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( )

. .

2008

621.3.049.77.029:681.3.06
93

: . . ..
. . ..

..
93. /
. ..., . .. ., . , 2008. 120 .
ISBN 5-230-22345-6

50 ,
.
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.

ISBN 5-230-22345-6

621.3.049.77.029:681.3.06

.. 2008




, ,
. ,
S .
,

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,
.
,
HFSS, Microwave Office, CST, ,
,
FEKO Wireless Inside.
, .
,
-, 1
. ,
S . ,

, , ,
. , ,
,
. ,
,
. ,

, ,
.
, 1940 - .
,
. Touchstone,
Microwave Office .
- ,
,
.

Z Z0
Z + Z0

(.1),

,
Z - (, ),
Zo- .

Z/Zo

Z / Z 0 = z = r + jx

(.2)

= U + jV .

(.3)

Z .
(.2) (.3) (.1), :

r 1 + jx
r + 1 + jx

U + jV =

(.4)

(.4), :
r 2 1+ x2
U=
(r + 1) 2 + x 2

(.5)

V =

2x
(r + 1) 2 + x 2

(.5b)

I. x, 1:
2

1
U
+V 2 =

r + 1
r + 1

(.6),


U=

r
, V=0
r +1

1
.
r +1

(.7)

II. r,
2

1
(U 1) + V = ,

x
x
2

(.8)

(.5b), V(r+1)2+Vx2=2x x2= [1/ V +1/V2-(r+1)2]


(.5a).
6


U=1, V=1/x 1/x.

(.9).

. .1. r (a) x (),


r x, ( . 1) ,
.2.

. .2.
, ,
, (email fritz.dellsperger@hta-be.bfh.ch) -,
.
Smith Chart , ,
, , . (. .3)

. .3.
, , , .

: (. 4).
, , , , .
,
, , , .
-, ,
.
, -
,
.

. .. ,
-, ( -,
9

). , , - . () .
RFID
( ).
(. .4),
910 ,
HFSS, (228 +j 544) .

. .4. ,
.
0.1
.
,
288 , 35 .
, Z- , , 910 , Re (Zin) = 228
, Im(Zin) = +j544 , ,
10

- (. 4) L=X/2f = 60.9 .
,
, 228 +j544 , , .

. .5. ,
.
0.23 pF. 1 , (ZL) 3
( ,
)
, UCODE HSL (Ultra
High frequency Smart Label), 35 j850 ( ,
C=Xc/2f = 0.214
, . 5). , 35+j850 . .

11


. ,
. Change Zo
Options, (. .6).

. .6.
35 ,
S-
( 50 ).
1. Datapoint. . .7,

. .7.
: , ,
( S ).
Keyboard . .7. . .8.

. .8. Data Point

. .9.
12

. OK 1 (. .5).
, , , ,
.
, Toolbox (.
.9).
4 (Series) 4 , , . , ..
,
.
,
-
.
( Shunt C). , , 1 ( , .. 37 ).

Schematic Data Point.
.
.
, , 0.23
(, ) 157 .
, , , , ,
.

13

. .10. S-Plot
Smith Chart
'S-Plot' 'Mode'.(. 10). S- Touchstone ( *.s2p).
S11 S22 , S12 S21 . S-,
, Gp max ( ), Gp max stabil (
MSG), K Gp max ( K>=1) Gp max stabil (
K<1). .
,
,
( AppCAD Agilent, .
11).

14

. 11. AppCAD,
, c S-, ,
, ,
1 .
. 50 ,
. , , .
1991 . . , ., 1976 . G.Gonzales
Microwave Transistor AmplifiersN.-Y., 506 pp. ,
.
.
. , ,
,
.
,
.

15

1.
1.1
, :

z1 = 1 + j1 ,

z 2 = 0.4 + j 0.5 ,

z3 = 3 j 3 ,

z 4 = 0.2 j 0.6 ,

z5 = 0

y1 = 1 + j1 ,

y 2 = 0.4 + j 0.5 ,

y3 = 2 j1.4 , y 4 = 0.5 j 0.2 ,

y5 =

z y . 1.1. . 1.1
Z (. 1.1), Y
(. 1.2).

. 1.1. Z
16

z y ,
1+
(1.1)
z=
1

1 1
(1.2)
y= =
z 1+
j

, e z
( z')
1 + j 1
(1.3)
z =
=
1 j 1 +
y. , z' y = 1/z.

1.2.

Y-

17

1.2
y, z = 1 + j1,
.

. 1.3. z y
. z = 1 + j1 . 1.3. z .
180 (.. e j ), z',
y. y 0.5 - j0.5,
:
y=

1
1
=
= 0.5 j 0.5
z 1 + j1

(1.4)

, , . , , . . 1.4 ,
(.. 1) .
18

. 1.4. (
)
(.. >1)
1/ .
1.3

, =
2.23626.56.
. , . 1.5,

1
= 0.44726.560
(1.5)
*

z = -2
+ j1. :
=

2 + j1 1
= 2.23626.56 0
2 + j1 + 1



19

IN ( d ) = o e j 2 d
e j d + o e j d
V (d )
= Z o jd
I (d )
e o e jd
Z Zo
o = L
ZL + Zo
z = Z L Z o ,

Z IN (d ) =

. 1.5.

0 =

z 1
z +1

(1.6)

IN (d ) = 0 j 2 d

(1.7)

z IN (d ) =

1 + IN (d )
1 IN (d )

(1.8)

20

1.4
,
45, 50 ,
Z L = 50 + j 50 (. 1.6).

