PHYSICS
S T U D Y M A T E R I A L
ROTATIONAL MOTION
IITJEE
NARAYANA INSTITUTE OF CORRESPONDENCE COURSES
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2004 NARAYANA GROUP
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ROTATIONAL MOTION
1. Theory
2. Solved Problems
(Subjective, Objective, Multiple Choice, Passage Based,
Matching , AssertionReason)
3. Assignments
Section  IV
4. Answers
ROTATIONAL MOTION
IITJEESyllabus
Rigid body, moment of inertia, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems, moment of inertia of
uniform bodies with simple geometrical shapes; Angular momentum; Torque; Conservation of
angular momentum; Dynamics of rigid bodies with fixed axis of rotation; Rolling without slipping
of rings, cylinders and spheres Equilibrium of rigid bodies; Collision of point masses with
rigid bodies
(b) Rotation:
A rigid body is said to undergo pure rotation if
it moves such that its constituent particles
move along circular arcs, the centres of which Figure : “Translation preserves orientation”
lie on a straight line perpendicular to the plane AB = A2B2 (rigid body)
of the arcs. This straight line is known as the AB  A2B2 (translation)
axis of rotation, and the rigid body is said to ∴ ABB2A2 is a parallelogram
JJJJG JJJG
undergo pure rotation about this axis. ⇒ AA 2 = BB 2 .
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In the following figures we give two examples: one of translation and one of rotation. One should try to
understand how they fit in with the definitions.
A1 A2
B1 A2 B2
A B2
B1 A3
B A0 A1 A0
B3
B0
B4
A4
AB  A1B1  A2B2
Figure: Orientation is preserved and therefore the Figure: Orientation is not preserved. Note that
motion is translation. Note that the circular particles A and B move along concentric
motion of A, B take place with centres at A0, B0 circles in the same plane. The motion is
respectively: but their centres don’t lie on a rotation about an axis perpendicular to plane
straight line perpendicular to the plane of of the paper and passing through A0 .
motion.
The axis of rotation may be fixed in space (stationary axis) or moving (changing in position or direction). In
this chapter, we are going to discuss the rotation of a rigid body about a fixed axis, and also about an axis
which may be moving but without any change in its orientation (pure rolling). The following figures show both
types of rotation:
Figure: Rotation about a stationary axis: A fixed Figure: Rotation about a translating axis: A cylinder
pulley with a falling block attached to it by rolling on an inclined plane.
means of a string.
The physics of rotational motion may be studied using the following kinematic variables:
(i) orientation, measured by an angular variable, θ
(ii) the angular velocity, ω , and,
(iii) the angular acceleration, α .
ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS
Let us consider the rotation of a rigid body about a fixed axis, i.e. w.r.t. an axis that is fixed in some arbitrary
frame of reference (not necessarily inertial).
We take a convenient point O on this axis, choosing this as our origin and the y
axis of rotation itself as the zaxis, we take another pair of axes x and y, forming a P
triad of mutually perpendicular lines intersecting at O. Conventionally, the three
axes are chosen so as to form a right handed system of coordinates.
We take a particle, P, of the rigid body in the xy plane. Since the body undergoes
rotation about the zaxis, the particle P rotates in a circle centred at O with the θ x
radius OP. O
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(i) Angular Position and Displacement: The angle made by OP with the xaxis is denoted by θ ,
and this specifies the orientation of the rigid body. It is, in general, a function of time. If it is chosen to
be zero at the initial instant, it is referred to as the angular displacement. Angular displacement is a
very important quantity. It is the same for all particles of a rigid body during rotation. Thus the
rotational motion of all the particles of a rigid body may be described using a single angular variable
θ. It is measured in the anticlockwise sense with respect to the axis of rotation, and its unit is radian.
Angular displacement (or position) is not, in general, a vector quantity as it does not obey the rules of
vector addition. Infinitesimal angular displacements are, however, vectors.
(ii) Angular Velocity : The average angular velocity, ωav , is defined as
θ2 − θ1
ωav =
t 2 −t 1
where, θ2 and θ1 represent the orientations of the body at times t 2 and t 1 (t 2 > t 1 ) respectively.
The instantaneous angular velocity, ω is defined by,
∆θ
ω = lim
∆t → 0 ∆t
θ (t + t ) − θ ( t ) dθ
= lim = .
∆t → 0 ∆t dt
→
The angular velocity vector ω may be defined by :
ω = d θ nˆ , where n̂ is the unit vector directed along the axis of rotation (in this case : the zaxis).
→
dt
The angle θ is measured in the anticlockwise sense, in a plane perpendicular to the vector nˆ , using
the righthandscrew rule.
3
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Illustration 1. A wheel rotates with a constant acceleration of 4.0 rad/s2 starting with an initial angular velocity of
2.0 rad/s. If the wheel starts from rest, how many revolutions will it make in the first 5 seconds?
Solution : The angular displacement in the first 5 seconds is given by:
1 2 1
θ = ω0t +
αt = 2.0 × 5 + (4.0 rad/s2) (5s)2 = 60 rad.
2 2
The wheel turns by 2 π radians in each revolution, the number of revolutions in 5 s is
60
n= = 9.6 (approx).
2π
Illustration 2. Starting from rest, a fan takes ten seconds to attain the maximum speed of 600 rpm (revolutions per
minute). Assuming constant acceleration, find the time taken by the fan in attaining half the
maximum speed.
Solution : Let the angular acceleration be α . According to the question,
600 rev/min = 0 + α 10. … (i)
Let t be the time taken in attaining the speed of 300 rev/min which is half the maximum.
Then, 300 rev/min = 0 + αt. … (ii)
Dividing (i) by (ii), we get,
10
2= or, t = 5 s.
t
Illustration 3. A body rotates with an angular acceleration which is linearly proportional to its angular
displacement (θ): α = λθ, the proportionality constant λ being positive. Find the angular
velocity of the body as a function of angular displacement and the angular displacement as a
function of time. It is given displacement as a function of time. It is given that ω = ω0 and
θ = θ0 at t = 0; where ω0 = λθ0 .
Solution : It is given that:
α = λθ
d ω d ωd θ dω
Now, α = = =ω .
dt d θ dt dθ
dω
∴ ω = λθ .
dθ
ω2 θ2
Integrating, we get, = λ +C 1 .
2 2
For t = 0,
ω20 θ2
= λ 0 +C 1 .
2 2
Using the given condition, C1 = 0
∴ ω2 = λθ2
or, ω = λθ .
dθ
To find θ = θ (t), we write ω =
dt
dθ
= λθ
dt
θ t
dθ θ
or, ∫θ θ = λ ∫0 dt or, ln
θ0
= λt
0
λt
or, θ = θ0e .
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Illustration 4. In torsional oscillations, it is observed that the angular acceleration α, is proportional to θ, the
angular displacement but directed opposite: α = – λθ, λ = a positive constant. Integrate the above
expression, retaining the arbitrary constants and obtain θ as a function of time t.
Solution : This is similar to the previous illustration in that the steps are identical.
dω
ω= = −λθ .
dθ
Separating variables and integrating,
ω2 λ
= − θ2 + C 1, where C1 is the constant of integration.
2 2
λθ20
C1 is written in the form: .
2
The expression for ω becomes
ω2 = λ( θ02 − θ2 )
or, ω = ± λ θ20 − θ2 .
Taking the positive root (the case with the negative root is being left as an exercise for the student),
we write,
dθ
= λ θ20 − θ2
dt
dθ
or, ∫ θ2 − θ2 = λ ∫ dt
0
θ
or, sin −1 = λt + φ0 , where φ0 is the constant of integration.
θ0
∴ θ = θ0 sin( λt + φ0 ) .
Illustration 5. A body is rotating with an angular retardation proportional to the square of its angular
speed: α = −b ω2 , b > 0.
(a) Find its angular speed when it has turned through one complete revolution.
(b) The ratio of the times taken to complete the 1st and the 2nd revolution is
t1 1
= . Find the value of b.
t2 2
d ω d ωd θ dω
Solution : (a) Angular acceleration α = = =ω .
dt dt dt dθ
dω
∴ω = −b ω2
dθ
dω
or, = −bd θ .
ω
Integrating, [ ln ω]ω = − [b θ]0
ω θ
0
ω
∴ ln = −b θ
ω0
∴ ω = ω0e − b θ . … (i)
For one rotation θ = 2π , hence from equation (i)
( ω)θ=2 π = ω0e −2 πb .
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dθ
(b) From equation (i), = ω0e −b θ
dt
dθ 1 bθ
∴ dt = = e dθ
ω0e − b θ ω0
2π
1 2 πb
∴ t 1 = ∫ e b θd θ = (e − 1)
0
ω0
4π
1 1 4 πb
∫e
bθ
and t 2 = dθ= (e − e 2 πb )
ω0 2π
ω0
2 πb
t1 e −1 1
∴ = 2 πb 2 πb = 2 πb .
t 2 e (e − 1) e
t1 1
But = (given)
t2 2
1 1
∴ = 2 πb
2 e
or, e 2 πb = 2
1
2 πb = ln 2 or, b = ln 2 .
2π
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The relations v = rω and a = rα are very useful and their meanings should be clearly understood. Different
particles of the rigid body, have different radii for their circles of rotation, but the same values for ω & α. .
Thus, the tangential speed and the tangential acceleration of different particles are different. For r = 0 i.e., for
the particles on the axis, ν = rω = 0 and a = rα = 0, since the particles on the axis do not move at all relative to
the axis itself.
ROTATIONAL DYNAMICS
1 2 2
= ∑ m i ri ω
2 i
1 2
= Iω .
