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Lesson8|सरलंसं摡瀠क तम्

Aneasy­pacedapproachtolearnSanskrit

Lesson8

SimpleSanskrit–Lesson8

सरलंसं摡瀠क तम्अ†टमःपाठः|

HavingdiscussednumeralsextensivelyinthepreviousLessonNo.7,somediscussionabout

interrogativeswithnumeralsisyetleftout.

“Howmuch?”and“Howmany?”arethecommoninterrogativesthatyieldnumericalanswers.

Sanskritinterrogativeisक楴❛त.

Whenwegotoashop,wewouldask, “Howmuchdoesthisthingcost?”क楴❛तम戭杮ूयंअ摡瀠य?(**Note–Asdetailedbelow,क楴❛तis alwaysplural.Henceusingitwithम戭杮ूयं,whichissingular,becomeswrong.ThankstoMr. DhananjayNanivadekarforpointingthiserror.Thequestioncanratherbe￰कय祡汰म戭杮ूयम् अ摡瀠य?or￰कम्म戭杮ूयम्अ摡瀠य?) Theshopkeepermaysay“TenRupees”दश散畤琣†यका￯ण. Sincecoinage‑systemswillbedifferentatdifferentplaces,wewillhavetoadaptinSanskrit‑ speakingsamenames,astheyprevail.Thesearepropernouns.ProperNounsarenevertobe translated. TheotherdayIcouldnotgotoameeting.Butwascurioustoknowhowmanypeopleturned out. Iaskedmyfriend,“Howmanypeoplewerethere?क楴❛तजनाःआसन्?Note,आसन्isभतूकाल 瑮敭थमप敒 ुषबह वचनinflectionofverbअस्(=tobe)Henceआसन्=were.Weshalldiscusspast

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Lesson8|सरलंसं摡瀠क तम्

tenseseparatelyinanotherchapter.

Surprisingly,hetold,“Onlytwoofus,Mr.RameshandMyself”केवलंआवां祡汰वौरमेशवयः楴牥अहं

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Somepeoplethinkitgoodtodoinflectionsofproper‑nounsalso.Inरामायणम्महाभारतम्

भागवतम्thereareinflectionsoflargenumberofpropernouns.Butpropernounsinmany

countriesaroundtheworldmaynotbeeasytomaketheirinflections.Mr.Johnmayrather

becalledasजॉन्वयः楴牥Itwouldsoundoddtosayजॉन:,right?Actuallyजॉन्isaconsonant‑

endingword.Soजॉन:wouldnotbegrammaticallycorrect.Thatbecomestheproblemtodo

inflectionsofpropernouns.

InfactHindi‑speakingpeoplewhoalsofollowDevanagariscriptforHindimaywrite

andpronouncethenameasजोन्

InMarathiwriting,whichalsousesDevanagariscript,writingthepronunciationasजॉन्

withacrescentaboveजाisacceptedalmostasanorm.

Likewise“Ann”maybecalledएन्महोदयाऐन्महोदया.

Anyway,thesearedigressionsfromthemainsubjectof“Numbers”.

Bytheway,theinterrogativeक楴❛तisbyconvention“alwaysplural”.Andithasidentical inflectionsforallgenders.Itsinflectionsindifferentcasesare–क楴❛त(瑮敭थमा),क楴❛त(祡汰￯वतीया),क楴❛त￯भः (त तीया),क楴❛त⁥瑡यः(चतथु桴摩),क楴❛त⁥瑡यः(प摤楨चमी),कतीनाम्(ष†ठ✨牯),क楴❛तषु(स琣†तमी).

Answersofquestionsaskedusingक楴❛तcouldbevagueoruncertain.InLesson5towardsitsend,

therewasthementionofthesuffix￰चत्anditsusagewithallinflectionsofthepronoun￰कम.The

suffix￰चत्canaswellbeusedwithallinflectionsofक楴❛तtoobtainameaning“some”or“few”.For

example–

Theproposalwasacceptedbysomepeople=瑮敭摡瀠तावः(proposal)क楴❛त￯भि尻浣चत्(bysomeorfew) जनःै(people)摡瀠वीक तः(wasaccepted). “Itisusefulforsome”=क楴❛त⁥瑡यि尻浣चत्उपयो￰गइदम्Note– क楴❛त⁥瑡यि尻浣चत्(=कती⁥瑡यः+￰चत्=forsome)

