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#######################Lab 8: Tensile Testing 1. Introduction
The mechanical
properties of materials are determined by performing carefully desig ned
laboratory experiments that replicate as nearly as possible the service
conditions. In real life, there are many factors involved in the nature in which
loads are applied on a material. The following are some common examples of modes
in which loads mig ht be applied: tensile, compressive, and shear. These
properties are important in materials selections for mechanical desig n. Other
factors that often complicate the desig n process include temperature and time
factors. ##The topic of this lab is confined to the tensile property of
polymers. # REF _Ref222904511 \h ##Fig ure 1# shows a tensile testing machine
similar to the one used in this lab. This test is a destructive method, in which
a specimen of a standard shape and dimensions (prepared according to ASTM D 638:
standard test method for tensile properties of plastics) is subjected to an
axial load. During a typical tensile experiment, a dog -bone shaped specimen is
g ripped at its two ends and is pulled to elong ate at a determined rate to its
breakpoint; a hig hly ductile polymer may not reach its breakpoint. The tensile
tester used in this lab is manufactured by Instron (model 5569). It has a
maximum load of 2 or 50 kN and a variable pulling rate. The setup of the
experiment could be chang ed to accommodate different types of mechanical
testing , according to the ASTM standard (e.g . compression test, etc).
For
analytical purposes, a pl#o#t# #o#f# #s#t#r#e#s#s# #(##)# #v#e#r#s#u#s#
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#P#a#,# #s#u#c#h# #t#h#a#t# #1# #N#/#m#2# #= 1 Pa. From the experiment, the
value of stress is calculated by dividing the amount of force (F) applied by the
machine in the axial direction by its cross-sectional area (A), which is
measured prior to running the experiment. Mathematically, it is expressed in
Equation 1. The strain values, which have no units, can be calculated using
Equation 2, where L is the instantaneous leng th of the specimen and L0 is the
initial leng th.
# EMBED Equation.3 ### (Equation 1)
# EMBED Equation.3
###
(Equation 2)##A typical stress-strain curve would look like # REF
_Ref222904987 \h ##Fig ure 2#. The stress-strain curve shown in # REF
_Ref222904987 \h ##Fig ure 2# is a textbook example of a stress-strain curve. In
reality, not all stress-strain curves perfectly resemble the one shown in # REF
_Ref222904987 \h ##Fig ure 2#. This stress-strain curve is typical for ductile
metallic elements. Another thing to take note is that # REF _Ref222904987 \h
##Fig ure 2# shows an eng ineering stress-strain curve. When a material reaches
its ultimate stress streng th of the stress-strain curve, its cross-sectional
area reduces dramatically, a term known as necking . When the computer software
plots the stress-strain curve, it assumes that the cross sectional area stays
constant throug hout the experiment, even during necking , therefore causing the
curve to slope down. The true stress-strain curve could be constructed
directly by installing a g aug e, which measures the chang e in the cross
sectional area of the specimen throug hout the experiment. Theoretically, even
without measuring the cross-sectional area of the specimen during the tensile
experiment, the true stress-strain curve could still be constructed by
assuming that the volume of the material stays the same. Using this concept,
both the true stress
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#t#h#at a stress-strain curve is divided into four reg ions: elastic, yielding ,
strain hardening (commonly occurs in metallic materials), and necking . The area
under the curve represents the amount of energ y needed to accomplish each of
these events. The total area under the curve (up to the point of fracture) is
also known as the modulus of toug hness. This represents the amount of energ y
needed to break the sample, which could be compared to the impact energ y of the
sample, determined from impact tests. The area under the linear reg ion of the
curve is known as the modulus of resilience. This represents the minimum amount
of energ y needed to deform the sample. The linear reg ion of the curve of # REF
_Ref222904987 \h ##Fig ure 2#, which is called the elastic reg ion (past this
reg ion, is called the plastic reg ion), is the reg ion where a material behaves
elastically. The material will return to its orig inal shape when a force is
released while the material is in its elastic reg ion. The slope of the curve,
which can be calculated using Equation 5, is a constant and is an intrinsic
property of a material known as the elastic modulus, E. In metric units, it is
usually expressed in Pascals (Pa). # EMBED Equation.3 ### (Equation 5)
#
REF _Ref222905033 \h ##Fig ure 3#(a) shows typical stress-strain curves of
polymers. The fig ure shows that materials that are hard and brittle do not
deform very much before breaking and have very steep elastic moduli.
The
mechanical property of polymers g enerally depends on their deg ree of
crystallinity, molecular weig hts and g lass transition temperature, Tg . Hig hly
crystalline polymeric materials with a Tg above the room temperature are usually
brittle, and vice versa. When a semi-crystalline polymer underg oes a tensile
test, the amorphous chains, will become alig ned. This is usually evident for
transparent and translucent materials, which become opaque upon turning
crystalline. # REF _Ref222905033 \h ##Fig ure 3#(b) shows a diag ram showing the
mechanical property of some common polymers.##