2
where I = ∑ m i ri 2 , is defined as the moment of inertia of the body about the given axis.
i
For a discrete distribution, the moment of inertia I, is given by:
I = ∑ m i ri 2
i
Illustration 6. A nitrogen molecule which consists of two nitrogen atoms separated by a distance 1.3 × 10 −10 m , has
an average rotational kinetic energy of about 4 × 10 −21 J . Find the moment of inertia of the nitrogen
molecule about its centre of mass and its angular frequency of rotation. Given mass of a nitrogen atom
(
= 14 u 1u = 1.67 ×10 −27 kg . )
Solution : m = 14 u = 14 × 1.67 × 10 −27 kg = 2.338 × 10 −26 kg .
1.3 ×10 −10 m
The interatomic separation, a = 1.3 × 10 −10 m and the
rotational kinetic energy, KE = 4 × 10 −21 J . The two
atoms are identical, therefore the centre of mass is at a
a
distance from either atom. Therefore, the moment of
2
inertia of a nitrogen molecule about its centre of mass is
7
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2
a ma 2 1
( )
2
I = 2m = = × 2.338 ×10 −26 × 1.3 ×10 −10 = 1.98 ×10 46 kg m 2 .
2 2 2
1 2
Since, KE = I ω ,
2
2KE
ω= = 6.36 ×1012 rad s1 (substituting the values).
I
Illustration 7. Three point  masses 2 kg, 3 kg and 7 kg are located at the vertices of an equilateral triangle of side 6
m. What is the moment of inertia of the system about an axis along an altitude of the triangle passing
through the 2 kg mass?
Solution : Moment of inertia about altitude AD is
I = m 1 × ( distance of m 1 from AD ) + m 2
2
A m1 = 2kg
× ( distance of m 2 from A D )
2
+m 3 × ( distance of m 3 from AD )
2
6m
= m 1 × 0 + m 2 × ( BD ) + m 3 × (CD )
2 2
2 2
a a
= 0 + m2 × + m3
2 2 D
2 B C
a 62 m2 = 3kg m3 = 7kg
= ( m 2 + m 3 ) = ( 3 + 7 ) = 90 kg m 2 .
4 4
Radius of Gyration:
The radius of gyration of a body about a certain axis is given by k, which is related to the moment of inertia I
about the same axis by the relation,
I = mk 2 .
Illustration 8. Find the radius of gyration of a uniform rod of length A and mass m about an axis passing through
the centre of mass of the rod and making an angle θ with the rod.
Solution : The moment of inertia of the rod about the given axis can be easily found by integration :
A
2
m 1
∫ dx ( x sin θ)
2
I= = m A2 sin 2 θ = m k 2
A A 12
−
2
A sin θ
k = .
2 3
Mass = M
CM
Here, M is the mass of the body and d is the distance between the two axes.
8
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Illustration 9. Four solid spheres, each of mass m and radius r are located with their centres on four corners of a
square of side a. What is the moment of inertia of the system about an axis (a) along any diagonal
and (b) along any side of the square?
5 5 2 5 2
Hence the moment of inertia (MI) of the system of four spheres about diagonal AB is
I AB = MI of C about AB + MI of B about AB
+ MI of C about AB + MI of D about AB.
2 2 2 1 2 1
= mr 2 + mr 2 + mr 2 + ma 2 + mr 2 + ma 2
5 5 5 2 5 2
8 8r 2
= mr 2 + ma 2 = m +a2 .
5 5
(b) Moment of inertia of sphere A about side AD = moment of inertia of sphere D about
2
side AD = mr 2 . Using the parallel axis theorem, moment of inertia of sphere C
5
2
about AD = moment of inertia of sphere B about AD = mr 2 + ma 2 . Hence the
5
moment of inertia of the system of four spheres about side AD is IAD = MI of A about
AD + MI of D about AD + MI of B about AD + MI of C about AD
8 8r 2
= mr 2 + 2ma 2 = m + 2a 2 .
5 5
NOTE
Remember that the perpendicular axis theorem does not apply to three dimensional objects but only to two dimensional
objects or, lamina.
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Shape of body Axis of Rotation passing through Expression for Moment of Inertia
1. Circular ring of mass (i) centre, perpendicular to plane MR2
M and radius R of ring
(ii) any diameter (1/2) MR2
(iii) any tangent in the plane of ring (3/2) MR2
(iv) any tangent perpendicular to 2MR2
plane of ring
2. Circular disc of mass (i) centre, perpendicular to plane (1/2) MR2
M and radius R of disc
(ii) any diameter (1/4) MR2
(iii) tangent in the plane of the disc (5/4) MR2
(iv) tangent perpendicular to plane (3/2) MR2
of disc
3. Sphere of mass M and (i) any diameter (2/5) MR2
radius R (ii) any tangent plane (7/5) MR2
4. Cylinder of mass M, (i) own axis (1/2) MR2
radius R and length L
R 2 L2
(ii) centre perpendicular to length M +
4 12
(iii) end faces and to length R 2 L2
M +
4 3
2
5. One dimensional rod (i) centre of rod and to length ML /12
of mass M and length (ii) one end and to length ML2/3
L
6. Rectangular lamina of (i) length of lamina and in its MB2/3
mass M, length L and plane
breadth B (ii) breadth of lamina and in its ML2/3
plane
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1
Illustration 10. MR 2 .
The moment of inertia of a uniform circular disc of mass M and radius R about its axis is
2
What is the moment of inertia of the disc about (i) a diameter (ii) an axis tangential to its
circumference?
1
Solution : The moment of inertia of the disc about its axis is MR 2 . Let us consider two
2
perpendicular diameters, one along the xaxis and the other along the yaxis.
Then , I x = I y
(i) According to the theorem of perpendicular axes, the moment of inertia of the disc
about an axis passing through its centre and normal to its plane is given by
1 1
IC = I x + I y or MR 2 = 2I x or I x = MR 2 .
2 4
(ii) Since the disc is uniform, its centre of mass coincides with its centre. Therefore, the
moment of inertia of the disc about an axis tangential to its circumference is
I t = I CM + Md 2
= I CM + MR 2
1
= MR 2 + MR 2
2
3
= MR 2 .
2
Illustration 11. Find the moment of inertia of an arc of a ring of radius R, given that the arc subtends an angle θ at the
center of the ring and the mass of the arc is m and the axis is along the line joining center of the ring
and the midpoint of the arc.
1
= 2λR 3 × (θ − sin θ) .
4
m
Since, λ=
Rθ
1 sin θ
∴ I = mR 2 1 − .
2 θ
Note: The moment of inertia about an axis perpendicular to this axis, lying in the plane of the ring, is
1 sin θ
I1= mR 2 1 + . We obtain this using the perpendicular axis theorem.
2 θ
11
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TORQUE
The torque due to a force (or, forces) describes the tendency of the force to cause rotation or alter the state of
G
rotational motion of the body on which it acts. Torque due to a force F acting at A about an axis is given by,
G G G
τ = rA × F ,
G
where r A is the position vector of the point A where the force F acts on the body. The origin of coordinates is
chosen to lie on the axis. Newton’s second law leads to the expression,
τ=Iα
where I may be treated like a scalar for symmetric bodies and the axis of rotation is parallel to an axis of
symmetry.
The general approach to solving complex problems involving rigid body motion is summarised below.
In case of pure rotation, it is convenient to take the net torque about the axis of actual rotation instead of
the centre of mass.
(iv) Solve all the equations in steps (ii) and (iii) for the unknown quantities, taking care to perform appropriate
checks.
(v) Use kinematics, if velocities and displacements are required to be found in the problem.
Solution : The figure shows an Atwood’s machine. As the pulley has a finite mass, the two tensions
T1 and T2 are not equal. If a be the linear acceleration of the system, then according to
Newton’s laws, we get,
m 1 g −T1 = m 1a … (i)
T2 − m 2 g = m 2 a … (ii)
Net torque on the pulley in the clockwise direction,
= (T1 −T 2 ) R … (iii)
We know that,
Torque = Moment of inertia × Angular acceleration
= I ×α
12
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1 Linear acceleration a
where, I = MR 2 and α = = .
2 R R
1 a
Torque = MR 2 × … (iv)
2 R
From equation (iii) and (iv), we get
1
(T1 −T2 ) = Ma … (v)
2
Adding equation (i) and (ii) , we have
( m 1 − m 2 ) g = ( m 1 + m 2 ) a + (T1 −T2 ) .
Substituting the value of (T1 −T2 ) from equation (v), we get,
1
( m1 − m 2 ) g = (m1 + m 2 ) a + Ma
2
( m1 − m 2 ) g
∴ a= … (vi)
1
m1 + m 2 + M
2
Given that,
m 1 = 15 k g , m 2 = 10 k g and M = 10 kg
( 25 − 10 ) × 9.8
∴ α= .
15 + 10 + 5
From equation (i), T1 = m 1 g − m 1a = m1 ( g − a )
Illustration 13. A uniform cylinder of radius R and mass M can rotate freely about a
stationary horizontal axis O (see figure). A thin cord of length A and
mass m is wound on the cylinder in a single layer. Find the angular
acceleration of the cylinder as a function of the length x of the hanging
part of the cord. The wound part of the cord may be supposed to have its x
centre of gravity on the cylinderaxis.
13
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ANGULAR MOMENTUM
Angular momentum of a rigid body undergoing pure rotation about a fixed axis is given by
G G
L =Iω
where I is the moment of inertia of the body about the axis of rotation and ω , its angular velocity. It is related
to torque much like linear momentum is related to force:
G dpG
F =
dt
G
G dL
τ= .
dt
G
Angular momentum is a vector quantity and it is directed along ω , provided I can be treated as a scalar ( i.e.
the rotation is along one of the axes of symmetry).
Angular momentum is conserved if the net torque acting on a body about the given axis is zero. The law of
conservation of angular momentum is frequently used, for example in analysing motion under a central force,
collisions between extended bodies, etc.
Illustration 14. A symmetrical body is rotating about its axis of symmetry, its moment of inertia about the axis of
rotation being 1 kgm2 and its rate of rotation 2 rev./sec. (a) What is its angular momentum ? (b)
What additional work will have to be done to double its rate of rotation ?