. 1.6. 50
Z
d
. , . 1.6, z L = L = 1 + j1 d = 2 =
Z0
4
d = 8 = 0.125 . z L = 1 + j1 , , 0 . Z IN ,
-90 (.., 2 d ) . ., 63.4 -26.6.
z IN = 2 j1
Z IN ( 8) = 100 j 50 .
,
( ) .
d = 0.125 . . 1.7,
z L wavelengths toward generator
0.162 .
. 0.125
0.162 + 0.125 = 0.287 . ,
d = 0.125
, 0,287 . , z IN
, z = 2 j1 100 j50 .
0 . 1.7. . z L
. 0 0 = 0.44763.4 0 .

21

. 1.7.
(VSWR) o, ZL VSWR
(. 1.7). 2.62. , .
. 1.7 = rmax = 2.62 .

22

1.5
(a). l 50 (. 1.8) , Z IN (l ) = j100
.
(b). l 50 ,
. 1.9 , Z IN (l ) = j100 .

1.8. 1.5()
. (a). , z L = 0 . . 1.8, l
z L = 0 z IN (l ) = j100 50 = j 2 , l = 0.176 . , ( = 1
). ,
Z sc (d ) = jZ otgd . ,

Z IN (l ) = j100 = j 50tgl ,

0
l = 2 l = 63.43 = 0.352 . l =

0.352
= 0.176 .
2

(b). (. 1.9) z L = . , . 1.9


l 0.426 [ (0.5 0.25 ) + 0.176 = 0.426 ].

23

. 1.9. 1.5 (b)


1.6
(a).
8 Y0 = 1 Z 0 = 20 (. 1.10).
(b).
8 Y0 = 1 Z 0 = 20 (. 1.11).

. 1.10. 1.6
. (a). , y L = .
y L Y . 1.10
gamma = 1 l = 8 ,
y IN (l ) = j

YIN (l ) = y IN (l )Y0 = j 20 10 3 = j 20
Z IN (l ) = 1 YIN (l ) = j 50
(b) , y L = 0 . ,
. 1.11, l = 8 y IN (l ) = j

YIN (l ) = y IN (l )Y0 = j 20 10 3 = j 20

Z IN (l ) = 1 YIN (l ) = j50 .

24

. 1.11. 1.6 (b)


1.7

1.4, Y .
. . 1.6, , ,
z L = Z L / Z 0 = 1 + j1 0 180 . 1.7,
y L = 0.5 j 0.5 . y L . 1.12. y L ,
0.412 . 0.125 0.412 , 0.537 . 2 ,
, 0.537 0,037 .

y L y IN ( 8) , . 1.12.
y IN (l ) Y 0.4 + j 0.2 ,
YIN (l ) = (8 + j 4 ) .
1.4, , y IN (l ) = 0.4 + j 0.2 , z IN (l ) = 1 y IN (l ) = 2 j1 ,
Z IN (l ) = 100 j 50 , .

25

. 1.12.
,
, .

26

2. S-
. . . , .
2.1
(a). ,
, , . 2.1.
/8, 50 .
(b). V(/8), I(/8), P(/8), V(0), I(0) P(0),
d=0 (. 2.1).
(c). , /8
f = 1 .

. 2.1. ZL Zin

(a). l = /8, ,
l = /4 ( 45).
(. 2.1)

0 =

Z L Z 0 (50 + j 50) 50
=
= 0.44763.44 o 2
Z L + Z 0 (50 + j 50) + 50

(2.1)

d = /8 (. 2.1)
2


27

Z IN ( / 8) = Z o

(50 + j 50) + j 50tg 45


Z L + jZ o tgl
= 50
= 100 j 50 .
Z o + jZ L tgl
50 + j (50 + j 50)tg 45

(2.2)

(2.1) , || = 0.447,

=

1 + 0.447
= 2.62
1 0.447

(2.3)

(b). d = /8 . 2.2.
ZS, , ZIN (/8), ( ZIN (/8) = ZS *).

. 2.2. d=/8
, , ,
, ZIN, V(/8)
V ( / 8) =

E S Z IN
100(100 j50)
=
= 5.59 26.57
Z IN + Z S 100 j50 + 100 + j50

(2.4)

I ( 8 )
I ( 8 ) =

ES

Z IN ( 8 ) + Z S

100 0
= 0.05
200

(2.5)

P( 8 ) ,

P( 8 ) = Re Vrms ( 8 )I * rms ( 8 ) =

1
1
Re V ( 8 )I * ( 8 ) = Re (5.59 26.57 0 ) (0.05) = 0.125
2
2

(2.6),

28

, (rms) 2 . ,

Vrms ( 8 ) =

V ( 8 )
2

(2.7)

I rms ( 8 ) =

I ( 8 )
2

(2.8)

,
V (d ) . V (d ) (2.9),
A1 (2.4) d = 8 .

V ( 8 ) = 5.59 26.57 0 = A1e j 4 1 + (0.447 63.44 0 ) e j

(2.9)

A1 ,

A1 =3.95 -63.44
,

V (d ) = (3.95 63.44 0 ) e jd 1 + (0.44763.44 0 )e j 2 d =


(3.95 63.44 0 ) e jd + 1.77e jd

(2.10)

. (.. d = 0 )

V (0) = 3.95 63.440 + 1.77 = 5 45o .

, ,

V (0 ) 5 45 0
I (0 ) =
=
= 0.071 90 o
ZL
50 + j 50

(2.11).

, , ,

*
P(0 ) = Re Vrms (0) I rms
(0) =

)]

1
1
Re V (0) I * (0) = Re (5 45 0 ) 0.07190 0 = 0.125 (2.12)
2
2
29

P( 8 ), .
(c). , ,
1

Vp
f

3 1010
= 30
109

(2.13)

,
l=

30
= 3.75
8

2.2

S (),
Zo:
(a) Z
(b) Y (. 2.3).

. 2.3. () Z (b)
Y
(a).
. 2.3, , Zo, E1 Z1 = Zo,
Z2 = Zo . 2.4 (.. Zo
). . 2.5.