उपयो￰ग(useful) (useful)

इदम्(=this) Thisphrase क楴❛त⁥瑡यि尻浣चत्उपयो￰गइदम् (=this) Thisphraseक楴❛त⁥瑡यि尻浣चत्उपयो￰गइदम्couldaswellbeaquestion,“Isitusefulfor(atleast)afew

?”RightatthebeginningofLesson3,therewasintroductiontomakinginterrogativesfrom

simplesentencesbyusingpronoun￰कम.However,since someinterrogativesenseisimplicit inक楴❛त, aquestioncanbeformedevenwithoutusinganyotherobviousorclearinterrogative.

क楴❛त⁥瑡यि尻浣चत्उपयो￰गइदम्isagoodexampleofthis.Justachangeinintonationwouldmake

itaffirmativeorinterrogative.

InApte’sdictionarymanymoreinterestingdetailsaboutक楴❛तaregiven.

क楴❛त aregiven. Meaning1of क楴❛त –‘Howmany’ Meaning2of

Meaning1ofक楴❛त–‘Howmany’

Meaning2ofक楴❛त–‘some’

Whenfollowedby￰चत्चनअ￯पthepronounक楴❛तlosesitsinterrogativeforceandbecomes

indefiniteinsense,meaning‘some’,‘several’,‘afew’

ThisdetailinApte’sdictionaryputsindoubtusageofक楴❛तintheinterrogative,asshown

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Lesson8|सरलंसं摡瀠क तम्

1 5 Lesson8| सरलंसं摡瀠क ृ तम् aboveinthephrase

aboveinthephraseक楴❛त⁥瑡यि尻浣चत्उपयो￰गइदम्asaquestion,“Isitusefulfor(atleast)afew?” Sanskrit‑expertsmaypleasecomment. Inthedictionary,somemorewordsderivedfromक楴❛तaredetailedseparately. क楴❛तक ›睯वस्orक楴❛तक ›睯व:anindeclinableअ〠㩭ययmeaning‘howmanytimes’ HereIwouldliketothankfullyacknowledgeanimportantcommentpostedbyDr.H.N.

Bhat.Toensurethatthecommentmaynotbemissedout,IameditingthisLesson8itself.

Thepointisthat ›睯वस्or ›睯व:isasuffixwhichmakesanadverbfromanumeralnominal. क楴❛तisanumeralnominal,similartoothernumeralnominalssuchasएक祡汰￯व獮潩屻चतरु्सह瑮敭 Agoodexampleofderivationofanindeclinableअ〠㩭ययbyaffixingasuffix ›睯वस्or ›睯व:to anumeralnominalisinनमोनम摡瀠तऽे摡瀠तुसह瑮敭क ›睯वःपनु尻浣चभयूोऽ￯पनमोनम摡瀠ते(गीता,११३९) Meaningofनमोनम摡瀠तऽे摡瀠तुसह瑮敭क ›睯वःपनु尻浣चभयूोऽ￯पनमोनम摡瀠ते(गीता,११३९)is“Maymy obeisancesbeathousandtimes,againandagain Noteपनु尻浣चmeans‘again’भयूोऽ￯पalsomeans‘again’.Arjunaissooverwhelmedthathe wantstopayobeisancesbeathousandtimesandagainandagain! क楴❛तधाanindeclinableअ〠㩭ययmeaning‘howoften’,‘inhowmanyplacesorparts’ Agoodexampleofthisispossiblythequotation￯व†णःु屻धेा楴❛नदधेपदम्(=ViShNuputhis footatthreeplaces).Thisquotationcanpromptaquestion￯व†णःुक楴❛तधा楴❛नदधेपदम्?(=At howmanyplacesdidViShNuputhisfoot?) Thisquotation￯व†णःु屻धेा楴❛नदधेपदम्hasthecontextofवामनावतारwhenLord￯व†णुasks ofदै›睯य‑kingब￯लlandenoughforjustfoursteps.Although￯व†णुappearsasवामन,asa smallboy,inthreesteps￯व†णुpervadesallthreeworlds–theheaven,theearthandalso thenetherworld.Truetohisofferoflandoffoursteps,ब￯लkneelsbefore￯व†णुfor￯व†णु toputthefourthsteponhisownhead. क楴❛तपयanadjective￯वशषेणम,hencewouldhaveinflectionsinallthreegenders,allsevencases andinallthreenumbers.क楴❛तपयmeans‘some,‘several’,‘acertainnumberof’(Here‘acertain’ hasindefinitesense) Comestomindanexamplefromबाणभ↑’s कादंबर瑣敬where,वशैंपायनisnarratingofearly daysofhissecondbirthasaparrotwithhumantongue.Hesays–एवंचअव瑰漠हतचेतसाहार瑣敬तने संव尻यम楴牥ानःक楴❛तपयःैएव瑰漠दवसःैसंजातप整慤ःअभवम्Hereएवंच(=Thus)beinglovinglytendedby हार瑣敬त(thesonofRishiJaabaala)अव瑰漠हतचेतसाहार瑣敬तनेसंव尻यम楴牥ानः,inafewक楴❛तपयःैdays瑰漠दवसःै Ihadwingsgrownonmeसंजातप整慤ःअभवम.Note,क楴❛तपयःैasadjectiveof瑰漠दवसःैhasidentical(masculine)gender,(third)caseand (plural)number. क楴❛त￯वध,anadjective,￯वशषेणम्hencedeclinableinallthreegenders,allsevencasesandinall threenumbers.Itsmeaning‘ofhowmanykinds’.Forexample,क楴❛त￯वधा楴❛नभतूा楴❛नLivingbeings areofhowmanykinds?–祡汰￯वपदा:(=bipeds)चत†ुपदा:(=quadrupeds)खगाः(=birds)म›睯摡瀠याः(= aquatic)सपा楴牥ः(=reptiles)ज湜素तवः(=insectsandmicrobes) HerealsoIwouldliketothankfullyacknowledgeanimportantcommentpostedbyDr.H.

