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avarice: an immoderate desire for wealth; greed
brigands: robbers or bandits
brimful: full to the maximum level
capacious: capable of containing a large quantity
chaise: a light, open carriage
cupola: a dome
dainties: delicacies
dowerless: lacking property brought by a bride to a husband at marriage (a dowry)
ferret: a red-eyed domestic animal
forfeits: variant a game in which a player has to give up an object, or perform a specified action
if he commits a fault
hoar frost: frozen dew that forms a light coating
jocund: joyous
latent: existing in a potential state
laths: thin, flat pieces of wood
lustrous: shining
negus: a beverage of wine, hot water, lemon juice, sugar, and nutmeg
opaque: not allowing light to get through
pinioned: restrained
recumbent: lying down

repassed: passed again

repeater: a timepiece; a watch
repentance: remorse for past conduct
scaling: climbing up
strife: a struggle
surmounted: was on top of; overcame
tumult: a commotion
veriest: most complete, utmost
weathercock: a weather vane with a rooster figure
Study Questions
1. What was perplexing to Scrooge about the time?
2. Who is Scrooges unexpected visitor? What is there about the visitor that is paradoxical
3. What did Scrooge want the spirit to do with his cap?
4. How would you characterize Scrooges approach in talking with the spirit before they leave
Scrooges home?
5. What is Scrooges reaction to seeing the schoolboys, and why is it surprising?
6. How did Scrooge spend Christmas as a boy? What does it suggest about his attitude toward
the holiday as an adult?
7. From where do the characters outside young Scrooges window come? What is present-day
Scrooges reaction to them?
8. What does Scrooge say about the caroler he encountered the previous night? Why is it
9. How would you characterize young Scrooges relationship with his sister?

10. One of the first things we learn about Mr. Fezziwig is that he has a comfortable, oily, rich,
fat, jovial voice. What literary device is Dickens employing? What does it accomplish?
11. What is Mr. Fezziwig like as a boss? How can you tell?
12. What does Scrooge recognize about a bosss power through watching the Christmas party
13. When the younger Scrooge asks the young girl what idol has displaced her, she replies, A
golden one. What does she mean? What or who is the golden idol?
14. What irony does young Scrooge point out in regard to societys feelings about the pursuit of
15. Why does the young girl release Scrooge from his obligation to her?
16. Does the girl still love Scrooge?
17. What is present-day Scrooges reaction to the scene in which he and the young girl break up?
18. What happens to the young girl in time?
19. When visiting the past is too much for Scrooge to bear, what does he do to the spirit? Is he
20. What does the spirits light represent? What does Scrooges response represent?