Solution : (a) As the body is rotating about its axis of symmetry, the angular momentum vector
coincides with the axis of rotation.
∴ Angular momentum L = I ω … (i)
14
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1 2
Kinetic energy of rotation E = Iω
2
or 2 E = I ω2 from which, we get,
∴ Iω= ( 2IE ) … (ii)
From equation (i) and (ii), L = 2IE … (iii)
ω = 2 rev/sec = 2 × 2π or 4π radian s1.
1
∴ E = × 1× ( 4 π ) = 8π2 joules.
2
2
Now, L = ( 2 IE ) = ( 2 × 1 × 8π )
2
= (16π ) = 4 π joule
2
= 12.57 kg .m 2/s.
(b) When the rate of rotation is doubled, i.e,. 4 rev/sec or 8π radians/sec. the kinetic
energy of rotation is given by
1
E = × 1 × ( 8π ) = 32π2 joules.
2
2
Additional work required = Final K.E. of rotation – Initial K.E. of rotation
= 32 π2 − 8π2 = 24 π2 = 236.8 joules.
Illustration 15. A uniform flat disc of mass M and radius R rotates about a
horizontal axis through its centre with angular speed ω0 . (a) v
What is its kinetic energy? Its angular momentum? (b) A chip ω
of mass m breaks off the edge of the disc at an instant such that
the chip rises vertically about the point at which it broke off.
How high above the point does it rise before starting to fall? (c)
What is the final angular momentum and energy of the disc.
15
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1
LR = M − m R 2 ω02 .
2
Similarly, applying the law of conservation of energy, we get
1 1
(TR )R + mR 2 ω02 = MR 2 ω02
2 4
1 1
(TR ) R = M − m R 2 ω2 .
2 2
ANGULAR IMPULSE:
The torque due to an impulsive force when integrated over the time of action of the force gives a quantity
known as angular impulse. Mathematically, it is useful in the solution of problems involving impulsive forces
G G
acting on extended bodies, tending to cause rotation and given as J θ = ∫ τ dt .
Illustration 16. Two uniform thin rods A and B of length 0.6 m each and of masses 0.01 kg p
and 0.02 kg respectively are rigidly jointed, end to end. The combination is
pivoted at the lighter end P as shown in the figure such that it can freely A
rotate about the point P in a vertical plane. A small particle of mass 0.05
kg, moving horizontally strikes the lower end of the combination and sticks
to it. What should be the velocity of the particle so that the system just rises
to a horizontal position?
B
m v
Solution : The situation is shown in figure. Let A be the length of each rod and p
m A and m B their respective masses.
The torque about pivot is zero. Therefore angular momentum of the A l
system is conserved i.e.,
mv ( 2A ) = I ω … (i)
where I is the moment of inertia of the system about point P and ω
is the angular velocity of combination just after the collision. Now Bl
we shall calculate the value of I. m v
Moment of inertia of rod A about P i.e., IA is given by
1
I A = m A A2
3
1
= × 0.01 × ( 0.6 ) = 1.2 × 10 −3 kgm2.
2
3
` The moment of inertia of rod B about P is
2
1 3A
IB =
m B A 2 + m B (by the theorem of parallel axes)
12 2
28 28
m B A2 = × 0.02 × ( 0.6 )
2
12 12
= 1.68 ×10 −2 kgm2.
The moment of inertia of particle about P is
I C = m (A + A) 2 = 4m A2
∴ Moment of inertia I of the system about P is given by
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I = IA + IB + IC = 9 × 102 kg – m2 … (ii)
Substituting the value of I in equation (i) we get
(
0.05v × ( 2 × 0.6 ) = 9 ×10 −2 ω )
0.05 × ( 2 × 0.6 ) 2
or ω= ×v = v … (iii)
( 9 × 10 −2 ) 3
When the rod moves, the rotational kinetic energy of the system is converted into
gravitational potential energy i.e.,
1 2
I ω = (m A + m B + m ) g Y CM … (iv)
2
where Y CM is the distance of the centre of mass of system from P. Y CM is given by
m A y 1 + m B y 2 + my 3
Y CM =
(m A + m B + m )
0.01 × 0.3 + 0.02 × 0.9 + 0.05 × 1.2 81
or Y CM = = .
0.01 + 0.02 + 0.05 80
Substituting the values in equation (iv), we get
1 2
2
( 0.01 + 0.02 + 0.05) × 9.8 × 81
2
( 3
)
× 9 × 10 −2 v =
80
.
Illustration 17. A uniform rod of mass M and length a lies on a smooth horizontal plane. A particle of mass m moving
a
at a speed v perpendicular to the length of the rod strikes it at a distance from the centre and stops
4
after the collision. Find (a) the velocity of the centre of the rod and (b) the angular velocity of the rod
after the collision.
Solution : We take the rod and the particle together as a ω
single system. As there is no resultant force on the P
system as a whole, the linear momentum of the
system will remain constant. Further there is no r0
A a A v
resultant external torque on the system and so the a/4
angular momentum of the system about any point
remains constant.
Suppose the velocity of the centre of the rod is V (a) (b)
and the angular velocity about the centre is ω (see
figure) after the collision.
(a) The linear momentum before the collision is mv and that after the collision is MV.
Thus,
m
mv = MV , or V = v .
M
(b) Consider the angular momentum of ‘the rod plus the particle’ system about the mid
point of the rod, A. Initially the rod is at rest. The angular momentum of the particle
about A is
a
L = mv .
4
After the collision, the particle comes to rest. The angular momentum of the rod
about A is,
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G G G G
r0 V , r0 ×V = 0
G G
Thus, L = Lcm .
Hence the angular momentum of the rod about A is
Ma 2
L =Iω= ω.
12
Mva Ma 3mv
Thus, = ω or, ω = .
4 12 Ma
A body rolls on a surface  for a example, a ball rolls on the ground, a car tyre rolls on the road etc,  in all these
cases
(a) The body undergoes rotation.
(b) The point of contact of the body has zero velocity with respect to the surface on which it is undergoing
pure rolling.
ROLLING MOTION
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Illustration 18. A cylinder is released from rest from the top of an incline of inclination θ and length A . If the
cylinder rolls without slipping, what will be its speed when it reaches the bottom?
Solution : Let the mass of the cylinder be m and its radius r. Suppose the linear speed of the cylinder
when it reaches the bottom is v. As the cylinder rolls without slipping, its angular speed
about its axis is ω = v / r . The kinetic energy at the bottom will be
1 1
K = I ω2 + mv 2
2 2
11 1 1 1 3
= mr 2 ω2 + mv 2 = mv 2 + mv 2 = mv 2 .
22 2 4 2 4
This should be equal to the loss of potential energy mg A sin θ
3 4
Thus, mv 2 = mg A sin θ or, v = g A sin θ .
4 3
Illustration 19. A sphere of mass m rolls without slipping on an inclined plane of inclination θ . Find the linear
acceleration of the sphere and the force of friction acting on it. What should be the minimum
coefficient of static friction to support pure rolling?
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Illustration 20. A force F acts tangentially at the highest point of a sphere of mass m kept on a rough horizontal plane.
If the sphere rolls without slipping, find the acceleration of the centre of the sphere.
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If the body rolls on an inclined plane of inclination α , then one can write :
dv
F + m g sin α − F f = m c
dt
dω dω
F .b + F f r = I = mk 2
dt dt
b mk d ω
2
or, F + Ff = 2 r .
r r dt
Using the constraint, v c = ωr , we get
k2 b 2
F 2 − k mg sin α
r r r2
Ff = 2
+ .
k k2
1+ 2 1+ 2
r r
2
k
2
If F = 0, F f = r 2 mg sin α , acting backward.
k
1+ 2
r
Note that this expression does not depend on whether the body rolls up or down the inclined plane. On the
other hand if it is not clear in a certain situation as to whether it is the case of pure rolling or not, it is usually
advisable to assume that pure rolling occurs. One should apply the rolling constraint and calculate the force of
friction, and the normal reaction as well. The magnitude of the force of static friction always satisfies:
F f = µs N
(a) Pure rolling and static friction go handinhand. If pure rolling occurs, there is no relative velocity between the surfaces at
the point of contact and therefore, only static friction may act between the bodies.
It does not necessarily reach its limiting value. The correct expression is:
F fr ≤ µs N … (i)
where F fr represents the force of static friction, N, the normal reaction, and µs , the coefficient of static friction between
the surfaces.
If it is known that pure rolling occurs, F fr and N should be treated as unknown quantities which must be calculated from
Newton’s laws. Equation (i) then provides a consistency check for the problem.
(b) Another question that is frequently asked, quite often at the point where the FBD is being drawn, is the direction of the
force of static friction.
The answer is: assume it to be an unknown vector i.e. let its component along the surface, along the chosen direction, be
F fr . If F fr > 0 as a result of the solution, the choice previously made is correct, otherwise it needs to be reversed.
(c) If it is known that the surfaces are sliding, friction is kinetic and its direction is such as to oppose relative velocity between
the surfaces. Its magnitude is µ k N .
(d) In problems where it is not clear as to whether friction is static or kinetic, a safe method is to assume that it is static – solve
accordingly and check for consistency:
If the check fails for a set of surfaces/bodies, assume that F fr is kinetic, i.e. F fr = µk N but along the proper direction
that emerged as a result of the previous solution (static assumption). The process is repeated till the result is found to be
consistent.
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(f) There do exist problems which cannot be solved entirely on the basis of Newton’s laws alone, with or without constraints.
Most of these problems are outside the purview of the syllabus.
(g) In case you have been left wondering about rolling friction, we will tell you only this: we have ignored it because it is
not so large as to be of much consequence here.
