brainnorme ther 'Whatqualiliesdoesa saletpe6onneed?oi
'Modernsalesrechniquel.
Cloreyourbookbefo you stan.
(t isnt a rnemoryexercse.)
3 Canyou thinkof anysituations
whee a 'had sell'mighl be
4 Thinkcafullyaboutthe an timethat a salesperson
soldyou
somethng. Howdid lhey d scoveryolf needs?Howdid they
presentthencaseTHowdd theyhande yourobjection!?
Are
thereany specialtechnquesthat theyusedbut rhatyou werc
unawareof at the t me?
Unit 19 Page 42
'
A welfl.own tloga' 'o c-stome.sea,cers 'U.derpromise
and oveFdelivef.
Wh.t doesit mean?Do you agrcewith it?
2 Haveyou everheardof a 'ChiefClstomefseruice
Office/?
Why does'customer
service'haveslch a low priorityinside
3 Tella storyfrcm yourown experience
aboulan exampleof
paftclladygoodor particulady
badcunomerseruice.
Whatare
I Worl . s1 all Sro-ps Era,.srorm
d..('or.usron.r $rvre
'Lttle thingsthat rnakea big difference'
underthe headings:
and'Don'tforgetyourexilt ng customers'.
(lt isn'ta
Closethe bookwhileyou do the brainstorming.
yourideaswlth the class.
Whenyou fnish, discuss

Unit 20 Page 44
Eachpe6onchoosea productthatyou havewith youtoday
(es in a baq or an objectin the.oom).Foreachproduct,
d scussthe targetmarket.
Do the fo owing:
o On the board.drawthe four headings:
Product,Place,
Promotion
and Prce.
(a sinqleword
. Eachstudentchooseone item of vocabulary
phrase)
or.
fo' eachheadingthat you thinkyoufcolleaEres
won't know Youcanusea bilingualdi.tionaryto hlpyou.

148

ra Go up tothe boad andwite yourvocabuarytemsunder


the cor|ectheadings.
i Wheneveryone
hasfinished,9o roundthe groupand
explaindllthe wods.
3'Marketing isjunthele to rnakeus buythingswe don't need.'
.) Agree a Disasree
4 Discuss
how ma*etingis different1osaes.

Unit 21 Page 46
1 Lookagan at the thirtyadjectives
descbingfeaturesin exercise
21.5.How manyotherscanyouthinkof? Brannonr ideason
the boa.d.lqnorceasy.obviouswods suchds'expensve,'fast',
2 Thinkof an xampleof a prcduclwith poo y designed
packagingHowwouldyou improveit?
3 Eachmemberof rhe groupchooseone perconal
item that
you havewith you today Choossomething
that hasa nrong
ma&eting(ampaignbehindit. Takea few minutesto prcpare,
thendescribe
to ihe group:
. the productsfunctionabenefils
. the produclSpsycholog
cal bnefts
. the brandimage
o why you chosethit particular
model( I the productis partof
producb)
a lineof
. whetheryou thinkthe maAetng campagn nfluenced
your

Unit 22 Page 4a
I Whaiareihekeyelements
of rnerchandis
ng(howprcducis
a
arranged
anddisplayed
lnside
a nore)?
2 Howis technoiogy
changingthe faceo{ retailing?
G ve some
exampesfiom yourpeBonalexperience
3 Chooseh^/oor threeretailers
that all sell n a s rnilarmarket.
Dilcussihe d fferences
bebaeenthem.
4 Dict markeing (calaLogues,
ma shoB,ry shoppingchannels,
adsin the presswith a toll-fe number)s oiten ignoredn
discussions
aboutmarketng. Howdoesthe dstibuton channe
atiectprcduct.promotionand pri.e?
Unit 23 Page 50
1 lt3 in.asinglydifi criltto reachcustomers
thfoughadverts ng.
Meda channesarc becomingevermorediverse
and
lgmented.what is the advertising
indunrydoingto meetthis
2 'Thebetteran advertisement
s, the morepeoplerernember
the
advertisement
andthe lesstheyremember
the product.'Can
you thinkof an exampe of th s?what arethe mplicatons
a)for the advertising
agency,
and b) forth clientcompany?
I work wilh a colleague.
[/ake a mindmapwith ihe word
'P.omotion'inthe middle.Close
ths bookbeforcyo! start
(li isnl a memoryexer.se.)Whenyou f nish,walk around
and lookat otherpeopleSmindmap'
4 Do yolj agreewlth what ir wriiten n everybox in exercise
23.5?

Unit 24 Page 52
1 ls it true lhat rnarketers
talk lessaboutpricethan about
ptoduct,disnibutionor prcmolion?f so,why do you thinkit
2 lt you work in the marketinq/sales
apa, describe
how pricesare
setrn yourown .ompany.

TOPICS
DtsCUSSTON
3 EachpeEonchoosean ltemthat you havewith you now (e9 in
youf baq).t hasto be one whe you rememberthe
exactprice
. Showlt to yourcolleagues.
Fi6t let themtry to guessthe
a Saywhat the pricewas.
. 5a) 4LFrhe,ar rhe lrnF ro . rroughrlh6 w.s erpensive,
reasonaD
e or cneap.
a saythe absolutemaxmumthat you wouldhavepad ior ihis
a Discuss,
froma marketingpoLntof view whetherthis tem
was pnceocoffecry.

Unit 25 Page 54
I Naveyou evertakenpart in ma*el rcsearch eitheras
your
Describe
a poientialcunomeror asa researcher?
Workwith a colleaguePrcduce
a mindmap:
a lf you'rework ng, useideaslmm yourcompanyand write
'Our marketng strategy'n the centre.
. lf you'rea nudent,useideasyou've
nudiedon yourcourse
and wrte'Elementsof a marketingnrategy in ihe cent.
r Whenyou finish,wa k aroundand ook at othrpople3
mindrnap! Discuss
them.
Presentation.'New
PrcductDevelopment'.
Workwth a
colea9ue:
. lhink of an idafor a completely
new product.Youte goinq
to prcsentthe conceptto yourcollaglet- makesome

gvingthepresentaUon,
whi.hperson
willtalk
Before
decide
- youcan
points.
presentation
whch
willbe
about
lt
a team
change
thepresenter
onceor severa
times.
giveyourpresentalion.
Whenyou'reready,
Youfcolleagr.ies
shouldlislencaretuy,lakenotes,
thenaskpractical
Unii 26 Page 56
1 Followthese nstructonr:
Studythe text on page56 one moret me.ln a moment
vou re oo'q to tl to wlle dow^ re eemert5of a'Incone
pieceof paperNo figus areneded
statementon a separate
just the headings.
You'Ldo ihs wlth the helpol a pariner.
C oseih s booknow andnart.
2 Yourun a chainol sma cotfer'snack
ba6 in yourcouniry
(Yournearestcompetitoris Starbucks.)
Lan q'ranei both
revenueand costswercabovebr.idgei.Ihsbalanced
out, so
thatthe operatingprcfitwasin linewith the budgtedfigu@
Brainnomaemanyrcaronslor ihs vaian.eas possible.

Unit 27 Page 58
1 Fo ow theseinnructions:
a Studythe box'Whatcana balance
sheetshow?'at the
bottomoi page58 one moreiime.
Writedownon a separalepieceof paperthese
words.
hquidirl, leverage,baak value andprafitabiliry.
Workingwth a padner,writea shortparagaphthat
expalnseachof thesecon.epb.c oseyourbookbefoGyou
beginl
lsthereanyonen the groupwho knowsaboutac.ounbof
Investing?
Askthemthis:'You'F thinki.g aboutinveningin a
company.
but canonlylookat one flnancialdocument,either
the incomestaternent
orthe balanceshet;whichonewould
you choose,andwhy?'

unit 28 Page 50
1 lsthereanyonein the groupwho knowsaboutaccounting
or
investing?
Askthemto explainwhy the studyof a companys
cashflow is important,and in partkuarhow t showethings
and
that cannotbe seeniustfrcm ihe P&L(incomestatment)
2 Howdoyou manaqeyourown peEonacashfow? Do you
havea negativebankbalanceatthe endof the month?
aTways
Howcouldyou manageyourcashbetter?

Unit 29 Pag 62
1 Lookagainat the nory ol Manuelain exercBe
29.5.Whatcould
she(andthe otherplaye6)havedoned ffrenily?
2 Workin pairs(A and B):
. Backgrcund.
StudentAand StudentI work in the accoLrnts
department!of two differentcompaniesArcceveda arge
invoicefiom B an month,but st ll hasn'tpid t (d!e 10A's
own internalcash
flow probems).
. Pe6onalize.
A and B now prcparea few moredetaik
logelher.Whatislhe busnssactivty of the two companies?
Whalwasthe invokeior? Howmuchwat ilfor?
o Roleplay.Sil back1oback.SludentB rnakea telephonecall
to StudentA abourthe unpaidnvoice.Trylo negotate a
sertlemenr
that is goodfor bothsides.

Unit 30 Page 64
1 Followtheseinnructions:
o studythe telt, g.aphsand exercseson page54-55 one

Wite on theboadthewords'breakeven
analysl,
'operating
Leverage'
and'contrlbution
rnargin'.
to Bs
workin pais,A andB.Coseyourbooks.
A5explain
w' ttenon thboa'd Bsshoud lisle'
rl'errreeco.ceprs
questions.
askoccasional
andhelpif necessary
. Keepthesamercles,burworkw th a newp:rtner.NowBs
haveyolr turnto explain
whileAs isten.
2 lf you'reworking,explainhow you analyzeprclitab ty n
yourcompany.
lf you' a siudenl,descrbeanyotherareasol
managemeni
a.countingthat you'vestudied

Unit 31 Page 66
I 'Financial
marketshaveI ttle to do with the realworld.li'! jun
yuppesin frontof computerscreens
overpaid
chasingthe latest
financialbubble.'
,j agree -- Diragree
Lookaqan at the tablof playeu n ihe ma*ei on page66
Cdnyou add anyextrainformation
abolt anyof theseplayers?
yo!r job.
l Do youwork in lhe li.ancialmarkeis?
Describe
Thebondmarketandforeiqnexchanqe
marketaremuchless
well knownrhanthe srockrna*ei bul th amountot rnoney
tradedon themisfar larger.Canyou explainwhy theyget so
litle publicand meda attention?

Unit 32 Pag68
Doyou followihe stockmafket?what is happenng at the
moment?Canyo! xplainthis?
Do you personally
own anyrtocksor funds?Whydld you
choosethem?Howoftendo you checkthek prce?Whenw
lf you had10,000to inven n lust one stock,whichonewou d

14

DlscusstoNToPtcs
Unit 33 Page 70
Unit 37 Page 78
yourcompanys
I Describe
prccedure.ls
recruitment
it successful? 1 Producea SWOTanalysis
for a companythat you know lt could
Howcouldit be improved?
2 Wofk on yourcV (resurne)
for homework-ifyou needto.In
a Putthe CVson the wall rcundthe room.(Altematively,
lay
thernout on the desk.)
. Go rcundand lookat otherpeoplesCVs.Youmaybe able
to get somenew ideas.
. Go backto yourdeskandwork with a pa(ne. Readeah
othercCVscarefully.
Discuss
themtoqether.
. lf necessary
makeanychanges
to yoLr.CV
lfyou don't wantto wo* on yourown CV or you think it istoo
pe6onal,thensimplyhelpothe.peopleby rcadingthet CVs
andaskng questons.

Unil 34 Page 72
I Howmportant
youworkina creative,
s pay?
Would
elsfying
job if thepaywasn'tverygoodT
2 Whatdo youthinkaboutpedormance-.elated
pay?
3 Areyoupaidwhatyou?eworth?lmagine
thatyolle talking
to yourboss,
tryingto persuade
themto payyoumore-(Youve
jo
beeninvited
to n another
company
ro youarcspeatang
from
a position
of singth.)Explain
whytheyshouldpayyoumore.
Unit 35 Page 74
1 Lookthrcughalltheworkplace
issuer
on page74.Areanyof
theselhe sLrbject
of discussion
in yourworkplace?
2 Lookatthefolowinglistof workplace
issLres.
Whichonesare
moreserioLrs
andcouldeadto dismissal?
a arriving
lateandleaving
ary
a beingdrunkat work
a bLrllying
andharatsment
a oamage
10prcpefty
. failingto followhealthandsafevprocedures
. personarappearance
a personal
useof thelnternet
oLrtside
of renperiods
Choose
oneol theissues.
Wfitea short,imaginary
diatogue
benee^l^e nanager
ald enployee
whererhissue
is
discussed
for thefirsitime.
3 Doyouworkin HR,or doyouknowanyone
whodoes?
Whi.h
partsoi thejob,besdesrec.uhment.
takeupthemosttime?
Unit 36 Page 76
1 Pract
sespeaking
abouiyou backqround
andcarer:
. Wtirea shor.c.pl - '" ten on page/6 w lgve yousome
deas.
Whenyoutereadyrcadit aloudto yourcolleagues.
Yourco eagues
shouldlisten.
makea fewnotes.
andask
quest|ons
at theend.
. n thenextclass,
lookal yourscripr
againbriefly,
then
put t away.Nowworkwltha colleague.
your
andexplain
backsround
andcareer
asa freespeakjnq
exercis.
Your
pairner
quenions
you
shouldaskclarlfication
andencourage
to givemoredetaik.

150

be yourown,or one that you'vestudiedasa nudent.Youcan


usethetableon page78 for ideas,but fee freto include
Whenyou iinish,prcsenlyourSWOTanalysis
to the groupand
thenaskfor questions
2 Writea companyprcsentation
for a companythat you know
It couldbe you own, or onthat you'venudiedasa nudent
Youcanu! the iext on paqe78 and exercise
37.3for ideas.
but feelfleeto includeotherarca'
Whenyoufinilh, ad youf text to the groupand thenaskfor

Unit 38 Page 80
I PBctis
speaking
abolt yourjob:
. Wile d shorls(riot- lheled o. pdge80 willgiveyoLio.re
ideas.
lvhenyou?eready,
teadit aloudio yourcoleagues.
Yourcolleagues
shouldlistn,makea fewnores,
andask
quenions
al theend.
a Inthenextclass,look
atyourscriptagainbrefly,thenput t
away.Nowwo* witha colleague,
yourjobasa
andexplain
treespeaking
exercise.
Yourcoleague
shoLJld
askclarification
questions
youto givemoredetais.
andencourage
2 lf youdon'thavea job,or asanaddiionalactivty,dooneol
thefollowing:
. Interview
a friendor familymember
andaskthemabout
theirjob.Tellyour
colleagues
n thenextclass.
. Thinkof someone
youknowandroleplaythem,descfbing
thenjob Remenbe.
ro say - no|he o' sle

Writing tasks
Unit 45 Page 94
1 Youworkfor an internationaphamaceuticacompanywitha
ben{ellingheartdrug.You' partof an international
team,
prepainga reporton compe|tors'prcductswoddwide.
a Wrltean emailto a colleague
in lapan,AkikoYamada
(a woman).Wite 4G-50words.
o Givethe reasonforwrit ng.
in iapan{ma*er
o Request
informaton aboutihe compelitors
sharc,advertis
ng).
6 otfer to provideinformation
aboulyourown market.
2 Personalizaton.
Wrte two ema s sirnilarto onesthat you have
to writein yourown real-life
lob Usethe tabe on page94 to

Unit 46 Page 96
Yo'r've
1 You'rethe financednectorof an ntemational
company.
just f n shedthe cornpany
accounbJorlan yearand the results
wereverygood.Howeverthe oltlook for nextyearlooksmorc
cha enging.Wite an emaI to yourcolleagues,
le ing themthe
news.Write40-50 words.
o G ve the reasonfor witing.
o G ve the goodnewsabod lan yearThankeveryone.
(| G ve the bad newsaboutnextyear.
2 Pe6onazaiion.W te two emailssim ar to onesfiai you have
to wrlte n yourown al'lifejob. Usethe tableon page96 to

Unit 47 Page 98
Fo ow theseinnructions:
o Lookone moret rneat emais1 and 2 on page98, and at
the two ern.ilsin exercke47.4.Thenworkwith a <olleague
to createa s milarbusnesslitlation:
What prcduct I seNicek the custoner interestedin?
How did the custoner find out about it?
what infamatian does the custonet want?
What infatnatian wil the supplet give?
o Now workingindividua
ly,wdte an enqulrybasdon the
situationyou cleatd.Notethatyou andyourcolleaguewill
be in the samerclewdlng a similaremal.
a Whenyou f nish,eKhangeemais and writea replyto your
colleague's
enq! ry Againyou will both be n lhe samercle.
. Whenyou lin sh,compareyouremailr.
on. Wrte a s milarpa r of emaikbasedon ones
Personalizat
thai yoLrhaveto writein yourown .|-lifelob. Usethe table
on page98 to helpyou.

Unit 48 Pag 100


1 Followthese nstructons:
o Lookone moretime at emaik2 and 3 on page100,and
at the ema s in exercise
48.3and48.4 Thenwolk wiih a
colleague
to createa sirnilarbusiness
situation:
What Wdud / sewiceis the custametcomplainingabout?
Why is the rustanet conplaining?
what rcp|yis the suppliergoing to give?
writea compaint basedon the
o NoWworking ndividually,
situationyo! c.eated.Notethatyou and yourcolleaguewill
be in the samerole,writ ng. slmilaremail.
o when youfinish,exchange
em.il! andwritea replyto your
complainl.Againyou will bolh be n the same
colLeague!
o Whenyou f nish,compareyouremails.

write a simllarpairof emals basedon ons


2 Pe6onalization
thatyou haveto wite n yourrea-lifejob.Useihe tabe on
page100to helpyoLl

Unit 49 Page 102


1 work with a colleague.
Youwillexchangeema s, nvitingeach
otherto visit.Forsimplicty,keepthe tlvo situatonsseparate
. Beforeyou begin.look one moretime at the emailson
page102.
a Nowwite lhe followngshodernails:
a) As host,inviteyourcoleagueto vst you.Givethe
finishedemaI ro yolr colleague
Acceptthe
b) At guest,replyto the mailyouiun rcceived.
invilation.cive the f nishedemailto your.olleague
c) As hon, suggenan itineraryOhi5couldincude some
localsiqhtsing.)
Givethe finshedemailtoyour
d) As glest, rcplyto the ema yoLrlust received.nclude
detdilsolyo!r llight.hoie, etc. Givethe finishedernailto
yourcoreague
e) as hon, conlirrneverythingGivethe finishedema to
yourco reague.
a when you tinsh, compareyoLrremails.
2 Personali2ation.
Writeone or two rimllaremais basedon ones
that you haveto wriie in yourrcal-lifejob.Youcan be the host,
Useihe tab e
the guen,or takeboih rolesfor diflercnternails.
on page102to helpyou

Unit 54 Page 112


( n a magazine,
or
1 Findanarticle
newspaper
aboulbusiness
lt hasto beonelhat
online)
wittenin yourownlanguage.
o' r'end.a_dtlat conta'sal e.st
dscdbs
a developne'l
Wile fouror fivesentences
in Engish
descrbng
thetrend.Try
to usea goodvariety
of Language
frorntheunt Youcan nvenl
n prevous
addilional
lntormalion,
for xampLe
whathappened
a trend
2 choosa rcallife,gneral-interest
topicthatshows
prces
Yo! rnaychoose
someth
ng lkehouse
overseveralya6.
in yourcou.tryor someth
ngpeEon.lIiketimespentdolng
graph- the
Drawanappfoximate
sports
/ learning
Enqlish.
Labethex andY axes.
exactdtaikdonl rnatter.
ng movemenb
in theg6ph.Try
Writea twsentences
describ
good
iromtheunt.
io usea
vaietyof language

WRITINGTASKS

Unit 55 Page'l14
1 Studythe graphsbeow Youmaywishto inventmoreconexr,
ior examplethe industrysectorand ihe nameof the company.