N.Bhat.Toensurethatthecommentmaynotbemissedout,IameditingthisLesson8

itselfherealso.

Thepointisthat￯वधisasuffix,whichmakesanadjec⸀ጅivefromanumeralnominal.क楴❛तis

anumeralnominal,similartoothernumeralnominalssuchasएक祡汰￯व獮潩屻चतरु्सह瑮敭

Soadjectivesderivedfromएक祡汰￯व獮潩屻चतरु्सह瑮敭byaffixingthesuffix￯वधareएक￯वध祡汰￯व￯वध

獮潩屻￯वधचत￯ुवध楴牥सह瑮敭￯वधalsoक楴❛त￯वध.

Afewexamplesoftheseindifferentgendersandnumberswillbe–

Volunteershaveacommonuniform摡瀠वयंसेवकानांएक￯वधःगणवेशः

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Lesson8|सरलंसं摡瀠क तम्

स◌्वयंसेवकानां=ofvolunteers एक￯वधः=ofonetype,common,identical गणवेशः=uniform Aminddwellingonthisorthatisnotgoodfordecision‑making祡汰￯व￯वध摡瀠यमनसःन 楴❛नणय楴牥ः द◌्￯व￯वध摡瀠य=oftwotypes(ofthoughts)

=oftwotypes(ofthoughts) मनसः =ofmind न楴❛नणय楴牥ः

मनसः=ofmind न楴❛नणय楴牥ः=nodecision द◌्￯व￯वध摡瀠यमनसःन楴❛नणय楴牥ः=nodecision(happens)ofmindoftwotypesofthoughts Ofpeoplewhobecomemydevotees,therearefourtypes,i.e.Fourtypesofpeople becomemydevoteesचत￯ुवध楴牥ाभज湜素तेमांजनाःसकुृ 楴❛तनोऽजनु楴牥(गीता,१६).Noteचत￯ुवध楴牥ाis actuallyचत￯ुवध楴牥ाः क楴❛तशस्orक楴❛तशःanindeclinableअ〠㩭यय,meaning‘howmanyatatime’Say,forexample,“In howmanypiecesdidthewood‑cu⸀ጅerbreakthelog?”दा敒 क￯मण楴牥ादा敒 ःक楴❛तशः￯वभ湜素तः? द◌ा敒 क￯मण楴牥ा=bythewood‑worker(i.e.wood‑cu⸀ጅer)