The instantaneous velocity of any particle, P, of the rigid body, can be written as:
G G G G
v P = v 0 + ω× rP
G G
where v 0 is the velocity of the origin, located on the axis of rotation, and rP is the position vector of the
G
particle P about O. Here, ω is the angular velocity of rotation of the rigid body about the given axis.
It can be proved that, for any moving rigid body, there exists a straight line passing through the body, for
which, the velocity of the particles lying on it is zero. This line is known as the instantaneous axis of rotation,
because the instantaneous velocity of any particle of the body, may be written in the form:
G G G
v P = ω× rP
G
where rP is the position vector of this particle with respect to a point on this line.
This line, therefore, can be regarded as an axis of rotation; but only for an instant.
Illustration 21. A cylinder of radius r undergoes pure rolling on a flat horizontal surface with a speed v, as shown in
the figure. Take the xaxis in the direction of motion of the cylinder, the yaxis vertically upward and
the zaxis out of the plane of the paper. Find the instantaneous axis of rotation.
y
Solution : The angular velocity of rotation of the cylinder is P
ω = v / r , clockwise about an axis passing through x
the centre of mass of the cylinder.
v
The velocity of any particle, P, is given by : O
G
( ) G
v P = v iˆ + ω −kˆ × rP g
G JJJG
where r P = OP
G G v G JJJG
i.e. v P = v i − k ×OP .
r
Let Q be the point through which the axis of rotation passes. Thenv Q = 0 (by definition).
Using the expression given above,
G G v G JJJJG
v Q = 0 = v i − k ×O Q
r
G G JJJJG
or, ri = k ×OQ
JJJJG JJJJG G
∴ OQ  = r , and OQ = −r j ;
which is the position vector of the particle in contact with the ground.
The line of contact between the cylinder and the flat surface on which it rolls serves as
the axis of rotation at any instant.
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The first term alone does not give the total work done by all the forces acting on the body.
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Solution : L A = mv .OP + L cm
1
= mvr + mr 2 ω
2
(the plus sign is due to the fact that both terms are clockwise).
A similar expression applies for Torque. The torque is given by (referring to previous
figure):
G G G G G
Taxis = rcm × F net + ∑ ρi × F i
i
G
where ρi is the position vector of each particle relative to the centreofmass of the rigid
body.
Illustration 24. Referring to the previous illustration, find the kinetic energy of the cylinder.
1 11
Solution : K .E = mv 2 + mr 2 ω2
2 22
1 1
mv 2 + mr 2 ω2 .
2 4
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( ) (
L = r × p = xiˆ + yjˆ × m v x iˆ + v y jˆ )
mv 0
=− gt 2 kˆ
2 2
mv 0
Thus, the angular momentum of the particle is gt 2 in the negative zdirection i.e.,
2 2
perpendicular to the plane of motion, going into the plane.
Problem 2. A small solid sphere of mass 1 kg and radius 0.2 metre rolls
A
down along a track shown in figure, without slipping. Find the
r
height h above the base, from which it has to start rolling down
the incline, such that the sphere just completes the vertical h R
circular loop of radius 1 metre.
Solution: The situation is shown in figure. Let m and r be the mass and radius of solid sphere. When the
sphere reaches the point A , it descends through a vertical distance ( h − 2 R + r ) , where R is
the radius of circular loop. At A , the loss of potential energy
= mg ( h − 2R + r ) …(i)
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Problem 3. Calculate the kinetic energy of a tractor crawler belt (see figure) of
A B
mass m if the tractor moves with velocity v. There is no slipping. The
dimensions of the wheels are as shown in the figure.
v
D C
mg
Solution: The portion of the strings between the ceiling and the cylinder is at rest. Hence the points of
the cylinder where the strings leave it are at rest. The cylinder is thus rolling without slipping
on the strings. Suppose the centre of the cylinder falls with an acceleration a. The angular
a
acceleration of the cylinder about its axis is α = , as the cylinder does not slip over the
r
strings.
The equation of motion for the centre of mass of the cylinder is
mg − 2T = ma … (i)
W +µR
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Solution: In the figure, R is the normal reaction at C and T is the tension in AB . The rotor has no
motion whether horizontal or vertical.
Here T cos75o = R and T sin 75o =W + µR
W + µR W + 0.25R
∴ tan 750 = =
R R
Solving, we get R = 0.29W
2 2W 2
Moment of inertia, I = Mr 2 = r
5 5 g
torque
Angular acceleration, a =
Moment of inertia
(µR ) r 5µ gR
Retardation = =
2 W 2 2r W
. .r
5 g
where ( µR ) r = Frictional torque
5 × 0.25 × 9.8 × 0.29W
So, retardation =
2 × 0.3 ×W
= 5.92 rad/sec2.
Time taken by the rotor to come to rest
ω = ω0 + αt or, 0 = 60 − 5.92t
t = 10.13 sec.
Problem 6. A round cone with halfangle α = 30º and the radius of the base R = 10
cm rolls uniformly without slipping over a horizontal plane. The apex is O
hinged at the point O (see figure) which is at the same level as the point
C, the centre of the base. The velocity of the point C is v = 10 ms −1 . C
Find (a) the angular velocity vector of the cone and the angle it forms
with the vertical and (b) the angular acceleration vector.
Solution: (a) There are two angular motions of the cone; one in the horizontal plane with angular
v
velocity ω1 = where R cot α = radius of the circle in which C moves. The
R cot α
direction of this vector is upward. The other angular velocity ω2 is about its own axis.
v
Since it rolls without slipping, v = ω2 R ⇒ ω2 = . The direction of this vector is
R
horizontal and towards O .
v2 v2 v
∴ ωresult = ω12 + ω22 =
+ tan 2 α = tan α
R R R
Let θ be the angle made by the resultant with the vertical. Then
ω
tan θ = 2 = cot α = cot 300 = 3
ω1
∴ θ = 600 .
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Problem 7. Two horizontal discs rotate freely about a common vertical axis passing through their centres. The
moments of inertia of the discs relative to there axis are equal to I1 and I 2 , and their angular velocities
are ω1 and ω2 . The upper disc falls on the lower disc and after some time, both discs begin to rotate as a
single body due to friction. Find
(a) the steady state angular velocity of the discs, and
(b) the work performed by the frictional forces in the process.
Solution: (a) Since there is no external torque on the system consisting of both the discs, angular
momentum of the system is conserved.
I 1ω1 + I 2 ω2
I 1ω1 + I 2 ω2 = ( I 1 + I 2 ) ωf ⇒ ωf =
I1 + I 2
(b) Work done by frictional forces = change in kinetic energy of the system
W fric tio n = change in kinetic energy = Tf −Ti
1 1 1
or, W fr = ( I 1 + I 2 ) ωf 2 − I 1ω12 + I 2 ω22
2 2 2
(I ω + I ω ) 1
2
1
= ( I 1 + I 2 ) 1 1 2 22 − ( I 1 ω12 + I 2 ω22 ) .
2 (I 1 + I 2 ) 2
1 ( I 1ω1 + I 2 ω2 ) 1
2
W fr = − ( I 1ω12 + I 2 ω22 )
2 I1 + I 2 2
I 1I 2
=− ( ω1 − ω2 ) 2 .
2(I 1 + I 2 )
Problem 8. A uniform sphere of mass m and radius R starts rolling without slipping down an inclined plane. Find
the time dependence of the angular momentum of the sphere relative to the initial point of contact. How
will the result be affected in the case of a perfectly smooth inclined plane? Here, θ = angle of inclination
of the plane.
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I I dv c m
or, mg sin θ = m + 2 ac m = m + 2
R R dt
mg sin θt
or, v cm = .
I
m+ 2
R
Iv c m
L 0 = Lc m + mv c m R = I ω + mv c m R = + mv cm R
R
I mg sin θt I
L0 = v cm R m + 2 = R m + 2
R I R
m+ 2
R
= ( mg sin θ ) Rt .
ma − f = ma r … (i)
1
f .r = mr 2 α … (ii)
2
ar = r α … (iii)
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Problem 10. A uniform sphere of mass m and radius r rolls without slipping down from the top of a larger fixed sphere
of radius R. Find the angular momentum acquired by smaller the sphere about the centre of the larger
sphere as well as its K.E. at the moment when it breaks off from the larger sphere. The initial velocity of
the sphere is negligible.
Since friction is static and gravity is conservative (other forces being constraint forces),
mechanical energy is conserved.
1 1
mg ( R + r ) = mg ( R + r ) cos θ + mv 2 + I ω2
2 2
7
or m g ( R + r ) = mg ( R + r ) cos θ + m ω2 r 2
10
7
or m g ( R + r ) = m ω2 r 2 + m ω2 r 2
10
10 ( R + r )
or ω= g .
17 r2
The angular momentum of the sphere is
L = L orbital + I ω
2
= mv ( R + r ) + mr 2 ω
5
2
= m ωr ( R + r ) + m ωr 2
5
7
= m ωr R + r
5
10 7
=m g (R + r ) R + r .
17 5
Kinetic energy of the sphere is
1 1
K.E. = mv 2 + I ω2
2 2
1 12
= mr 2 ω2 + mr 2w 2
2 25
7 7 10 ( R + r )
= mr 2 ω2 = mr 2 . g
10 10 17 r2
7
= mg( R + r ) .
