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Design Methodology:

Kinetic Architecture
A THESIS

Presented to the Graduate School


Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University
In Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree
Of
Master of Science
In
Architectural Engineering
By
Architect

Soha Mohamed Abd El-Hady Fouad


B.Sc. of Architecture
Alexandria University

July 2012

ABSTRACT
Although immense changes occurred in the Egyptian built environment,
given products didn't consider occupants' changing needs and activities as well as
changing environmental conditions. The research aimed to present non-traditional
solutions in order to create environments able to respond, adapt and interact in
motional behaviors.
Upon the belief that the fundamental knowledge of Kinetic Architecture
can better assist architects to acquaint the need to enroll motion in the built
environment; the thesis first presents different definitions for the term Kinetic
Architecture. Next, it historically reviews the use of kineticism in the
architectural field since the old ages until present. Also, it describes different
trends to apply kineticism in the architectural environment accompanied with
explanatory examples.
The technological achievement in different divisions of engineering such as
structural, mechanical and materials engineering as well as information and
communication technologies has an enormous effect on kinetic design. As a
result, the second part of the thesis is dedicated to kinetic design process defining
its main elements from structural innovation and materials advancement to
embedded computation and at last adaptive architecture.
The research carries on an analytical study by highlighting fifteen
architectural project adapting kineticism. The study is based on the different
elements affecting the kinetic design process. The evaluating criteria include the
way and reason for involving kineticism as well as the effect it has upon the
indoor environment and the visual quality.
Finally, the thesis ends with concluding the effect of using kineticism in the
architectural field. And, it suggests some systems to be applied to the Egyptian
environment. Recommendations for further studies are represented to enrich
applying the theory.

Key Words: Kinetic, Kineticism, Motion, Adaptive, Responsive, Interactive.

VII

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to express my deep recognition and sincere appreciation to
Prof. Dr. Hany M. Abd El Gawad Ayad for his generous patience, valuable
guidance, advice and precious time and effort throughout all stages of conducting
this thesis. Also, I would like to express my truthful gratitude and sincere
appreciation to Dr. Dina Sameh Taha for her endless patience, precious help,
comments and continues encouragement and support to accomplish this work.
I am very grateful to all my friends and colleagues for their support and
help. I am thankful to Federica Sabbadini for her help providing me with research
materials.
Finally, I would like to express my deep love and appreciation to my family
for all their love, care, support and assistance and for always being there for me.

IX

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... VII
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................................................................................................... IX
TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................................. XI
LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................XIII
LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................................................................... XX
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................ XXI
A. BACKGROUND ....................................................................................................... 1
A.1.
Research Problem: ..................................................................................... 2
A.2.
Research Hypothesis: ................................................................................ 3
B. RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES ................................................................. 3
C. MOTIVATION AND RESEARCH IMPORTANCE ............................................... 3
D. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY............................................................................... 4
E. RESEARCH STRUCTURE ...................................................................................... 4
CHAPTER ONE: WHAT IS KINETIC ARCHITECTURE?............................................................ 7
1. What is Kinetic Architecture? .................................................................................... 9
1.1. Kinetic Architecture Definition ................................................................................. 9
1.2. Historical Review..................................................................................................... 11
1.3. Kinetic Trends in Architectural Environments ........................................................ 22
1.3.1.
Spatial Optimization Systems.................................................................. 22
1.3.2.
Multi-Function Design ............................................................................ 23
1.3.3.
Contextual Adaptability........................................................................... 25
1.3.4.
Mobility ................................................................................................... 27
1.4. Summary .................................................................................................................. 28
CHAPTER TWO: KINETIC DESIGN KEY ELEMENTS ............................................................. 29
2. KINETIC DESIGN .................................................................................................. 31
2.1. Kinetic Design Key Elements .................................................................................. 31
2.1.1.
Structural Innovation and Materials Advancement ................................. 31
2.1.2.
Embedded Computation .......................................................................... 34
2.1.2.1. Trends in Embedded Computation ..................................................... 35
2.1.2.2. Level of Control Mechanisms ............................................................ 38
2.1.2.3. Ways and Means of Embedded Computation .................................... 39
2.1.2.4. Typologies of Controlling Change ..................................................... 40
2.1.3.
Adaptable Architecture ............................................................................ 41
2.1.3.1. Living Environments .......................................................................... 42
2.1.3.2. Working Environments ...................................................................... 42
2.1.3.3. Entertainment Environments .............................................................. 42
2.1.3.4. Public Environments .......................................................................... 43

XI

Table of Contents

2.2. Summary .................................................................................................................. 44