Sale5 (000/ month)by product line

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

MarketShare
Lastyeer

lom@np-v

lconpetito,x

Thls year

lcometiiof Y Eorhe6

wrte a lhort prcsentation


extractwhereyou descfibe
and
analyze
the vends Tryio usea soodvaietyof languagefiom
units54 and 55
li you'reworknq n cass,readyourpresenraiion
ro your
co eagueswhenyou finish.Askfor questions
at the end.
Peuonalization.
Repeatthe exer.ise,
bui thistime drawa few
graphstromyourrea life.Thesecouldbe:
a Business
trends.Perhaps
saesor prolts or prcdlcrion
volumesior v.riousproduct nes,or maket shareof your
cornpany
and itl competilors,
of any KPh(keype.fomance
indcators)that you dealwith.
. Waysthat you useyourtirne.Chooseeithera work context
(perhaps
pie.hartscomparing
timespenton variols
activilies
hn yearand thisyear),or a domesric
contexr
(perhaps
a linegraphshowng tlme spentwith childrenon
dlfierentdaysof the week,or time rpentdoingtportsover
Drawthe graphsand abelthe X andY axes.Thenw.it a tew
paraqEphs,
descrblnqand anayzinqthe tlends.

152

Interviews
1 Interview with a private equity investor
Exercises
1 Guessthe rnitsingwords (somelettershaveben
givento helpyou).
I Whena prvateequty firm buysa targetcompany,lt
uses
a newyjormedcompany
calledan 'SPV'(Specia
Purpose
Vehlce).Asan example,
halithe moneythe SPVneeds
(capltal
m ght comefromeq
provided
bythe new
ownersandihe existing
sharehoders)
andhaf mightcome
(abank o.n that hasto be rpaid).
2 AfterbLryng the targetcompany,
th prvateequty tirm
reslructures
t Thscannvoveab
dup (makrng
th
'b
(mak
companyarger)or a
ng lt smdler)
k down'
3 Afterrenructlrrinq,
the privateequityfirrnneedsan e t
srraregy.
4 Thre
aremanyotherp
sinvovednthebuyout
process,
includnq a
rs,t
consultants
andbusness
consuLtrnq
compan
es
2 if 16 Now listento the interviewand rh(k your
3 Listenagainwith your eyesclosed.Thenlistena third
time while you follow the script(page157).
4 Discuss
any inlerstingissueswith somecolleaguer.

Glossary
due dtl,ger.e investgation
inlo the delaihof a potential

4 Discuss
anyinteresting
is5ues
with somecolleagues.
Glossary
.apitalgain a ptaIlIrcn mo.ey you havenvested
.o//ate|.l prcpertyor othergoodsthat yo! promiseio giveto
ihe bankif you cannotrepaya lorn
rctufti'h rcpata.tl mprovea buildingby ceaningand
paintng 1 elc.

3 Interview with a management trainee


Exer<ises
1 Youare going to hara managementtraineetalk
aboul their xperincs
of an assessment
centre.During
one full day there are a variety of tsts.Predictthe
sequenceoI terts, Irom 1 to 6.
an nlerview
wllhan HRnranagr
wth normaljob
reated
lLrnch,
whersocalsklk areobserved
a res|o -ul er'dl d d p oore| -.o., q . .
a tearnwork
lestwherea gfoupof peopled s(ussa
lcenarioandchoos
the bestdea
3 reponwnr ng exercls
a roepayexercise
to testmanagement
skil9
2 S 1S Now listento the interviewand find out the
requenceof testsdone by this pa(i(ular trainee.
3 Listenagainwith you. eyesclosed.Thenlistena third
time while you follow the script(page159).
4 Disos5any interestingissuswith somcolleagus.

tom ic.at h fromihe beglnnn9


,PO nitia pub c oflerng Gellingshareson rhe nock markellor
leveragedbuy-out brytnga.ompanywith a sma amountof
l/ourown moneyand a argebankloan

2 Interview with an entrepreneur


Exercise9
1 Underline
the wordsin italicsthat youthinkdescribe
the profileot a typicalntrpreneur.
1 Theycomefrompoor/ '.h lamlies.
2 Ihey arcisk-takers/ careful.
3 Ihey anlyttustthemselves
I havegoad)nstin(ts
abautather
4 Theyqo / don't9oto lniversity.
5 They ke to /eadfrom the tap / wark alongsideenployees.
6 lhe\ oerbo.edqu^(4 t dp ppia.t:ann\ ha pnja,
fin ishing prcjectspraperly.
1 Ihey functianwell wakinq on then awn / needa goad
teambehtndthem
8 Theyoftenhavedt#icuif/ stab/efam y backgrounds.
2 S 17 Now listento th6 interviwand seewhether
this particularentrepreneurmatchesyour idear.
3 listn againwith your eyesclosed.Thenlislena third
time while you follow the script(page158).

clossary
asressment
. whichyoLrmakea lldgementabouta
a process
arrersorsomeone
whodecides
hasdoneIn
howwellsomeone
pttd tryto sellsomething
bysaynq howgoodit i5
ptionof a partcularsiluaion w th a
tcera.toa wr ltendescr
p L r . e . o n p r d d e . \ o l e b d . r q , o - d - f o r ^a l , o n . o . e
th ngs that may happen et.

4 Interview with a supply chain manager


Exercises
1 Decidewhetherthesettatementsartru O) or fahe (F).
1 Thesupply
chainis:rawmaterias
supplier frstter
-ro,lufd| . rrg , o".pan/
\upohe i.o1dI er Lppe'
2 Manymodernmanufacrufers
arerca yjusi atsemblers
T/ F
3 Lts impor'tant
for the manufacturer
to kepcommerc
a
(suchasdemdndforecasttconldentia,andnot
nformation
lo sharetoo muchnformation
wth suppers.T / F
4 n modernrnanlfactur
ng producrion
s 'pu led'by rea
customer
orders,ratherthanbeng'pushed'byforecasts.

153

INTERVIEWS
2 tf 19 Now listento the interviewand checkyour

5 Interview with a marketing director


Exetcises

3 Listenagainwith your eyesdosed.Thenlistena thid


time whil you follow the scipt (page160).

1 Youar going to hearan interviewwith the marketing


directorof an agrochemical
company.Whichideado you
think he will discussundereachheadingbelow,a or b?

4 Discussany interestingissueswith somecolleagus.


Glossary

a gentcally
modiliedcrcpsihat respond
wellto chemlcals
b runninga focusgroupof larmls

.rustera sma groupof thingslhat areverycloseto eachother


conom,res
of si a rcductionin the costof producng
an ndlvidla un t, resut ng fromdn ncreasen the overall

a generous
discounts
for long'termcustomere
for the chemical,
b payrng
norwith money,but with crops

Jurur'r,me a nrategyfor invenlorymanagement


in which
raw materas, partsand components
arede veredirom the
5!ppler irnrnediatey
beforetheyareneeded
t a*Dg fo owng the progress
ol

provders
. workingclosely
wth th rd'partyoqlstics
b differentd nr buton channesfor big,mediumandsrnall
9rowers

5 Interview with a sales manager


Exerciss
t Makeshort notesin answerto th tollowing

a usingbilboadsat the sideof roddsin rura dreas


b makinqa:D nroviewith lying saucers
andd ens
2 F 21 Now lislento the interviewand .hckyour

1 What ! a 'keyaccountmanager'?
2 Weallhavean
deaof thetypcalwork
oi a sales
consu
tant
but how s thisworkdfie.entif it is in the B2B(businessto-business)sctor?
3 Wlth a 'coldcal', how do yor.r
stopthe otherpersonpulting
downthe phonewth n fiveseconds?
4 A I saespeope facethe standard
objection
thatthe c ent
a readyworkswith anothercorapany,
or thatanother
company
isofferinga betterprice Howcanyoudealwith

3 lirten againwith your eyes(losed.Thenlistena thhd


tine while you follow the script(page161).

5 Insidea company,
whatotherdepa.tment
rnightcomeinto
conf ct wth SalesT

Exercisei
I Thetable below showshow the Iinan<elunction can
be dividdup in a largecompany.Completethe table
with the words in the box.

2 fl 20 Now lirten to the interviewand tind out now


the salesmanagerdiscusss
the sameissues.

4 Dis(ussany intercstingissueswith somecollagu65.


Glossary
crcpa plantgrownfor food,usualyon a farm

7 Interview with a finance director

3 Listenagainwith your eyesclosed.Thenliiten a lhird


time while you lollow the script(page160).
4 Discussany intereiing issuelwith somecolleagues.

Treasurer a(counlsp.yabe

Glossary
cold.a/ an !nexpected
telephone
callbysomeone
tryingro
whaito do asa situatlon
deveLops,
?/ay it by eat'decide
ratherthanplannngwhattodo
ProsPectspotentiad ent5
testimonia,
a wrttenslatemeni
abolt howwellape6onor
organizaton
hasdone,provided
bysomeone
whohashad
previous
contact
wilhtlrem

contactwith banks(eg '?

(income
prepaf
Chief
ingaccounts
statement,
'
o
Accounting
statement,
balance
5
preparing
Officer
taxplannng
Financial
controller

Director

151

.. {acl ty)

nternalauditing
budgtnq (6
and a.tu. bLrdqet)
f n a n c i .p l a n n i n g

betweenplanned

sLrpervis
ng the ihreepeopleabove
takingissues
to the seniormanagement
tearn
7.....
corporate
.-.....
...
wolk ng with externa
f nancinq
of largeprolcts

IiIIRVIET5

2 S 22 Now listento the intediew and checkyour


3 Listenagainwith your eyesclosd.Thenlistena thitd
time while you follow the script(page162),
4 Discuss
any intrestingbsue5with somecolleagues.
Glossary
coryohte govenance rhe rulsand practicesthat control a
and
cornpany,
especalythe relatonshpbetlveenmanagement

overdraft; aqPement with the bankthal allowsYouto


opeEtewth a negatl

8 lnterview with a human resources


director
Exercises
1 Youare going to hearan interviewwith an HR
directorwho works in a Eurcoeanofficeof an Ameri(an
multinational.Predictthe answeEto the questions
I n rhe Eufooean
comexrrhe s somedrtfcultvIn
mplementing
the HRpo iq fromheadofficein the U5.
Whichtwo areasbelowneedto be adaptedfor local
condrtions?
a tra ningandcoaching c equa opportunitres
b dealingwith poor
d healthandsafety
by the
2 Whch of thesetwo optionsdo rnotheEemployed
prefer?
company
a a ffeeklndergaTren
b morefLexblehou6
3 Whichone arcaof tfalning]sverypopularat the moment?
ng
c iniluencing
skills
a teambuild
language
d
conflict
management
b English
2 S 23 Now listento the interviewand checkyour
3 Listenagainwith your eyesclosed.Thenlistena third
time while you follow the s<ript(paqe163).
4 Dbc65 any interestingissueswith somecolleagues.

Glossary
apprairalan nteruew (oftenannual)betweena manaserand
perfomance,
wheretheydiscusihe employee's
I an employee
trainingneedsandfuturecareerpath
.omperrat o, saary and benefits
equal oppodunitiet whe@everyonehasthe samework
oftheir
opporiunilesand no-oneislleatedunfairlybecause
gerdel the fad of beingeithermaleof female

155

Listeningscripts
Listen and repeat exrcises
$ rractrI
Exer<is
39.7
G@d moming, ICT. Tssa speakinS. How .d I hetp you?
Pleasehold while I 1,-yto comect you.
I'd lite ro speak to someone in you a.osrs departmdr
The reason I m callin8 is b<alse of rhe sat6 6g!es.
How nice to hear f.om youl
Thanls for calling , did yotr get mt email?
ls this a 6ood rime to ralk?
Are you in the middie of something?
Is thse anythhS else I cm help you with today?
OK, leave it wirh me , I ll call you tomorcw afiem@n.

S rrack2
Exercise
40,5
Justbearwith me for a monent,
Right, etry to keep you waiting.
Sorry she s out of the officc rhis aftemoon.
Whafs it in comectionwith?
Can you askhim to call me b.ck?
would you likdo leave a me$a8e?
Lct ne j6t 8et a pen. OK. Co ahead.
Is that i' asin ltaly,or 'e as in E8ypt?
Let he read that back to you,
I Il nake suE he Setsthe ne$age.

$ lrack 3
Exercise41.6
Canyouspakmoreslowl, plea*?
Sorr l didnt carchthat,
Did you say fffty/ five-zerc?
Whatexa.tlydo you meanby 'shortterm,?
kt mejusrchel tharI undeBtand.
CanI juotto overthaiatain?
Canyou speakup a bit?
Its a reallybad!ine.Youkeepbrcaking
up.
My batteryis very low.
Wegot cut ofi Sorryaboutthat.
S Track4
Exercise42.4
Whartime would be goodfor you?
Whattime areyou tni4king oi?
How aboutFebtuaryihe ninth?
Could we mle it the folowing day irutead?
Would eleven-thity suit you?
I d pefer a bir l.ter if you doh r nind.
l ll sendd emailto confim the d*ails.
Unfo.t$ately I cet mal<erexi TlesdaJr
So@thinAu8ent hascomeup. Canwe Eschdule?
I hopeit s not a probld for you-

S rracks
Exercise
43.6

- _,

We .eceived the oder ihis moning bui you only shippd BOpiG.
There semsro be a problem wjth the invoice.
I do apolo8ize. I n sN we cm sort out.
What exactly is rhe prcblem?
I ree.l to ask you a few quicl qusrim.
Cm you leave it with me?
I ll look into it md ger back to )'ou rhi. aJtemmn.

I ned to che.t at ihi5 4d dd sewhafs 8oin8 on,


I I sd a replacement immediately by special delivoy.
T m erry aSainfor dy inconrenim.e dE ras rau\eo

O Track6
Exerdse51.5
Before I bgin, I d lite to thar* lrnqoise for inviting me here roday.
On behalf of BCC Intmational I'd like ro welcome you here ro ou
tf,t me start by inrroducing hyselJ.
ItE aim of thG preseniation is to give you an overis

oI ou

I'[ speak for aboui rhirry minutes.


I've divided my talt into folr main sections.
Iftouh.ve.n) qJstiotu, ple.se fel fFe ro hremp(.
Ir you hav any qustions, I'll be happy to mswer thm ar the sd.
OK, lefs be8h wnh ihjs fist slide.

S rra.k 7
Exerdse
52.5
OK. tat s move on to rhe next point,
I ll come bacl to this in a momenr,
It miEhrbe u*Id to Eivea little backS@undhere.
Llt me explain with a coh@te example.
I thinl< thee aF thFe quetions to focus on.
What is the reason lor this? The leason is rhe desi8n.
As you can se on this next slids rhe trend is up,
I d like to hiShlighfiwo lhjn8s on this chart.
AE there dy quesrioE so far?
Does anyone have any comments?

S lrack 8
Exercise53.4
Ri8ht,that brings meto theend ot my presentation.
Justto suhmarizethenain pointsagain..,
Tl'ank you all for .oning. I hopeit s beenusetul.
I ve tot sne hedouts here.I'U pa$ lhem lound,
Heel my enail in ca* you want to tei in touch,
Do you haveany qu$tioB? Y6, the genrlemanafthe ba.k,
Thats a very Soodpoint.
Thats m interestingqu6rion. Whars your own opinion?
I thinl thafs outsidethe*ope of this presentation.
OK, I $int there'stim for onelastqu6tioh.
Q Track 9
Exerdse 57.6
l DEt do you rhiil, Chris?
WtDt I'm tryinE to ey is we havno oihef option.
It Rs to me that we luve no ottr oprion.
Basicaly,we haveto lmk at brandinAin a new way,
lbm my point oI view n's worth it.
I totaly a8@ with you.
I a8R up to a point, but I cm seeoneor two prcblems,
Dd1 you rhink this is goinSto be very exp@ive?
Really?Do you thbl so?
I'n not sos@ aboutthat.

S Track10
Exercise
58.5
Sorry, I don t udeBttud - .d you ylain that again?
Cm you go over thai a8ain, plea*?
r I mdcrand
you core.ilt you'r in favou of oFrim B. ls that
nEht?
How did you arive ai th fig!rc of 1.5 milli@ effi?

LISTENII\IG
SCRIP]S
Could you be a little more sp<ific?
9orry thert bn a sliEht mismdeBtandin8
Perhaps I haven l expiaired myslJ cletulyLer me put ir mother way: ils a 6@d idea but it's t@ erp4ive.
Could I jsr say 6omthin6?
cm I jst finish my point?

S rrack11
Exerdse
59.5
There ae severalways we could deal with this.
Lefs l@k at the prs and cons.
On the one hand, it would eve time. But on the other hand, it would
In gneFl I agree, althotrgh the cost may be too ligh,
Can I make a suSgesrion?l$iead of waitin6, why dont we do
lft s think carcfuly about the impli.atiotu of that.
Yes,I thinl that would work eally well.
I cd * one or two prcblems with that.
'Ihat
so6ds like a Sood idea, blt I don t thi.k it would work in
I think the best way foNard is to carry oui a sun ey,

lf rrack12
Exerdse
50.5
Antonio, this is you. field. What do you think?
Mile, after we re heard from Ros can we have you. views?
One at a time, please.lirst MiFlla, ths Claude.
Ill comeback to you in a moment,Nikola.
Pelhapswe could getback lo th main point?
I think we sbould move on now
We ned to look at this in moredetail.
Whai other ways are thereto approachthis?
Can we go round ihe tableto se if everyoneagEes?
O(,let's to over what we've discussede fai

S lrack 13
Exerci5e
61.4
OK,let's get down to buoiness.What eractly do vou ned?
Ior us, the prioritie6 ar qualiry and eliability.
When you say leliability', what do you mean?
How nexible can you be on price?
What do you have in mind?
What sort of quantity are you thinking of?
What kind oftimescalearewe looklng at?
what sort of figlre a.e we talkinS about?
what kind of glarantee cd you give 6?
Can I suggest oother way oI movin8 fotrad?

S rra* 1a
Exercise
62.5
We'd be prpared to offe. better terns of paymdt.
But orny if you inaeased your order
Wodd you be willing to a.cept a ompomjse?
OK we cfl agre to that,
Ihat would be very diffidlt for us.
I*fs just take a ooment to eview what we ve dsG*d.
I think thats as far as we (n 80 at ihis sia8e.
! don t have the aurhorily to nuke thai d{ision by my*lJ.
r you .m a6ree lo thal we cm d@ tlE dal to<tay.
5o, if you d jst like to sign hre.

