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Ed - Psych 3502 - Assignment # 2

Case Study - Motivation & Classroom Structure & Climate


Group # 1 Rebecca, Callie, Laura, Colton

Case Study # 8
Mr. Dillion is in the classroom teaching a 1 grade science lesson. During the lesson,
students are talking. Once he gets them to stop talking, the students are good for a few
minutes. As he changes activities, the noise level increases. Mr. Dillion shouts to get the
students to focus on work. Once again, several minutes go by and the class is loud. Mr.
Dillion shouts and scolds the children.
st

Causes
Teacher:
May not be creating engaging, meaningful and authentic lessons/assignments
Unclear communication/expectations...
o about expected student behaviour
o about the assignment
Not using...
o a consistent and calm approach when reprimanding
o praise when appropriate to do so
Students:
Focused more on personal issues or other work
Finding the work too challenging or too easy
Fidgeting due to lack of engagement or long period of sitting
Environment:
Classroom layout and learning spaces may not be effective as...
o smaller students in the back may not see the board or instructions
o student may be facing away from the board
o seating arrangements may induce friendly talking or fighting
Other distractions
o objects around the classroom
o noises outside the classroom
Classroom Management:
Lack of effective teaching management within the classroom
o Effective teachers are organized from day one and effective teaching includes
effective management and enforcements of rules in a classroom. Mr. Dillion's
noise level expectation may not have been appropriately enforced in his
classroom.
Students did not respect the teacher during instruction and did not learn as a collective
group.
o Creating a sense of community within their classroom is a good technique for
teachers to enforce a positive and respectful relationship with students. Mr.
Dillion continued his instructions without full class attention.
Teacher does not have withitness
o in this scenario Mr. Dillion did not have good awareness of the students attention
during instruction of his lesson and was not able to correct their attention.

Concepts

Students

Teachers

Environment

5
Perspectives

Lacking behavioral
motivation (internal
rewards)

Lacking behavioural motivation


(Not providing incentives for
internal rewards)

Lacking sociocultural
motivation (students do
not feel like a working
group)

Maslows
Hierarchy

Basic needs are met


Psychological needs are
being worked on
(students interested in
communicating with
others, do not listen to
first reprimands from
teacher)
Self-fulfillment needs
are not being
met(Students are not
reaching full potential)

Basic needs are met


Psychological needs are not
being met (student are not
providing respect and listening
to teacher, lack of control over
situation
Self-fulfilling needs are not
being met (teacher is not
capable to gain attention over
students and therefor not teach
to his full potential)

Basic needs are met


Psychological needs are
being met (relation to
other peers, students feel
comfortable talking to
each other)
Self-fulfilling needs are
not being met (students
are not reaching for
autonomy of their own
learning.)

Attribution

Lack of internal Locus

Uncontrollable teacher is
unable to keep control over
class management

Unstable classroom
environment is not set up
to routine

Goal
Orientation

Work-avoidant students
do not want to complete
the task at hand

Performance orientated
focused on overall outcome of
assignment

*not enough info but could


assume Work-avoidant
because the classroom
set up might not promote
positive work ethics

Self-efficacy

Low self-efficacy they


demonstrate lack of self
direction. Students are
not involved in goals,
they are off task.

Low self-efficacy teacher wants


to promote high work ethic
however not able to hook
students. Lack of established
goals as well a lack of selfmonitoring (allows students
voices to raise, raises own
voice to compete with
classroom noise)

Low self-efficacy lack of


goals and expectations,
lack of planning (seating
or instruction) and a lack
of self-monitoring (allows
students voices to raise,
classroom to become
chaotic)

Anxiety

Lack of understanding;
not clear expectations
Lack of performance
ability
Lack of comfort in group
project

Lack of student attention;


experiences classroom
management problems
Losing control of situation yells
or raises voice to the students

Using unnecessary time


with distractions and class
management
Lack of stated
expectations to remind
students

Engaging
Unmotivated

Low expectations more


focused on peer
interactions and external

High expectation expects


students to stay on task and
complete objective

*not enough info but could


assume
Promotional images to

environment than
internal expectations

promote high work ethic


available around
classroom, room is warm
and open to learning,
classroom set-up
promotes best outcome.