30

.2.4. Z o

. 2.5. Z ( )
S - 1 2.
S- ,
S11 =

b1 (l1 )
a1 (l1 ) a

2 ( l2 ) = 0

ZT 1 Z 0
ZT1 + Z 0

. 2.5 ZT1 = Z + Zo. ,


Z
S11 =
Z + 2Z 0

(2.14)

(2.15)

V2 (l2 ) (. . 2.5)
V2 (l2 ) =

E1,TH Z 0
Z + 2Z 0

(2.16)

31

[1] , S 21 =

S 21 =

2 Z o1 V2 (l 2 )
( Z01 = Z02 = Z0),
Z o 2 E1,TH

2Z 0
2V2 (l2 )
=
E1,TH
Z + 2Z 0

(2.17)

- , S 22 = S11 S 21 = S12 .
Z = j100
, 50 (.. Zo = 50 ) , S (2.15) (2.17)
0.70745 0.707 45

0
.
707

45

0
.
707

45

[S ] =

(b). . 2.3, , . 2.6.


. 2.7.

. 2.6.
Z2 = Z0

. 2.7. ,
Y
ZT1
32

ZT1 =

Z0
1
Z0 =
Y
1 + Z 0Y

(2.18)

S 11 ,
S11 =

ZT1 Z 0
Z 0Y
=
Z T 1 + Z 0 2 + Z 0Y

(2.19)

. 2.7
V2 (l2 ) =

E1,TH Z T 1
ZT1 + Z 0

S 21 =

S 21 =

E1,TH

(2.20)

2 + Z 0Y

2 Z o1 V2 (l 2 )
,
Z o 2 E1,TH

2V2 (l2 )
2
=
E1,TH
2 + Z 0Y

(2.21)

S 22 = S11 S 21 = S12 .
100 (.. Y
= 1/100 = 10 ), 50 , S (2.19) (2.21)

[S ] =

1/ 5

4/5

4/5

1 / 5

2.3

S , .2.8.
, Port1 Port2.

33

. 2.8. ,

. 2.9. ,
: l
Zsc (l ) = jZ0 tg l , - .

Y=

1
= jY0 ctgl
Z sc

(2.22)

Y0 = 1/Z0.

Y, . 2.9. ,
2.2, S-
. 2.9 Z0 . S-

S11 = S 22 =

Z 0Y
1
=
2 + Z 0Y 1 + j 2tgl

(2.23)

S 21 = S12 =

2
2
=
2 + Z 0Y 2 j 2ctgl

(2.24)

34

2.4

, S-, ,
. 2.10 ( ):
(a). Z IN (0) .
(b). a1 (0 ) , b1 (0 ) , a1 ( 8 ) , b1 ( 8 ) , a2 (0 ).
(c). V1 (0 ) , V1 ( 8 ) , I1 (0 ) , and I1 ( 8 ) .
(d). x1 = 0 x1 = 8 .
(e). S11 x1 = 0 x1 = 8 .
(f).
(g). ,
x1 = x2 = 8 (. 2.10), S11 = 0.44763.4 0 ,

S12 = 0.0140 0 , S 21 = 51350 S 22 = 0.640 0 ,


Z2.

. 2.10.
:
(a). , ,
2.1. , Z T 1 = 50 + j 50 Z L (2.2)
x1 = 0 ( d = 8 )
Z IN = Z IN (d ) d = = 50
8

(50 +

j 50) + j 50tg 45 0
= 100 j 50 .
50 + j (50 + j 50)tg 45 0

(2.25)
35

(b). x1 = 0 V1 (0) = E1 Z 0 I 1 = 100 0 50 I 1 (0) , ,


,

1
[V1 (0) + Z 0 I1 (0)] = 1 [10 50 I1 (0 ) + 50 I1 (0)] = 1
2 Z0
2 50
2

a1 (0 ) =

(2.26)

, l1 = 8 , 1 = l1 = 4
a1 ( 8 ) = a1 (0 )e

j 4

1
450
2

(2.27)


b1 (0 ) =

1
2 Z0

[V1 (0) Z 0 I 1 (0)] =

1
2 50

[10 50 I1 (0)]

(2.28)

I1 (0 )

I 1 (0) =

E1
10
=
= 0.06318.4350
50 + Z IN (0) 50 + 100 j 50

(2.29)

(2.29) (2.28)
b1 (0) =

1
10 2(50)0.06318.435 0 ] = 0.316 26,57 0
2 50

b1(/8)
b1 ( 8 ) = b1 (0 )e

j 4

= 0.316 26.57 0 1450 = 0.31618.430

, a2 (0 ) = 0 .
b1 ( 8 )

36

x1 = 8 . .. ,
S11 =
S11 =

Z T 1 Z 01
:
Z T 1 + Z 01

Z T 1 50 (50 + j 50 ) 50
= 0.4473.430
=
Z T 1 + 50 (50 + j 50 ) + 50

(2.30)

b1 ( 8 ) = S11 a1 ( 8 ) = 0.44763.430
45 0 = 0.31618.430
2

(c). V1 (0 ) .
x1 = 0
V1 (0) =

E1 Z IN (0)
10(100 50 j )
=
= 7.07 8.130
50 + Z IN (0) 50 + (100 50 j )

(2.31)

I1 (0 ) (2.29). V1 (0 )
V1 (0 ) = I1 (0 )Z IN (0 ) . V1 (0 ) ,

v1 (0 ) =

V1 (0 )
= a1 (0 ) + b1 (0 )
Z0

(2.32)

V1 (0) = Z 0 [a1 (0) + b1 (0)] = 50 + (0.316 26.570 ) = 7.07 8.13o


2

(2.33)