=bythewood‑worker(i.e.wood‑cu⸀ጅer) द◌ा敒 ः =log क楴❛तशः =inhowmanypieces
=bythewood‑worker(i.e.wood‑cu⸀ጅer) द◌ा敒 ः =log क楴❛तशः =inhowmanypieces

द◌ा敒 ः=log क楴❛तशः =inhowmanypieces =log क楴❛तशः=inhowmanypieces

वि◌भ湜素तः=wascut =wascut

AsmentionedabovefromApte’sdictionary,क楴❛तmaybefollowedbyanothersuffixचन.Thereit

wasalsomentioned,“…Whenfollowedby￰चत्चनअ￯पthepronounक楴❛तlosesitsinterrogative

forceandbecomesindefiniteinsense,meaning‘some’,‘several’,‘afew’…”Bythatक楴❛तचनwould

mean‘few’,‘some’.Forexample,नेतःु摡瀠वागतायकायक楴牥ता楴牥रःक楴❛तचनमालाःअपय楴牥ि湜素तmeaningनेतःु(=of

theleader)摡瀠वागताय(=forwelcome)कायक楴牥ता楴牥रः(=workers)क楴❛तचन(afew)मालाः(=garlands)

अपय楴牥ि湜素त(=offer)i.e.Workersofferafewgarlandsforwelcomeoftheleader.

Bytheway,itistobenotedthat￰चत,्चनandअ￯पcanaswellbeaffixedtointerrogativeadverbs suchasकदाक 屻कथम.Withthesesuffixestheadverbsalsowilllosetheirinterrogativeforce.They maygetsomenegativeshadeofmeaning!

Infactsomepeoplecontendthatचनhasthederivation+=andnot.Bythattokenuseofचन

lendssomedifferentshadeofmeaningthanuseof￰चत.Useofअ￯पalsohasaneffectsimilarto

thatofचन.Forexample–

Isitpossibleanytime?कदाचनश湜素यंइदम्?

Maybepossibleश湜素यंकदा￰चत्

Itmaybenotedthathereकदा￰चत्hasthemeaningof‘maybe’andnotjustas‘sometime’

Neverpossibleनकदा￯पश湜素यम्

Heresuffixअ￯पmakesthenegativesomuchmoreforceful!

Insteadofthequestionकदाचनश湜素यंइदम्?onecouldaswellsayकदा￰चत्श湜素यंइदम्?orकदा￯पश湜素यं

इदम्?Butconventionallytheforcebecomesdifferent.

कदाचनश湜素यंइदम्?=Isitanytimepossible?Herethequestionercouldjustbeinquisitive.

कदा￰चत्श湜素यंइदम्?=Isthereapossibilitythatthiswouldbepossible?Herethequestioner

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Lesson8|सरलंसं摡瀠क तम्

impliessomepositivepossibility.

कदा￯पश湜素यंइदम्?=Isiteverpossible?Thequestionerisalmostimplyingthatitisnever

possible.

Thedifferenceinforceinuseof￰चत,्चनandअ￯पissubstantiallyconventional.

Justseehowtheinterrogativeकदाचनcanalsobecomeaffirmativeकदाचनornegativeकदाचन

कदाचनश湜素यंइदम्?=Isitanytimepossible?

कदाचनतुश湜素यं|￰कंन?=Sometimeorotherpossible,whynot?or

कदाचननश湜素यम्=Notpossibleanytime,i.e.neverpossible.

Hereisanotherexampleofकदा￯प.

Twoandtwowillbefouralways.Neverotherwise.祡汰〠㩭य￰धके祡汰वेच›睯वा㴠瑸रसवद楴牥ा|नअ湜素यथाकदा￯प|

| नअ湜素यथाकदा￯प | द◌्〠㩭य￰धके祡汰वे

द◌्〠㩭य￰धके祡汰वे=twoaddedtotwoNote,祡汰〠㩭य￰धकेis祡汰￯व+अ￰धके

च›睯वा㴠瑸रसवद楴牥ा=fouralways

नअ湜素यथाकदा￯प=nototherwiseever.

Notein祡汰〠㩭य￰धके祡汰वेच›睯वा㴠瑸रtheyareallinneutergender,againbyconvention.Whenspeakingof

numbersasnumberstheywillbebyneutergender.

श◌ुभम摡瀠तु|

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