Action Plan
Students will understand work, behaviour and co-operation expectations in the classroom.
1) Address Work and Behaviour Expectations: At the beginning of the next class, the teacher
should create two sets of class rules and expectations pertaining to behaviour and work through
group discussion and brainstorming, thereby incorporating students ideas. In doing so, the
teacher promotes student ownership and self-regulation. Specifically, he should help guide
students responses and implement visual cues such as the traffic light meter to reduce volume
in the classroom. In this case, green would mean that the volume is acceptable, yellow would
indicate that it is starting to get too loud and red would mean that the volume is unacceptable.
This system will help students monitor the classroom volume without being explicitly told by the
teacher.
2) Clarification through Modelling: The teacher should ensure his teaching practice models
appropriate behaviour, work ethic and co-operation in his classroom. He should communicate
clear and precise instructions while maintaining a calm and respectful demeanor. Additionally,
he should continue to incorporate students ideas into lessons and assessment criteria in order
to create a positive learning environment where students take responsibility and ownership for
their work.
3) Response to Behaviour: Reinforce the expected behaviour through various strategies. The
teacher could start this process through the use of eye contact and proximity control to students
who continue talking during instruction. He should also continue to use the visual cue of the
traffic light meter for noise control.
4) Reinforcement of Challenging Students: If students dont respond to cues such as
proximity control and eye contact, the teacher can then use more moderate approaches such as
offering choices privately.If this approach fails, Mr. Dillion should try using quiet, private
reprimands until the desired behaviour is performed. In doing so, he may inquire about students
distractions during class, subsequently asking them to provide possible solutions to solve the
problem such as finding an alternative seating arrangement.
5) Monitor, Reflect and Adapt if Necessary: If the teacher has successfully fostered a positive
learning environment and students understand expectations then the classroom should run
more smoothly. However, if the teacher finds that this is still not the case even after
implementing these first few steps then he may have to reflect on his lesson plans and teaching
practices. Is he creating authentic and meaningful assignments that keep the students
engaged? Is he teaching within the appropriate zone of proximal development or are the tasks
too easy/hard? By reflecting on these factors the teacher can identify challenges students may
be facing and adjust his lesson plans accordingly.

6) Maintaining Sustainability of Approved Classroom Behaviour: The teacher should


continue to create engaging lessons. He should also be consistent with a two pronged approach
of both reinforcement and reprimands in order to shape behaviour and work ethic. It is important
to emphasize positive actions while maintaining a polite manner. This means praising behaviour
when appropriate and thanking the students for their co-operation. Ultimately, if he attends to
these various aspects of classroom climate and planning, his classroom should be an effective
place to learn.

Presentation
Mr. Dillion is in the classroom teaching a 1 grade science lesson. During the lesson,
students are talking. Once he gets them to stop talking, the students are good for a few
minutes. As he changes activities, the noise level increases. Mr. Dillion shouts to get the
students to focus on work. Once again, several minutes go by and the class is loud. Mr.
Dillion shouts and scolds the children.
st

Narrator: Mr. Dillion is not meeting the following KSAs:


KSA: 1) How contextual variables affect teaching and learning - know how to analyze and
respond to many variables at once by making reasoned decisions about teaching and student
learning.
KSA: 8) Importance of respecting students human dignity - know how to establish, with different
students, progressional relationships that are characterized by mutual respect, trust, and
harmon.
KSA: 16) The importance of guiding your actions with a personal, overall vision of the purpose
of teaching - be able to communicate your vision, including how it has changed as a result of
new knowledge, understanding and experience.