1
45 0 ) + (0.31618.430 ) = 6.32 26.57 0
V1 ( 8 ) = Z 0 [a1 ( 8 ) + b1 ( 8 )] = 50 (
2


I1 (

V1 ( 8 ) 6.32 26.57 0
=
= 0.089 71.57 0
8)=
ZT1
50 + 50 j

(d). x1 = 0
37

P1 (0 ) =

(2.34)

(2.35)

1
1
Re V1 (0 )I 1* (0 ) = Re 7.07 8.13 0 (0.063 18.435 ) = 0.2 ,
2
2

x1 = 8
P1 ( 8 ) =

1
1
Re V1 ( 8 )I 1* ( 8 ) = Re 6.32 26.57 0 (0.08971.57 ) = 0.2
2
2

, P1 (0 ) = P( 8 ) , .
P1 (0 ) P1 ( 8 )
:
2

PAVS

1
1 1
2
= a1 (0 ) =
= 0.25
2
2 2

P1 (0 ) = P1 ( 8 ) = PAVS 1 S11

) = 0.25(1 (0.447) ) = 0.2


2

(2.36)

(2.37)

(e). S11 x1 = 8 (2.30). ,


x1 = 0 (.. ) , -

S '11
S11' =

Z IN (0 ) Z 0 (100 j 50 ) 50
= 0.447 26.57 0
=
Z IN (0 ) + Z 0 (100 j 50 ) + 50

(2.38)

, S11 S '11 ,

S11 = S11' e

j2 8

= S11' e

j 2

= 0.447 63.430

(2.39)

(f). (.. Z 2 = Z 0 = 50 ).
Z 2 = 50 , .
, Z T 1 , S11 ( .. d2(/8)=0).
, 0 S11 :
=

1 + S11
1 S11

1 + 0.447
= 2.62
1 0.447

(2.40)

38

(g). (.., Z 2 = Z 02 = 50 ) ,
a2 (0 ) = a2 ( 8 ) = 0 . , S21 , b2 ( 8 ) = S 21a1 ( 8 )

b2 ( 8 ) = 51350
450 = 3.5490 0
2

(2.41)

b2 (0 ) = b2 ( 8 )e

j 4

= 3.54450

, Z 2
P2 (0) =

1
1
2
2
b2 (0 ) = (3.54) = 6.27
2
2

(2.43)

2.5

[1] ,
. 2.11.

. 2.11.
: . 2.11, V I
V=

Es Z L
10(100 j 50)
= 5.5926.57 0
=
Z L + Z s 100 j 50 + 100 + j 50

(2.44)

I=

Es
10
=
= 0.05
Z L + Z s 200

(2.45)
39

[1] (, ,
,
) :
1
ap =
(V + Z s I )
2 Rs
Rs = Re[Z s ] = 100 V = E s IZ s , , a p
ap =

1
(V + Z s I ) = Es = 10 = 0.5
2 Rs
2 Rs 2 100

(2.46)

. 2.11
( ), b p
. , PAVS
2
Es
2
1
ap =
,

2
8 Rs
PL =

1
ap
2

1
(0.5)2 = 0.125
2

(2.47)

.2.11 2.1.(. . 2.1).


2.1.
2.6

. 2.12,
(a) (b) .

. 2.12. ,
: . 2.12 , Z L = Z o .
, o == 0 x = 0 Z IN (x = 0) = Z IN (d = 4) = 50
. x = 0 . 2.12.
40

,
. 2.13, [1],
.
. 2.13a,
. 2.13b.
(a). c
. 2.13a
.

EZ
30 50
= 10
V = s IN =

(2.48),
Z IN + Z s 50 + 100

. 2.13.

I=

Es
30
=
= 0.2 ,
Z IN + Z s 50 + 100

ap bp
Rs = Re[Z s ] = 100
,
ap =

1
1
(10 + 100(0.2 )) = 1.5
V + Zs I =
2 Rs
2 100

(2.49)

bp =

1
2 Rs

(V Z I ) =
*
s

1
2 100

(10 100(0.2)) = 0.5

(2.50)

41

1
ap
2

PAVS =

1
(1.5)2 = 1.125 .
2

(2.51)

, Z IN (0) = 50
Z s , b p .
1
bp
2

PIN =

1
(0.5)2 = 0.125 , , Z IN (0 )
2

1
ap
2

1
bp
2

= 1.125 0.125 = 1 .

(2.52)

, . 2.13a
1 .
PIN , ,
bp
1
(2.53)
=
p =
ap
3

PIN = PAVS 1 p

1 2
= 1.1251 = 1
3

(2.54)

a p b p ,
1

V =

Rs

( Z s* a p Z s b p )

(2.55)

I=

Rs

(2.56)

(a p b p )

V I. , Z s = Z s* = 100 , V I
a p b p
V=

1
100

[100 (1.5) + 100 ( 0.5)] = 10

1
[1.5 ( 0.5)] = 0.2 A
100
, , V I .
I=

42

(b).
. 2.13b,
V (0 ) I (0 ) , . V (0 ) = 10 I (0 ) = 0.2 A.

a b , Zo = 50 ,
,
a (0 ) =

b(0) =

1
2 Z0

1
2 Z0

[V (0) + Z 0 I (0)] =

1
2 50

[V (0) Z 0 I (0)] =

[10 + 50 (0.2)] =

1
2 50

(2.57)

[10 50 (0.2)] = 0

(2.58)

, [..

b( x ) = 0 ]. , 12 a (0 ) = 1
( PAVS = 1.125 ). , Z s = Z 0 , 2

1
2

a(0 ) PAVS .
2

, Z IN (0 ) ( , )

PIN =

1
1
1
2
2
a(0) b(0) =
2
2
2

( 2)

=1

(2.59)

PIN
0 = 0 , ,
PIN =

1
2
a(0 ) 1 0
2

) = 12 ( 2 )

=1

(2.60)

V (0 ) I (0 ) ,

[ ]

V (0 ) = Z 0 v1 (0 ) = 50 [a(0 ) + b(0 )] = 50 2 = 10

I (0 ) =

i (0 )
1
[a(0 ) b(0 )] = 1
=
Z0
50
50

[ 2 ] = 0.2

(2.61)
(2.62)

:

43

a( x ) = a(0 )e jx = 2e jx
, b( x ) = 0 , V ( x )

(2.63)

V ( x ) = Z 0 a( x ) = 50 2e jx = 10e jx

(2.64)

d = 4 - x d

V (d ) = 10e

j 2

e j d

(2.65)

2.7
[1] S p11 S p 21 1
(. 2.14a). S p 22
S p12 . 2.14b.