17
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Problems 1. A solid body rotates with deceleration about a stationary axis with an angular deceleration α = k ω ;
where k is a constant and ω is the angular velocity of the body. If the initial angular velocity is ω0 , then
mean angular velocity of the body averaged over the whole time of rotation is
ω0
(a) ω0 (b)
2
ω0 ω0
(c) (d)
3 4
dω
Solution : − = k ω1/ 2
dt
ω dω t
⇒ −∫ = k ∫ dt
ω0 ω1/ 2 0
ω
⇒ −2 ω = kt
ω0
⇒ 2 ω0 − 2 ω = kt
2
1
⇒ 2 ω = 2 ω0 − kt ; ω = ω0 − kt
2
2 ω0
t0 =
k
2
kt
Further ω = ω0 −
2
k 2t 2
⇒ ω = ω0 + − kt ω0
4
t0 k 2 t 03 t2
ω0t 0 + − k ω0 0
Since ωav =
∫0 ωdt
= 4 3 2
t
t0
∫0
0
dt
2
k 2 t0 t
⇒ ωav = ω0 + − k ω0 . 0
4 3 2
k 2 4ω0 k ω0 2 ω0
⇒ ωav = ω0 + −
12 k 2 2k
ω0
⇒ ωav = ω0 + − ω0
3
ω0
⇒ ωav = .
3
Ans. (c)
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αB αB
(c) = cos θ (d) = cos2 θ
αA αA
τB I α B b cos θ
⇒ = = = cos θ .
τA I α A b
Ans. (c)
4mr 2 ω 2m (a 2 + 2r 2 )ω
(a) t = (b) t=
τ τ
(c) t=
2ma 2 ω
(d) t=
(
2m r 2 + 2a2 ω)
τ τ
Solution : L = τt
1
4 mr 2 + ma 2 ω
2
⇒ t =
τ
2m ( a 2 + 2r 2 ) ω
⇒ t = .
τ
Ans. (b)
Problems 4. One quarter sector is cut from a uniform disc of radius R. This sector has mass
M. It is made to rotate about a line perpendicular to its plane and passing R
through the center of the original disc. Its moment of inertia about the axis of R
rotation is
1 1
(a) MR 2 (b) MR 2
2 4
1
(c) MR 2 (d) 2 MR 2 .
8
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Solution : If we assume complete disc to be present, then it would have a mass 4 times the mass of the
sector. Then, moment of inertia of the complete disc is
1 1
I disc = M disc R 2 = ( 4 M sector ) R 2
2 2
I disc
Now, I sector =
4
1
⇒ I sector = MR 2 .
2
Ans. (a)
Problems 5. Let I be the moment of inertia of a uniform square plate about an axis AB that passes through its centre
and is parallel to two of its sides. CD is a line in the plane of the plate that passes through the centre of
the plate and makes an angle θ with AB. The moment of inertia of the plate about the axis CD is then
equal to
(a) I (b) I sin 2 θ
θ
(c) I cos2 θ (d) I cos2
2
Solution : I AB = I A ' B ' = I and I CD = I C ' D ' A
D
If I 0 be the moment of inertia of the square plate about an axis C′
passing through O and perpendicular to the plate, then by the θ
perpendicular axis theorem θ
A′ B′
I 0 = I AB + I A ' B ' = 2I AB .... (1)
I CD = I AB = I .
Ans. (a)
Solution : The angular momentum of a body L may be expressed as the sum of two parts,
(a) one arising from the motion of the centre of mass of the body L orbital ( )
(b) the other from the motion of the body with respect to its centre of mass L spin ( )
ie., Lto tal = LC .M + rC .M × p
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⇒ Lto tal = LC .M . + M ( rC .M ×v C .M )
For this problem
1
LC .M = I ω = MR 2 ω and
2
M ( rC .M ×v C . M ) = MRv CM = MR ( R ω )
( )
⇒ M rC .M ×VC .M = MR 2 ω
1 3
⇒ Lto tal = M R 2 ω + MR 2 ω = MR 2 ω
2 2
Ans. (c)
Problems 7. A thin wire of length L and uniform linear mass density ρ is bent into a X X

0
circular loop with centre at O as shown in the figure. The moment of 90
inertia of the loop about the axis XX' is O
ρL3 ρL3
(a) (b)
8π 2 16 π2
5ρL3 3ρL3
(c) (d)
16 π2 8π2
Solution : Mass of the loop = M = L ρ
Further if r is the radius of the loop, then
2 πr = L
L
⇒ r =
2π
3
Moment of inertia about XX' is I = M r 2
2
3 L 2
3ρL 3
⇒ I = (L ρ ) = .
2 2π (2
) 8π2
Ans. (d)
Problems 8. A uniform solid cylinder of mass M and radius R is resting on a horizontal platform (which is parallel to
XY plane) with its axis along the Yaxis and free to roll on the platform. The platform is given a motion
in Xdirection given by x = A cos ωt . There is no slipping between the cylinder and the platform. The
maximum torque acting on the cylinder as measured about its centre of mass
1
(a) MRAω2 (b) MRAω2
2
(c) 2mRAω2 (d) mRωA 2 cos 2 ωt
1 linear acceleration
Solution : τ=Iα= MR 2 ×
2 R
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Problems 9. A metal ball of mass m is put at the point A of a loop track and A
the vertical distance of A from the lower most point of track is 8
times the radius R of the circular part. The linear velocity of ball
when it rolls of the point B to a height R in the circular track will 8R B
be R
1/ 2
gR
[10gR ]
1/ 2
(a) (b) 7
10
1/ 2
7 gR
[5gR ]
1/ 2
(c) 5 (d)
Solution : Applying the conservation of energy at points A and B, we have
mv 2 1 2
mg ( 8R ) = + I ω + mgR
2 2
2
mv 2 1 2 v
or mg ( 8R ) = + mR 2 + mgR
2 25 R
7
= mv 2 + mgR
10
7
mg ( 8R − R ) = mv 2
10
[10gR ]1/ 2 .
Ans. (a)
Problems 10. A uniform solid cylinder of mass m can rotate freely about its axis which is kept horizontal. A particle of
mass m 0 hangs from the end of a light string wound round the cylinder. When the system is allowed to
move, the acceleration with which the particle descends is
2m 0 g 2m 0 g
(a) (b)
m 0 + 2m m + 2m 0
m0g 2mg
(c) (d)
m + m0 m + 2m 0
Solution : Suppose that the tension in the string is T.
Then, = m 0 g −T = m 0 a T
∴ T = m0 (g −a )
a m.g
where a = acceleration
Further, T .r = I α
α = angular acceleration and T.r = moment of force acting on cylinder
Iα
or T =
r
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mr 2 α mr α ma
= = =
2 r 2 2
2T 2 m 0 ( g − a )
∴ a= =
m m
Solving for a, we get
2m 0 g
a = .
m + 2m 0
Ans. (b)
Problems 11. The torque τ on a body about a given point is found to be A × L where A is a constant vector and L
is angular momentum of the body about that point. From this it follows that
dL
(a) is perpendicular to L at all times.
dt
(b) the component of L in the direction of A does not change with time.
i.e. L .L = constant
d
or,
dt
(
L .L = 0 )
dL
or, 2 L . =0
dt
dL
or, L ⊥ .
dt
Since τ = A × L
dL
= A ×L
dt
dL
i.e. must be perpendicular to A as well as L .
dt
A .L
Further the component of L along A is . Also
A
d
dt
(
A .L = A .
dL
dt
)+L.
dA
dt
=0 ∵ A ⊥
dL
dt
and
dA
dt
= 0
or, A . L = constant
A .L
i.e. = x = constant .
A
dL
Since ( or τ ) is perpendicular to L , hence it cannot change magnitude of L but can
dt
surely change direction of L .
Ans. (a), (b), (c)
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Problems 12. A particle of mass m is projected with velocity v making an angle of 450 with the horizontal. The
magnitude of the angular momentum of the projectile about the point of projection when the particle is at
its maximum height h is
mv 3
(a) zero (b)
4 2g
mv 3
(c) (d) m 2 gh 3
2g
Solution : L = mv x h
v 2 sin 2 45°
⇒ L = m (v cos 45° )
2g
mv 3
⇒ L=
4 2g
Further L = m v x h
⇒ L = m (v cos 45° ) h o
v 2 sin 2 450
But h =
2g
⇒ v = 2 gh
mv
⇒ L= 2 gh h
2
⇒ L = m 2 gh 3 .
or L = F(2R ) t
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P
(a) L2 = 2L1 if radius of gyration K = R (b) L2 = 2L1 for all cases
(c) L2 > 2L1 if radius of gyration K < R (d) L2 > 2L1 if radius of gyration K > R
Solution : L1 = Iω = MK 2 ω … (1)
L 2 = Iω + MRv
= MK 2 ω + MR (ωR ) (as v = Rω )
= Mω ( K 2 + R 2 ) … (2)
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m
m h
Problems 1. What is the angular velocity of cylinder just before the string becomes taut
2gh
(a) zero (b)
R
gh 2 gh
(c) (d)
R R
Problems 2. When the string experience a jerk, a large impulsive force is generated for a short duration, so that
contribution of weight mg can be neglected during this duration. Then what will be speed of block m, just
after string has become taut
2gh 2gh
(a) (b)
M M
1 + m 1 + 2m
gh gh
(c) (d)
M M
1 + m 1 + 2m
Problems 3. If M = m, what fraction of KE is lost due to the jerk developed in the string
1 2
(a) (b)
2 3
1 1
(c) (d)
3 4
Solution : (1) Just before the string becomes taut, the block falls freely, so v 0 = 2gh. There is no
tension in the string, so nothing causes the cylinder to spin, so ω 0 = 0. The kinetic energy
1 1
of the system is K 0 = mv02 + Iω 02 = mgh
2 2
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(2) When the string experiences a jerk, the large impulse developed is of very short duration
so that the contribution of weight mg can be neglected during this time interval.
