Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 64

. .

Vx ^ ^

^ ^

ov

81.2
93

93

. .
.
.: , 2007. 64 . (
).
ISBN 978-5-94455-412-3

, ,
.

81.2

ISBN 978-5-94455-412-3

. ., 2005
, 2007

Bb

Cc

Dd

[]

[bi:]

[Si:]

[di:]

Ff

Hh

[ef]

Gg
]

Ii

Jj

LI

[]

[d3ei]

[kei]

[el]

Mm

Nn

Oo

Pp

[em]

[en]

[3U]

[pi:]

Qq

Rr

Ss

Tt

[kju:]

[a:]

[es]

[ti:]

Uu

Vv

Ww

Xx

[ju:]

[Vi:]

['dAblju:]

[eks]

Yy
[wai]

Zz

[eitf]

[zed]


.
.
.
.
. ()
.
.
.
. .
. .
. .
.
. ()
.
3


(CONSONANTS)

[b] back = []
Id] day = [], ,

= []

jam
If] five, = []
photo
[g] g i r l
= [ ]
[h] hand = , ( [] !)
[j] yellow = []
[k] kiss = [ ]

[1] lady

= [], ,

[] man

= []

[n] night = [], ,



[] sing = .
,
,
[] pig
= []
[] rabbit = ],


4

[s] son
[J] ship
[t] tea
[tj] cheese
[v] vase
[w] water,
one

[c]
[in]
[], ,

= []
= []
[],
:
,

[z] zebra
[3]
[3] measure = []


>

[6] they
[0 ] thing

[f]

j: job [cfeob]
g: geography [dji'ografi]

f:

frog [frog]
ph: phrase [freiz] ;
elephant felifant]
h: hole [houl]
wh: whole [houl] ,
5

k:
:
ck:
ch:

key [ki:]
cat [kaet]
clock [klok]
school [sku:l]

[n]

n: night [nait]
kn: knight [nait]

[]

r: rose [rouz]
wr: write [rait]
s:
:

smile [small]
city fsiti] ;
ceiling fsi:lir)]
sc: scene [si:n]
m

[w]

[Z]

sh: shock [Jok]


: ocean fo u jo n ]
w: water ['wo:to]
wh: what [wot] , ;
when [wen]
z:
s:

zoo [zu:]
visit ['vizit]
6


(VOWELS)

[a] cut

,
[]
[] ;

[] bag ,
[] [], ,
[]

[] bed

, []
, ,

[] about ,
[] ,
[]

[0] pot

[1] pit

[] put

,
[]

,
[]
, []
, ,

7

/ -----------------------------------------------------------------------

[a:] ask []
[:] fur ,

[] []
[:] short []
tree ,
[] ,
[li:] boot [],

,
(
: ,
)

[ai] high, my
[ou] , []
boat, flow
[oi] coin, toy
[au] found, down

= []

[ei] may, sake


[] , []
fare, there
[] h ear, here
[] poor, tour

= []
= []
= [ay]

= []
= []
= []
= [ya]

(
: , ,
, )

[] tire, fire = []
[] tower = []
[] goer = []
8

:
:
:
ou:
u:
[]------ a:

[el

love [Iav]
blood [bL\d]
country fkAntri]
but [bAt] ,
panther ['] ;
Africa fasfriko] ;
bat [baet]

e: nettle [netl]
ea: pleasant [pleznt]
( .): again [o'gen]
e ( .): serpent ['so:pont]
er ( .): leather [ ' 1]
( .): nature ['neit/]
a: wash [woj]
: pot [pot]
ou: cough [kof]
i:
:
e:
ai:

print [print]
pity fp iti]
cinema fsinim o]
bargain fba:gin]
9

wolf[wulf]
wood [wud]
should [Jud] .
put [put]
a+r: dark [da:k]
+lf: half[ha:f]
+lm: palm [pa:m] ;
+nt: plant [pla:nt]
+sk: task [ta:sk]
+sp: grasp [gra:sp]
+ss: grass [gra:s]
+st: past [pa:st]
+r: heart [ha:t]
e+r:
ea+r:
i+r:
u+r:

her [ha:] ,
learn [1:] ()
dirt [da:t]
turn [ta:n] ()
he [hi:]
tree [tri:]
speak [spi:k]
chief [tfi:f]
receive [ri'si:v]
10

a+1: fall [fo:l]


au: autumn ['o:tom]
aw: draw [dro:] ;
augh: daughter ['do:to]
ough: thought [0 o:t]
o+r: horse [ho:s]
wa+r: warm [wo:m]
write [rait]
die [dai]
sky [skai]
buy [bai]
right [rait] ;
sign [sain]
child [tfaild]
i+nd: mind [maind]
[31]

oi:
oy:

boil [boil]
toy [toi]

photo ffoutou]
road [roud]
[ou] ^ ow: slow [slou]
o+ld: cold [kould]
o+ll: roll [roul] ()
11

move [mu:v]
shoe [Ju:]
spoon [spu:n]
soup [su:p]
[au]

ou:
ow:

count [kaunt]
down [daun] ()

[ei]

a:
ai:
ay:
ey:
eigh:

take [teik]
rain [rein]
day [dei]
they [5ei]
neighbour fneiba]

[]

a+re: care []
e+re: where [wes] ,

[ 19 ]

e+re: here []
ea+r: hear [hia]

[U 0 ]

[]

oo+r: poor []
our: tour [tug]
ia:
ire:

diamond fdaiam and]


retire [ri'taia]
12

[]

our: our []
ower: flower []
owar: coward [kau 9d]

[]

oer: Boer []
ower: lower [1]

!
,
, ,
, :

field [fi- Id] i e ,


society [sa'saiati] i
gloomy ['glu:mi]

zoology [zotl'obd^l]

potatoes [ps'teitouz] ,
poem fpOUim] O u t
green [gri:n] ,
re-echo [ri: ekou]
13


f )
/ -----------------------------
-



:
() :

dis + order = disorder

visit + or = visitor

strength + en = strengthen

()

un + happy + ness = unhappiness

:
pin > , .
pin > ,
:

transport >
transport

woman [wum9n] women [wimin]


use [ju:s] use [ju:z]
close [klaus] close [ktauz]
14


:
rain + bow = rainbow

snow + man = snowman

after + noon = afternoon

fire + place = fire-place

thought + less = thoughtless

empty-headed

chimney-sweeper

counting-out-rhyme

merry-go-round

!
,
:
happy, . > unhappy, .

:
use, . useless, . uselessness, .

15

anti- -, -:
social antisocial

- :

author > co-author

Counter- -, -:
action > counteraction

d e - :

merit demerit

dis- ,
:

honest dishonest

to appear to disappear

- :

large to enlarge

(. . )

- , -:
champion > ex-champion

16

in- ;
1, , , :

in +1 ill, in + irr, in + m >imm, in + p >imp:


capable > incapable

legal - illegal

responsible irresponsible

modest > immodest

possible impossible

inter- , :
action > interaction

mis- :
to understand > to misunderstand

- :
content non-content

Over- , :
to feed > to overfeed

post- :
war post-war

17

- , ; -:

historic prehistoric

- , ;
-:

to open >to reopen

to read > to re-read

Sllb- -:
marine submarine

S u p e r- -:

natural > supernatural

trans- , ; -, -:
to plant to transplant

ultra- -, -:
violet > ultra-violet

u n - ;
:

pleasant unpleasant

to lock >to unlock

under- :
to value > to undervalue

18


-ability, -ibility
-able, -ible:

probable > probability

-age:
-al:

to break > breakage

to arrive > arrival

-ance, -ence ( -ancy, -ency)


-ant, -ent:

constant > constancy

-dom:
-:
-er, -or:
-hood:
-ian:

different > difference

king > kingdom

to adress > adressee

to invent > inventor

child > childhood

history > historian

19

-ion (-ation, -tion, -sion, -ssion):


to collect > collection

to produce production

-ism:

tour > tourism

-ist:

art > artist

-ment:

to agree > agreement

-ness:

kind > kindness

-our ( -or): colour ( color)

-ship:

friend > friendship

-th:

deep depth

to grow > growth

safe safety

-ure (-ture):

to mix > mixture

to press > pressure

20


eatable
-able., -ible:
to eat

-al:
-ant, ent:
-ary,-ory:
-en:
-ful:
-ic:
-ish:
-ive:
-less:

centre > central

to differ > different

second > secondary

wood

wooden

care

careful

hero > heroic

Scott - Scottish

to act > active

home > homeless

-ous:
-*

danger > dangerous

dirt > dirty

sun > sunny

21

....