(a). C E1 ;
(b). C E2
. 2.14. ,
1.59 , Z1 Z 2
: 1 Z L = j10 ,

V1 = 0.1670 0 E1 ,

I1 = 0.0118 450 E1 ,

V2 = 0.118 450 E1 I 2 = 0.0118 450 E1 .


(2.49)
(2.50) : a p1 = 0.0710 0 E1 , b p1 = 0.06178.69 0 E1 , a p 2 = 0 ,

b p 2 = 0.037 450 E1 . , . 2.14 (a), Z T 1 = 10 + j10


Sp11
S p11 =

b p1
a p1

a p 2 =0

Z T 1 Z1* 10 + j10 (50 j 50 )


= 0.8578.69 0
=
=
Z T 1 + Z1 10 + j10 + (50 + j 50 )

(2.66)

44

S p 21 =

bp2
a p1

=
a p 2 =0

0.037 450
= 0.525 450
0
0.0710

(2.67)

. . 2.14 (b)
Z T 2 = 50 + j 60 , ,

V1 = 0.8330 0 E2 ,
V2 = 0.925.19 0 E2

I1 = 0.0118 450 E2 ,

I 2 = 0.0118 450 E2 .

(2.49) (2.50) : a p1 = 0 , b p1 = 0.083 450 E2 , a p 2 = 0.1580 0 E2

b p 2 = 0.13411.32 0 E2 . ,
S p 22 =

bp2
a p2

a p1 = 0

Z T 2 Z 2* 50 + j 60 10
= 0.8511.30
=
=
Z T 2 + Z 2 50 + j 60 + 10

(2.68)

S p12 =

b p1
a p2

=
a p1 = 0

0.083 450
= 0.525 450
0
0.1580

(2.69)

,
(.. ). , . 2.14a
S p . S 1.59
. 2.14a 50 , Z 1 = Z 2 = 50 .
2.14a Sp , CAD , S 1.59 .

45

3.
,

. ,
, .
3.1
(a). = 100
VCE = 10 I C = 10 .
. 3.1.
100
. 3.2. , . 3.2, S- 100 .
(b). 1 MHz
, - , .
3.4. S- 1 .

. 3.1.

. (a) C1 C2 (. 3.1) .
,
. RFC 46

.
VCE VCC .
= 100,
IC :

10 10 3
IB =
=
= 100A

100
IC

(3.1)

, , RB [1]

RB =

VBB 0.7
5 0.7
=
= 43
IB
100 10 6

(3.2)

Q, VBB , 5 , 10 , , V.

. 3.2. 100
, . 3.2, . 3.1. 1 2 . RFC
,
100 . rbe . 3.2 [4]
rb 'e =

26 10 3
26 10 3
= 100
= 260
Ic
10 10 3

(3.3),

()
gm =

rb 'e

IC
10 10 3
= 385
26 10 3 26 10 3

(3.4)

47

. 3.3 1 2.
Z 1 = rbe , S11 50-
S11 =

rbe 50 260 50
=
= 0.677
rbe + 50 260 + 50

(3.5)

. 3.3.
. 3.3 ,

vbe =

E1, rbe
rbe + Z 0

E1, (260)
260 + 50

= 0.839 1,

(3.6)

, ,
v2 = g mvbe (rce 50) 0.385vbe (50) = 19.25vbe

(3.7)

( (||) ). (.
3.3),
v2 = 19.25 (0.839 )E1, = 16.15 1,

, S21,

S 21 = 2

V2
= 2 ( 16.15) = 32.3 ( 32.3180)
E1,

S22 , Z 2 = rce = 100 ,

S 22 =

rce 50
1,
rce + 50

, rce 50-
.
48

. 3.3,
S12 = 0 .
(b). 1 M
S .
,
. 3.4, C M ,
CM = Cbc (1 Av ) Cbc (1 + g m (50 )) = 1 10 12 (1 + 19.25 ) = 20.25

(3.8)

,
C IN = C be + C M = 10 10 12 + 20.25 10 12 = 30.25

(3.9)

. 3.4. 1

. 3.5. . 3.4
. 3.5 ( )
Z IN = rbe

1
1
= 260
= 259.4 j12.8
6
jC IN
j 2 10 30.25 10 12

(3.10)


49

S11 =

Z IN 50 (259.4 j12.8) 50
=
= 0.677 1.130
Z IN + 50 (259.4 j12.8) + 50

S ,
CAD. . 3.1, S12 = 0 , S 21 = 32.2179.50
S 22 = 0.999 0.62 0 .
. . 3.6.
Lb , Le , Lc , Cbe , Cbc Cce .
0.2 1 , 0.01 0.05 .

. 3.6.


3.2. ,
1 1.