S rrack15
Exerdse
53.5
That might be quite expsive
Codd I j6i intenpi lor a mommt?
Thee e@ to be a problem with ihe invoi.e.
It Km to me that you de being a little opnmistic
Actualy, this line is not very prcfitable.
That dGn t give us very mlch t1me.
To b honest, that wolld be very difiiculr.
Woul.ln't it be easis to ship via Hambur6?
We were thiiking ofshethinS arcud 5'/".
I lndsstood you had rh* prcducts in stocl.

lnterviews
S rra.k 15
I Interview with a private equity investor
PEI = Private quity investo.
INTERVIEWIR
I d likelot to .rpllin i little |bort Priute eq,itv.
I Edd nboutit in tte fnnnckt tnss, btt I'@ n@t MIU lntlenttud it.
PEI Sure. The busine$ or , private equi9 .omPany ]s to invest
money in two very sp<ifi. ways. The lirst wat is as venture
capital - that me.ns looking for a small stalt-uP comPany that
neds <.pital, tunding the .ompany to allow it to 8rcw, and then
larers.Uing ihe.ompdy to makea profit.Tldfs a *parate
bdn h oi privateequiry and jt's not whor I do.
INTERVIEWER OK. Whnt's tlp second@:t that p ute eqrit:l inbsts
PEI The other sideof privateequity is buy-outs,which is what I'm
INTERVIEWER so tell ntcd llttle nrcteoball lhal
PEI The6rststaEeina buy-outistolook fora tarEetcomPanyto
bul We call that 'scouting',A tyPicaltargetmi6ht be a mdiumsi2edconpany with a strcng cashflow where the ownels are
prepaEd to *ll a stakein lhe conpany.Fo. examPle,it miEht be a
cohpdy ihat d entrepeneur hasbuilt uP from scratch,but now
he or she's apprcaching retirement oi has olher pla.s.
INTERVIEWER OK. Sohou t|o lou achnlly brtl the conPnt!?
PEI Lrls inagine ihat 0r value of the tar8et is 40 nillion eurcs,
so we ned 40 million to buy ir. we will buy the ta!8et.omPany
'Special PurP vehicle"
with a newly{o@ed compmy called a
Half the noney that the SPV ndr 20 frillion, might come from
equiry The original shareholdeF *11 us their shales - they keeP
some oI the honey for thenselves, but renv$t the rst in the SPV
Prhaps ihey .ontribute 8 million of the 20 milion the SPV needs.
We prcvide the remaining 12 million. ln rhis emple we own
noE equity than them, so we have a contrcllinA stake in th SPV
U we oM less than them, we cal it a minonty interest.
INTERVIEIVER OK, sohor oJthe moi.! to br! the taryrr mm6 ds
eqtity, Jtun yowstus andlton the otigindl ;h.fehatdm. whnt |bort
PEI The other hau, ihe orher 20 million, .omes as debt. lt's a loan
Irom the banl. Thai's why it's caled a levsaged buy-out we
of ou om money to raise a ld8e mount ol
@ a smal eoui
INTER\aIEWER Right nfld 6 I thanhad it, lat tPqt this bankltun
tuith the clehjtu oJthe taryel conPan!.
PEI Thafs right The loa mi8hl re for a penod of thee to seven
yeia.,nd over Lhorpprod lnebu'intui5t leP: "llmine
no@[y md we Fpay rhe lom from the cash flow At ttLeen.t,
the SPV ow6 the cmpdy with no debt,

157

LISTEIIING SCRIPTS
INTER\,aIEWER yat sv 'flnniq nonell!', btt ol core priute
eqrity is .antnMsial tuca$e tufletin6 tlEre are bi8 dun86 dunng

ral 6tate companis in the past, but 6 soon as I felt that I'd
lemed sough, I left. I lamched my own b$ine$. Thar was
about two yea6 ago, Itt always been my dree.

PEI Sometimes there ae, sometimes not. The cds wher there m
big chmges de when we buy a public compmy listd on a stek
market, then de lisi n ed rstructu.e it md tho FlGt it after
we've nad it more profilable.
INTIRVTEWER Whit raprns duriry nt r6brctrn,*?
PEI comFrim"i wedoa bLild up l}dt mpft buyinEoLher
smaller companies and nergin8 them with the ori8inal tffget
comPmy to make a new,ldger more prcniable compml Oiher
times we do a'break down', That mem selin8 non{ore ets,
cuttinS costs,making the business mole eIficienr, dd Seneraly
refocusinS&e business.
TNTERVMER
Cr!th1&costsdtd l.oki'tg fot effciercy tins tlnl
sotnePeoPLeill la{ thcn iobs.
PEI Our ar8lnent is ttEt we make the whole brsinessmore riable
in the long rerm. People would have lost thcn jobs anlaay iI we
hadnl madc the nece$ary .hm8es soone. lather thm later We
tuke the comp.ny pofitable.

INTERVIEWER

INTERVIEWER Ak.yar r@1tio'1ed


ftlistint an th. stack,n*et nsan
option dftd theftsh11ctutiig. wlnt other erit shdt.SiasdoWu lsrel
PEI Weli, often the company was neler lisied in the fiFt pla.e, it
was alwaysin priv.tc hands,and so then we do an IPO-a listing
for rhe firsi tine, But thc other erit strategiesopen to us arc fiGrly
to sell to a much largercohpany that is looldngio dilesify or
cxp.nd - tof them ii sjusta nomal .cquisition - or Kondly to
sell to anorherprivaie equitv comp.ny.Tlcr is. kond buy{ut.
That'squ e coboon.
INTERVIEWER OK, I thh'k it s ,t1.h .lcan ,lo|u tuhat is htaala.l.
h\nllltdppotrlg nt tt| lfuetaJthcotutl.Rhipal tlt. cor\ar! - br:/ttg
il, rcsttr.hlthlg it, thdl selli'I il. Thcp@pk rt t]E bottan niiht jt6l
cnry ai thch jobs as nonnot,t'1aMt ol t,hdt's happotitg, ot rtiittl
ltddon! fud thot th.n olfc$ aE doytl, or t]nt ttry @ hdrslcned
to otatttt jab, at tltdt tltty u lost tu job co 'tlteEty - a lot Ea\o"s
D,tsideoJthenconttulotu d.$tnndh&.
PEI That'sritht. It's capitalism.Justspeededupa liftle.

INTERVIEWR So:tottte n ,skrrker

INTERVMER

And afml q@tiar. Whdt atltt tldttosar. nt@locd

PEI Fist there ae the lawye6. Ihe wholc procs is very compler
lrom a legal point of view Then theF is a tinancial advier who
evaluatesthe value of the rar8etcompany- in fact thafs ny
own job. TXele a.e accomtinE firG to do the due dilige.ce
dd .heck the books of the targer cohpey to make sue that
everything i5 OK. There are tax cosdtnts
to make sue ihar
there is no ourstanding tax. Then there are rhe inveshenr banls.
They arrange L\e debt to buy the tal8et company. For exmple,
they 8o to comerlal
bank lnd p.e*nt the fiBue of the
tarSet conPany, the sinctue of the repaynent and so on. The
comercial banlGactully pmvjde the loan.Finally theear
business consulting compdies. They are the ona who analyze
how the business is Aoin8 io be rsttuctured or developed.
INTERVIEWER And a th6e ptuplegd a dne oJth. pie?
PEI Oh yes. If the value of the target is :!0 m ion ms, we miEht
actuaily reed to raise another four or file milion on rop to pay aI
these difierenl people.

0 Tra(k17

And ndo lot @ o ptuWn! daelaper in the Esidential

EPNR Yes, dEl's riEht. I buy houses or apartr-nents,returbish then,


and thh rent &em ro tenmts. Sometimes I *11 th property
lmmediatly alte. relubislment, but lsually it's more prcfitable
to hold the properly md collect ihe renr.
INTIRVIEWER
So thnt yan let n capital 8on1as tudl ns lhe rcnt, at least
Iuhil. lnue tnc.s nre goitg tp.
EPNR lxadly.
INTERVIEWR How fllah tnone.!dld Wu hou lahat lou startedtt b!
'roune.nr b afno,.! ta stntt thiskindaJbusihesstabn!4
lou4etf
spdd
monq afl it, ahd then wiit Jor the re t ta .on! tn htu"th
Ptoptt!,
f,PNR I didn't havea lot. I cone from a p@! family .nd everything
I h.vc, h,e eahd I svd money from earlierlobs,and then lo
slarr my blsins I got a banl loan and u$d my own house as
.ollatr.l on the loan.
EPNR Yes. I neded ro bonow a lot oI money frcm the banl<,
dd ii was a linb ftghteninS becausemy own luture and the
tutue oI my tamily wee ai stake.But i enjot taking rhks, and
l'm conJidentthat I haveenor8h determinationand energyto
succeed.I suppce l'm a typic.l enlreprseur in thatespect.
INTERVTEWER I d lik( to crplaft t,h thtit ol th. ptoftt ol a tfpical
ottr.pr.ndt. fai rt touchedon tloo rreds:b.ils .ohtkttdbk tuith 5k,
aM hn nts !.[-eo,'fd.itc. rr.l d!t( tntdtiol. wltat tuorld lpr rdd ta
EPNR For me, the most important thing Io! an entpleneu! is to
have lery good instinctsabout people.It's a feelingthing. You
don t eally nda Eoodeducation.Ididn'tgo to university
becauseIthouSht it would be boring-I wanted to start workin8
and eaming noney. No,l wouldsay that what you needis very
Eoodintuition to decideimfrediately if the personin front ot you
TNTERVIEWER A

ar nstrrl lot a deolds 10.11


is fot a pcfsar?
EPNR Yes.You cd smell a tood deal.Of couse th. figurcsnust
add up, but you ned rhat specialgift of spottingstraightaway
how to nake mony wit\out doing too nu.h amlysis,
INTERVIEWER OK wrrr.Ge?
EPNR You have to be very direct wnh people, witholt being rude.
I thinl othe! people like it when you're honest and don'r fool
INTERVIEWER

Wlnt nbott yat tttitrde to e'nployees?


EPNR With employees I rhinl< you have to be infomal, alLow theo
to d$ casualy md so on. Of cou.se I do draw certain ljnes
betws fre md my employees, but it's vely imponant to me that
sralf f@l at home in the office. Ii makes them no.e prcductive. I
don't like the bureaucratic atmosphee in a large conpany. The
best way to fratuge people is to be rhere working alongside them,
nol have all so.ts of reportin8 prccedues and meerings.I hate all
INTERVIEWER Solout 'notugetnentstlle is ta M* closel! uith stdf
B n tum lendq ta ben notiantt by eronple, rnd uith a big enphasis
afl tB soinl E b tionships.

2 Interview with an entreprenuer


EINR = Entrepreneur
INTERVIEWER
158

Canlou tell ne a littk abod lauB?f


EPNR Yes,l'm 37 yeas old, Mid,
and I have tirFe ki.ls. lne
always worked in the prcperry fie1d. r $'6 m employee in vtuios

INTERTIEWER

l"&nt happensulcn thirys ga @ong?


EPNR I can give you d exmple. I had m employe who wd
having a bad innuence on the orher stafi. I wonl go inro derails
But I t@l< him to a etaumt.
We had a 8@d heart-io-hedr

LISTENINGSCRIPTS
discussion over l$.h. I was very djret with him, md very
honest. I told him that I was going to chmge rhe way I paid him
with a lower fired salary but a higher commission for each deal
that he closed, That solved everything - his perforlrrmce realy
improved and ererything was OK.
INIERVIEWR
Lt's go backagail to tlft topic ol thc WtunLty ol an
enttptll.Lr
l\. khtu that h. or slt is .Eati.te, dltelric, afld alnst
de.isioh nak L But 'tu1/b. an entftpft,ew is alsatuh@'1et'lo Sets
barul rynkl!
soth.y oft .ery Soadat stnttn3 ptujectsbut l6s Soadot
consoLidatnry
ord bundnls. nley lnit to nooe on and start so,tethttS
llNR
Yes,I think you are absolutely righi. That's $ hy every
ertrepreneur needs a Eood tem behind them. An entrePreneur
G dillerent to a self employed pe6on if yon rcaUy wmt
the frcedom to work ntirely on )o!r own, you become *lfINTERVITWR QK,ott lral thitl&.I hap.it s r.t tN Pnso,nl.l'N
ftrd that tr.pr.n?u$ oJ:tcnhaa?r dilf.ult Jritl! background,dth
dinr..d pdrcntsand saon. mis Sirrs thc,t tlte driue ta su..tut atu
makc o'I.u, Lrcnus?the! unnt th. s.crrity lll|ich thdt tnt hadds
EINR Well, iI we take my own family, yes, ny p.rcnts 8ot dn orcd
when I was your8. You know I'!e nler thought.bout it like thJr
belorc Imeanasa positile infllence, in a s.y Vcry inier6tingi
INTERVIEWER 6n.r. T/m,ls rr|v tr .i' Irt sfrish h.tt.

$ rrack18
3 Interview with a management trainee
MT= MandSefrenttlaiice
r/or'r.Son,Sro t /l !sa littlcnbortlotr
INTERVIEWER So,,4snrd,
!\Petun.es al an rsscsstnat c!1t\'.
@ntresto *l*l .nd
MT Yes.Many largecompaniesusc assessmcnt
rec.uitnewemployees.Tney.rem.inlyusedto.PeoPleihthcir
twenties,b<ause reent graduatesallhave vcry similarCVs and
so it's noteasy to choosethe bstc.ndidats.ln an assment
ccnhethecohpany leally seeshos youopelateara pcBonal
level,and thcycan spotpcoplc with future managementPotential.
INTERVIEWER OK,safst lell r rbart low o1u pnnicnl$cov.
MT I'm 27,and I appliedfor a posirionr{nhin a Sraduate
maragenenr traineeschemelor a IarE,intmationalcDnPany
in the hospiraLitysectorTh processstarredonlinq IiEt wnh an
application form, and ihen with a seri6 of tsts - numerical t4ts,
problem-solvnrS tesrsand so on. Aier rhat theP was a PeMnality
tesr,aEainodine. AIter passingall the tstsan.t s aitin8 a les
days Lretweeneach one, they did a sho.t telephone inten'iw
centre.
Finally, they asked ne to cone to the asment
INIERVMER
Whie uos the assesttrle"tteitft?
MT lt wls in a hotel rbroad ad it lasted for hLo davs. The! told
us tlait ihe IiEi day was ju$ ro meet ih othr people and to
uderstmd what was Eoin8 to happen, bur ol couR I 8ussd
that the assessmentwould be8in lrom th moment I arrirGd.
TNTERVIEWER Hou no V \teopk tu.re.hos ta go 10,lE nss5,,.rl?
MT They told us that there s ere 3,800cmdidat6 s ho had filldl
n1 dre initial application fom, and of the 38 rLere invired to the
INTERVIEWER Saetaetl! a1leh1a hundte,l. A'1dlnu nui! oJthoe i8
ude the! so4 to alfd n jab 10?
MT

Berween ien fld fifteen people.

INTERVIEI{IR

OK. So tdlk n1ethtovgh tlE st.nd da1t,th. 6*$ilot

MT Yes.IiEt h e $ @ retested for ou nmerical and prcblemsolving stills, md they also gave us some logi. tsts md llFoflm8ua8e tests. They wdted to .h(k that it s s reallv s \!ho

had done the online tests, and not a matns genis brcthr o.
something like that! Then we aUwent lpsrairs for d inteNiew.
INTERVIEWIR
wlat kni oJintniaa?
MT It was a fanly convmtional one-on-one interiew, with an HR
mmaSr fron the .ompany. She asked me what I liLed abort my
last job, what the woEt thin8 about il w6, why yo! would Liketo
\rork for my compdy in particular nomal quesrions. Then we
had to give a Powerpoint presentation. I forgot to iell you one
week belore they had givm us a toPi. and we had to PreParea
whole Powerpoinr prcsmtation, making !P the slidPs and sd on
The whole interiew including the piesentauon lasted about an
hou. Then it rYastim for lu.h.
INTERVIEIIIR

O(.
MT Yes,it was a standi.g-up lunch in th. foyer with canaPs,nnd
we all moved aolnd.nd chafted.I'm sure they were obseninS
our socialskills d!.ing the lunch aswelll
INTERVIEWER I sw. the! @r.! Whnthnrylhednlt ltndt?
MT Afier lu.h thele nas a roleplay \edse. They 8a!e you a
backgrcmd siluation,and you had halfan hour ro lead it and
ihi* about it. Then you did the iolepl.y wirh one other Person
who
whoalshada lole In the room thercwas. silentassessor
INTERVIEWER what khlll.aJtuI.?lntt xds it?
MT I had to play the rcle of an .ssGtantmanager- like the iob I
Nonld e.lly h.!eill w.ssuccesftd and the other Pcrsonwas
a problcmemploycc.They sere doing then 'ob badly,theywere
ch.llcnginSour.urhoritl,,thethadbeenrudebsmc.uslomers,
and $ on. Bur the teamwas shorrofmenbers.nd it was difficuh
to find staffin thc locallaboui m.rkct-.nd so I couldn'l fire
them,AI$, 1was onl). lhe a$istant manager.nd I didn't havc thc
authority todo that - in th.scen.rb thc main nanaSerwas.way
on holiday,andsoI ha{t to t lk to thc cmployeeand ky tocontrol
INTERVIEWER V.tt cltdllltgilg! Hot! did yat ho,.lb it?
MT I canl rell you. It's confidential- it would be t@ much hclP to
othe. peopleif they we.c in the samerituation.
INTERVIEWER OK, so uhat hrppaEd allt tlt. tohlk)t?
MT Next we had a teamworktesl.Therewere eight PeoPtearound
a iable- aSainwe were gnen a ba.kground sccnariowith a
probleh to solve,dd we had to dikuss togetherand comeuP
wth a solurion. In th room thee nere thre silent assessorsthis
Coi ltor giu tu ar i leaaJth. votarir'1
MT Y6. We were supposed to be the Board members of a conPmy,
dinssing ideas for how to imprcve L\e bnsinss. Each PeFon
had to pitch their own idea,whj.h drey Saveyou. For examPle,
ewarding thc enployes in a difierenl way, bnnging a new
product onto the ffiket, a loyally rhem for customeE, tc. At
the end you .ould onl)' chooseone idea.
INTERVIEWER Tle sti.ni nrs.ssd/str.r$, fl.. W,tatrlolot think tl
ms thnt they uere lNkiiglar?
MT We[, comuication
skills obviously - to seeiI you can exPlain
you ide6 .learl] md diktly and also listen to other peoPle and
6k them Aood questions. Also to seeii you .an iniunce other
psple md convin e then that your ideas de nght.
INTERI/IEIVER was thm nhlthin& elseofter thnt?
MI
There wa one Laslexe(ne a report Miting exe4js. Again
he wer given a ba.k8mmd sihEtion, and they g.ve us half an
hou to read it - it was guite lmgthy. Then we had rwo noxn to
rYnb a reporr based on the situation.
INTERVIEWER wdt ins tht st@tidl this tifle?
MT We worted for a .ompany that wanted to move its offices, ard
rye had to choosbetwen ta o optios. One location was very
INTERVIEWER

159

LISTENINGSCRIPTS
erpsive, but ir ha.l goo.l inJrasirucrue, and the other lation
was chap, but it was o1d md lacled some basic facilitis. You
had to choose a lftatiory jutj!, it, and also Sive sne Enflcial
analysis. The idea was to Mite emerhing that a rop mmaar
could read at a glance and male rhe final decision.
INTERVIEWER So thz tuhaledo! uas ury conqrelffiiw Ae ull 6
the @fMtiondl intdti.u the! lo.ktd at your nwEnal dtu| laglal
skiLh,lorr i*apdsoul skilb, latr llevgewnt skills uith ttu
.aiaml .hploy*, laur teantm*nq dbility, yaw turitins ability

INTERVMER

Ahd lute lau suceslul?


M T Y e r I d d s l l S o r t h ! i o b N o d l h d r e o n ey e a . . h a i n i n E s t
montls in two difteMt .outries - and then I will be d a$rstant
manager md I can choo* where to work.