-ate, -ute:

to indicate, to execute

-en:

sharp > to sharpen

^4-
pH
1

pure > to purify

-ise, -ize:

sympathy > to sympathize


-ly:

easy > easily,

first > firstly

-1
, :

,.

daily
weekly ?
^
^
friendly ; lovely .

-ward(s):

home -> homeward(s)

north - northward(s)

,
22


(NOUNS)
( )
/

snow

ball

school


- :

snowball

schoolgirl



() :

to sail + or = sailor

free + dom = freedom

dis + honest + ty = dishonesty

en + chant + e r = en chanter

23

girl

)
-------------------------------------


;
,
, , , ,
, , , ,
, . .:

a picture

an island

a family

a train

a pupil

wisper

water

bravery

-------- -------------------------------------------------------------


;
, , /
, , . .:

Space

Englishman

London

Equator

the English

Saturday

Moon

January

Earth

Christmas

Charlie

V________ I__________

24

Magi


?,
he she :

teacher
(he )

(she )

neighbour
(he )

(she )

:
-ess, -ine, he-, she-, boy-, girl-, -man, -woman:

actor actress

host hostess

tiger tigress

lion lioness

hero

boy-friend girl-friend

Frenchman Frenchwoman

he-wolf she-wolf

25


ship ,
(i she).


?,
it , , :

shelf

river

bridge

island

(it )

(it )

window

lake

(it )

(it )

(it )

(it )

/ ,
, ,
:

Where is the dog? It is under the table.

!
,
he she:

is under the table.


() .
26

/ --------- -----------\

. .

. .

. .


, ,
,
.
?

. + s = .
a table tables [teiblz] a pear pears [pesz]

a cow cows [kauz]

a book >books [buks]

a horse > horses [ ho:siz]


, ,
, , , ,
, , . .
:

tea

sugar

independence

glass

ink

(: a glass > glasses\


^

)
27



-s, -, -sh, -ch, -tch > + es [iz]:

a box > boxes ['boksiz]

- > + es [z]:
a hero fh iaro u ] > heroes fh isro u z]

a potato [po'teitou] potatoes [po'teitouz]

('

a piano pianos;

a photo > photos\

4- > i -f- es:

a fly > flies

+ >+ s: a monkey > monkeys

-f >v + es: a leaf leaves; a wolf >wolves

( : a handkerchief >handkerchiefs; >roofs ^


\

-fe >ve + s: a knite >knives; a wife wives

('
28

a man [] >men [men]


a woman fw um an] > women fw im in]
a foot [fut] > feet [fi:t]
a tooth [tu:0 ] > teeth [ti:0 ]
a goose [gu:s] > geese [gi:s]
a mouse [maus] > mice [mais]
a child [tjaild] > children ['tjildran]
an ox [oks] > oxen fokson]
a deer [dra] >
a sheep [Ji:p] >

,
:

schoolboy schoolboys

postman > postmen

-,
:

money-box >money-boxes, passer-by > passers-by

, man- woman :

woman-doctor >women-doctors
-

29

/--------- -------------------------------------------------------------------\

,

!