2. Experimental ProcedureImportant! Make sure you wear safety g lasses before


starting any operation. Your eyes could be hurt by a broken piece of polymer.
Also wear g loves to protect ag ainst any residue on the machine and samples.2.1
Specimen Preparation The polymer specimens were injection-molded into dog -bone
shapes. Their dimensions were determined according to the ASTM D 638 standard
mentioned earlier in the introduction.(1) Measure the thickness, width and g ag e
leng th of polymer samples in mm. These dimensions should be approximately the
same for each sample. (2)
Also make note of any sample defects (e.g .
impurities, air bubbles, etc.). The following samples will be tested:
Polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polylactic acid (biopolymer), hig h density
polyethylene (HDPE), and Dynaflex for analysis of mechanical properties.
Polystyrene: to compare effects of feeding direction on mechanical properties.
Polypropylene: to analyze effects of strain rate on mechanical properties.2.2
Bluehill Software Setup1) Turn on the tensile test machine. The switch is
located on the rig ht side of the machine. Also turn on the video extensometer.
(2)
Go to the desktop and double-click on the Bluehill icon. (3) On the
main pag e, select Test to start a new sample. Name your test and click Browse
to select the folder you would like to save it in. Click next.(4) Choose which
method you would like to use. Create and save a new method if needed.(5) Method
set up: Save after any chang es are made.General: used for display purposes
Specimen: specifies sample dimensions and parameters. A dog bone sample is used
for tensile testing . Select rectang ular, and specify the width, thickness and
g aug e leng th of the sample. The g aug e leng th is the distance between the clamps
before starting the test. Control: describes the actual test. Select extension
for mode of displacement, then specify the rate of extension. Most use 5 mm/min
or 50 min/mm, depending on if you want a slow or fast test. End of Test:
identifies the criteria for the end of the test. A larg e load drop is
experienced when sample failure occurs. For this test, when the sample load
drops by a certain percentag e of the peak load, the machine will stop. Data:
specifies if the data is acquired manually or automatically, while the strain
tab recog nizes whether the strain is measured from the video extensimeter or the
extension.Results and Graphs: select what data is shown and how it is displayed.
2.3 Instrument Setup(1)
Make sure the proper load cell is installed,
either 2 kN or 50 kN depending on the load rang e and sensitivity of the sample.
To switch load cells, make sure the machine is off. Unscrew the bolts and
remove using the handle. Make sure to plug the new load cell into the port
behind the machine.(2) Calibrate the load cell by clicking on the button in the
upper rig ht hand corner. Make sure all loads are removed from the load cell and
click calibrate. (3) Install the correct type of clamps for the testing . For
tensile testing , 5kN or 50kN samples can be used. Install the clamps using the
pins. Also install heig ht brackets if needed. Zero the load once the clamps are
installed.(4) Press the up and down arrows on the controller until the clamps
are just touching . Press the reset g aug e leng th button at the top of the screen
to zero the position of the clamps.(5) Use the up and down arrows until the
clamps are about 100 mm apart. This is a typical g aug e leng th for the dog bone
samples.(6) Place the polymer sample between the g rips of both the tensile test
machine. While holding the sample vertically with one hand, use another hand to
turn the handle of the top g rip in the closing direction as tig htly as possible.
(The specimen should be g ripped such that the two ends of the specimen are
covered by the g rip, approximately 3 mm away from its g ag e-leng th. It is
important that the specimens are tig htly g ripped onto the specimen g rips to
prevent slipping , which will otherwise result in experimental errors. ) (8)
Make sure that the specimen is vertically alig ned, if not a torsional
force, rather than axial force, will result.(9) Turn the bottom handle in the
close direction as tig htly as possible. Visually verify that the sample is
g ripped symmetrically at its two ends.
(10)Zero the extension by pushing zero
extension button at the top of the screen. Also zero the load if needed. Wait
for a few seconds to let the computer return its value to zero. 2.4 Tensile
Test (1) Enter g eometry of the sample before starting .(2) Click on the Start
button. Both the upper and bottom g rips will start moving in opposite
directions according to the specified pulling rate. Observe the experiment at a
safe distance (about 1.5 meters away) at an ang le and take note of the failure
mode when the specimen fails.(NOTE: Be sure to wear safety g lasses. Do not come
close to equipment when the tensile test is running ).(3) A plot of tensile

stress (MPa) versus tensile strain (mm/mm) will be g enerated in real-time during
the experiment. 2.6 End of Test(1) The machine will stop automatically when the
sample is broken. (2) Press the Return button on the dig ital controller. Both
the upper and lower g rips will be returned to their orig inal positions
automatically.(3) Turn the two handles in the open directions to remove the
sample(4) Repeat the previous steps for any additional tests.(5) When finished,
save your file and click Finish. This will export your data into a PDF and
individual data files.(6) Clean up any broken frag ments from the specimens. (7)
Turn off the machine and exit the prog ram when finished.3. Assig nments
Graph PP (50 mm/mm extension), PS (2 feed inputs), PLA, HDPE and Dynaflex
results using raw data files. There should be two tests for each polymer, but
just pick one to g raph. Construct the true stress-strain curves for each
polymer (hint: use Equations (3) and (4) provided in the Introduction section).
Calculate Young s Modulus for each material and testing condition and compare
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mechanical behavior between the polymers (use pictures!)Analyze the fracture
modes of each sample (ductile fracture, brittle fracture, or intermediate
fracture mode). Using the data for polypropylene, discuss the effects of strain
rate on the mechanical behavior of the polymers.Using the data for polystyrene,
compare effects of feed direction on the mechanical behavior.Explain any
unexpected results.#####PAGE ##PAGE #1#Fig ure # SEQ Fig ure \* ARABIC #1#. A
photog raph of a tensile machine Instron 5569Fig ure # SEQ Fig ure \* ARABIC #2#.
Various reg ions and points on the stress-strain curve.Fig ure # SEQ Fig ure \*
ARABIC #3#. (a) A plot of stress-strain curves of typical polymeric materials.
(b) A summary diag ram of the properties of common polymers.(a)(b)
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