S rrackle
4 lnterview with a supply <hainmanager
SCM = supply chainmanaEe!
INTERVIEWIR OK,Andftr, Wr'r. gonl8b erykh to tt dboll
sttlplv.lkih
t,
"nflagdn
SCM Yes,supply chain managehentis r revolutionin the way
that we seelogisiics.lnsteadofa companyjusthalingan intemal
iocus,it has to have a di6t.omection wnh its supplieFand

160

INTERVIEWER SoSiu ',t rn .Mn'pk al th. difatat co,qani.s


i1b|ftd n1o tutply &ak.
SCM let's take.n automobilecompanyasan example.They'll
buy a whole module like the dashboardor the d@r frcm a firsl
tier supplier,and this first tier supplier will buy small parrsand
conPonentsfrom a *cond tierslpplie. Thiscompanywill in
tuu buy frem a raw materialssupplier
INTERVMER
1tsor s likea cotuplctsystun.
scM In fact,supply chainmanagementhasdevelopedbecauscit
reducesconplexiry In the pasra carmanuiactuEr usedro buy
a huge numberofcomponentsand then put rhem iogetheritself
to nake all the modulesneededin the car Ir was !'ery difficult to
manageallthe pree$es and to maintainqualiry Now theyjusr
buy in the finishedmodulesand assemblrheh.
INTERVIEWER Hatu da6 jt t wrk ifl tcrtusoJlL\isti.s? Elgtyorc lns
tu delnErb Nryatc.lse.
SCM Normatly the assemlrly plant h lftared in a low{ct courry,
and dre supFliers to this pldt need to be ve.y cloe in order
to Put into practice Juscln-Tme' delivery So a little clustr of
suPpl'ersgrows up a.ound th plnt.Itprcvida emploldent and
also sone skills rransfe! to the low{osr .omtry
INTERVIEWER You'u n'dtioret) the no'ufactret (tuhois mtu itst
ah asenbht), dnd its supplies. Whoelseis i,mllEd?
SCM There are all the lo8Gtics partneB. You've 6oi tlE compdie
respomible for trdsportinE md warehousin& md h*
comp&ies could be involvd ar any point beh{n tusi tiet
second tier, manufacturer md dist ibutoa If we stict wirh ou
example ol the altomobile ind6try, then you .d ds indude the
financial seni.es pioviders. r a .$rome. buys a car they mjdt
want @dit to h+ rhem to do thar, or rhey niSht wani to le*
rathd than buy. Ths findcial Frices de Fovi<led by parher
companjes, and in a way they are ptur of ihe supply chain.
INTERVIEWER It nret beoery diffcult to inte{ate ttu busiftss
op*ati.ns af nll the conpaniesin\olud.
SCM Ye, you'e right. We le IT to do that. We intgate ttE
hJomation system of alt ihe companis involved. l'm talkinE
about trackin8 the location of ireN in tr6it, abour shtrinE
ptuduction fo4@sts, about providing infomtion regardinE

tdni@l specificatioE, md many other drin8s. Over recnt


yea thse have bn biE advances in L\is field oI iniegraring tI
INTERVIEWER I g1t8sthnt in the p6I safle al this b8h6s
inlonnrtion rNtld ]ane ben considd.d erfdentinl.
SCM Y. But ifs inportant. For empie, rhe more inJomarion
that a supplir has about tutm demdd, the lessstock they need
INTERVTEWER mis nEnnsthal llor aed o lary tenn relatiaflshipuith
your sttptiqs. nnd they lEcane morelike prltne6.
SCM Ex.ctly, And it's not just in te.m oI needin8 thm to make
j6r-in-time delivenr it's more than that. Io. nmple, we
work with them on doeloping new pro.lucts accordinS to our
INTERVIEWER Sofat ue re talkedaboutthe lpsttrft et.l oJth{
stryt! chnin. whnt ntut the daloEtm .nd, fr.tu the nrntlretutt

to

SCM Ys. Here il depends a lot on th relative power of thc two


sids. Big distriburols are very powertul, md they can {or.e
the m,nlfactur to adoprjust-in-timemethodsjust as the
manulactulertorc6 the suppliersto do th same.
INTERVIETWER S. eiybotl! Mnlf i6Fn irE, nll the My doui the
SCM You'rcright. We call it a 'pull' sysrem.In modem
manufacturingallthe busine$ actirity lighr down the chainis
pllled by cuslomerorde6.You onl)/ hakc what you necd to
The opporite,thc old w., is .alled a 'push' sysrem Wirh . push
syslemyou work on foEc.srs- you manulacturcand dist.ibute
on the basisof your IorRasts The prcdu.ts are iust there,ieadyma<le,waitinS fo! someoneto bDy them.
INTERVTEWER Brt locl)t s.rE pn s al thc s|pply ctnin st ill l@rk lik!
SCM Yes,To be exaci,the partsof the chain that work on a push
systemaE thosewhere you cana.hieveeconomisofscale,11
you can savemoneyby @king a lot ofsomethin8all nr one time,
lhen you Soaheadand make it, accordingto your foe.ash. You
don't wait until it's neded. But you must havea.curateforecasts,
othRis you make ioo much product and you waste money,
|NTERVIEWIR
Eatliet yot Nd lhe a omabileind$try aslott
.xanryh on s@e41aabiors - hou uitt$pEad ire th6e idns itt othn
SCM Supply chain @Sement
was developed initialy in bigger
companies, especiariy those prcducing .a!s ad white 8oods. But
now it's u*d for aI mnuiactured consumer goods - cll phons,
hprops, everythinA. D[,Ior example, is very wel],tnown lor its
j6r-in+ine systems.

S rrack20
5 lnterview with a sales manager
KAM = Key accost manaCer
INTRVIEiVIR
(AM

OK, cnfl !o! tell hE yaut iab title afld Ihi nd\stry lou

Y4, ! m a ky a.colnt franager md I work in a lighrinS


company Ou clienrs are ltuge companies in rhe hotel md retan
RtoF who e lmkinE ro eithef conshlct a new buildin8, oi
movate an old one.
INTERIaIEWER whal is d keltatount mnnaga?
KAM Ils a job on the eles side, but deaiing with large clients only,
The imponmr dients want one speciic pe6on as theii point of
conract iside a supplier company.
INTERVIEWIR
OK, n uhat da yat do dunng o |-!pnol aay?
KAM Fi6t of all I bund or databaseof prcspe.ts. I use rhe
lnrpmel. new. pdpFh. maSrine-. et. rc ."" $ tu. h , onpdips

fIsTENING sCRIPTs
might have plans for new bundinSs. Then I conta.t ths, by
telephone or email, and try to gei d appoinhent to visit tlEm
and male a sals pesotation.
Afld tf the clid1t is ifitmled?
KAM Thm I get into a moie detailed conversation with them
about the specifi. prclect. Btrt the architect who is workinS for ttE
.lidt is the real dedsion maker - the mhite.t has to be hvolved
at an early st gc. The building conhacior is also imPorrmr, but
rh(y Lord|) louoq q hdt rhe dnnilRt.a\.. 5o we lute d *ris
of meetinSs with all the pnties involved, and if everything 8es
well, then we .m be6in to tal! about the tjme s.hedde ior thc
hstalation, the price, ttLewaranty, and so on.
INTERVIEWER Htu is lort iob d4fetu1l ta th. htricnLidenttat w
hnu ol a sates
consultikta
you.
KAM Wll,
idea of a salesc@5ultantis prcbablybasedon
ar more comPlexind
B2C,not B2B.In B2Bthe discus5ions
mo t*hnical. With the rrchitftt we have to talk rbout our
manlfactuiin8 prccess, quality, reLiabiLity,dd o on. With the
conhactor wc hav to talk about easeof install.iion, delivery and
timing. With the final client w har to talk about how [8hnn8
cieates an identity fo! thei hotel, or their rctail space,or thet
officcs how it helpsto .Eate an jmage.
INTERVIEIWR

INTERVIEWERO( Cr, t.g.in.k.od,. orlm thntss


!.r {id erli.r?
INTERVIEWER li^|, ahoutthc hlitial .nll to the dknt. Thnt s 4 .oltl
cnll, i1 othettu.rdsthc.lir,t hrtit dsk.d.br it, ostl '1\\t uroPlal\l
do n ttu tihoneuithhl f". kconds. Hal da lar ttoP that hnpPeints?
KAM The lirst pcrsonyou speakto is probablya sccetary He,
therearc threethings,!nst, yo! have to inhed i.tely Sive thc
imprcssionthat this call is aboutsonething imPortant.Yo! sanl
the sc.retaryto f@lthai if shedoeshl dealwith yourcall, thenshe
miSht 8ct into tfouble.Tlen, you have to try to crealesobe kind
of feelingo. empathywith the persohlery quick\L And 6nally
you hale to get the naneof the personinsidetheconPany sho
you leallywant. Sonetihes theKretary willPutyou thrcugh,
othe! tines takea m6sa8e. Butyounccd a naoe.
INTERVIEWER And i,hol yo, f,inlly gct tltouth to tht tightPe6ot?
KAM Our brand nahe opensdoo6. Right at rhe start of the
conversationI say the b.and Eme, with somePridein my voi@.
They are uslally preparedto listenbecauseat the cnd ot tne day
they do ned $ or one ol ou competitoF all buildints hale
to have liShting, Ihen you have to Aet right to the Point. ln B2B
peoplc.!c reallybusy nd they don't like itif you w:sh rhei.
INTERVTEWER OK, let's Setto t e st,8a uhcrc Wt nrtuE nt thcit
otlc6 o'it1nut thdfl ,t pffian lor thaftst ti'|!. wnt is nnpttnnt?
(AM
You have to .reate m imnediate *carion of being b6hess
lile, but also friendly and positive. Being friendly h inPortdt
becauseyou'e selling to a peen, not a company. I bring a nic
brchu as well as a premotioMl D\D to play on my laPtoP,
and I put the brhuie on the desk to have somethinS tD refn to.
Then I phy ft by ed. Sometims psple want a liftie mor sdial
conversalon and relationship buildin8, other nmes less-I fel it
jntujtively. But I would say rhat I netuly always beSin by 6king
them qrestjoE, for exmple about ho$ then bGimss is goinS
You wdt to give a mes8e that ]'ou at inteested in dreh, dd
.hpr. bu.ne*. do )ou snl Lob d parl of Ll'er bEin6
INTERVIIWER
Sa nat ro nrcll it ne tub oJn salesntur,nor nsn
(AM

Yes,mo as a partner A Sood sal6 pe6d d@sn1 Sive the


impe$ion they .ie sellinS. They m th@ to lists ed ihm to
Sive their knowledSe md to Eive a swice.

INIERVIEWER
AnA hM dolot dnl uith thestdn ldtrl objetion thal
the! nlread! lDtk uith anotho lightiflg campany,q dno!:hatunPdny is
oftinS n bettd pnce ot tuhatM?
(AM
You have ro telieve in yolr prodlcts and ialk about
The clienl wil feel th]s
rhem with a passion md comitmst.
imdiare\.
But you don't 8et into a conveMrion about Pri.e. ll
you ae saying tlEt your Prodrcts are the best, then it's a mistake
ro try to compete on Pdce. The best is never the cheaPesr'You talk
about qualiry abort imovation, about delivery Suarants, about
*rvice levels, and also abour other satisfied dstome6. It's Eood
to have some tEhmonials we lEve them in the brochue.
INIERVIEWER OK,onelnrl qtstion. Canyat tell n'eil theft is
nn:/ tdtsi.n insid. Ww .ontpdt! betueekSnlesond Pndrctiat? For
dafltL, Wu tmisc theclientdeliwt! nt a cnlan tuM, but then
Ptutluctiot Kys tlnt the! cnn't rnk the ld'nts bv thnt tinE
(AM
Ys,you call Prcduction and say 'l hJvc this bi6 order nnd th
clientn@dsit in tendays'and Fredudion saysit's imPossibleSo
then I Eo dd spak to Prcdrction in person and ky to Pcrsuad
them that my ordd is moe important thd all the othcrs. In the
nd yo! have to nsc your ilduencing dd PesuadinS skills not
just wiih rhe client,but imide your own olganiz.tion aswell I

tf lra(k21
6 Interviw with a marketing director
MD = M.rk.tinE dn(lor

INTERVIEWERTiddt/ro.r. &trt fd,. rnlki,Sdi,olrrr..ldsr.


Mrl@|,ti DtnaJth!fort Pd:tt.tlt.t, pti...Pldca.rdtlto,totior,brl
Wn .nst sohcoJtht dttailsdr! !.rv nirswl.
MD Thnfsntht.
INTERVIEWERYor'dbctter
begnt
bqaplni ntsthtl6t P,tlte
MD Sue.I managethe marketingotone p.rticular agrj.dural
.hemical usedfor one parti.ular crop in one particulardeveloping
.ountry Befon we tormulaledihis chemical,we tist ran a rucus
grcupoffarme6, We as&edthen what would bc theirideal
prodlct in an ideal world.
INTERVIET{ER l\lhnt dn1th.y sn!?
MD They said rhat thy wanteda conbined product which was
borh an iro{ticide and a fungicide,The idea oI. combined
pruductwasa new con.ept in the market,and it.amc diectly
INTERVIEWER OK, 8Nd. Naa !el| * 4 littk bit nbortvaw Pri.ing
sttot gy, b.cn$eI beliM it s qrite !,aunl.
MD Ycs.Again, we asked the lameE how they wouLd lile to Pay
in an ideal wo.ld. And they said that in an ideal wortd they would
like to pay not with money, but by aiving us some of thei ctoPs in
TNTERVIEWER Thnt s like the ol.l lnls - er.hnflging anePtudtcl
dircctlylor anath.. luithort goiflg tltough uE mednttl aJcrsh
MD Exactly. For the fames it's a very aftradive $lution. They are
good at Ploducing the .rcps, but nol so good at commercializing
INTERVIEWER OK, but sometkk p6ses to !/o, becn$ettau thefl h|re
b sellthenops.youdE n chmtnnl.ampd/! selllngasricultur|l
prcdt.E is tlol Wur btsir6.
MD We use comodiry Eaders who sell on the oten !]uket - we
don't sel omelves. Here's how it work. We 8o to the traders ed
*y ihar we have a forecast of'x' bags of coPs from the ramers
for the next saen how much cd yotr pay? The traders Sive us
a pnce. Notice that ils aleadybetter for the famers becausewe
ca @ ou large volumes to 8et a better price than they couid it
they eld individual-v IEn, aJrerrhat, ne deate a Price list for
of olr Product tor one bag
the famers: for example one tilo8rd

16

LISTEI\IINGSCRIPTs
ol crcps. The fam*
deide how much of otr prcduc. ihey wanr,
md they si8n a.ontract with 6. When dre crop C ready, rhey
deliver it to rhe trader not to us, dd th rrader paF 6. We n*er
ger lnvolvd in *1iin8 rhe tups on the mffker That rist pos to
the rra.ler but they know then blsinss.
INIERVIElER
OK.Sou u n eredpodrct,w Detu,e@ pt,.e.
xatu pLue tell us a little bit aboutptae, ht atht @tds lhe dkttibutiat
MD Yes.We have se8nhtation in the market acording ro the size
of the fa.m. W have bi& medilm md small grcwers, and we tare
a differenr approach with each egmenr. Wirh the bi8 farmeB we
use a B2B appruach. We have a key accobr manager iGide olr
company so that the famer can pi.k up rhe phone md ialk ro one
peson, Ihe neSotiarionis jusr aboutprice.With the medium-size
farmers it's difturunt. We sdd a s,ls .ep to visir then fam, but
in lact this kjnd of sles rep is also an aAri.ultural cotudrdt.
T1rereps have a scienceb.ckgrcud - rhey e aSrcnohjsrs.
Th larmes really rppKiare this technical support, and ou.
competitors don't otfer it. The lar8esize fa.hers don,t ned
this tshnical suppDrtbecauserhey have rheir own agononists
INTER!'IEI{ER

Andttunh t'annns?
MD The ehall fa.mels don,t get rehnicat suppod. They jusr
ordcr their chemicalsdipctly fiom a distriburorwho delivcE the
prodrct to thch. We suppl),thedistriburor.nd pay them ro
80
round the farmsdoing rhe detiverica.The diskiburor canalsogo
to thc mediuh and larScfrrms, orsonetimes wc do thardiRtty
- ro.examplethe s.les rep on takerhe product.
INTERVIEWER So kn
.1nni6 hdrd! b.htcr ttt lannaE n1d
"\\tr
MD Etactly.lfyou rehcmber fron betoe, rhe tames pay for their
.hcmicalsuith bagsof crcpsdetiveredro the commodity r.rdes.
The dishibutos are paid by us,out ofrhe money rhat we
Eerfrcm
theconmodity tladers.Ii's a win-win parrne$hipbetwftn us,
distriburof,famrer and tradei
INTERVIEWER oK, thet s on.fndl ,p t.Jt:ptu"totion.r lhitk tttots
Ihe ntostnxa9t ihg af nll,
MD Yes,in our marter the massnedia is lessinportant, b<a!e
tarmes dontwatch so much TV and anyway ther.,sa loror
competitionfor TV spots.5o we decidedro be Ealty rnnovahre.
We'vemlde a movie exacttythe sanc as in the cinena wrth
some br8-name stars - and wc invire the fam6 ro come to
the cinema to seeit. It's a 3D movie. We oryanize bu*s ro take
l F c l d r * e . s l o t l F c ' n c r a . d n d l h e nl r h n , h c y a r n v e . w e A i r e
them some lopcorn and a beea You havc to Member rhat th*
iaheB rarely go to rhe cineha.
INTERVIEWIR
Ard annt it thelhn about? Wnt s th. story?
MD Il starts wirn a flying saucer Ir lands in ou ounry du $n.
alietr appear Tne leal far(ers srart askin8 rhe aliens querioE,
and the aliere rake rhe farmets to ihejr plmet. When they
Eer
to the planet, L\ey find ihat the alies !se.l ro have the sme
Prcblems with iheir crcps 4 rhe farmers are having righr now
INTERVIEWER

And of cor6e tha alids hau sot.edthzn ptubletusb!