Act 1:
Narrator: In own words tell the class what our case is...
Mr. Dillion is in the classroom teaching a 1st grade science lesson. During the lesson
students are talking. He manages to get them to stop talking. The students are good for a few
minutes. As he changes activities the noise level once again increases. Mr. Dillion shouts to get
the students to focus the students on the work. Once again several minutes go by and the class
is loud. Mr. Dillion shouts and scold the children.
Teacher (Direct Instruction Method): Attention class look at page 3 in your science text
Teacher is teaching about the changes in seasons
Students: Students start to talk amongst themselves
Narrator/Teachers Thoughts: This class is not listening, I need to bring them back to the topic
Teacher: Stop talking

Students: Students start listening


Teacher: Splits them in groups and explains the experiment
Students: Start talking again
Narrator/ Teachers Thoughts: This class is crazy today and way too out of hand
Teacher: STOP TALKING!
Students: Stop talking and work on experiment. For a little while the class is quiet then the
noise starts again.
Narrator/ teacher thoughts: I am losing my mind... this class is so out of control I cant take it.
What am I going to do?
Teacher: STOP TALKING OR ELSE! THIS VOLUME IS NOT APPROPRIATE FOR THE
CLASSROOM!
Act 2:
Narrator: Mr. DIllion will now attempt to meet the following KSAs during the next class:

KSA: 1) How contextual variables affect teaching and learning - know how to analyze
and respond to many variables at once by making reasoned decisions about teaching
and student learning.
KSA: 8) Importance of respecting students human dignity - know how to establish, with
different students, progressional relationships that are characterized by mutual respect,
trust, and harmon.
KSA: 16) The importance of guiding your actions with a personal, overall vision of the
purpose of teaching - be able to communicate your vision, including how it has changed
as a result of new knowledge, understanding and experience.
Narrator/Teacher Thoughts: Talk about the Action Plan that will be used to keep the students
volume level at expectations.
Students will understand work, behaviour and co-operation expectations in the classroom.
I need to be prepared and explain my expectations before I start the lesson.
I need to be respectful to the students and be an example of what I want to see from them.
I need to respond with the bump system if students are misbehaving.
Teacher: Review agenda for the day (allows structure) states that there is instruction time and
there is also group work. Question students on what the volume level should be during group
activities.
Students: The green!!! Green means that we are doing good! Yellow means that we are getting
too loud! Red means that it's way to loud in here!

Teacher: Great thinking class!


Narrator/ Teacher thoughts: Phew! The students know what my expectations are
Teacher: Teaches seasons
Students: Start talking
Teacher: Points to the yellow light and reminds students. Teacher reminds the students what
level of volume they should use in the groups. After the reminder teachers start to get the
students in groups and have them start working
Narrator/ Teacher thoughts: That first section went well. They seem to understand my
expectations with that quick reminder
Students: Two students are start talking loudly
Teacher: Walks towards students, gives them the teacher look.
Students: Work quietly. After a while one student gets louder than they should.
Teacher: Offers choice privately. Timmy, either stop talking loudly or I will have to move you. Its
your choice.
Student: Quiets down. Then starts talking loud again.
Teacher: Timmy, can you please come talk to me over here. thank you.
Student: Moves over to teacher
Teacher: Timmy, I have asked you to be quiet three times now. What is the problem?
Students: Joey keeps bugging me.
Teacher: I can see youre upset. You are finding that you get distracted by others?
Student: Yes
Teacher: Okay what can we do to help correct this problem?
Student: Maybe I could move somewhere else?
Teacher: That sounds like a great suggestion. Why dont we try that?
Teacher/Student: Moves timmy away from Joey.Then everyone works quietly.
Narrator: Suddenly, it is almost time for the bell

Teacher: Boys and girls, I just want to thank you for your cooperation today. You stayed on task
and kept the volume down. I am very impressed with your actions so I want you to take the night
off and not worry about the homework I originally assigned for today. Have fun!
Narrator/ teacher thoughts: Being prepared and calm worked well today. I will need to make
sure that I do that again tomorrow.
Bell rings