, ,
b1 S11
b = S
2 21
b3 S 31

S12
S 22
S 32

S13
S 23

S 33

a1
a
2
a3

(3.11)

50

a1 ,a2 , a3 , a2 = a3 = 0 ,
. 3.7. b1 = S11a1 , b2 = S 21a1 , b3 = S 31a1 , P
I1+ = I1 + I 2 + I 3
, ,
S11 + S 21 + S 31 = 1

(3.12)

, . 3.7 , ,
1.
. 3.8
.

. 3.7. ,
Zo

. 3.8.
3.3.
(a) z y
(b) z ABCD .
3.4 (a). , S Y :
51

[S ] = ([ y ] + [Y0 ])1 ([ y ] [Y0 ])

[ y ] = [Y0 ]([1] [S ])([1] + [S ])1 ,


[Y0 ] =

Y0 0

0 Y0

(b) S Y ,
3.1.
3.5. S- BJT L (. 3.9)
. , S .

. 3.9. , ,

3.6. S GaAs FET f = 10 ,
,
S11 = 0.73 1280

S 21 = 1.73730
S12 = 0.045114 0

S 22 = 0.75 52 0
S
.
52

3.7 (a). f T f
,

fT

gm
2C b 'e

f =

fT
h fe

(b). f T , GaAs FET:


fT =

gm
.
2C i

3.8. Y-

Y11 = (2+j2) 10 3

Y12 =(-2-j20) 10 6

Y21 = (20 j3) 10 3

Y22 = (20+j60) 10 6

Y- .
3.9. h- :

h11 =50

h12 = 5 10-5

h21 = -0.99

h22 = 1 10 6

Y- .
3.10. , (..
) , Y- ,
3.8.
3.11. Y-
Y 12 =(-1-j0.5) 10 3
Y 11 = (20+j102) 10 3
Y 21 = (40 j100) 10 3

Y 22 = (1+j5) 10 3

Y- .
3.12. Y- 3.11,
h- .
3.13. ,
3.11, ?
3.14.
?
53

4.
,
. ,
.
.
4.1

S11 ,
. 4.1,

. 4.1. S11

. 4.2a. R,
L, C ,
.

54

. 4.2. : (a).
; (b)

. . 4.1, f a = 1 ,
, S11 Zin = 50(0.2 - j0.2) =10 j10 ,
f b = 10 Zin = 50(0.2 + j0.15) = 10 + j7.5 .

, a = 2f a

10 j10 = R + j a L
C

(4.1)

b = 2f b

10 + j 7.5 = R + j b L

C
b

(4.2)

(4.1) (4.2), , R = 10 ,

10 = 2 10 9 L

1
2 10 9 C

(4.3)

7.5 = 2 1010 L

1
2 1010 C

(4.4)

(4.3) (4.4) L = 0.1024 C = 14.95 .


.
, S11 , . 4.2.b. Rpkg
, Lpkg, Cpkg.
. 4.2b.
55

4.2
,
.
(a). L
( z L = j 0.8 ) z = 0.3 j 0.3 ZY (. 4.3).
. . 4.4 , z L = j 0.8
-0.3
0.5. , .

. 4.3.

. 4.4.
ZY
56

(b). ZY
C ( zC = j 0.8 ) z = 0.3 j 0.3 (. 4.5).

. 4.5.
. . 4.6 ,
zC = j 0.8 - 0.3 -1.1. , .

. 4.6. XY
57

(c). L ( z L = j 2.4 )
y ( y = 1.6 + j1.6 ) ZY (. 4.7).

. 4.7.
. . 4.8 ,
y L = j 2.4 ,
+j1.6 -j0.8.
,
.

. 4.8. ZY

58

(d). C ( yC = j 3.4 )
y ( y = 1.6 + j1.6 ) ZY (. 4.9).

. 4.9.
. ZY ,
y = 1.6 + j1.6 (. 4.10).
yC = j 3.4
1.6 5. ,

.
,

,

.

59

. 4.10. ZY


, . 4.11.

60

. 4.11.
ZY
, ZY
.

.
ZY
.
4.3

Z LOAD = 10 + j10
50 . ,
L C 500 M (. 4.12).
. L C,
.4.12a.

61

. 4.12. , Z LOAD = 10 + j10


50
. 4.13.
A [ ZLOAD = (10 + j10)/50 = 0.2 + j0.2) B
,
z L = j 0.4 j 0.2 = j 0.2 . , B
. B
yb = 1 j 2 .

. 4.13. L
C
62

B C (.. ) ,
yC = 0 ( j 2 ) = j 2 zC = 1 j 2 = j 0.5 . ,
C, y IN = z IN = 1 ( Z IN = 50 ) 50- . 500 M, L

L=

10
= 3.18
2 500 10 6

C=

1
= 12.74
25(2 )500 10 6

500 M . 4.14.
. 4.14b (. 4.15). A B . 4.15 ; ,

zC = j 0.4 j 0.2 = j 0.6 . B C


; ,
y L = j 0.6 j 0.49 = j1.09 ( z L = 1 j1.09 = j.0917 ).
500 M . 4.14c.

. 4.14. ,

63

. 4.15.
C L
4.4

, . 4.16
50 YOUT = (8 j12 ) 10 3 .

. 4. 16. , 4.4
64

. . 4.17 ZY
(.. z LOAD = 50 / 50 = 1)

yOUT = 50(8 j12 ) 10 3 = 0.4 j 0.6 . A B , zC = j1.21. B C

y L = j 0.6 j 0.49 = j1.09 ( z L = 1 / j1.09 = j 0.917 ).


. 4.16().

. 4.17. C- L

4.5


Z LOAD = 100 + j100 Z IN = 50 + j 20 .

65

. Z 0 = 100 ,
z LOAD = Z LOAD / Z 0 = 1 + j z IN = Z IN / Z 0 = 0.5 + j 0.2 . . 4.18
. A

(Shunt
C),
yC = j 0.86 ( j 0.5) = j1.36 (
zC = 1 / yC = j 0.735 ).