MD Of cousel How did you Euss? Bur yo! shoul.l s@ rhe aliens,
yein 3D ir's rea]1yanazinEl

F Track22
7 Interview with a finance dire<tor
FD = Fhanc dnEbr
INTER\,aIEI,V'ER I think it Mutd beintd.stiry ta kiao hnu the
fftdhe
ftrLtim is ditiled q inside. ttrye compn lt. T. n fton busnes,
posot, fnnnce is sonehou nore nlsteiaus thor Snlesar Ma*.tikg ol
FD

Well, I'[ do my bst. I thint my compmy is quite t]?ical


md I .d desc.ibe how ir wo.ks. i am the linance Drecror and
I have thR manageF leporring to me, each wirh a differenr
ea of ftsposibilily
fte nst area is the treasury ihe second is
accountin& md the third is bud8ering and ptaming.
INTERVIEWIR
OK, kt\ tatu tho! oR try one,
FD The Teasurer is esporeible fo. cash and cash flow He has a
snall team that arc respoNibl. for accounts payable and accolnts
Neivable, so they make payments to suppliers and coUecr
rrcm dstomerg The Treasurer is .lso the point of @nrad insidc
lhe cofrpany foi ou banks, dd they tatk roSether abour ou!
overdraftfaciliry,or altern.nvlyhow to ger the bestlnteresrrale
on any sparecashthafs . vailable.Thesedays rhcreis alsoquitea
lotofdiscu$ion aboutspeciaI financi.I itutruments that the bank
INTERVIEWIR
wtnt Wi o/ hsi'rktt,l?
FD Fo. example,derivarive to swap variabteinteFsr ratcsrnto
iixed intelestrats- rhrt minimiT.es
our risk if we takeout a tongINTERVIEWER

OK. Nclt is nccorhtittg.


we have a Chier Ac.ounring Of(icer who,s nsponsible for
PFPa.ing the accounts,so th.r,s the incomesratehentan.t cash
now statemenron a quarrertyand annualbasis,and rhe balance
shel iust annually.Ihe nosr ihportant rhing for he. is to plepare
everyihint for the.Mualporr, whi.h we havea statutorydury
to provide becau* we're a public company lhe ac.ouniinEtean
also pFpares the invoices ro end to customeF, and pro.ess the
invoicesth.r we rcc.ive ftom supptieF.
INTERVIEWER Ri9ht. And the thtrtt oni?
FD Fin.lly we h.ve a linancial Conrroltef who,s reponslbte
rof inie@l au<liiint, budgedng and financiat plannin8. Ilis
peaon meives aU rhe key indjcators relating ro cosrs, income,
p@ttabiliry etJi.inc, etc tuom Prcduction, purchasing an.l Sales
- ud using the* fiEur6 he prepaes a wet<ly reporr for
orher
@gers
ihJoughour lhe company,
INTERVTEWER By bEtseting dolat
eon etitt rtu DMg.t, or
/,okntg at haD the btdget is rce.l?
FD I me& the laner - rhe conhol asped of budgerin8. So, looking
at th variance berwM ttE planned budger and L\e actlat budget
tor a[ rhe costs ol th. company The firsr type of bud8ering
- deiding how much noney each departmst neds md
can
spend in the tutu - is done by all the manageG toEeiher as paft
oI tne wider busins plan. Thar's an muat prftess md it has to
relate to rhe ove.al srategy of rhe compm]r
INTERVIEWER Sathehn cklb
db is the pdson tuhoEntt!
undeEtardsuhnt n hnppding in the @npdn! dn! Ly day.
FD Yes,if d activity is Eoing over budSet we n@d ro know
irDEdiately. We have ro take adion ro rectity ihe situarion.
INTERLIEWER
Right. Cd I j|st go bdckto enething? yo! said
rtat the trensuryans Eqonsibte for rcco|nts
Wyabteand ncnunts
teeiuble, b tlE accotng depattmdt tunsmpouibte
lor inaiciflg.
Thtt yd's strnagebemtsein nry minn I nsso.iateaccountsrecei,able
FD

FD

162

Well, invoicing is a ptrrely administ arive prccs


mvors ae
g{erated auromaticall), by ou IT sysiem. invoicing is imporrdt

LISTENIN6SCRIPTS
for keeping the books, jusr like puchases md ordeF, and so
drs thin8s come mde. the contrci of th a.codts ofne. Bul
accomts recivable is a more hmm md lrmagdial PrG6s
- a cedit conhoner miSht n@d to telePhone a astomer about
d outstanding bill, send them a renindr deal with bad debrs,
md so on. ll's the flow ol cash into dre compd, and so rt .omes
rddr" rd.ut. n .not;u'l d ddrmi.hcti\e $in8.
INTERVMER
OK sotlet ! the th& oteds.Nou ut&t aboutyou thc
FindnceDiEetor Do )tou hnre afl:t spec$c'rspofsibiliti6 thtt orc nal
cau4d b! the thte pcopb rnd( vou?
Yes,good qlesnon. Besidesmanaging rhese three people and
trking nny importnnt 6n.ncir1 issucsro the seniormmagement
team,I alsoh.ve responsibilitytor corporatgovemn e.50
l'm the onewho callsrhe shareholdeB'meetin8smd tak6 the
minutes of those meernrSs,dd I'm the one s ho work cl@ll
with the external auditors. And iI there's a very big prcject to be
fituced, then I'll speak to th banks rather than thc'tFasuer
INTERVIEWER Crcat. I thntk theon\ thilg ltar hatdit ,tentionul so
fdr n tt andtrxplonniq.
FD The Chief Accounting Officer h.s ro prcp.re ihe tax rutuns, an.l
sonaturally th.tpeson isvery invoived in tax plaminS, Blt this
isn complei.rca and we oftenu* exrem.l consultantslohelp us,
.nd in th.tcasc I wonld Scrinvollcd assell.
INTERVIEWER And fndl qucstio'l
is this:th I i! th. or. tl''tE thnl
"1!
tuu|tlnnka:taut |iJ.tusiernndnllol! uar to b. ai.llrltun1vorr

FD

!D

That'seasy,Al1 financialdjrectoGsufler fion intomation


overload.Elery day and everysccl we wcolumns and.ollmns
of figures,with lots ol indicators,and buricd dePwithinthose
columnstherc.rc somcsmall pises of inforhation that ae
important.Butthisinf$mat(rnc.nbcverydifficulttospol.The
ch.llcnEcis to reducethe amountof information.oming in to us,
to lillcr out the back8roundnoisc,er thai we * just a summary
and we can focuson the leal preblemsand the bi$erpictue.

S rra(k 2l
8 Interview with a human resourcesdirector
HRD = Human resourcesdiretor
INTERVMER

I ktutu that !a, @rk in Hlrnn

Resov.6 ht lor4l
"

afic. ol a tdry.Anl.ticrr load.o,tpn,u


HRD That'sright,
INTERVIEWERCatlar tcllft'eo lntl. ,bort tlttHRlntttior ,t Wl
HRD Yes.Theie are about 200 people in our ollice in total, and
of those,thee are lour of us in HR. EachpeBon hastheir os'n
resporeibilties. So ther is one peEon ior conpensation and
benfits, one persn in chaige oI trainin8, one iunio. pe6on
lor administraiion, ard then me I'm the HR dnetor I IdE
especially on rcruihnent I have to drelop and implemenr all
the prccedues, policies and initiatives.
INTERVMER
Do that pahi.s cort Jra"r h.dtl oJld il the US?
HRD Yes,most of them. We have to inh'oduce rhem ldalllt
sometimes adalting them, according to our las s.
INTERVIEWIR
Cnfl ,eu giu ,tr d' da'npk of ow pali.y or pttrdu4
uhnh .aneJnrn had afre annuhnh ans diff.ult to afupt to lotl
HRD Foi instmc in ou comtry it's very.liffiolt
to d6miss
someone. Now my cohpmy is ery fan, but it s also very srrict
with poor pedomds. In the US there d taets to m@l dd
objectivesto achievetorall sployq,
and ilrou N a pmr
perfomer yo! @n stay 'n the companv for mai:be r$ o res, but
no nore. ln my colntry things don't wo.k lile tnai. Ou larvs
donl allow us to dismjss someone foi p@r prrnlmce alone.

At th@ nfl! othd dnnpl6?


HRD Another erample is equal oploirsities. Head of6ce has
asked ne to develop a diveEity sirategy - ihai's very imPortant
in the States- and we are foosinS tusr on Eendr md thn on
a8e. we donl tradinonally thinl about invesrin8 in older leolle
- r l e r e n { J n d ) l ' l e d \ L r d 8 e p h r d . B u t L u r c p eh r . a 1 d 8 m 8
pDpulation fld we will need more older peoPle inside comPanies.
INTERVIEWER lfiat nrc y.u daing $ ftldtion to gehder?HaL nt yat
tryit\ to ottn.t nnd rchnt t@htd n1lotr organizatim?
HRD We oller ienbb hous, part-t1me working for mohers
rtlming to work, a f.e kindeigarten - th.r kind of thing,
tNTlR!1Et,!R

INTIRVIETWER A kinddgarlot is at iflportaflt d?.ision. With


cltiLlcot thet s dj'tancial eost- vor hdtt to s.t ut a spe.inl nahl,
oryniizelaotl eery dn:/,f'111and pa! a qnt iftcd p.rsan h ru it . ..
HRD We tried to sei up a khder8altn last yeu, with the backing
of hcad otric.. Thc firsrploblemwas that we ody have. tew
women hele rvith babies of the right age to us it, and then thre is
lhe problemol ourlocation,We re half an holr's drive outsiderhc
cily centre md the mothe$ had b b ng the b.bies here and takc
themback again,with the babiescryinS in rhe backsatof thc car
in the tush houi It was very difficrlt.
INTERVIEWER Practiealpnbl.ms.
HRD Yes,$ I havelo be honcstand say that the wonen prcfcrrcd
to leavethenchilden athomc in our cultue the Slandmorhe.
oftcn looks.ftcr th.child du.inS lhe dat Brt whar th. mothers
.'m mu. h mom inicFsted In is worlti(c balince- hdv,nEmoG
limc working out of the otfice.
INTERVIEWER Ard n'lnl ii lan ryUry th.n?
HRD we encolragemothersto work trom homc one day o wcck,
.nd $ealso havea conh.ct whcro they canworkslightly flwer
houE forsljghtly lss money,but the),can Sohomeearly and Pick
up thechildrenfrum school Th.t's vcry PoP{lai In factwc find
that rhesewomen man.Aerheirtide vcry well,.nd domorco.
lessthe$me amountol work as eleryone.lse.
INTERVIEWER OK.lttkt ue lir\h, co, tu. eou. bt.k tu tlht issr( a!
pttotta caatlttnc llor neitia,ed ea i.t? Yor srid thdtPaaPlecnr't be
.liruirsadJat p@t pcthn@ ce,sottdudoyar mirtrs. pethrnnrc?
HRD Thoway' Fi6t, compensation is basedon a ihrcc-way
lormula.TheE's a fted pa. o thesalary,the biggestpart, but thcn
rhere is also a part thar dpends on conpany performance, and
a parr that dependson individual perfolman.c.Sowe motivatc
peopledrou8h pay.The othe. way to nanage pellormanceN
thfttrgh ou appraisalplNess. Eve.yyear the line managermts
with the employ to eview then Pelfornance,and the out.one
of that meting is an individu.l dev.lopmenrplan
INTERVIEWIR ht@ltn!8en.hn$ dd trdinin&?
HRD Yes,thc big thing right now is innuencing skills. The ajm
is to help peple in their ereryday worting relationships. You
\nowwel'"vplohorl ndlugh pF*uh. modembL-inp\\
nvioment, to have contact with people in other deparLnents, io
work in cross-fudional tem, and much hore. In oider to do all
ihG we haye to i.rluence other people all the time, to obtain their
help md then a6imnt.
INTERVIEWIR
Btt eanthis betninetl? l'fl Deryrl\bio,s. Suttly it
cofust
inst!1.
th. pnto", at it's sanething that daelaps @ith
Itst
tit' .1Viiq@ Crn Jlot netnl\ increae sa"Eane'sjnlr.ncitg skittsb!
sdding th o, a cot\e?
HRD In ny opinion, yes. Particrnarly tluough roieplay, and also
elyzing
ce studies of what someone did in a part(ulai
sirurion in telm of then behaviour, and why they 8ot or didn't
6et dre resdt thy $.mted. You have to invite people to reflect on
dr6e rhinEs. I rhi.t it cm male a differen.e.

Answer key
I The economy
I drves 2 dereguation ! slbsidies 4 qlotas 5triffs
6 conslraned 7 iqudq/ 8 bubbles 9 underlying
l0 different
a s 11 prosperty 12 lieracy
I consumer
spendng 2 lreemovemenl
of capita
3 grow,lh
andcontraction 4 |te expeclancy 5 openbo.de6
6 standard
oi livinq 7 envronmentaldamage
8 goodsandstuces 9 intestrates l0 cheapcredit
11 socialmobity 12 ufderlying
strength
I corsumer
spending 2 chapoedt 3 standard
oi iving
4 gro\4thandcontra.tion 5 nlerestrales 6 unde.lyinq
nrenglh
I on thevergeot slallng
5 rouqhy

2 sump 3 boostng 4 theFed

1 achieve
a c ll.almass 2 waitfor invoi.estobe paid
3 growor shink yearby year 4 mpoy morenaff
5 spotagapin the market 6 takeo. the riskof the busne$Ia ing
/ bnT In arruqedmourI ol Torey 8 elLe c arow11
prse
9 enenda lineoi credit l0 90 pubic
ll groworganicaly
or by acquisit
ons
12 sllthebusiness
asa goingconcern
1 overcxpard 2 undercut 3 LndeDerform 4 overtake
5 overupend 6 u.dercharge 7 overde 8 understimate
1 outlet 2 fee

3 fulli

4 nandards 5 running

5 Company ttrpeg and corporate governance


1 debl/liabilities 2 owner/ proprielor 3 share/dvd
! shdeholde/ ,loc\rcber/ 5tdlenolder 5 rd,vden.l/^ 1'I

2 The business cycle


1 lully 2 legaly 3 pe6onaly 4 potentially 5 hord
a 1anlpiLrrn 2 expansion 3 adownturn 4 contaclion
, borrom\
b Ia(ove- 2 pealr I rrdow.
1 oveuee 2 audtols
r b

2 d

3 c

4 a

5 e

6 h

7 f

8 9

9 j

3 dvdeid

4 nake

5 inigrq

t 0 i

I o w / p c k s u p 2 e n d/ 1 u r n i ndgo w n 3 b o n d / l i x e d
4 rnoreexpensve/coos 5 contract/Gcession 6 antcpate
7 beiore 8 b! l/ bul sh
1 polcymake6 2 newbonowing 3 side,effeds 4laxcurs
5 govefnment
debl 6 abourmarket

I lmitedliabiliry 2 det iledlegslation 3 leqalentity


4 non-profit
organiz;lon
I CheIExecutile
Offlcef 2 AnnuaGeneralMeel
ng
I PublcLimiled
Company 4 Limited
LiabillyCompany

6 Global is5uesfor lh 21st century

3 International trade
Exerclse
3.1
1 ecofomesor scale 2 on yourbehal 3 wa.ranty
4 warehouse 5 expertise 6 trademark 7 fee 8 royalb/
9 invoce 10 bi ofladifg
Erer.lse3.2
I t;ke adlantage
of anyunderused
capacty
2 rcy on justyourdomenkmarket
4 acton somebodys
beh.lf
5 estabsha presence
in. foregn marker
6 keepyourown legaldenlity
7 handethe exchanqe
of doclments
8 payac.ordngto thetermsof thecontract
1 Cash-in-advan.e
2 Letterof credit 3 Do.lmeniary
coll{tion
4 Openaccount 5 Consignment
purchase

1 beshodol resources 2 behungrylorresources


3 bel. shortsupply 4 havea commonAsiancufiency
s ceoilin dollaE 6 .ccosesmeonof hypocrisy
7 in ihecom,ngdecades 8 tor thelorseeab
e J!1ure
t holda virlualmeelinq 10 haveaccess
toword markets
I valLe-lormorey 7 loyahy I aea./e,
6 sLslalnable7 bad ash 8 sourcing

4 Frdi-

r qerdr

1 customs 2 handlng 3 premiset 4 truck 5 oading


6 treiqht 7 documentaton 8 transit 9 ierminal

1 waming/ destrlclion
/ threaten
nq
2 actv sts/ lnfluential/
envnonmenla
I engineering
/.ontrovers
all gbu4h/ prcduction
4 economic/indunalizarion
/ strengths
/ weaknesses

4 Sefting up and growing a business

I sia.dards 2p.cpies
3 povedy 4 access 5 gender
6 plemium 7 sobsidy I oveprodlction

Exercise4.l
' edg" 2 bacLers r roilderd 4 Fg:lenrry 5 Involc6
6 pilngLp 7 tornover 8 a qoingconcern 9 acquisitions
1 0t h o r o u q h y 1 1 n i c k n g w i t h 1 2 f a * e c o n o m y
13 reghbourhood 14 seedmoney 15 loyalty 16 complacency

164

1 geopolitical
nllue.ce 2 dmatech.ige 3 gobalwarmng
4 suslainabe
groMh 5 pe.koi 5 gfeenacrivsts
7 m.jorbartlelield I livingnandards 9 pfklig powe.
10 d.liningbinh..re 11 knowledge
worke.
12 environmental
npact

ANSWERKEY

7 Management styles and qualities

2 /

1 authortarian 2 demandig 3 .onsensual 4 co.chinq


5 mentoring 6 lason 7 hierarchcal 8 pro.ctive
9 consclentiols l0 thorough 11 detemined 12 serba.k
1 bLreauoatic 2 decenrfaized I unco{perative
/ unhelp{ul
4 uncoord
nated 5 ndKt
6 infexible/rigid 7 handron
/ messy
8 dislron-"n 9 rationa l0 careless 1l diso.ganized
12 rcaxed/calm 13 unsupportive 14 bottomup 15 unclear
I stressed 2 nflexble

! handson 4 messy 5 bureauoatic

1 lackvisonaid falto showleadeEhip 2 knowwhereyoustand


3 workon yourownaid besell'moivated 4 iakethe initiallve
in
5 keepup to datewithdevelopments
n thefield 6 givefeedback
an approprate
way 7 re.overquicky aftera setback 8 ranslate
generanratesyintospecifkobjectives
1 issling 2 9uding 3 pogresr 4 run.ing 5 carryoul
6 breathing 7 reportback 8 ledback

8 Organizing time and work


1 ahead/ wofflow / chad/ sl ckers/ guidelnes/ prioritize
/
chalenges/ lace/ meet/ stimLr
/ snse
/ achrevement
ating/ rewarding
2 workoad/ papeMo*/ time{onsum
ng / behiid/ deadline
/
stressed
out/ short-cuts
/ c rcumstances
beyond
/ i.me/ quck/ didy
Exerciee
8.2
I spnd 2 find 3 runout of 4 alow 5 put n 6 waste

1 a) leadingb) leaderc) leadelship


2 a) motiv:iingb) demotivated
I .) managingb) unmanageable
4 a) elsfacton b) lnrtirfactory
5 a) analrtical
b) analyss
I achieve 2 assertveness3 acknowledged4 buzz 5 moan

1l Insuran(e and risk management


1 prudenl 2 liabiily 3 sue 4 ndemnity 5 vandalsm
6 awards
danrages 7 excluson
clauss 8 renwalnotice
9 payout 10 compensal
on 11 baddebi 12 complance
1 be legally
obled10do something 2 tryto provefeglgnce
3 awad damages 4 beliablelor thedifiere.ce
poicy 6 takeon roomuchrsk
5 takeout an insurance
7 be senra renewalnotice 8 chckthesmalplnt
' drspute 2 rc,ecr I oorerrc
1 on
6 oi

4 dod

5 mrlr- 7e

2 ior 3 lakolt 4 againn/up 10 5 tor


7 made/tor 8 to/from 9 atlof berg

Ercr.iie 1i.5
plan
1 exposure
ro risk 2 riskassessments! contingenry
procedure 5 remedaacton 6 dam.ge mitation
4 escalation

1 budgel 2 compelencies
I constraints 2 tacke 3 brief 4 be nlhe oop
6 i guringoll
Ercrdse8.5
t shouldbe'thep6onresponsibLe'

5 snaq

9 Planning and selting obiectives


I ncleholdea 2 Lorl'rgencypa1 3 ds!rrpLron!
4 lrends 5 leqislation 6 hqhllghts 7 pldnl 8 largetr
9 goingfo^rard l0 lorecasl
1 mplemeni 2 acheve 3 met
Exerdse9.3
t a r g e t1: b p l a n3 a

1 positive
fedbackiroh yourboss 2 negatveexperiences
with
colleagles 3 sense
of achivement4 lackof recogniton
politics 6 physica
5 company
envirorment 7 task-orentd
busine$wodd 8 financial
reward

4 make 5 .ea.h

12 Manufacturing and engineering


r rawh.leras 2 rusl 3 ble-co ar 4 unions 5 oltdated
6 inveniory 7 (ope 8 bcakdown 9 dams l0 devices
11 dEposal r2 embeddd
I maspoducron 2 well-paidlob 3 heavyindunry
4 coreconcepls 5 continuous
improvement 6 wde scope
7 residenUa
buildings 8 consnenlqually
1 machinery
/ equipmenr 2 process
/ pro.edure

10 Leading and motivating

analyze/
exami.e/ go over
construci
/ assemble
/ plr iogether
determine
/establish
/ findoui
pul i.to operaton/carry
implement/
out
monnor/superuEe
/ keepan eyeon
renove/ get dof
eLiminate/
evallate/ asess/weigh up
m a n a g e / r u/ b
n e n c h a r goei
rep.irl fix/ pLrbackinioworkingorder
simuate/ replicate
/ model
fhe vefts in the thid colunn are nare infornal.