.
sugar
milk
happiness
friendship
mathematics
.
advice
progress
knowledge
news

. .
,
,
,
,

.
.
money
vacation
hair
h o : a hair , hairs )
30

.
spectacles, glasses
trousers
scissors
scales
tongs
.
goods
stairs
clothes

. .
,
,
,

.
.
arms
wages
contents
carrots
(: a carrot , . e. )
. .
a gate, gates
a sled, sleds
a watch, watches

(,

a clock, clocks

(,
, )

31


(Possessive Case)
[ . ] s
[ . ]

whose? ?
:

the dogs tail

the dogs tails

:
0
:
city (), country (), world (),
ship (); , ;
: the Earth (),
the Moon (), the Sun (),
, :

the ships crew


a months holiday

!
. -s,
[ . ] s:

the childrens toys



32


house , office
, , shop :
I went to the bakers (m. e. bakers shop).


s:

sugarcane

a silk dress


0 , ,
:
, the

(), his (),
h e r (), its (, ), our (), your (), their ()
this (), these (),
that (), those ()
much, many (),
little, few (), some (, ), any
(, -), each, every (),
either ( ), neither ( )
what (),
which (), whose ()
33

(ARTICLES)
( )
- .........
\

. .

. .

book

books

butter

city

cities

cheese

tooth

teeth

sugar

honesty

botany

, !

some, any

( )

( )

the

,
the

darkness

the
34

a, an
[] ,
, u [jli:] h, h :
a table [Vteibl]
a union [a'jmnjan]
a house [s'haus]
[] ,
, U

[]

h, h :

an arm [ ' ]
an umbrella [ ]
an hour [']

the

the ,
the

-:
[] , [ju:] h, h :

the table [cta'teibl]

the [d l]

the union [da'jmnjan]


the house [da'haus]
, U [] h, h :
the arm [Si 'cum]
the umbrella [diAm'breta]
the hour [61 ']
35

t h e


. . :
0 - , :
Where is the key? ( ) ?
1 bought a hat yesterday; the hat is pretty.
(-) ; () .
-
: the Earth () .
(D , ,
. . ( ):

The pine grows in nothem countries.

the + . + .:

The highest mountains are in Asia.


.
the + . + .:

I am on the second floor (: a second ).

the ( ) + . + .:

The two men entered the room.


.
36

,


. . :
-, -, ;
there is ,
, (there was ,
there will be ) to have
:

There is a pencil in the box.


(-) .

Give me a fiber pen.


(-) .

I read it in a magazine.
( -) .
.
,
some ( . .) any ( . . .):

There are some pencils in the box.


(-, ) .

Are there any pencils in the box?


(-) ?

There arent any pencils in the box.


() .
37

------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ^

,


. . ():

, , ( . ):

A child can understand it.


() .

Children can understand it.


() .
(3) ,
( . ):

My father is an engineer. Our fathers are engineers.


.

what , ( .
):

What a clever child! What clever children!


! !
(D one :

Ill come in an hour.

A (one) hundred.

() .

() .

. hundred , thousand
, million :

hundreds of people

38


. . :
0 :

Will of iron.

Knowledge is power.

I like music.

Water is necessary for life.

Water from a well is always cold.


() .
the,
- :

I like the music of this ballet.


.

The water in this river is very cold.


.
(D some (
. .) any -, ( .
. .), :

Give me some milk.


( ) .
Is there any hope that hell fall asleep?
- , ?
@ ,
:

It is a very good tea.


(. . ) .
39


:
Europe,

Brazil,

Paris,

Baker Street, John Smith,


-

the United States

the Pacific (Ocean)

the Black (Sea)

the Persian Gulf the Potomac (River) the Suez Canal

the Sahara (Desert)

the Rockies

the Bahamas,

the Faroe Isis

/
: \
Everest 1
1 Montblanc,
\

the Titanic

the Metropol

the Petrovs

the Tower, the Louvre, the Kremlin, the Alhambra

40

,
the Crimea
the Ukraine
the Caucasus

the Congo
the Sudan
the Hague .

()
a good deal of
a great deal of
a good many

a great many
a great number of
a lot of
a few
a little
it is a pity
to go for a walk
to have a cold

at a time ,

at a time when ,

in a hurry
to have a good time

to have a headache

(I have a headache.
.)
to have a mind

(th e)
in the morning (evening, night)
(, )
in the country ,

in the spring (summer,
automn, winter)
(, , )
in the street
in the sun
41

the day before yesterday

the day after tomorrow

the other day


to pass the time

What is the time?