Strategy Handout
Mr. Dillion is in the classroom teaching a 1 grade science lesson. During the lesson,
students are talking. Once he gets them to stop talking, the students are good for a few
minutes. As he changes activities, the noise level increases. Mr. Dillion shouts to get the
students to focus on work. Once again, several minutes go by and the class is loud. Mr.
Dillion shouts and scolds the children.
st

This type of classroom management issue can be caused by many factors, but
both students and teachers can act to find a solution. The teacher may have a lack of
consistent communication or a lack of meaningful lessons. Mr. Dillion may not be
effectively motivating students by not providing incentives for internal rewards, being too
performance oriented, or not giving his students motivating goals that would produce
self-efficacy (Woolfolk, et al. 2013, 400-03). Because of his loss of control, he is likely
anxious causing him to lash out at his noisy class. The classroom setup may be poor.
For example, small students are unable to see in the back, students facing away from
the board/teacher, seating arrangement may group friends/enemies, or other
noise/visual distractions around the room (Woolfolk, et al. 2013, 448). The classroom
may not have a stable routine that causes students to have trouble focusing. The
students could be worried about personal issues, are finding the work too
challenging/too easy, have been sitting too long, or are not engaged with the lesson.
Students may be lacking a behavioural motivation because they do not have an internal
motivation (Woolfolk, et al. 2013, 403). The students may also be having trouble

understanding Mr. Dillions expectations if they were not involved in making them
(Woolfolk, et al. 2013, 446).
These causes can be remedied by implementing classroom climate strategies. It
is important for the teacher to address work and behaviour expectations. At the
beginning of the next class, Mr. Dillion should create class rules and expectations
pertaining to behaviour, using input from the students (Woolfolk, et al. 2013, 446). This
helps promote student ownership and self-regulation. Mr. Dillion could use visual cues
such as a traffic light to indicate an acceptable volume during class activities (red =
unacceptable; yellow = starting to get too loud; green = acceptable).
Clarification through modeling is an important way a teacher can keep a
positive classroom climate. The teacher can communicate by maintaining a calm and
respectful demeanor, and incorporate student ideas into lessons. When students are
talking throughout a lesson, Mr. Dillion could respond to this behaviour using eye
contact, proximity, and continuing to use the visual cue of the traffic light meter. Mr.
Dillion can reinforce challenging students by using moderate approaches such as
squaring off, or providing students with choices in order to shape behaviour. If these do
not work, he can try using quiet, private reprimands until the desired behaviour is
performed. During these private talks, Mr. Dillion may discuss student distractions and
brainstorming solutions (Woolfolk, et al. 2013, 455).
If none of the previous solutions are effective Mr. Dillion may have to monitor,
reflect and adapt his lesson plans and teaching practices. Is he creating authentic and
meaningful assignments that are engaging? Is he teaching within the appropriate zone
of proximal development or are the tasks too easy/too hard (Woolfolk, et al. 2013, 54)?

Through reflection, Mr. Dillion can identify challenges students are facing and adjust his
lesson plans accordingly.
Mr. Dillion also needs to ensure he is maintaining sustainability of approved
classroom behaviour. He should ensure he is creating engaging lessons. Mr. Dillion also
needs to be consistent with his two-pronged approach, using both reinforcement and
reprimands in order to shape behaviour and work ethic. It is important to emphasize
positive actions while maintaining a polite manner by praising appropriate behaviour
and thanking students cooperation. Ultimately, if he attends to these various aspects of
classroom climate and planning, his classroom should become an effective place to
learn.

Works Cited
Woolfolk, Anita, Philip Winnie, & Nancy Perry. (2013). Educational Psychology: Sixth
Canadian Edition. New Jersey: Pearson Canada Inc.