1 troms.rat.h 2 rheb9 pictore 3 role


5 intution 6 empowering 7 trustworthy

1 morld 2 liabiity 3 slm 4 upgrade 5 worklorce


6 u p a n d r u n n i n g7 e c o n o m i e s o f ( a eI r 5 k

!ss!e:2c

1 exceed
/ n 1a 2 fa I shortofl annual 3 implemenl
/ theyear
4 s h e v e l/o n q t e r m s r a s e d
/compex
Exercise
9.5
objectver
2a scheduler
1c budget3b
1 set/ overal 2 si.kto/tight

3 submii/draft

ANSWERKEY

13 Inside a factory
I plart 2 fitt6 3 -wise 4 shilt 5 dir.repancier 6 lacitily
7 ta lored A throughput 9 rolrngoif tO idte ii wearand

I indunrial
/ economy/productve 2 anatys
s / mp.ovemenrs
3 waneful/exceeded 4 de very/assembty
I bon'er, |
2 shcpe r nr:Bhr 4 ro ar.emote,
5 synchronlzation6 bran.h 7 custom
zed

I long 2 wide 3 hiqh 4length 5 width 6 hetght


7 cross-section8 sqlare 9 weighs tO rounded
up

'17

1 runout

1 features 2 durabillly 3 conformance


to reqLrremnis
4 sampling 5 spotchecks 6 wane 7 framework
8 reslltsorienlanon 9 iad 10 cyceimes
ll designjoFmanufactlret2 rlpp iercapabit
ry suryeys
13 scrap 14 podocrrecats

2 snapofl

! blln

4 workloose s beiammed

l4 Procurerrent and purchasing


I qLotalon 2 trackrecord 3tas
4 delvery 5 backhander
6 colluloi 7 tendering 8 nvoices 9 back-office
10 undertake1r synergy 12 drawbacks
I qlolatron/quote

2 eimar

3 proposa 4 tender

proc!reme.r
= sourcn9 + p!rcharng
1 oiishore 2 onshore 3 nearshore
I i " g r o u p6 ! p p l e , g
) N e / p r e p &/ p r o v d e / s u b m , r
2 " . 9 r o l p ( c u s r o m e nfaoir l g e l / a c c e p t
2 1" grolp Glppieddrawup/ make/ purfoMard/ oultne/ submir
2'r!group(costomer)
accepl/ consider
/ reje.t
3 l " groupGLrpplier)
b d for / submir/ put in / win
2ddgfoup(customer)
nvite/putsomeihinq
oul lo/annou.ce/

Quality

I outslanding 2 vdiable 3 iferor


6 enhance 7 specit 8 moiitor

4 poor 5 ensure

1 randomsamplinq 2 spotchecks 3 zrodeiecrs


4 rght16ltme
5 results
oriental
on 6 contnuousimprovemenr
7 employee
invovmnr 8 .yctetme 9 wairanry
ct.ims
I pedormance/besl
n class 2 parameter
/ varylromthe norm
3 compiance/ cenitied 4 mark/spoistheappearance
s metodology/ elininalingdelecrs 6 mear!.s
/rhroughout
business 7 predct/lewermurakt 8 waiianlyctaims
/ mprove

18 Sales

4 l" groupley / arge/ ead'.g/ major/ pnncpa


/ ttslore
2 _ cq o L pe n " r a / ' o e r g r/ o L l r d e/ o r e a e a \ o
5 l" grouplengrhy/prctr.ded/protofged
2"0groupuns!ccesrful
/ fruitless
/ unproducrive

1 fancy 2 laio.made 3 rappo( 4 competirve


advanlage
5 ript
6 jargon 7 knocking 8 acknowtedge
Exer<i5e
18.2
r a 2 l 3 c 4 9 s e 6 d 7 h 8 b

15 Supply chain management and logistics

1 d

1 lpnrearn 2 dowfsteam 3 batches 4 warehouses


5 distribltion
centres 6 rhirdparrytogistics
prdtdeB 7 flagup
8 boitlenecks 9 nbound t0 merchandisell uitoading
i 2 h u b a n d s p o k e1 3 p a l l e t s t 4 f o r k i l r r r u c k s t 5 r f a c k
16 stacked
up 17 lraie6 18 pick-and-pack

1 90 ahead 2 up and.linng 3 knock 4 tatest 5 on sae


6 lorsale 7 volunres 8 accolnlslor

I cargo 2 lreqht
I slpplychain 2 finished
goods 3 finalcunomer
4 ogncs provider 5 dnributonch.nnel 6 foMardingaqent
1 Ensuring 2 fore.astng 3 handling 4 batancnq 5 Lrnkrng
6 Seectng 7 Neqotating 8 Wareholsing

16 Lan production
1 delime
2 flow 3 defecis 4 .ework 5 eriofproofinq
6 delvered 7 eadume 8 manpower 9 .oementa
l0 shine 11 tools 12 storaqeboxes
1 add va !e
2 be wllinq io payfor someihing 3 deliverparts
4 pl-trare rdnp
5 -c.4 tr6.omelhrlo doa.n- rppen dqdin
6 performa task 7 aitacha kanbancardro an iiem
8 cean up the equipmeniso thar ir shines 9 erotspDof a sysiem
10 hande mateials 1t minimizenventory
12 optmize the Jlow of marertals

2 c

3 a

4 b

5 e

6 9

7 l

19 Customer setvice
I loqged 2 reief lpwafds
4 bulk purchase s lyer

3 commrtments

1 lollow !p a plrchalewith a quck call 2 provrdeafyf


insideeverypadage ! be pa$ed ftom pe6on to pe6on
4 makespecilc commihnrs 5 includea tfe-ime glaranree
6 l o q d e i a l s o n a C R M s y n e m 7 s n r h e u r g e l oa r s u e
8 acknowledgeany inconvenence
caused

1 an initialenquiry 2 inlormation 3 a qlotation


4 thequotaton 5 anorder 6 rheorder 7 an invoice
(with
the qoods) 8 the payment 9 a .ompa nt 10 the probem
I
4
6
8

bodyposture 2 channel
of comnuncarion 3 com.non
qround
on s.reeninlormaUon 5 prelercdcusromers
prsalesenqliry 7 buk pur.hase
discount
moneybackguarantee 9 satisfacron
sLrtoey jO wairanry
ctaim

1 waiianty/graEntee 2 FreqLenttyAsked
elesrons
I satisfa.tion 2 oyalty 3 leedback 4 sutoy 5 expefence
6 expectaions 7 profile 8 requiremenrs

166

Al'lsWEBKEY

23 Promotion

20 Markets and marketihg


Exercire
20.1

1 segmenls 2 gender 3 peeu 4 purchasinq


5 patterns
of demaid 6 reps 7 target I feasible
9 pricepoinis 10 nchemarket 11 catalyst 12 ieatures
13 aber 14 elanci9of demand
Exercise
20.2
1 marketnq 2 promotion 3 advertising 4 plbliciv

ExercB
23.1
1 billboads 2 sponso6hip 3 coverage 4 pre$kit 5 stlnts
6 goodwill 7 philanthopy 8 convergence9 tracking
]O GPS

marketforces/ ieader/ price/ sector/ share


/tool
ma.keting
ageng/ campaiqn
/ mix/ strategy

1 bujldawareness
ol a newprodua( 2 n muatedmandby
throuqhto thi ra
ofieinqai.eet al 3 t.ke an ntia concept
advertisement4 placear ad in th media 5 issuea newsrelease
6 kep in contact
wirhcunome6 7 monitorhowconsume6
adsto a mobiledevice
respond
1oadvertisements8 pushtargeted

1 markelforces 2 markeingmx

ExeRite23.3
/put/ ranltookoui
1 placed
/ pubLished

1 e 2 b

3 c

4 h

5 9

3 marketshare

6 a

7 d

1 conlgt 2 coupon 3 dscolnl 4 fresample 5 freetrial


6 freepoduct 7 loyaltyprogram 8 perona appearance

8 t

brea( lnior enler/ openup / penetrare


/ corne./ dominale
tat o!. captLre
be forcedout of be drivenoul oflwithdrawiiom

1 advertising2 salespromotions 3 PR 4 peEonaselLng

24 Pri.e

2t Produd

1 adjunable 2 relenue 3 mBsori on 4 cove6


5 gaina hold 6 consistency7 lrck 8 chargea oremum
9 m a L , p 1 0 o u n dn u m b e r 1 l b l n d e 1 2 j n c n l v e s

1 compimentary 2 nhanced 3 catchy 4 swit.h


Exerdse21.2
1 image 2 manager 3 leader 4 loyaty 5 equity
6 sl.etching 7 assocation 8 awareness
Exrcbe21.3
1 brandawarenes 2 brodstretching

rnto
1 losesalesand
malkelshae 2 takeseveraliacloru
retLrrn
on y
consideration3 requrea minimum
4 coverlhecottswithsalesrevenue 5 9an a hod n a newma(et
youGelf
arthe highndol the market 7 setthelra
6 position
p.icerhaitheenduserpays 8 selbeow costio altra.t.uslomer

I exclusive
/ uxury/upmarkel/upscale
2 economy
/ valueJor-money3 tradtional
4 ben-seln9/favourte/ leadlig 5 wellknown
Exercise
2l.s
1 nnovative 2lulyaulomatc 3 blilt-in 4 podable
5 compact 6 rechargeable7 wefmade 8 state'ot_the-6rt
9 nregrated 10 adjustble rl easytocean 12 oplDnal
13 energy-efficint14 economka 15 reqced
in a range
frendly t7 reliabl 18 availabLe
16 environmntaly
19 hgh-pedo.mance20 waterprool 21 highrech
22 shock-absode,rt23 hard'weaing 24 nandard 2s stylish
26 imited 27 user-frendly 28 ong-lanng
29 expafdable 30 one-touch
Exercire21.6
l d 2 c 3 b 4 a

22 Distribution (pla.e)
Exercise
22.1
1 fee 2 retalloltets 3 masscoverage 4 settlelor
6 decor 7 keepng pacewith 8 ddvesdowi

/ran
2 caried/ pubished

5layout

I conven
encestore 2 cornershop 3 E-tailer 4 $&ality store
5tore 7 cashandcarry
5 supermarket6 department
Exer.ise22,3
1 m a r ku p 2 m a r g n
1 siqnaqe 2 tag 3 medandse 4 qarment 5 dwice
6 checkoui 7 fornshings 8 mxand math

r prompl 2 scae/passo
en
d

3 c h a n i 4 s a c k/ s a e s

increase
/ raise/ put up
l o w e , / c u t / b i n gd o w n
sel/ nablsh/ delermine
ngotrate
/ a.i!e.i / settleon
/ figureoul / wo.kout
calculare
/ exorbitant
/ inl aled 2 low/bargain/ budget
r high/ excessiv
/
/ lair/ reasonable4 retaiL/lisl
/ reduced 3 good/ .ttractive

1 set 2 helddown 3 wereforcedlo raise


4 Eceived
complainls;bout 5 matched 6 uodercut
to
7 re-thought 8 dop 9 freeze 10 agreed

25 Marketing managemenl
1 coc competencies 2 threals 3 suruey 4 questionnare
advantages
5 qualitalive 6 focusgroups 7 competitive
point l0 betateninq 11 prototype
8 screening 9 breakeven

1 .ost structu.e 2 produ.t line 3 corecornpetenoes


power 5 quantitative
research 6 locusqroup
4 bargaining
7 customerbase a competitiveadvantage
point 11 betaten
d@elopment l0 breakeven
9 concept
12 technical
lmplementation
power
1 competitive
.dvantage 2 barqairrng
3 coe competencies4 .onceptdeveopment
on
5 locusgroup 6 te.hnicalimplementai

t6i

ANSWEBKEY
1 ooktowards 2 gain 3 trealwirh 4 crry oul
I de5ior

mdrlLaue

LaJlCh

4 .el

5 rogrddF

I suggenthe needfor 2 put moneynto 3 ca.ryoot


4 s e e t h e l i m t a t o n s o f5 c u t b a c k o r 6 a b a n d o n

1 Kod something.s
an expense 2 payoff a credtaccounr
i fll
I applyrheefre loq. 4 raisecapitaby issuing
newshares
5 present
information
n a.ertainway 6 subrract
onefigurefrom
another 7 buybackshares
fromthe ma*et I borcw money

1on 2in

3as 4on

5by

29 Managing cash flow

26 Inaome slatement
I revenue 2 profit ! th indirect.osis
of stinga p@duct
and
runningtheoif ce 4 in d fferenlplacet 5 amorlzaton 6 gross

1 reassurd 2 overdraft 3 peEneni


4 tixedcons 5 shorrfaI
2

1 Conofgoodssod 2 EBT ! Income


taxes 4 Dividends
I tiscal 2 ranqbea$ers 3 nterptay
I fvest 2 boon

3 guaranlee 4 ofisel 5 satisfacrory

Exercke26.5
I record/ egitimale 2 ertraordinary
/ exception.l
3 red/baikrupl/lquidaton 4 wrtesoif 5 adve.se 6 accrual

27 Balancesheet
Exki5e27.2
1 dbl 2 bonds 3 goodwil 4 stasde 5 modgage
6 payoff
Exerck27.3
I Inio 2by 3lo 4n
5for 6 b.ck 7 rhrough
8 on 9 o!1of t0 over

Exrcise
27.5
harc hold/ own/ posses
bul: accumu
aie/ acqu.e / buid up
axercise
27.5
col/{r: buid up/ nc!./ runup
payback:c ear/ honolr/ payoff / repay/ seruce/ tettl

1 pateni 2 copyrqhi 3 trademark

28 Cashflow statement
Exer.ise28.1
1 plait 2 sulng

: sums 4 dedlcted

5 outstandinq

Exerdse2a.2
i 26,960 2 10,500 3 9,560 4 944 5 27,900
Exer.ise2a,!
1 F 2 T (hbourandelares) 3 T (ir! paidin lanuaryat the
stanol ihe business,
andthenaqainin February)4 F(ihetirst
unltiespayments n February
butthe busineswas
atmostcenainly
usingutilriesfromthenart) 5 T 6 F(thenegative
cashflow
s dueto buyingthe nventorylharrhe
business
needsto qatr
tradng) 7 T 8 F(theenu ismadeforthe monrhwhenthecash
isactualyreceived,
e Febnrary)9 F 10 T

I havea heahhy
cashflow 2 be a welesrabtished
compary
I havedalyoperalng expenses 4 bema.agedoi a dayto-day
basis 5 takeadvantage
oia lineol credft 6 seesomerh
n9.from
a *.icl ac.ounling
viewpont 7 makean initialdeposrr
a .un credt decks t haveheaviydtscounrd
ofie.s
10 havepeGistent
sow payngcusromeu 11 negotiat
extended
creditefts l2 9ve an eary paynenrdiscount
b es h o no l / ' L n o u lo f .r l d d v a . . /aL p f r o l r .1 1o, w )/ . e ( ep r .
inrusion
generale/.aise,
/ injection,
hod.9s / reselves,
oose/ spare,
needs
paymeft(intul)/setlemenr,shonage
/ requircmenis.
/shonfaI
1 lurnover 2 deivery ! overd.aft 4 imr
6 dear 7 squeeze 8 fullll

30 Protitability
1 120 2 200,000 3 2aah/ llAyo 4 operaring
everage
Exercire30.2
1 A (advedsingisa fixedcosr- seerhrxropposte)
2 I (mate.ials
isa vaiablecon)
Exrcise
30.3

1 B 2 C

3 A

31 Financial rnarkls
I foundeB 2 bonds 3 exchnge
rate 4 specuatoB
5 volallity 6 undeyng 7 on bhafol 8 poi.yhotdeu
9 pool 10 venllrecapilal t1 buy-olts t2 budgetarysurp!s
Exercke31.2
beaf/deprcssd
/t ling / weak
boominq
/ boll/ heafthy/r si.g/ strong
good/ prolilable
/ securc
/ souod/ worthwhie
h thjisk / risky/ specu
arive
1 qo publi.wth ao IPO 2 I n shars
on a nockmarker
I raise(apitalby issulng
bonds 4 paybacka loanwrh inieresr
5 fundshortlermdeblwth 'commercial
papei 6 flranpukre
thexchanqe
raie 7 chaseshort-term
trendsin the nkrKer
8 buyshaEson behaf of a c ient 9 supporia nart,upwth venllre
Gprial l0 takeovera company,
thenrenruci!reit
1 peqs 2 p.opsup

I floats 4 :pprecates 5 depreciaies

1 crudeol, naturalgai 2 cocoa,cotron 3 wheal,soybeans


4 c.ttle, hogs 5 copper,rcn ore
I leveraqe 2 dow.sdersk

168

5 outstanding

3 hedging 4 commod
ty contracG

ANSWERKEY

32 Investing in stocks
Exercise
32.1
l captalgan 2 index 3 benchmark 4 outperforming
5 diveEfedportfolio 6 pckl 7 SWOT 8 pipeline
9 prospects 10 ba(erstoentry 1l suppod
l2 tradinqchannes 1l sentiment 14 eeasona
lty
1 m:kea d vdeid payment 2 qlote a bid/ offersp.ead
portfoio 4 pastperformanG 5 riskproiile
3 havea diveEfrcd
6 qroMhpospeaG 7 chartpatterns a investor
sentimenl
1 netcs 2 earnirgs 3 bufiyourway 4 pofitability
5 oveqcd 6 shareprice 7 assets 8 capital9an

33 Recruitment

I incentive 2 benett
1 on/of

2 under

3 reward
I over

4 fio

5 fo.

35 lssues in the workplace


1 unon 2 enloKe 3 leave 4 norm 5 statuiory
6 hygiere 7 .ut corne6 8 harassment 9 b! lyrng
l0 compensation
award I I grievance 12 address 13 appea
14 divelsity 15 precdeni 16 whistebown9
Exer<ise
35.2
1 be.omethe nom 2 sortsometh
n9 out inlomaly
J lolvo d Lr on eprp\dllduvd 4 eol4 o p'oredel.
5 b e c e a rl n p f i n c p e 6 a p p e a l a q a i nas dt e c i s l o n
7 givewarnngsto an employee 8 promotedv6ity

1 skilset 2 premises 3 alo.ate 4 qualficalons


5 headhufting 6 newrecruits 7 cove6up (for)
8 ookinglhrough 9 tempate l0 rappon 11 rate

9 address
a 9r evance 10 enlorcethe rulesstrictly
andresolve

I beon a permanent
conlracl 2 recruntempslhrough.nagenq
3 workolf the premises
asa treeancer 4 alocatewor[ in:
lor atob 6 ask
dfferc.t way 5 nart ookingelsewherc
opei eiddqueniois 7 locuson achevemenls
ratherlhanskills
8 keepan Intervewon lrack 9 do somebackgrolidchecks
l0 drawup a shortlisl
oi candrdates
Exr.ise33.3
/ h re/ recrllilrakeon
mpoy/ appoint
d s m $ / t r e l l a yo l f/ m a k er e d u n d a/ nl et r mn a t e
h a n dn y o u rn o t c e / q u i t r/ e s i g/ns t a . dd o w n
Exerdse33.4

1 natutory 2 legslation 3 r e g u a t i o n s4 c o m p an l l c a m

1 an app canl/a candidate 2 classfied


ad/displayad
3 h th ght/oullne
Exerdse33.5
I submit 2 carryoui 3 slcceedin 4 befa(edwith
5 thankless 6 contraci 7 poi.y I mindset

pro(edures 2 worklfebaance 3 healthandsalety


I grevance
4 lqalGquiremenls 5 equalopponlfit es 6 grossmBconducl

I caureior concern 2 alegedbrcachoi dsclpline


3 mitigaring
crcumrrancs4 redeployment5 suspend

36 Your background and career


I 9 . a d 5 2 e \ t r a c L 4 , c Jaa( .l v n 5 3 d . o p p eod, .
d gralr 5 dag?e 6 nrer. ' vo.arolal 8 sLavrlq
ol
9 gradualrng 10 hectic 1l b!.nl oul 12 gaven mynotce
13 backpacked 14 setledown 15 vacancy
E,(dse35.2
r geta placear unversry 2 dropoutaftera few months
3 wo yourwaythrough
college 4 spnda yearasan intern
5 be5hod-lnedlor a tob 6 be promored
to Senlo.Anayst
7 G96te.with an onineageocy
8 iinda vacancy
anost immediarely

conslderabe
/ettensve,dnect/lisr-hand,reevanr/ appropriaie,
practica
/ handron,prevoos/pror limltd/ lrte
boring/ dead-e.d,
challeng
n9/ demand.9,de.ent/worthwhile.
d e a/ d r e a mm
, a.ual/bue{olar,.egllarlsieady

34 Pay and benefits


1 whitecoLarjobs 2 retan ! incremenis 4 pros.ndcons
5 p! In9 theirweght 6 resent 7 undermininq 8 complian.e
9 mandatory 10 dsc.imination 1l disabiiiy 12 lrngebeneits
package 2 b:rgai.ingpower
1 compensaton
3 incenivescheme 4 lte nsurance 5 minimum
waqe
plan 8 end-of-ye.r
6 maternity
leave 7 pension
bonus

1 n.ke / concenlrate
on 2 break/cke off 3 move/beover
4 prcmisnq/ adder 5 chosen
/ oppofiunites
l w a sw o r k r n g 2 h a d j u s t f n s h e d 3 w a s w r i t n g 4 g o t
5 was 6 hadnl contacted 7 wated 8 waslstenng
9 called 10 werewaitnq l1 hada.eadyloundoLi

37 Your cornpany
1 milenones 2 renructuing 3 marketcapitaization
4 slbsidaries 5 overyew 6 competlive
advantages7 taiLored
8 o v e G l l 9 s h r i n k l n q l 0 p r o d u c t p p e l n e1 1 m o r a l e
12 commitment 13 malktsaruration 14 shoriage

1 retement 2 lfe rsurance 3 penson


1 wage 2 saary 3 in.ome 4 remuneraion 5 overtime
6 commsson 7 royalty 8 bonLs 9 welghtinq l0 perk

produc(
1 ma*ei share 2 productrange 3 a standard
4 socatrends 5 R&D 6 swoT anatsis 7 disvibltionnetwork
products l0 annla tlrnover
8 costadvaotaqes9 substitute
I bLsinels
mode 2 afiordabLe3 founder 4 indlnrynandard
5 stateofthe ad 6 .onsumertanes 7 primelocations
8 turnover 9 ncome 10 continued
exparsion

769

ANSWERXEY

41 Telephoning - <he(king, clarifying, active


listening

38 Your ,ob
Exercise
!8.1
1 tra.krecord 2 drawsup

3 ove6ee 4 signoff

5 i:ise

I chailngng
/demandng 2 my boss/mylinemanaqer
3 .oleagle/ cowo(er 4 opposite
number
/ counterpart

1 lt! a reallybadline. 2 Youkeepbreakngup 3 lddn't


.atchihat 4 we got cutoff. 5 Thanks
for lettng me know
6 lhaveto go now 7 Canyouspeakup a bit? 8 | llst qo
outsrde. 9 can yo! hearme.ow? l0 what exactydo youmean
b y ? l l L e tm e l l n c h - " ci kh a tl u n d e G t a n d .r 2 A r e y o u s a y i n g
t h a t . . . ? l 3 M yb a t t e ri ysv e r yl o w 1 4 W ' r e g o n g i o g e i c l t
off. I5 l'ilgiveyoua calltomorow 16 lhankslor cal n9.