The angular momentum of the system is conserved, as the tension is internal force for the
system. Thus we have
Li = L f
1
mv1R + MR 2 ω1 = mv 0 R = m 2ghR
2
The string is inextensible, so v1 = Rω1. On solving for ω1 we get
2gh
ω1 =
R 1 + ( M / 2m)
2gh
v1 = Rω1 =
1 + ( M / 2m)
The final kinetic energy K1 is given by
1 1
K1 = mv12 + Iω12
2 2
v
2
1 11
= mv12 + MR 2 12
2 2 2 R
1 M
= m + v12
2 2
1 mv02
=
2 1 + ( M / 2m)
K0
=
1 + ( M / 2m)
2K 0 K 0 − K1 1
(3) For M = m,K1 = , so the fraction lost is K = 3
3 0
# Writeup I [Questions 4 to 6]
A man of mass 100 kg stands to rim of a turn table of radius 2m, moment of inertia 4000 kg. the table is
mounted on a vertical smooth axis, through its center. The whole system is initially at rest. The man now
walks on table with a velocity 1m/s relative to earth
Problems 4. With what angular velocity will the turn table rotate
(a) 0.5 rad/sec (b) 0.1 rad/sec
(c) 0.05 rad/sec (d) 0.2 rad/sec
Problems 5. Through what angle will the turn table have rotated when the man reaches his initial position on it
π 3π
(a) rad/sec (b) rad/sec
11 11
2π 4π
(c) rad/sec (d) rad/sec
11 11
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Problems 6. Through what angle will it have rotated when the man reaches his initial position relative to earth
π 2π
(a) rad/sec (b) rad/sec
5 5
2π π
(c) rad/sec (d) rad/sec
11 11
Solution : (1) By conservation of angular momentum on the mantable system,
L1 = L1 or 0 + 0 = I m ω m + I t ωt
Imω m v 1
ωt = − where ω m = = rad / s
I1 r 2
1/ 2
ω t = −100 ( 2) ×
2
4000
1
=− rad / s
20
Thus the table rotates clockwise (opposite to man) with angular velocity 0.05 rad/s.
(2) If the man completes one revolution relative to the table then
θ mt = 2π;2π = θ m − θ t
2π = ω m t − ω t t (where t is the time taken)
t = 2π / ( ω m − ω t ) = 2π ( 0.5 + 0.05)
Angular displacement of table is
θ t = ω t t = −5.05 × ( 2π / 0.55)
2π
=− radian
11
The table rotates through 2π /11 radians clockwise
(3) If the man completes one revolution relative to the earth, then
θ m = 2π
2π 2π
time = =
ω m 0.5
During this time, angular displacement o the table,
2π
θ t = ω t ( time) = −0.05 ×
0.5
π
θ t = − radian
5
θ t = 36° in clockwise direction
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v2
C
(A) The speed of centre of mass of wheel
(P)
v1 + v 2
2R
(B) The angular speed of the Wheel (Q) v1 − v 2
2R
(C) The speed of extreme point B on the wheel (R) v1 + v 2
2
(D) The condition for pure rolling (S) v1 − v 2
2
(T)
v12 + v 22
2
(U)
v12 − v 22
2
(V) v1 = 0
(W) v2 = 0
Solution : V1 = Vcm + ωR
V2 = Vcm − ωR
VB = ωR 2
Ans. (A) → (R), (B) → (Q), (C) → (T), (D) → (W)
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SECTION–I
LEVEL – I
1. A force F = a + bx acts on a particle in x direction where a and b are constants. Find the work done by this
force during a displacement from x = 0 to x = d.
G G
2. A force F = Aî + Bjˆ acts at a point whose radius vector w.r.t origin is r = aiˆ + bjˆ, where a,b,c, A, B are
G
constants and ˆi, ˆj are unit vectors along X and Y axes. Calculate the torque τ and the arm A of the force
G
F w.r.t. point O.
3. A meter stick is held vertically with one end on the floor and is then allowed to fall. find the velocity of the
other end when it hits the floor, assuming that the end on the floor does not slip.
4. A wheel of radius 0.50 m initially at east and reaches a constant angular acceleration of
3.0 radian/sec2. Calculate
(i) The angular displacement and the angular speed of wheel 2.0 second later,
(ii) The tangential speed, the tangential acceleration, the centripetal acceleration and the resultant
acceleration of the particle on the rim at end of 2.0 sec.
5. A diatomic molecules is supposed to be consisted of two masses m1 and m2 separated by a fixed distance r.
Determine an expression for the moment of inertia of the molecule about an axis passing through center of
mass and perpendicular to bond length.
r1
(r2 = r – r1)
m1 m2
A C B
Hence determine the moment of inertia of HCl molecular about an axis passing through its center of mass
and perpendicular to the bond. Given : inter nuclear distance 4 = 1.3 Å, mass of proton =
1.7 × 1027kg, atomic weight of chlorine = 35.
6. The flat surface of hemisphere of radius R is fixed to one flat Y
surface of a cylinder of radius R and length A . Both are of
same material. Let the total mass be M. Prove that the
moment of inertia of the combination about the axis of the A
cylinder of is given by
R
A 4R
MR +
2
2 15
O X
R
2R
A+
3
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m1 g
37.5 cm
60o P
Find the maximum angular speed of the wheel. find the force on the axis when the angular speed of the
wheel reaches a maximum.
11. A uniform ladder of mass 10 kg leans against a smooth vertical wall making an angle of 53º with it. The
other end rests on a rough horizontal floor. Find the normal force and the frictional force that the floor
exerts on the ladder.
N1
N2 53o
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LEVEL – II
1. A 10mlong uniform ladder rests against a wall and makes an angle of 600 with the horizontal floor. If it
just starts to slip from this position, find its instantaneous axis of rotation.
2. In a playground there is a small merrygoround of radius 2 m and mass 10 kg. The radius of gyration is
1.5 m. A boy of mass 30 kg runs at a speed of 5 ms1 tangential to the rim of the merrygoround when it is
at rest and then jumps on. Neglect friction and find the angular velocity of the merrygoround and the
boy.
3. A hoop of radius r rotating about its own axis with an angular velocity ω0 is gently placed with its plane
vertical onto a rough horizontal surface. Find the velocity of the centre of the hoop when it ceases to slip.
At the initial moment, the velocity of the centre of the hoop was zero.
4. A uniform sphere of mass 2 kg and radius 10 cm is released from rest on an extremely rough inclined plane
which makes an angle of 300 with the horizontal. Deduce
(i) its angular acceleration
(ii) linear acceleration along the plane and
(iii) kinetic energy as it travels 2m along the plane.
5. On the flat surface of a disc of radius a, a small circular hole of radius b is made with its centre at a
distance c from the centre of the disc. If mass of the uncut disc is M, calculate the moment of inertia of the
cut disc about the axis of the circular hole.
6. A thin horizontal uniform rod AB of mass m and length A can rotate freely about a vertical axis passing
through its end A. After some time, a constant force F is applied to the end B of the rod in its plane such
that it is perpendicular to the initial orientation of the rod. Find the angular velocity of the rod as a
function of its rotation angle φ measured relative to its initial position.
7. A uniform circular disc of mass m, radius r and centre O is free to rotate about a smooth, horizontal axis
which is tangential to the disc at a point A. The disc is held in a vertical plane with A directly below O and
is then allowed to fall to its equilibrium position. Find the angular velocity of the disc when its plane is
next vertical.
8. A uniform circular disc of mass m and radius a is rotating with constant angular velocity ω in a horizontal
m
plane about a vertical axis through its centre A. An insect P of mass is placed gently onto the disc at its
2
rim. After the steady state is attained, the insect starts walking radially with respect to the disc with a
aω
speed at t = 0. Find the angular velocity of the system as a function of time t.
2
9. ABC is a triangular framework of three uniform rods each of mass m and length 2A . It is free to rotate in
its own plane about a smooth horizontal axis through A which is perpendicular to ABC. If it is released
from rest when AB is horizontal and C is above AB, find the maximum velocity of C in the subsequent
motion.
10. A cord is attached to a toy truck standing on a horizontal plane and
passes over a fixed, frictionless, light pulley. A load of mass
1
m = k g is attached to the end of the string. Find the acceleration
2
of the truck given that the mass of each wheel is m' = 0.4 kg and m
the mass of the truck is M = 1.4 kg. The wheels are solid discs and
they roll without slipping.
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LEVEL – III
1. Show that if a symmetrical body of radius R rolls without slipping along a horizontal plane with velocity
v c and reaches the plane inclined at an angle θ , it starts up the inclined plane with velocity
( 1 − cos θ )
v 'c = v c 1 − where k is radius of gyration. It may be assumed that there is sufficient friction to
k2
1 + 2
R
prevent slipping and that the body doesn’t jump.
2. A uniform catherine wheel is mounted in a vertical plane and is free to rotate about an axis passing
through its centre and perpendicular to its plane. The wheel is made up of combustible material and burns
at a constant rate of α kg/s and the reaction force exerted by the burning gases equals F tangentially at its
circumference . If the wheel starts from rest, show that the angular speed acquired when half of its mass
has burnt is
4F
αR
(
2 −1 . )
3. A uniform m solid hemisphere of radius r and mass M is pulled by means
of a string so that it moves with a uniform velocity. If µ is the coefficient
of friction between the hemisphere and surface, find the angle of
inclination of the hemisphere. The centre of mass of a hemisphere is θ F
located at a distance 3r/8 from the centre.
6. A uniform cylinder of radius r is rotating about its axis at the angular W ALL
velocity ω0 . It is now placed into a corner as shown in figure. The
coefficient of friction between the wall and the cylinder as well as the ground
and the cylinder is µ . Show that the number of turns n, the cylinder
ω20 r (1 + µ2 )
completes before it stops, are given by n =
8πµg (1 + µ )
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9. One end of a uniform rod of mass M and length L is supported by a frictionless hinge which can with
stand a tension of 1.75 Mg. The rod is free to rotate in a vertical plane. To what maximum angle should
the rod be rotated from the vertical position so that when left, the hinge does not break.