?


at dinner (breakfast, supper)
(, )
at first sight

at heart
at home
at night
at school ,

at sunset
at table
at work
by tram (train, bus)
(, )
by air ,
, ,

by land ,

by sea
by water ,
,
by day
by heart
by mistake
by name
for instance!^
for exampleJ
42

from morning to (till) night



from time to time

in fact
in return
in sight
in time
on behalf of
-
on business
on board a (the) ship

on foot
on land
on purpose
on sale
on sea
side by side
to go to bed

to go to school

to take care of
to take (close) to heart
()
to take part in

(ADJ ECTIVES)
( )

white

young

long

snow-white

four-wheeled

long-legged



() :

to eat + able = eatable

peace + ful = peaceful

un + happy = unhappy

!

, .
,
1- 2-:
a w inter day >

43


0 ,

:

Give me a red pencil.


.

1 brought the newspapers necessary for my work.


, .
-able, -ible,
enough
:

We have enough time. = We have time enough.


.
, some, any,
no, every:

Tell me something interesting.


. - .
-:

The pencil [is] yellow.

44


(
: ill , well , glad
, sorry , alone ,
afraid , alive , asleep
.

The child is ill. (Ho: thenU^^bikl'' > the sick child.)

The girl is asleep. (Ho: "Sie^slge^girl


>the sleeping girl.)

&

to be absent
to be afraid
to be angry
to be asleep
to be awake
to be ill
to be late
to be proud
to be sorry
to be tired
45

(Positive)

(Comparative)

(Superlative)

: [] + er, est

short

shorter

(the) shortest

deep

deeper

(the) deepest

, -, -,
: [] + er, est

dirty

dirtier

(the) dirtiest

simple

simpler

(the) simplest


: more, most + []

famous

more famous

(the) most famous

difficult

m ore difficult

(the) most
difficult

46



+ >&+ er, est:

largfc + er = larger

larg&+ est = largest

+ > i + er, est:

dry + er = drier

dry + est = driest

+ >+ er, est:

gay + er = gayer

gay + est = gayest


, ,
:

thin + n + er = thinner

thin + n + est = thinnest


than ,
much, far, a great deal (, ,
) still, yet ():

The Nile is much longer than the Thames.


, .
47



(by) far, much (, ),
that (), of ():

It is the best of my books.


.

:

good

>

bad

little

better
worse

>

less

more

worst
()

later
^

{
)
48

farthest
,

farthest

latest

latter

most

farther

least

farther

h, many >

late

best

()

far

last
,

(ADVERBS)
f
/

late

where

very

soon

:
somewhere
sometimes
nowhere
-


-1:

bad + 1 = badly

first + ly = firstly

before long

since then

49

just when

The house is very low.


(?) .

---------

The plane flew very low.


(?) .

-----------

early: [] + er, est

late

later

soon

sooner

early

earlier

(the) latest
()
(the) soonest
()
(the) earliest
()

,
-ly: more, most + []

bravely

more bravely

(the) most bravely

()

50


much,
far, a great deal (, ) still, yet ():

She can work still (yet) faster.


.



(by) far, much (, ):

She works much the fastest.


.

:

better

badly

> worse

little

>

much

>

well

less

more

farther
far

further

51

best

()

worst

()

least

()

most

()

farthest

()

furthest

()

(NUMERALS)
f )
_______

------------------------- \


how many? ?


which? ?

two
twenty
two hundred

second
twentieth
two hundredth

Ten (minutes) past seven 10 (7.10).


A quarter past seven (7.15).
Half past seven (7.30).
Ten (minutes) to eight 10 (7.50).
"

at 9 a. m. 9 ; at noon
at 7 . .* 7 ; by 3 oclock 3

1894 eighteen (hundred and) ninety-four


1900 nineteen hundred
2005 two thousand and five, twenty oh five
on Friday
in 2004 2004