I makeinitialcontact
wth a clent 2 takea backseatio.a whib
: olersee
thewholeprocess 4 handleincomigcalls
5 k-"epon iop of thlling 6 be on fn( nametems

I cul ofi

l lor 2 n 3in 4ior 510 6al 7 wth 8to


9 n 1 0 w r h 1 1 o f 1 2 o n 1 3 o n/ f @ mh o m e
1 4 o l t o f w o r k/ o i f w o r k 1 5 w o r k / g e t t o / a l 1 6 c h e c k i n g

I R i g h tl/s e e / s u r e 2 Y u h /M h m/ U h h l h ! E x a cyt
4 Thal'sright. 5 Great 6 Thal!wonderiull 7 Dd you7
8 HdssheT 9 Halia mrllonurosl l0 V etnam
I 1 Andwhywasrhal? 12 Sowhatdldyoudo?

1r' 2'

2 speakup

3,/ 4t 5r'
39 Telephoning - making and taking calls

I Greatl 2 Vielnaml 3 Hasslre? 4 Exacty(orThattfght)

I t h i s / s p e ankg 2 n c e / h e a r 3
4 cose/down 5 rason
/ because 6 thought/ might
7 g e t / b a c k / t o 8 e a v /ew i l h 9

1 r'llhaveto stoprhereI havesomone


waitifgto se.ne
2 ll! beennicela kng rc you.And I sendih delailsyo! wanied
bymai.Bye 3 Anywaylwont keepyo! any ongerl'm sure
youtebuty 4 lsthreantthinqeselcan hep yo! wth today?

1 Doyo! havea second? 2 Doyouwantmelo cal backlater?


3 Areyoublsy rght now?

42 Telephoning - arranging a meeting

I
2
3

I lhisis 2 metup 3 a lte moredepth 4 th nkingo{


5 s u l y o u 6 s h a l l w sa y 7 s o l n d st i n e 8 l y o u d o n tm i d
9 i n s r e a d 1 0 b em yg u e n r 1 b y l h e w a y 1 2 t w o b o c k sa w a y

I wastun caI o9 to seeif evefihing3OKfor F.iday.


lwanledto askyoua questonaboutsirnon.
lthoughlyoumightbe nterested
in this

1 o!rrhere 2 for the tme oi year 3 look 4 canl mrk t


5 .omeup 6 These
rhinqshappen 7 reschedule8 stllopen
9 w o u l db eg o o d 1 0 s o r r ay g a n I I l t s m yp a n s l 2 |

I Howcanlhep yo!? 2 fd Llke


to speak
3 Can haveyourname,pe.s? 4 13 5 hold
6 Ga n f r a n csop e a k i n g7 a s k / a b o l t 8 c a i
1 T (althoughn theorya andc aremorepoite,andb s more

1 s p e a/kt o 2 f o f 3 b e a r / w i 1 h 4 h u s t / n 5 n e e d
6 c a l/ b a c k 7 h a k e / o f 8 n 9 o u l o l r 0 l e a v e 1 r l e t
12tor 13on 14ask 15 make i6 p!r/o.
17on

1 as

2 that

3 any,thing 4 caling

I Hod on a momentl'ljusrcheck. 2 Righr,sofryro keepyou


watrnq. 3 I'm sorryblt she3on materntyeave 4 5he3not
at herdeskatthe moment 5 Doyo! knowhow onqhellbe?
6 WhatSit I con.eclonwith? 7 Canyouaskhimto callmeb.ck?
8 Ll makeslr sheqetsthe message
r c 2 h 3 a
1 1e t 2 q

4 j

5 b

6 l

7 f

43 Telephoning - complaints
l b 2 t 3 l
l l e 1 2r

40 Telephoning - messages

8 i

9 d

r 0 k

1]b

4 h

5 k

25k 3loc 43

6 g

7 a

8 d

9 l

l 0 c

5l2i 67a

I Canyoule.veii wiih me2 2 'l look nto L


3 l'lger backto youthisaliernoon 4 lndersrafdhowyoulee
5 l.eed !o ch<k at thisend 6 do apologzeoice morc.
7 l'm surewe cansortir out. I Whalexa.tyisrheproblem?
9 s o r r y . g a i{no ra n yi n . o n v e n i e tnhcseh a s . a u s e d .l 0 l ' l s e n d
a repacemeni
lmmediately r r l'l .iiakesurethe temsaresenr
to you 12 ve hada wordwiththewareholse
1 lthinktheremaybean issuewlthousopplieE. 2 t! not9oin9
to bee.ty ro senda lechncantoday. 3 Theremightbea short
pro.esthe iew ordel 4 Theresems
delaywhilewe
to be a smaL
problem
with the invoi.e. 5 needto jasthavea qlkk wordw th
myleveln4osupeeisoraboui
youii
thir. 6 wouldnt it beeasierfor
we simpy issued
a newinvo.e?
look nto/ so.tout/ get b:ckto

t70

4 qo over 5 holdof

3 breakirg!p

ANsWER KEY

44 Telephoning - review

47 Emails - commercial

1 in/with 2 from 3 for 4 on 5 outol 6 on 7 back


8 in 9 back 10over 11wih/for 12 up i3 up
14oif 15for t6 of 17wrh 18 inlo/back 19on
20 by

1 stand 2 bDchlre/ specifications


/ r:ng 3 particllarls!t:be
4 draw/attenton 5 meantime
/ hesitate
/ dned lne
6 Folowlrg/ attached 7 delivered
/ atest 8 conditons/terms
9 rhipping
/ invoices l0 acknowedqe

1 i

1PD 2DT 3PR 4P 5PD 6PR 7PD 8PR


9 P l O D T 1 1P R ] 2 P 1 3P D 1 4 P 1 5 P

2 c

3 9

4 b

5 e

6 a

7 d

8 h

1 lust bearwth me 2 Shal putyouthroughto 3 Speaking.


4 Wouldyoulketo lava messaqe? 5 Sorryldidnl catchthal.
6 L e tm e l u srt e a dt h a tb a c kt o y o u . 7 E x a a ( y 8 l l l a s k h e r t o

1 l'd iketo speak 2 whie tryto connectyou 3 Nownrceto


hariromyou 4 Howarethinqsin Athens 5 isthisa goodtime
tolalk 6 lustgv mea momnl 7 Goahead 8 Thereason
'm callnqis 9 thooghtyoumight
be 10 Of couB
l 1 L e tm e l u nc h e c(k1 h a 0 l u n d e B t a n ld2 c a nl j ! 5 1 9 0 o v et hr a t
again rl l'llget backloyou 14 s thereanything
ehe
l5 thanksfor calng 16 13beenn cetalkingto yoo,too.
1 B 2 C 3 D 4 B
10D lt C 12A

5 C

6 A

7 B 8 B

9 A

45 Emails - basics
1 m witng with rcgardto 2 Please
fee freero contactnre f...
3 lookfoMardlo hearing
fromyou 4 Thankyouverynruchlor
please
seldi.gJoL'CV 5 I cdr otse aly lJnl'e'asrsrance,
6 hopeyoutewe
7 Ths isjun a quicknote10 .
8 waswondern9fyou couldhelpme. 9 d .ealy appreclate
t.
youa copyof t
10 Greatto hearfromyouagaif 11 Shalllsend
Exercbe45.2
FirnemairReason
lor witing / Bodyof emal/ Finalcomments
/
Second
m.i:Preliolscontacl/ Bodyol emai/Flna comments
(orBodyol
Thndemai:Frieidy open/ Rason
lor writig / Requen
email)/ Friendy
close/ Fnalcomments
Fo!rthenral:Frendly
open/ Bodyolemail/Ofierhelp/ FriendLy
clo5e
1 greatpleasL.e 2 !ry imprssed3 with reg.d
4 usetuldiscu$ion s wondeingif 6 gratefultor
7 hearngfrom 8 AsEquested 9 anattachmenl
10 rclatonto 1l don'lhesitate 12 lurtherassista.ce
1 3 . e 1 4 P l e a s e 1 5 g e lb a c k 1 6 D o y o u w ; n t

46 Emails - internal communiGation

1 ii youhaveanylortherquestions 2 'm confidenllhatwe


can
supply 3 laho noticethatyoucanpersonalize4 wouldbe
happytomakea sample s we do ofierqlaitq dscoun$
6 l h a v eb e e nl o o k i nagl y o u fw e b s i t e 7 l c a nl n d n o m e n t o n
of di5counts 8 younedto stup a tradeaccourt
I lhavebeenlookingat yourwebtit 2 ralsonoticerhalyoucan
peEonaliz I lcan ind no mentionof dscounts 4 l'm confident
thatwe cansuppy 5 Wedo offerquanttyd scounts
6 youneedto ret up a tradeaccount 7 wouldbe happyto
makea sample 8 ll youhaveanyfunherquestions

48 Emails - cugtomer issues


I l'm sorryrolel youthdrlhavero ponponeour metn9nexlweek
e c c e or tv ) r L e r e
2 Once
a g a r p e a 5d
a o o o g er<o rd .
inconvenience.auted! rm pleased
to tel youthatlhe lemsyorr
yourordertoday.
o.dered
arenowrnttock Wewll beshipping
yo! thatwele dorngevery'th
4 rcanassure
n9 possbero rcsovethis
issueasqucklyaspossible 5 Yo! wil be pleased
to heartharwe?e
extending
ouronlneralefor another
week 6 'veralkedto the staff
involved
andl'm conldentthatour procedurcs
arercbustandworkng
properly. 7 we regrcrto informyouthatwe cannorprocess
yo!.
orderdueto a laqe ollsiandngbalaiceon youraccount.
8 Thankyouverymuchlor bringngth s manerto myaitenton.
a )3 t s b ) 1 / 1 c : ) 4 / 6
2/A
Exer&e 44.3
1 .etence 2 slll 3 deivery 4 trsured 5 rhipped
6 inconvenience7 sales 8 insist 9 attention 10 satislactory
11 to.ced l2 long-term
lwasveryconcerned
to learnaboutthes atedelivery
of theparts
what yoo orderedfrom us
I h.vebenspoken
to ourstafi n the packing
depaftment
and 'm t6o
coofidentlhal
ihe goodsleit hereastweek.lcanony assumeitthat
the isan issuewiththe.ourier
lwillconlactwith thempeEonalyandnakesurethai theyresolve
m
Onceagain,please
accept
ttiat mysincerc
apoogies
lorany
ytu
lnconvenience.aused
Shoudyouhaveanyffiquedons, pLe.se
do not hestateto contact

1 s a y / ' l 2 q u i c kn o t e /r e m i n dP/ l e a s e
3 let/ know/ advance
/co-operation
I heres/atta.hed 2 UnJortunalely
/ slqnficaody I wanr/to
4 Let/know/else 5 Shal 6 Getback
1 Im pleased
to telyou that
2 'm sureyouwillbepleased
10
hearthat.
3 woud alsoiketo takethe opportuniiy
to tellyou
a b o u t . . . 4 W o u l da l l s t a fpf l e a sneo t et h a t . . . 5 l t h o u g h t y o u ' d
be interened
to knowthat... 6 | wouldliketo thankyouallfor
y o u vr au a b l e
c o n t r b u t o n . 7 T h a n kasg a nf o r a l l y o uhre l pl e a L l y
apprecate
youhavedone.
t. 8 l'm veryqratelufor everything

49 Emailg - arranging a visit


r d

2 h

1 i^lir

r .
2 6f/Iot

4 a

5 9

6 e

7 f

8 b

3 on/from/to 4 at/on

5 in

6 at

1 lose 2 beann0lled
1 c 2 d

3 b

Emall:rc+8e
E m a l l4
3a + 5 h
E m al 4 3 b+ 7 f

4 a

5 h

6 g

7 f

A e
drcppedmeofi / check-in
/ ex.e$baggage
charge
/ through/ quere/
gate/ rush/ board/ turbulence
/toucheddown/ p.ked/rank/stuck/
rp meoff / Eeipt / earlynight

177

ANSWERKEY
t heeway 2 ext 3 siqnponed 4 on 5 for 6 miss
7 Turn I pan 9 down 10 bocks 11 on 12 main
1 3 f ol o w 1 4 f o r l 5 o r

50 Emailg - rcview
1 lee / contact 2 shal 3 wonder 4 offer/ hesirale
5 remnd 6 know/do 7 would/take 8 appfe.ate 9 note
10 ponpone ll welcome/dsc!$ 12 send 13lake/rsolve
14 not.e 15 asslre 16 oiier 17 insst 18 crrck
19 acknowledg 20 accept
Exercise
50.2
a)5/1/9 b)3/8 .)2/10 d)1t4/6 e)14
i ) 1 1/ 1 6 / 1 8 g ) 1 2 l 1 9 h ) 1 3 t 1 1 1 1 5 / 2 o

53 Presntations - closing and questions


Exirdse53.1
I thatcove6eve.ything 2 the nextsteps 3 lookat someoptons
4 thereistheopiionio 5 generated
a ot of discusson
6 maybeforced 7 woud eadto 8 somed fficllt decsons
9 ourjobisto conslder l0 qivethefloor
I poini 2 explain 3 experiencd4 for 5 op non
6 catch 7 scope/.ftetuards 8 glad 9 on 10 mLn/.ome
1 1 s p cci i 1 2 c o m m e n t 1 3 h a n d / b a c k 1 4 c o ( e c t y
ExeKise53.3
b ) 2 / 6 / 1 1 / 1 4c ) 5 1 1 Ad ) 3 / 1 2 e ) 1 / 1 3
dllA
fl 4/9

54 Presentations - knds I

l note 2 remnd 3lnalzed 4 attached 5 evenl


6 attend 7 qetback 8 co operalion 9 re l0 pot
11 ctc! ate 12 makesure 13 te
14 done

1 grow/expand 2 lal / d@p 3 improve/recover


4 slaylhe eme / bestable 5 moveh qher/ rise
6 evelotf / slabilze 7 shrnk/contract 8 edgedown/ dip

l e 2 h 3 9 4 n 5
6 d 7 a 8 c a J 1 01
1 1f 1 2 b 1 l m l 4 k
Exercise
50.5
I w i t h / t o 2 n / t o 3 l o r 4 f o . 5 b a c k / t o 6 o n/ o v e r
7 in 8 at/ n t h/fo.
10about/irom ll h
1 2 I o t / a l 1 3b y / a t 1 4o n 1 5w i l h

1 boom/oash 2 double/halve 3 edgeop /dp


4 grow/shrink 5 .nprcve
/ deteorate 6 peak/h t a row
7 n a yt h es . m e/ v a r y 8 r s e / l a

1 9on9 2 wonderinq 3 qoesred 4 caused s Folowinq


6 dong 7 made 8 hearing 9 using l0.oncerned
11 getting 12 buying 13 arached t4 foRarded

51 Preseniations - opening
Exerclse
51.1
1 Or behafof 8CCl'd lke to . . 2 cao everyone
seeat rheback?
3 lusl a few wordsaboutr,rysell 4 Im in chargeof plbk relations
5 l ' d l k et o s h o wy o L r. , 6 l ' l t a l ka b o uol u rm . r k e l . n dh o w . . .
7 l/ lmoveon to dscusscunomization 8 Welocuson talonngour
producls.. 9 I veyoua lilte iechncalbackground 10 Let!
b e gn w t h t h s i 6 l s l i d e
l c 2 e : h
Exerdse51.3
r h 2 e 3
1 1| 1 2

4 b

5 l

4 9

5 . 6 j

6 9

7 .
7 a

8 d
8 d

I wenluplgone up 2 grew/grown I rosd/ nsen


d lell/ laller 5 g owlr 6 pxpalsror 7 .olv"clror
8 mprovemeft 9 recovery l0 variaton 11 hal

r rapid 2 qdua 3 sluggsh 4 enormous 5 moderate


6 slght 7 excellent 8 eicouraqing 9 disappoint
nq
I slowgrowll' 2 ngrlcalr lse 3 rapddelelo.ano.
4 slghlimproveme.t 5 considerable
variation
l fiom 2oi

3to

4by

t haveseen 2 s c.lsing

5in

6at

3 w l b r i n g 4 w a s 5 w e r er s n g

55 Prcsentations - trends ll
9 k

l 0 b

1 discus 2 gve 3 show 4 talk 5 rcpod 6 look 7 fill


8 take 9 brinq 10 make 11 outline 12 dea

52 Prcgentations - main body


I leads 2 menioned 3 coneback 4 d qress
5 in moredetail 6 concreie
erample 7 focuson 8 nre$
9 As/can see l0 hghight 1l What s 12 relaie/ context

1 B e c a oqs leo u r . . 2 B e c a uos +


e w ec l r .
3 du!qolr
increased.
. 4 a rcsultol:olr... s resulted
i! a s gnilicant.
6 resulled
6f tom dillcult... 7 whereas
it fell... 8 Mofeover,
they
9 In spiteof lhe fac(that . . l0 Desptere delaying
1 dueto 2 eventhough 3 n spiteoi
5 Howeve. 6 Moreover
cxenise55.3
1 d 2 . 3 e 4 c 5 b