Z C = 100 z C = 100( j 0.735) = j 73.5 .

. 4.18. , Z IN
C L
B C z L = j 0.2 ( j 0.87 ) = j1.07 .
Z L = 100 z L = 100( j1.07 ) = j107 .
66

, - ,
. 4.19.

. 4. 19.
Z IN

4.6

, . 4.20,
200
20 . Q .

. 4.20. , 200 20
. . 4.21, . 4.20,
, B z B = 0.1 j 0.3 Q
Qn = 0.3 / 0.1 = 3 . , ,
,
z B = 0.1 + j 0.3 ,
Qn = 3 .

67

,
, QL ,

Q
3
QL = n = = 1.5
2 2

f 0 500 10 6
BW
=
= 333.33
QL
1.5
, . 4.20 ,
500
f 0 = 500 BW = 650 10 6 275 10 6 = 375 . QL =
= 1.33
375
QL .
, QL , Q
. ,
f 0 , f 0 .
, f 0 ,
ELL -12 /.

. 4.21. Z L =1 Z IN =0.1

68

, , .

69

5.

5.1


, . 5.1,
50- , s = 0.614
160 L = 0.682 97 (. 5.1).
. 1. - . 5.2.
, s L ,
, :

ys =

1
1
=
= 2.8 j1.9
z s 0.245 + j 0.165

yL =

1
1
=
= 0.4 j1.05 .
z L 0.325 + j 0.83

. 5.1. -
, ys . - .
. 5.2.
0.159
(.. 50 ) .
70

0.099
ys.

. 5.2.
. yL (. 5.3)
.
,
0.077 ,
B.
0.05 B y L .

71

. 5.3.

,
, . 5.4. 50 .

. 5.4. .
50

72

A . -
200 1000 , c
. B ( 50 500 ) 0.077
/4 . /4
B ( Z 0 >> ),
.
. (.. Zo) /4 .

,
. ,
. 5.5.

. 5.5. ,
.
50
,
CA.
. 5.5, . 5.4. ,
73

. ,
y = j1.55 / 2 = j 0.775 .
, ,
0.105 . , . 5.4 . 5.5.
, ,
.
RT/Duroid r = 2.23 h = 0.7874 , 50 ,
W = 2.42 ' = 1.91 .
= 0 / 1.91 = 0.7230 ,
0 = 30 c f = 1. 100
/4 , W = 0.7 . . 5.5

0.105 = 2.28 c
0.099 = 2.15 c
0.051 = 1.10 c
0.129 = 2.80 c

/ 4 = 5.43 c
2: , . 5.6.

. 5.6. (
)
74

50 , YS = (2.8 j1.9 ) / 50 = 0.056 j 0.038 .


50 1 / 0.056 = 17.86
.

Z 01 = 50(17.86) = 29.9

-j0.038 . , . 5.6,
3 /8 jY02. -jY02 -j0.038 ,
, Zo2
Z o2 =

1
1
=
= 26.32 .
Yo 2 0.038


(. . 5.1), /8 Zo2 = 26.3
.
, [YL = (0.4 -j1.05)/50 = 0.008 -j0.021
], /4

Z o1 = 50(125) = 79.1
50 1/0.008 = 125 .
3 /8
Zo2 = l/Yo2 = 1/0.021 = 47.6 - j0.021
.
2 . 5.7.

. 5.7.

75

. 5.8 ,
3/8
. , 3/8, . , .
5.6 -j0.038/2
( ).
, Zo2 Zo2=2/0.038 =
52.6 .

. 5.8.

5.2

ZL = 75 - j60 ZIN = 15 + j30 .
. , Zo 50 , Zo = 75
. Zo = 75 , ZL=ZL/Zo=1-j0.8 (
XY ) ZIN =
ZIN/Zo = 0.2 + j0.4 . Y : yL =
0.61 + j0.49 y IN = 1 j 2 ,
. 5.9, .
. 5.10.

76

. 5.9. ,

. 5.10. , Y
, Zo = 75
. 5.10 , ,
YL A, j1.5 - j0.49 = j1.01. A
y a = 0.61 + j1.5 . j1.01
l1 = 0.126 .
l2 = 0.313 0.164 = 0.149
, A
y IN .
77

5.3

. 5.11 50 Z IN = 33 + j50 .

. 5.11.
. z IN = Z IN / 50 = 0.66 + j1 ZIN, .
5.12. , z IN , , . 5.11
rx = 0.3 , R x = 50(0.3) = 15 .

. 5.12. Z ,
Z o1 , 50
78

Z L = 50 Rx = 15 .
/ 4
Z o1 = 50(15) = 27.4

50 l2 = 0.143
zIN = 0.66 + j1 , Z IN = 50(0.66 + j1) = 33 + j 50 .

, , . .
5.4
(). , 2.5
, . 5.13.
= 1 (.. v = c = 3 x 1010 /).

.
L .

. 5.13.
(b). , ,
( r = 9.6 ).
(a).

c 3 1010
0 = =
= 12
f 2.5 10 9
79

, . 5.13, l1 = 43 mm ( l1 = 0.3580 )
yoc = j1.25 .
. , 50
y A = 1 j1.25 , A . 5.14.
l 2 = 10 mm ( l 2 = 0.0830 )
A B (. . 5.14).
. B y B = 0.41 j 0.53 .
(3 yC = j 2.36 )
B C. C
0.41 + j1.83 , L = 0.83 124.50 .

.5.14. L Y
. , 3 4 .
.
5.15.
80

(b). r = 9.6 ,

, , 50
W = 24.7 h = 25 .

' = 6.46

= 0 / = 12 / 6.46 = 4.72 ) .