10. A rod of length l is constrained to move in a vertical plane containing its length between two smooth
vertical planes. When it is released from the vertical position by pulling its bottom gently, find its angular
acceleration and angular velocity as a function of the angle θ made by it with vertical
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SECTION–II
SINGLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. A stone of mass 0.1 kg is projected with a velocity of 20 2 m/s from the origin of an xy coordinate axis
system at an angle of 45° with the horizontal. The angular momentum of the stone about the origin after 1
second is (take g = 10 m/s2):
2. For the toppling of the shown fig. regular hexagon. The coefficient of friction must be :
5. A cylinder of mass M and radius R is resting on a horizontal platform (which is parallel to the xy plane)
with its axis fixed along the yaxis and free to rotate about its own axis. The platform is given a velocity in
the xdirection given by x = A cos ωt . There is no slipping between the cylinder and platform. The
maximum torque acting on the cylinder during its motion is
1
(a) MR A ω2 (b) MR A ω2
2
(c) 2 MRA ω2 (d) mr ωA 2 cos 2 ωt .
6. A solid cylinder of diameter D is mounted on a frictionless horizontal axle. A string is wrapped around it
and a heavy block is attached to the free end of the string. The block is allowed to fall freely. If the speed
of the block just before striking the ground be v, then
(a) v ∝ D (b) v ∝ D 2
1
(c) v ∝ (d) v is independent of D.
D
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R
7. A uniform circular disc of radius R with a concentric circular hole of radius rolls down an inclined
2
plane. The fraction of its total energy associated with its rotational motion is
1 5
(a) (b)
4 13
1
(c) (d) 1.
2
8. A ring starts from rest and acquires an angular speed of 10 rad/s in 2 s. The mass of the ring is 500 g and
its radius is 20 cm. The torque on the ring is
(a) 0.02 Nm (b) 0.20 Nm
(c) 0.10 Nm (d) 0.01 Nm.
9. A loop and a disc have the same mass and roll without slipping with the same linear velocity v. If the total
kinetic energy of the loop is 8 J, the kinetic energy of the disc must be
(a) 6 J (b) 8 J
(c) 10 J (d) 12 J.
10. A wheel and an axle, having a total moment of inertia 0.002 kgm2, is made to rotate about a horizontal
axis by means of an 800 g mass attached to a cord (assumed massless) that is wound around its axle. The
radius of the axle is 2 cm. Starting from rest, how far does the mass fall in order to give the wheel a speed
of 3 rev/s?
(a) 2.25 cm (b) 3.25 cm
(c) 4.5 cm (d) 5. 25 cm.
11. Two identical solid uniform spheres A and B of mass m and radius r each, are placed with their centres on
the xaxis separated by a distance 3r. Sphere A is spun with an angular velocity ω about an axis parallel to
the yaxis passing through its centre. Sphere B is spun similarly with an angular velocity ω , but about the
zaxis. The total angular momentum of the system about the xaxis is
2 2 4
(a) mr 2 ω (b) mr 2 ω
5 5
53
(c) zero (d) mr 2 ω .
5
12. A small meteorite of mass m travelling towards the centre of earth strikes the earth at the equator. The
earth is a uniform sphere of mass M and radius R. The length of the day was T before the meteorite
struck. After the meteorite strikes the earth, the length of day increases (in sec) by
5m T m
(a) (b) T
2M M
4m T M
(c) (d) .
5M 3m T
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13. A uniform rod of length A is free to rotate in a vertical plane about a fixed A
horizontal axis through B. The rod begins rotating from rest from its unstable A
equilibrium position. When it has turned through an angle θ , its angular
velocity is given by l
θ
6g θ 6g θ
(a) sin (b) cos
A 2 A 2 B
6g 6g
(c) sin θ (d) cos θ .
A A
14. A disc of mass M and radius R is pivoted about a horizontal axis through its centre and a particle of the
same mass M is attached to the rim of the disc. If the disc is released from rest with the small body at the
end of a horizontal radius, the angular speed when the small body is at the bottom is:
g g
(a) (b)
4R 2R
3g 4g
(c) (d) .
4R 3R
15. A symmetric lamina of mass M consists of a square shape with a A
semicircular section over each of the edge of the square as shown in
figure. The side of the square is 2a. The moment of inertia of the lamina
2a
about an axis through its centre of mass and perpendicular to the plane
is 1.6 M a 2 . The moment of inertia of the lamina about the tangent AB
in the plane of the lamina is:
(a) ωB = 0 (b) ωA = ωB
17. A cubical block of side a is moving with a velocity v on a smooth horizontal plane
as shown in the figure. It hits a ridge at point O. The angular speed of the block
after it hits O is:
3v 3v
(a) (b)
4a 2a O
3v
(c) (d) zero.
2a
18. A solid uniform sphere, rotating about a horizontal axis (with rotational K.E. = E 0 ), is gently placed on a
rough horizontal plane. After some time the sphere begins pure rolling with total Kinetic Energy E.
Then,
52
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2E 0 2E 0
(a) E = (b) E =
5 7
5E 0
(c) E = (d) none of the above is true.
7
19. The moment of inertia of a thin square plate ABCD of uniform thickness about A
an axis passing through the centre O and perpendicular to the plane of the plate B
is not given by : 1 O
(a) I 1 + I 2 (b) I 3 + I 4
(c) I 1 + I 3 (d) I 1 + I 2 + I 3 + I 4 D C
3 2 4
where I1, I2, I3, I4 are the moments of inertia of the plates about axes 1,2,3,4
respectively.
20. A circular table has a radius of R and mass M. It has 4 legs of length L each fixed symmetrically on its
circumference. The maximum mass m (if possible) which can be placed anywhere on this table without
toppling it is
(a) M ( 2 −1 ) (b) 4 M
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SECTION–III
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct for a spherical body rolling without slipping on a rough
horizontal ground at rest.
(a) The acceleration of a point in contact with ground is zero
(b) The speed of some of the point(s) is (are) zero
(c) Friction force may or may not be zero
(d) Work done by friction may or may not be zero
v 3mv 2
(c) ω = (d) E =
5a 5
→ →
3. A particle moves in acircle of radius r with angular velocity ω ω. At some instant its velocity is v and
→ →
radius vector with respect to centre of the circle is r . At this particular instant centripetal acceleration ac
of the particle would be
→ → → →
(a) ω × v (b) v × ω
→
→ →
→ → →
(c) ω × ω × r (d) v × (r × ω )
→
4. A particle of mass m is travelling with a constant velocity v = v 0iˆ along the line y = b, z = 0. Let dA be
the area swept out by the position vector from origin to the particle in time dt and L the magnituded
angular momentum of particle about origin at any time t. Then
(a) L = constant (b) L ≠ constant
dA 2L dA L
(c) = (d) =
dt m dt 2m
5. In pure rolling fraction of its total energy associated with rotation is a for α ring and β for a solid sphere.
Then
1 1
(a) α = (b) α =
2 4
2 2
(c) β = (d) β =
5 7
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6. A disc can roll without slipping without applying any external force on a
(a) rough inclined plane (b) smooth inclined plane
(c) rough horizontal surface (d) smooth horizontal surface
v v
(c) π − sin 1 (d) π + cos1
Rω Rω
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SECTION–IV
PASSAGE BASED QUESTIONS
# Writeup I [Questions 1 to 3]
A disc of mass M and Radius R is given a velocity Vo to its centre and an angular velocity of ω0 about centre as
shown.
Then it is kept over a rough surface where coefficient
of friction is µ. Initially the lower most point or point ω0 positive
of contact slides over the surface (on which it is kept) R V0 xdirection
and friction acts. Due to friction velocity of centre of
mass of disc is affected as well as it will produce a
torque which changes the angular velocity of body
about centre. After some time rolling is established.
v0 3v0
(a) (b)
µg µg
2 v0
(c) (d) rolling will not start
3 µg
2. Velocity of centre of disc at the moment when angular velocity of disc becomes zero is
V0
(a) Vo (b)
2
V0
(c) (d) 2V0
3
3. When rolling starts then
(a) friction will not act (b) friction will act along positive direction
(c) friction will act along negative direction (d) we can’t say about friction
# Writeup II [Questions 4 to 6]
A small particle of mass m is given an initial velocity v0 tangent to the horizontal v0
A
rim of a smooth cone at a radius r0 from the vertical centerline as shown at point A. r0
As the particle slides to point B, a vertical distance h below A and a distance r from
the vertical centerline, its velocity v makes an angle θ with the horizontal tangent r B
to the cone through B. θ
v
α α
4. The value of θ is
−1 v 0 r0 −1 v0 r0
(a) cos (b) cos
v02 + 2gh (r0 − h tan α ) v02 + 2gh (r0 + h tan α )
−1 v0 r0 −1 v0 r0
(c) cos (d) cos
v02 − 2gh (r0 − h tan α) r0 v02 + 2gh
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2gr0 gr0
(a) (b)
tan α 2 tan α
gr0 4gr0
(c) (d)
tan α tan α
Column I Column II
(T) wL2
3g
(U) 3g
7L
(V) w
4
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8. For the following statements, except gravity and contact force between the contact surfaces, no other force
is acting on the body.
Column I Column II
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13. Assertion : When a sphere and a solid cylinder are allowed to roll down an inclined plane, the sphere will
reach the ground first even if the mass and radius of the two bodies are different.
Reason : The acceleration of the body rolling down the inclined plane is directly proportional to the
radius of the rolling body
(a) A (b) B
(c) C (d) D
14. Assertion : A hollow shaft is found to be stronger than a solid shaft made of same material
Reason : The torque required to produce a given twist in hollow cylinder is greater than that required to
twist a solid cylinder of same size and material
(a) A (b) B
(c) C (d) D
15. Assertion : Angular velocity is a characteristic of the rigid body as a whole
Reason : Angular velocity may be different for different particles of a rigid body about the axis of rotation.