in April
in the morning

* a. m. ante meridiem ; p. m. pos


meridiem .
52


1 one [\]
2 two [tu:]
3 three [0ri:]
4 four [fo:]
5 five [faiv]
6 six [siks]
7 seven [sevn]
8 eight [eit]
9 nine [nain]
10 ten [ten]
11 eleven [flevn]
12 twelve [twelv]
13 thirteen [,03:'ti:n]
14 fourteen [ fo:'ti:n]
15 fifteen f f i f ti:n]
16 sixteen [^siks'ti:n]
17 seventeen ^sevn'tim]
18 eighteen [ei'ti:n]
19 nineteen [ynain'ti:n]
20 twenty ['tw enti]
21 twenty-one
22 twenty-two . .
30 thirty ['0a:ti]
40 forty ['fo:ti]
50 fifty ['fifti]
60 sixty [ 'siksti]
70 seventy ['sevnti]
80 eighty ['eiti]
90 ninety ['nainti]
100 a (one) hundred ['tu n d ra d ]
101a (one) hundred and one

200 two hundred


500 five hundred . .


1st first [fa:st]
2nd second ['seksnd]
3rd third [9a:d] 3-
4th fourth [fo:0] 4-
5th fifth [fif0] 5-
6th sixth [siksQ] 6-
7th seventh [sevnG] 7-
8th eighth [eitQ] 8-
9th ninth [nainG] 9-
10th tenth [tenQ] 10-
11th eleventh [flevnG] 11-
12th twelfth [twelfQ] 12-
13th thirteenth 13-
14th fourteenth 14-
15th fifteenth 15-
16th sixteenth 16-
17th seventeenth 17-
18th eighteenth 18-
19th nineteenth 19-
20th twentieth ['twentnG] 20-
21st twenty-first 21-
22nd twenty-second 22- . .
30th thirtieth ['GartnG] 30-
40th fortieth
50th fiftieth
60th sixtieth
70th seventieth
80th eightieth
90th ninetieth
100th (one) hundredth
101st (one) hundredth and first

200th two hundredth
500th five hundredth

53

(VERBS)
(_______ _______J
/

~7

:
to do
to take
to have

:
white + wash = to whitewash
4

J
\


() :
dis + appear = to disappear

V_

:
go + away = to go away


(the Infinitive)
: to open
(Past Simple) opened
(D (Past Participle)
opened
0 (Present Participle)
opening
54

J
N

>

Past Simple Past Participle


:
0 , (to open):
Past Simple Past Participle :
+ ed: opened
(2) , (to write):
Past Simple Past Participle :
write >wrote, written

:

0 :

speaks English.

lives in London.

-.

(2) to be, to have, to do, shall, will


:

is writing a letter.

I do not know it.

- to be, to become, to grow, to get .


:

My sister is a doctor.

She looks ill.

0 can, may, must, ought, need +


, ,
, :

I must do it at once.

He can read French.

-.

55

(Tenses)
0
Simple ( Indefinite) Tenses (
) . :
,

:

Present Simple

Past Simple

Future Simple

I write letters

I wrote a letter

I shall/will write

every day.

yesterday.

a letter tomorrow.

()
.


()
.

Progressive ( Continuous) Tenses


. () ,
, :

Present Progressive

Past Progressive

Future Progressive

I am writing

I was writing

a letter (at the


present moment).

a letter at six
oclock.

I shall/will be
writing a letter

(
).


.
56

at eight oclock.

.

Present Simple Tense


( )

I ask

He '
She asks
It
We '
You ask
They ^

Do I ask?

I do not (dont)
ask

He ' does not ask


r he'
Does - she > ask? She (doesnt)
It
. it .
r

Do

We
we
do not ask
< you ask? You (dont)
They ^
. they ^

3- . -s :
: he sees [si:z]
[s] : he speaks [spi:ks]

3-
-ss, -ch, -sh, - >+ es [iz]:

to wash + es > he washes ['wojiz]


-s, -c, -g + e > + s [iz]:

to change + s > he changes ftjeindjiz]


+ > i + es [iz]:
to study + es > he studies fstAdiz]
+ >+ s [z]:

to play + s >he plays [pleiz]


to go, to do + es: goes [gouz], does [dAZ]
57

to be , ,
Present Simple

I am (Im [aim])
is (hes [hi:z])
She is (shes [Ji:z])
It is (its [its])
We are (were [wis])
You are (youre [jua])
They are (theyre
[])