, l1' (. 5.15)
l1' =

l1

ff

43
= 16.9 ,
6.46

,
l 2' =

l2

ff

10
= 3.93
6.46

. 5.15.
5.5


50-
L = 0,4872 0 .
81

. . . 5.16
L ,
, Z 0 = 50 .
A B . 5.17a.

. 5.16.

B y B = 1 j 0.82 .
. 5.17,
l1 = 0.141 . yC = 0.5 j 0.3
C.
l2 = 0.099 . ,
0.5 j 0.3 j 0.6 .

82

l3 = 0.203 (.. j 0.3 ).


. 5.17.

. 5.17. 5.5

5.6 (a) Z Z = 100 + j100 ,
50 .
(b) y, Z
, Y (.., Y = yYo = y/Zo).
(c) y, ZY .
(d) (a) (c) : Z = 50 - j100 , Z
= 25 - j25 , Z = j50 , Z = j0 .
5.7 (a) , , (..
z = -r + jx) , 1.
(b) , 1/*
.
(c) Z1 = -20 + j16 Z2 = -200 +
j25 . 50 .
(d) (c) .
(e) ?
5.8. ,
2 . ,

Z (d ) = Z d +
, n = 1,2,3,
2

83

5.9. ,

Z (d ) = R(d ) + jX (d ) = Z (d ) e j d

R(d ) = Z 0

1 2 cos +

X (d ) = Z 0
Z (d ) = Z 0

2 sin
1 2 cos +

1 + 2 cos +

1 2 cos +

2 sin
X (d )

= tan 1
2
1
R(d )

j l
j
= 0 , = 0 , = l 2 d

d = tan 1

5.10.. ,
90, Zo = 50 ,
ZL = 50 + j100 . Z Y .
5.11(a) ,
.
(b) , ,
, 1/.
5.12 (a) 50-
, ZIN(l ) = -j25 .
(b) 50- , yin (l) = j2.
5.13. ( Z0 = 50 )
. 5.18 500 1 . .
5.14 (a) RC , .
5.18, C = 50 . fa and fb.

84

. 5.18. 5.14
(b) , fb = 1 j0.6. fa = 500 M, j0.2. . , .
5.15. 4 ZLOAD = 10 + j40 50 .
5.16. (. 5.19), 3
YL = (4 j 4 ) 10 .
700 M.

. 5.19.
85

5.17. . 5.20. , YLOAD = (8 j12 ) 10 3 50-


. f = 1 .

. 5.20.

5.18. ZY
, . 5.21 = 109 rad/s, ZIN.

. 5.21.
5.19.
ZLOAD = 100 - j100 ZIN = 25 + j25 .
5.20 (a).
ZLOAD= 50 ZIN =20 + j20
Q = 5.
(b). -
ZLOAD= 50 ZIN= 25 Q = 2.5.
86

5.21 (a). . 2.5.2 2.5.3 [ 2 ] W, , ff -

50 RT/Duroid r = 2.23 h =
0.7874
mm.
(b) (2.5.8) (2.5.11) , RT/Duroid r =
2.23 h = 0.7874 mm, 50 W/h
= 3.073 , ff = 1.91 = 0.7236 0 .
5.22. 10 . 5.22, 1
, Z0 = 50 .
r = 6 h = 25 mils. .

. 5.22.
5.23 (a). , . 5.23 50 ZIN = 100 j100 .
(b). l1 ,
?
(c). (a) (b) ZIN = 100 + j100 .

. 5.23.
87

5.24 (a). (. .
5.24) ZL = 15 + j25 50 .
50 .
(b) . 5.24, , 100 .

. 5.24.
5.25. , . 5.25
50 ,
. 5.25.

88

. 5.25.
5.26 (a). , . 5.26 s = 5090 0 . . 5.26
(.., 8 3 8 ).
(b)
.

. 5.26.
89

5.27. , . 5.27, 3 8
52.64 95.2 ,
. , 26.32 47.6 , .
5.28 (a). . 5.27 L = 0.4 120 0 .
(.. 8 3 8 ).
(b) , Zo2
Zo2/2.

. 5.27. 5.29
5.29.
, f = 800 M, 50-
, s = 0.8160 0 L = 0.720 0 .
.
5.30 (a) s . 5.28.
(b) s . 5.28. , 100
.

90

. 5.28. 5.31

5.31 (a) L . 5.29. = 1 f =


6 .

. 5.29.
(b)
.
5.32. (. 5.30)
.
IN = 0.5100 0 ,
ZA .

91

. 5.30.

5.33.
ZL = 50 - j50 ZIN = 25 + j25
. 5.31.

. 5.31.
5.34. , , L . 5.32.

92

. 5.32.
5.35. ,
(. 5.33), s = 0.57116 0 .

. 5.33.
5.36. . 5.34. ZL = 100 + j100 50- .

. 5.34. 5.36
5.37. . 5.35 50- ZIN .

93

. 5.35. 5.37
5.38 (a) . 5.36.

()out out = 0.682 97 0


*
(b) , Zb = 50 L = OUT
.

(c) ()out out = 0.5 60 0 .

. 5.36
5.39 (a) . 5.37.
()in IN = 0.545 77.7 0 .
94

*
(b) , Za = 50 , s = IN
.

(c) ()out IN = 0.4450 .

. 5. 37.
,

.

95


1. . . . .. ,., , 1981, 216 .
2. .. . , ., 1976, 142
.
3. .. , .. , .. . . .,
" ", 1981, 295 .
4. .., .., ..
Microwave Office. . .. , ., O, 2003, 496 ( " "), 496 .
5. G. Gonzalez. Microwave Transistor Amplifiers. Analysis and Design. N-Y,
1996, 506 pp.

0. ..
3
1.
13
2. S-..
24
3.
44
4.
57
5. ..66
6.
92
7. .
94
8. .. 95

96