(a) A (b) B
(c) C (d) D
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SECTION–V
PROBLEMS ASKED IN IITJEE
SUBJECTIVE
1. A carpet of mass M made of inextensible material is rolled along its length in the form of a cylinder of
radius R and is kept on a rough floor. The carpet starts unrolling without sliding on the floor when a
negligibly small push is given to it. Calculate the horizontal velocity of the axis of the cylindrical part of
the carpet when its radius reduces to R/2. [IIT –1990]
2. A uniform circular disc has radius R and mass m. A particle, also of mass m, A
is fixed at a point A on the edge of the disc as shown in the figure. The disc
can rotate freely about a fixed horizontal chord PQ that is at a distance R/4 R
from the center C of the disc. The line AC is perpendicular to PQ. Initially,
the disc is held vertical with the point A at its highest position. It is then C R/4
allowed to fall so that it starts rotating about PQ. Find the linear speed of P Q
the particle as it reaches its lowest position. [IIT –1998]
3. Two thin circular discs of mass 2 kg and radius 10 cm each are joined by
a rigid massless rod of length 20 cm. The axis of the rod is along the
perpendicular to the planes of the disc through their centers. This object is
kept on a truck in such a way that the axis of the object is horizontal and
O
perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the truck. Its friction with
the floor of the truck is large enough so that the object can roll on the
truck without slipping. Take x–axis in the direction of motion of the truck
and zaxis in the vertically upward direction. If the truck has an
acceleration of 9 m/s2,calculate
(i) The force of friction on each disc.
(ii) The magnitude and the direction of the frictional torque acting on each disc about the center of mass O
G G G
of the object. Express the torque in the vector form in terms of unit vectors i , j and k in the x, y and z
directions. [IIT –1997]
4. A block X of mass 0.5 kg is held by a long massless string on a frictionless
inclined plane of inclination 30° to the horizontal. The string is wound on a
T
uniform solid cylindrical drum Y of mass 2 kg and radius 0.2 m as shown in
T
figure. The drum is given an initial angular velocity such that the block X starts
moving up the plane. (a) Find the tension in the string during the motion. (b) X
At a certain instant of time, the magnitude of the angular velocity of Y is
10 rad s1. Calculate the distance traveled by X from that instant of time until it 30o
comes to rest. [IIT –1974]
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6. A thin uniform bar lies on a frictionless horizontal surface and is free to move in
any way on the surface. Its mass is 0.16 kg and length is ( 3) m. Two particles,
A
each of mass 0.08 kg are moving on the same surface and towards the bar in a 10m/s
direction perpendicular to the bar, one with a velocity of 10 m/s and the other
with 6 m/s as shown in the figure. The first particle strikes the bar at point A and
the other at point B. Point A and B are at a distance of 0.5 m from the center of the
bar. The particles strike the bar at the same instant of time and stick to the bar on 6m/s
collision. Calculate the loss of KE of the system in the above collision process. B
[IIT 1989]
7. A rectangular rigid fixed block has a long horizontal edge. A solid
homogeneous cylinder of radius R is placed horizontally at rest with its
length parallel to the edge such that the axis of the cylinder and the
edge of the block are in the same vertical plane. There is sufficient
friction present at the edge so that a very small displacement causes the
cylinder to roll off the edge without slipping. Determine :
R
(a) The angle θc through which the cylinder rotates before it leaves
contact with the edge.
(b) The speed of the center of mass of the cylinder before leaving contact with the edge and
(c) The ratio of translational to rotational kinetic energies of the cylinder when its center of mass is in
horizontal line with the edge. [IIT – 1995]
8. A homogeneous rod AB of length L = 1.8m and mass M is S
pivoted at the center O in such a way that it can rotate freely in
L L
the vertical plane as shown in the figure. The rod is initially in 4 4
the horizontal position. An insect S of the same mass M falls A C B
vertically with speed V on the point C, midway between the L
points O and B. Immediately after falling, the insect moves 2
towards the end B such that the rod rotates with constant angular velocity ω . (a) Determine the velocity
ω in terms of V and L. (b) If the insect reaches the end B when the rod has turned through an angle of 90°,
determine V. [IIT1992]
9. A rod AB of mass M and length L is lying on a horizontal frictionless surface. A particle of mass m
traveling along the surface hits the end A of the rod with a velocity v0 in a direction perpendicular to AB.
The collision is completely elastic. After the collision the particle comes to rest :
(a) Find the ratio m/M.
(b) A point P on the rod is at rest immediately after the collision. Find the distance AP.
(c) Find the linear speed of the point P at time πL ( 3v0 ) after the collision. [IIT2000]
10. Two heavy metallic plates are joined together at 90° to each other. A
laminar sheet of mass 30 kg is hinged at the line AB joining the two A
heavy metallic plates. The hinges are frictionless. The moment of
inertia of the laminar sheet about an axis parallel to AB and passing Q
through its center of mass is 1.2 kgm2. Two rubber obstacles P and Q
are fixed, one on each metallic plate, at a distance 0.5 m from the line P
B
AB. This distance is chosen so that the reaction due to the hinges on
the laminar sheet is zero during the impact. Initially the laminar
sheet hits one of the obstacles with an angular velocity 1 rad/s and
turns back. If the impulse on the sheet due to each obstacle is 6 Ns
(a) Find the location of the center of mass of the laminar sheet from AB.
(b) At what angular velocity does the laminar sheet come back after the first impact ?
(c) After how many impacts does the laminar sheet come to rest ?
[IIT2001]
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OBJECTIVE
1. A plate of length a = 0.6 m and width b = 0.4 m having a mass a=0.6m
M = 3 kg is hinged at one of its edges AB as shown in the figure.
The plate is held horizontal due to small particles colliding elastically
with it from below. The particles, each of mass m = 0.01 kg strike the b=0.4m
shaded half of the plate elastically at the rate of 100 particles per unit area
per unit time. The velocity of the striking particles is [IIT2006]
(a) 83.33 m/s (b) 80 m/s
(c) 75.5 m/s (d) 70 m/s
2. A solid sphere of radius R is moulded into a solid disc of radius r and thickness t. The moment of inertia of
the disc about an axis perpendicular to the cross section of the disc and passing through circumference is
equal to the moment of inertia of the sphere about its diameter. The value of r (in terms of R) is
[IIT 2006]
2 2
(a) R (b) R
15 15
1 1
(c) R (d) [ ]R
2 5
3. A small ball starts rolling from position A down the fixed hemispherical
surface (see figure) to position C. There is friction on path AB while path C
BC is frictionless. If KA, KB, KC represent kinetic energy of the ball and hC
hA, hB, hC height of the ball at points A, B and C, then [IIT 2006] hA A
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[IIT 2007]
(a) ring (b) solid sphere
(c) hollow sphere (d) disc
8. STATEMENT – 1
If there is no external torque on a body about its centre of mass, then the velocity of the centre of mass
remains constant.
BECAUSE
STATEMENT–2
The linear momentum of an isolated system remains constant
[IIT 2007]
(a) Statement–1 is True, Statement–2 is True; Statement–2 is a correct explanation for Statement–1
(b) Statement–1 is True, Statement–2 is True; Statement–2 is NOT a correct explanation for Statement–1
(c) Statement–1 is True, Statement–2 is False
(d) Statement–1 is False, Statement–2 is True
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ANSWERS
SECTION  I
SUBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
LEVEL – I
G aB − bA 9. L = 7.1 × 1023 kg m 2 / s
1. τ = ( aB − bA) kˆ , A ⊥ =
A 2 + B2
K = 2.6 × 1029 joule , t = 2.35 × 109 year
2. V = 5.4 m / s
20 5
3. θ = 6 rad , ω = 6 rad / s , 10. ω max = rad / s
3
v = 3 m / s , a t = 1.5 m / s 2 , a R = 18 m / s 2
16mg
Fmax =
mm 3
4. I = 1 2 r 2 ; I = 2.79 × 10−47 kgm2
m1 + m2 200
11. N 2 = W = 100N; f=N1 = N
3
6. a = 1.57m / s 2 , T1 = 99N,T2 = 91 N
v1
7. v2 =
M
m + 2m
LEVEL – II
1. 5m and 5 3 m from vertical & horizontal g
7. ω= 4
walls respectively. 5r
2. ω = 2.1 rad/s ω
3 . v = 0.5 ω0 r 8. ω′ = 2
ω
4. (i) 35 rad/s2 , 1 + 1 − t
(ii) 3.5 m/s2, 2
(iii) 10 J 9. 2 gA 3
1 b4 mg
5. M a 2 + 2c 2 − 2 10. = 1.15 m/s2
2 a M + 6m ′ + m
6F sin φ
6.
mA
LEVEL  III
8µ mg
3. θ = sin −1 8. N =
4
(
9 cos 2 θ − 6 cos θ + 1 )
3 + 8µ
2
2ω20 r 2 3cos θ − 1
4. = mg
81µg 2
F F 9. θ = 60º
5. ,
2 7 3 g (1 − cos θ)
m 1 + m 2 m 2 + m1 10. w =
7 2 A
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SECTION – II
SINGLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
SECTION – III
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
SECTION  IV
PASSAGE BASED QUESTIONS
7. A→S 8. A→S
B→Q B→P
C→P C→P
D→R D→Q,R
SECTION –V
PROBLEMS BASED IN IITJEE
SUBJECTIVE
1. (14 g R /3)
2. 5gR
G
3 (i) f = (6iˆ)N
G G
(ii) τ1 = 0.6( kˆ − j ) & τ2 = 0.6( − jˆ − kˆ )
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4. (a) 1.63 N
(b) 1.22 m
5 (a) zero
(b) ω = (v /5a )
3
(c) K.E. = mv 2
5
6. 2.72 J
4
7. (a) θc = cos−1
7
4
(b) gR
7
KT
(c) =6
KR
12 V
8. (a) ω =
7 L
7
(b) V = 2 gL = 3.5 m/s
12
1
9. (a)
4
2
(b) = L
3
G v
(c) v P = 0
2 2
10. (a) 0.1 m
(b) 1 rad/s
(c) Infinite .
OBJECTIVE
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