Am
Is

I?
r he '
.< she ?
it _

f we
A re. you
[they }

lam (^m) not


He ' is not
She - (isnt)
[iznt]
It
We '' are not
You , (arent)
They [a:nt]

to have (),
Present Simple

Have I?
I have (Ive [aiv])
He has (hes [hi:z])
he
She has (shes [Ji:z])
Has | she ?
It has (its [its])
it
We have (weve [wi:v])
You have (youve [j U:v])
f we
Have < you
They have (theyve
[they }
[3eiv])
58

I have ilot (havent)


He
She
It

] has not
(hasnt)

We " have not


You
(havent)
They

Past Simple Tense


( )

I
]

She
It
asked
We
You
They j

I )
he
she
>ask?
Did < it
we
you
, theyj

I
^
He
She
did not
It
ask
We
You
They J

-ed :
[d] : lived [livd]
[t] ( t): asked [a:skt]
[id] d t: wanted ['wontid]

Past Simple
+ e >&+ ed:

to live + ed lived
+ > i + ed:

to study + ed > studied


+ >+ ed:

to play + ed >played

, ,
:

to stop + + ed stopped
59


,
:
to refer [ri'fa:] + + ed referred,

to order [:] + ed > ordered


-1 :

to travel + 1+ ed >travelled
V___________________________________________________________________________________ /

was
He
She, it
We
'
You
were
They J

Was

I
He
She, it

had (d)
We
You
They j

<he

N I

? He

she, it
fwe
'
Were < you
?
they

to be Past Simple

>was not

(wasnt)
She,7it J
We "
You Vwere not
(werent)
They ^

to have Past Simple

Had

^
\

I
)
he
she, it
.?
we
you
they ,
60

I
He
She, it , had not
We
(hadnt)
You
They >

Future Simple Tense


( )

a s k

"

shall not (shant)! ,


tw ill not (wont )* /as

a s k ?

r he 1
He '
He I will not
She - will (U) ask Will < she - ask? She > (wont)
It
ask
. it J
It J
w (shall not (shant)!
We ( sh.f"

j
we
ask?
e [will not (wont) J asJ
I Will
You 1 will (11)
They J ask

w m { [heuy}ask?

Present

You 1 will not (wont)


They J
ask

Progressive Tense

( )

I am ('m) asking Am 1; asking?


He ! is (s)
She asking
It
We >
are (re)
You
asking
They

he]
she tasking?
lit J
r we 1
Are" you >asking?
Jhey J

151

* shant [fa:nt], wont [wount].


61

I am (m) not
asking
S h e l ls "ot (Isnt)
It j asking
We "] are not
You I (arent)
They J asking

Past

Progressive Tense

( )

She, i t ,
We
You
They

was
asking
were
asking

'

I
'
asking?
he
[ she, it
" we "j
Were <
i >asking?
, they J

Future

>
I
was not
He
She, it , asking
We "
You ^were not
They J asking

Progressive Tense

( )

shall 1 ( 11) be
twill J asking

Shall! I be
Will J asking?

"shall n o t'
(shant) be
I - will not "asking
(wont) ,

fhe
He will not
Will she be
She (wont)
it asking? It
be asking
'shall not'
*\
(shant) ^be
Shall I we be
Wq<Iwill not
We-[shall! (11) be Will [asking?
twill J asking
J
[(wont) ,

She will (41)


be asking
It

You 1 will (11)


TheyJ be asking

You \ will not (wont)


Wi" {they} asking? TheyJ be asking
62


...........
...
.......
....
................

................
....
.................
.......
.................

-3
..4
..5
-7
14
23
23
34
43
49
52
54



: (812) 560-8684, (812) 325-4741
E-mail: publish@litera.spb.ru
http://www.litera.spb.ru
-:
(812) 441-3649
(812) 441-3650
E-mail: sales@litera.spb.ru
: (495) 641-2322
E-mail: sales@litera.inc.ru


N 78.01.07.953..002499.05.04 20.05.04

. .
. . , 3 . . , . .
. .

12.03.07. 7090'/16. .
. . . . 4,68. . 10 000 . 421.
.
192131, -, ., 24.

. . . .
197110, -, ., 15.