4 asa rsut

1 axis 2 hqhlght 3 reached


a peak 4 havbeenlat
5 a slqhtinoease 6 Notce 7 in linewith I morerapidly
I havea Look 2 highlight
i\ryothinqs 3 notice
9 rcuqhly l0 while 11 mplicatons 12 Although
4 you.an seehow 5 My ownview 6 emphdize
1 3 h g h l yl k e l y 1 4 .e a d t o
7 a t t h sp o n t 8 e t s9 0o n
Exer.ise52.3
55 Presentations - rcview
passesove.these//iheyactlkearrfoils//andthis
1 Aslhewind
g e n e r a tlei ts/ / a n dt u r n s t h set r u c t uar e
sa w h o l e 2 l l s m o E
l b 2 g 3 h 4 d 5 a 6 c 7 f 8 e 9 j 1 0
efir.ent n termsof energyproduction,
andits alsomoregablewilh
llp
1 2 k 1 3 m 1 4 r 1 5 i 1 61 1 7 q 1 8 n
19s 20o
2 tak aboul 3 dealwiih 4 turn myatienionlo
6 expan 7 cover a consder 9 menton

772

ANSWERKEY
I l ' v ed ! d e d m yt a l ki n t o t h e em a i np a r t s . 2 I t y o u h a v e a n y
quesuons,
please
feellreeto lrterupr. 3 Let! examinethis
in more
detai 4 Junto d gressfora moment,... 5 OK,thatSal I want
point.
ro sayabouttheinst point 6 Le15moveor tothe second
7 M yo w nv e w o ni h s i s
8 Asyoucanseeo
t hni s n e r t s i d e , . . .
9 Whatisthe reason
forths?lhe reason
is
10 Letmeexplain
wth a concEteexampe. 11 beganbyte lingyoua linleabout. .
Thenlexplandhow . Afterthatltalkedabout... 12 Thankyou
al ior comig aid hope1! beenuseful.
3 with
4 on to
5 io
6 back to
10 n/of
1l lot 12 nlir

Exercise
56.4
1 nad/ ntoducng 2 digress/momenl 3 useiu/background
4 examine/deta 5 xpan/concrele 6 highight/ diagram
1 d-)at-t a e.r
8 b'i19s/erd 9 erpan/again
1 0 q u e s t o n / o p i n i o n1 1 s . o p e / a f t e N a d s l 2 t m e / q u e s t i o n
Exercise
56.5
1 Notce 2 axis 3 ufits 4 draw 5 rose 6 neadily
7 havecontnued 8 alhough 9 steady 10 groMh
1 1 d u e1 0 1 2 E v e sn o l ! o n 1 4 o v e r 1 5 t o 1 6 n q u e
17 ookat 18 look off 19 we.ercaly ookinggood
20 haddone 2l However 22 hasbeen 23 sudden 24 drcp
25 feasons 26 about 27 comrnetus 28 highly 29 likely
30 by

57 Meetings - opinions
1 what 2 in mind 3 seerns
to me 4 mypoinlol view
5 agree 6 Youterighr 7 up to a pont 8 youmean
Exercbe57.2
1 However 2 Adually 3 Luckiy 4 obvously 5 hgenera
-Feooiir
6
s 7 E a s i c a l ?S B y r t e w d y 9 n a y o p r . i o .
Exercise
57.3_
1 Strongdsaqreement 2 Polrte
degreement
3 Notgramrnalica
ly possbe
1 Realy?Doyouthinkso? 2 'm notsosure.boutthat 3 l'm
sorrythat3not howlseei1 4 | reay can'iagreewithyo! rhere.
Exercire57.5
1 b 2 c 3 a 4 9 5 d 6 1 7 e

58 Meelings - making things cleai


I rnssed/say 2 cear/ saying 3
4 arrive/lgure 5 exactly
/ mean
7 alow/expiain 8 ittle/ specifk

i u.derstand
/expa n 2 throoqh 3 over
4 s l g h tm s u f d e f i t a n d i n q5 p u t / w a y 6 c o m ei n
1 whal 2 how onq 3 when 4 howoften 5 who
6 which 7 howmr.h I where

59 Meetings - problem-solving
Exercise
59.1
1 several/d,aawith 2 openlp/vies
: suppose
/ riqht
4 sounds/workn praciice 5 pros/cons 6 Ontheonehand/
on the otherhand 7 makea suggenlon/nnead/why do.'t
I implcatons 9 genera/altholgh 10 besiwaylotuard

Exer.ise59.2
1 OK,leis do that. 2 Whatabout.. ? 3 Thatba complet
waste
oi time 4 Whydon'twe ..? 5 Yes,thatwouldworkrealy
well. 6 5hallwe ? 7 Thatsoundske a qoodidea 8 Can
makea suggeston? 9 ca. seeoneor two probemswithihat.
10 'm not realyslreaboutthat. 11 ThaimLght
bewonhtryinq.
I 2 I donl thinkit woud workin practice
Exer.ise59.3
a )2 1 4 1 6l a b ) 1 / 5 / 1 / 1 1 . J 3 / 9 / 1 0 / 1 2
I apoblem 2.elulon

3 a s L g g e s t i o n4 a d e o s r o r

1 a facdwith 2 tacke 3 lqure out 4 worktowards


5 comeup with 6 endsweightto 7 impement 8 hsbehind

60 Meetings - leading a meting


' F . g h/l: l d ' 1
z r l / d p o o q , e l r L r o*rl p e p I S , b e S i l
4 b a t h r o o m / h a l 5 c o p y / a q e n d a6 t a k e /m r u t e s
/9"r'11'ol9q
/ eylwo'd: I baCgoLrd,Jsel-l 9 dgerdd
l 0 b l e f / p o i n t l 1 s t r a i g h t / i t e m1 2 k i c k / o f l
I agenda 2 mnutes 3 qetthrough 4 item 5 kickoii
I AmE 2 8rE
I rrhinkwe cansloplhe.e. 2 Id iketo sum!p. 3 Thereare
l h r e em a i nc o n c l u s o n s4. I n r e r r n s o i a c t i o n p o n t s , . ,5. A r e
rhe.eanyoiherpoinis? 6 Havelmssedafy'rhngT 7 ihink t
wasalery lseiulmeetrig. 8 | c rcllatelhe minues. 9 Carrwe
l i xa d a t en o w ? r 0 C a . j l s t h a v e a q ! c k w o . d w t h y o ! ?
ExeKiee50.5
I coLrldyoujun hangon a momentplease? 2 Ofe at, tme,
pease. 3 Lelsla!th.t asdfor themoment. 4 Canwe come
backro rhislarer? 5 lthink we needto ookalths in moredetai.
6 Weneedto analyze
thisin a ittlemoredepth 7 lstheranylhng
eseweshoudcoisder? 8 whal othe.ways
arethereto approach
rhis) 9 Canwe 9o roJ.d tl^elabe lo see,fever/oreag?ei
I 0 Lets90 overwhatwe'ved sclssed
sofar.

61 Meetingr - negotiating I
3 prlorities 4 mean 5 tfirn
8 mnmum 9 concer. 10tmes.ae
ll quoted 12 march 1 l a s o n a b e 1 4 g u a r a n i e e
knd oilson ot / discount
/ limesca
e / think.q of / lalkingabout/

I qlite high 2 wereyo! expearing ! Someth


n9 around
4 iandad forths market 5 a ltte ow 6 suchlargediscolfts
7 solonq 8 haven mlnd 9 production
schedule
10 iems of p.yment I1 pre-payment 12 gu ar customeu

AIIIiWER KEY

62 Meetings - negotiating tl
EJGrcise
62.1
I minimuhorder 2 viabe/con-etfectve/run j p.e-payment
/
lrct time 4 upfront 5 'll advan.e
/ batafce/detivery
/ cashftow
6 authority
/ by myself

let meput il another


way
fhe chankeepsthediscusi@novinq
leavethataside/ relev:nt
Camileiu99es6 rhe nst steps

I vable 2 uplronr 3 baance


Exeftise62-3
1 p r e i e r / o r d r2 p r e p a r e d / t e r mjs h a v e / m n d
4 a c c p t / c o n d t i o n5 w t t l r g / . o m p @ m k e6 s h o u t d / p o s i b t e
7 sorids/ reasonable8 momenr/revew g throlq / rd.
l0 qolstage 11 cose/deat t2 jlst/sqn

fhe <hanask fat rcpettion

Absolutely
/ actonpoints
Ihe cbdi checksag.menr
qo.oundthe table/moveon
atter sometine, the chandosesttp neeting
m p u l / u s e t u l / fti hr e t m e / h a v a
e q u k kw o r d

2corder/4b discounr
/ 3a proposat/td deal
la detals/ td deadlre/ 4b concess
on/ 2c compbmise

63 Meetings - diplomatic language


a ) 1 3 b l 4 / 1 3 c )8 d ) t ) 8 f l 1 t 9
h )4 / 6 / 7 i ) 1 / 2 l 1 A
cxeKise63.2
r e 2 a 3 j 4 b s c 6 9 7 h 8 i

s)12

9 d

t o i

1 Therebjlstonerhing d tikelo add. 2 Tobehonest,


that
woLlb
d el e t d ' 4 c rI
? t l s e r s - o n e t r l y o L r e o e i n g pa t i
r Wo"td.I n bebelFrro Jse.d,trarsponi
oot
"r|cly,
5 Actua
th s ine s norveryproftabe. 6 trhinkir m ght be bener
ro reave
lhat pofl u.til ate.
I l $ ordereds.000oe.es.s1ai so.lo, dEcor1rloud yoL9ve)
/ | you!il! 5u%r advd
Te. wesojd giveyougererourrermslor

64 Meetingr - rcview
fhe .han ooe.s the heting
Rlght/thanks
lof coming/ sendshs apotogies
/ housekeepinq
/ short
break/copyoi theagenda
/ rakethe rninotes
/ sright/ item/ kickofl
Matek prents lone altenati!$
d e a l w i t thh s s 5 ! e / p o s a n d c o . s / o p l o n / l a v o l r / a t t h o u g h
Thechat asksCanile far het rca.tion.
i e d / h a v es o r ne x p e r l e . c e
upto a point/ true/ tryinglo say/ put it simpy

Cahile repeas

I getd@n 2 areyo! tooking 3 miqhrbeabte


4 drdyouhave 5 Insread
ol 6 :re wetatkino
7 a viableoption 8 upiroit 9 reatynot su
l0 movingioeard I I areyouhappy t2 be prepareo
13 solndsreasonabl14 hava de.l
I Ihat mightbequheexpns
ve 2 Wewoutdwaft a signifcanry
ra.gerd6counl. 3 Thee! jun onelhingtd tke io d t
4 Wouldnl il bebter10tplit theorde.intonro consignments?
5 'm not tolallyconvinced
by ths eninare. 6 tundeEtood
we
couldhaveihe produ.tson a ria basis 7 Whatso ot qlantty
weyou lhinkingot? 8 Unlonlnatety,
r m.y not beveryeasyro
arrange
that 9 Wetehavingoneortwo ssoes
ai ourf.ctoryright
now 10 Tobe honsl.
we wereexpecting
a Mo-yearwafianly.
ll lr seems
lo meth.t yournewfanqeis moreor tessr e s.meas
youroErange. t2 wouldn,lit beeaserto paya intemorcafd
shipthe goodsbyAif Express?

65 Susinessrepofts and proposals - repoats I


Etftke 65.1
1 execurive
summ.ry 2lndings 3 coverpage
4 fecommendarions
5 contenrs 6 p.ocedure 7 appeidx
a termsol EIernce 9 conctus
ons 10 acknowtedgements
EreEie 65.2
1 l 2 n 3 b 4 q 5 l 6 e 7 m 8 l 9 i j O c
rh
129 t3p 14a 15k t6o t7r 18d

66 Businesi rcports and p.oposals - repods ll

Thechat block ke intenuptian


lln et / ilnish/comeback
cotred/wrong/ seems
Marckcone.tsthe nisuntletstanding
expa ied riyselfcleary/meanr/trying/ matteiof lact
adnananakesa suqgestion
Matekrek.ts thesuqgstion
s o u n d s / w o rnkp r a c ( . e p/ o i n r
rhe .han widss thedb.u$ian
approach
/ anyrhing
e se/ consider
camillegjvesan opjnih
carefully
/ imp caiions/on ihe ofe hand
Adnanafacues the discussion
arar2e/ iitile/ depth/ tend
Marck asksfar clarifiGtioh

774

I lhrssolution 2 share/ <otaborate 3 centatGsource


I conslderable/
areexpec(ed
ro 2 tendto / miqhrnoi be
3 Ar theea.liest
possible
opportlnty / a production
p anningmetng
4 quitepoor/ maybe 5 retaiive
y/ financial
resource5
6 lt ispossible
that/obtained 7 istketytobe/consequefl.er
8 manypeopleare/ typicttyteads
ro 9 a.isingfrom/ p.esenred
l0 oumerous/encouraqinq
1 Theeme strategy
Gn belsed 2 rheenvnormenra
impactof
thse changes
willbeconsideEd. ! canontyb done 4 shoud

67 Businesgreportg and proposals- proposals I


1 scope 2 Gantt.han 3 deiverabes 4 stare-of-the
art

ANsWERKEY
1 .ut/shorten 2 positon/ eadingplayer 3 secondary
4 co.duct/ survey 5 in-depth 6 extensive/lield
7 rcmaining
/ absorbed 8 costffediva
manner 9 long-laning

r b

2 b

3 b

2 d

3 d t .

4 b

68 Buginesgrcports and proposals- pioposals ll


I reducebaddebt 2 outsource
to emovefixedcostsfromthe
paym 3 nceasetheabsolute
vaiueoi e.chlr.nectior
4 eihancejobpedormance 5 reduce
tumwerahongkeynalf
membe6 6 enhance
mantainablily 7 complywith
gulatory
standards 8 conformto a sp*iic quaity meihodolog,
9 preserye
theva!e ol egacysynems 10 reduce
dNntime
1l irnpemenlthe
mostprovenapproach 12 addrcss
health
andsafet ssues 13 avoidlablilyconcems 14 focuson core
Exer<i5e
64.2
(firslandihirdsentences
Cornpiance,/
of'Adion Planand
Capabites / (fn* two senreices
ot Custom
Computing:
specia
expertiseit
second
sentence
oi 'ActionPanandDeliverables';
lourth
sentence
ol 'conclus
on')
Value,/(thrd senience
ol 'CunomCompuringr
specialexpertise
)

69 Bqsinessreports and propotals - linking


words
l d 2 h 3 a 4 g 5c 6 b 7 i 8 j 9 e 1 0 i
Exercise
69,2
lie 2e9
Exe(ke 59.3
I Moreover 2 n conlGst 3 .tact 4 lngeneral 5 Theefore
6 I np a n c u l a r 7 O v e r a l 8 Clearly
Ercr.lse 69.4
1 Regardng 2 Cleady 3 rnpadcuaf 4 n fact 5 rvloover
6 Onthewhole 7 However I 5econdly 9 forexample
l0 So 11 whereas 12 Onbaance

70 Businessreports and proposals - review


I Thisreponwascommisonedby Ha.sOberlander,
CEOof theALito
Corporation 2 am 3 oi m;rket 4 ln padiculal 5 steadily
6 signicant 7 Onthedemand
side 8 research
shows
9 are keyio 10 an impact 11 sLchas 12 dfappointing
13 marketresearch
company 14 ca.ryolt 15 concern
16 typicaly 17 areLnableto 9o verylast 18 findinqs
19 io owlng 20 inceasngly 21 tend 22 dueto 23 main
24 payn9moreatentionto 25 linancialresolrces

We proposeto conducta reviewof yourstoreto seehow Cosed


(ccM cameras
CncuitTelsision
couldbe usedmon efiectvely,and
thencomplete
the installation
of ihe synem
Yourgoalislo educeshoplftingbyinnalling
wallmountedcameras
yourstore,andto havetheseInkedto monitoEat a cent.al
inside
Thepojectwil in.udethefolowngaclivities:
a ldentityihbesllocatonsforCCWcameras
andlrna ihe cameras
a ldentiJy
the bestlocatonior a centralsecur
iy desk,wrththe
presence
moniloBanda visible
of secuitype6o.nel.
A timelable
tor thediffe@riphases
ol the prolects included
asan
appendix.
Westimatethattheloialtimeequnedforthisprojclis
oeliverables
rorth s ploiecrwil include
a Approximately
30 CCWcameras,
wilh two asso.iated
monitoEat
thecenrral
desk,allf!ily instaledandchecked.
o All additional
materials
suchascables
etc.
we rccommend
thatyouconlract
burcompanylointrala ccry
syneminsdeFashion
Supe6tore.
Thissynemwil dramati(aly
reduce
yourlosesduelo shoplflng
Ou.approach
isbasedon ourMentyyea6 erp.en<e
oi poudng
secunty
slutonr In rheretais<tor
We haverun this pogram successfully
in oversixiyl(atds
Wewillassign
ro ths p@te.rthefoll@ingleam:
. An n-storese.lnty expen,M. BobP.*er *tlo has(F t6 Fa6
expe.ience
in lhis lield and p.eviouslyrc.td fd ih pol(e
a Fourqualined
eleclicians.
a A lrainetMsBearrice
Ste.ne,
member
of rhelnslluleol Trainiog.
Seethe figus in the attachedcasenudy,whichdescibesa very
simlarprclecithatwe caniedollt an year
Youwanl to do lhis in a con-eftectiveway.
Aspecialreponon
peBonnel,
paftic!adywith
how10manage
secudty
.egard1oalw.yskping
ther attentonon thejob
wewillchargea tot lfee of 254,000forths prolect.
Thisincudsal
the temsrefer.ed
lo.bove,with no hiddenextr.s.
8.sedon thefigusyouprovided
usandon informalion
obta.ed
trofi p.evious
assignmenis
we havecadedout,we esr.nate
thatthis
system
willpayfor ii5efwithineghtenmonths.
In addition,
the synemwil helpplovde a snferenvonmeit for
shoppe6.
Whentheyseethe(ameras
theywll fee esswored abod
dange.s
suchasle.vinqtheiibagsunattended
on thef oorwh e they
lookal clothesThissafe.e.vironmeot
is ikeyto eadto5hoppeu
spendng moretimeinsideFashion
Supeutore
andtherelofe
spendinq

Capabilitie6

Understandinq
yournocklosses

Staffinq

, /

17

ANSWER KEY

Intewiews
I Interview with a private equity invedor
I equity/ debt 2 buildup/ brcakdown
4 playels/ lawyels/ tax

3 eiit

2 Interview with an entrepneneut


3
4
6
8

havegood insinc6 aboutotherpeople


donl go to 5 rclk alongsidedployes
getboredquicky 7 ned a goodieambehindlhem
difficult

3 Intorviow with a managemer*trainee


a testfor numecalandproblem-rolving
skilb
an interuew \4ith an HRmanagerwjth nomal job-rlatedqustions
lJrci. wieresocialskrlls
aleobrtod
a .oleplayexercise
io test management
skillt
a teamwo* ten wherca grollpof peopledil(|issa scenarioand
choo5ethe ben idea
6 a rcportwiting exercise
1
2
3
4
5

4 Intervlew with a supply .hain rn.nage.


1 F(f |sttlersupplier
andsecond
tiersupplier
a rae6,ed)
2 f 3 F 4 r
5 Interview wlth a 9ale9 managet
seesnpr

6 Intervlew with a markting dilactol


Product
b

Priceb

Paceb Pbmotionb

7 hterviw with . financedlEctor


1 receivable 2 overdraft 3 cashflovv 4 sheet
5 invokes 6 variance 7 govrnanre 8 auditoE

8 Interviw wlth a human re!rcurcer director


1 b / c 2 b

3 c

'l

176