CHAPTER THREE: KINETIC BUILDINGS' ANALYSIS ............................................................ 45
3. KINETIC BUILDINGS' ANALYSIS ...................................................................... 47
3.1. Architectural Projects: .............................................................................................. 47
3.1.1.
Institut du Monde Arabe: ......................................................................... 48
3.1.2.
GucklHupf ............................................................................................... 53
3.1.3.
Floirac House "Maison Bordeaux" ....................................................... 57
3.1.4.
The Naked House .................................................................................... 61
3.1.5.
Milwaukee Art Museum "Quadracci Pavilion" ....................................... 65
3.1.6.
Gemini Haus ............................................................................................ 69
3.1.7.
Dragspelhuset: ......................................................................................... 73
3.1.8.
The Leaf Chapel: ..................................................................................... 77
3.1.9.
QiZhong Forest Sports City Tennis Centre "Magnolia Stadium" ........... 81
3.1.10.
Kiefer Technic Showroom....................................................................... 85
3.1.11.
Sliding House .......................................................................................... 89
3.1.12.
The Olympic Tennis Center "Magic Box" .............................................. 93
3.1.13.
Cherokee Studios Lofts ........................................................................... 97
3.1.14.
The World Trade Center Transportation Hub ....................................... 101
3.1.15.
Dynamic Tower ..................................................................................... 105
3.2. Analysis: ................................................................................................................. 112
3.2.1.
Location: ................................................................................................ 112
3.2.2.
Structural Systems and Used Materials: ................................................ 112
3.2.3.
Indoor Environment Types: ................................................................... 113
3.2.4.
Kinetic Elements and Reasons for Motion: ........................................... 114
3.2.5.
Relation between Structural System and Used Materials:..................... 116
3.2.6.
Relation between Structural System and Used Kinetic Elements: ........ 116
3.2.7.
Relation between Building Environments and Used Kinetic Elements:117
3.2.8.
Relation between Building Environments and Reasons for Motion: .... 117
3.2.9.
Ways of Controlling Kineticism and the Relation with Building
Environments:........................................................................................................... 118
3.2.10.
Kinetic Systems Effect on Buildings' Visual Quality:........................... 119
3.3. Summary: ............................................................................................................... 119
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................................................... 121
Conclusions .................................................................................................................................... 123
Recommendations: ......................................................................................................................... 128
REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................... i

XII

List of Figures

LIST OF FIGURES
-

Figure 1: Thesis Structure. .......................................................................................... 5

Figure 2: (a) The Colosseum represented the first kinetic retractable roof covering
the seating area around the arena (Pepe, 2001). (b) An intriguingly simple device
invented by Thomas Jefferson for his home to allow both doors to open
simultaneously whenever any is opened. As the device was concealed beneath the
floor, its principle was not known until it was uncovered in 1953 (Zuk, 1970, P. 29).
................................................................................................................................... 11

Figure 3: (a) A sketch showing how a drawbridge at medieval castle worked, typical
of such structures that were precursors of modern bascule bridges (Koglin, 2003, P.
4). (b) A view of the entrance door and the drawbridge to Rocca Gradara one of
the best preserved medieval structures in Italy which was built in 12th to the 15th
centuries (GeoSearch.Italia, N/D). ............................................................................ 12

Figure 4: (a) A scketch shows how a typical drawbridge works (Hall, N/D). (b) A
scketch shows how a typical trunnion bascule bridge works (Ryall, 2000, P. 669). 13

Figure 5: (a) A schematic of vertical lift bridge (S. Glover, 2007). (b) A rolling
bascule bridge while closed (Chase Hill, 1927, P. 467)............................................ 13

Figure 6: (a) The construction of the Santa Barbara County bowl revolving stage in
1936 which was destroyed by El-Nino floods during 1939 in the United States of
America (SantaBarbaraBowlFoundation, N/D). (b) Architect M. Engere Pettit and
physician Lucien Pellegrine "heliotropic house" 1903 (Randl, 2008, P. 57). ........... 14

Figure 7: A view for Saidman's revolving solarium, Aix Les-Bains, France (Petit,
N/D)........................................................................................................................... 15

Figure 8: Max Taut's Rotating House, Frublicht (Dawn), 1920 (Randl, 2008, P. 67).
................................................................................................................................... 16

Figure 9: Tatlin's Monument to the Third International, designed in 1919 (Randl,


2008, P. 68). .............................................................................................................. 17

Figure 10: Villa Girasole from the air, with the courtyard of the rotating section
facing uphill,1935 (Randl, 2008, P. 77). ................................................................... 18

Figure 11: Villa Girasole: (a) lower floor plan where the villa can rotate 360 degrees
over rail tracks (Davies, 2006, P. 87). (b) structural frame showing the spiral
staircase as well as the tracks (Randl, 2008, P. 78)................................................... 18

Figure 12: The 1,400 square-foot revolving house built by Francois Massau in 1958
still turns, making a complete circle in 90 minutes, admitting more sunlight into its
rooms as needed (Tagliabue, 2008). ......................................................................... 19

Figure 13: (a) The Stuttgart Tower in Stuttgart, Germany (Smart-TravelGermany.com, N/D). (b) The Dortmund's Florianturm in Dortmund, Germany
(Janberg, N/D-a). (c) The concrete Henninger Turm in Frankfurt, Germany
(Janberg, N/D-b). (d) The Cairo Tower in Cairo, Egypt (Wikipedia, 2004). ........... 20

XIII

List of Figures

Figure 14: The Solaleya Dome House, a house for a clean and sustainable future
(Solaleya, N/D).......................................................................................................... 21

Figure 15: (a) The Suite Vollard, the first fully revolving high-rise apartment
building (Zeiler, 2011, P. 362). (b) A plan for the Suite Vollard showing the fixed
core and the rotating part (van Poucke, 2008c). ........................................................ 21

Figure 16: (a) Interlocking Transformation, an interior diagram (Fox, 2009, P. 32).
(b) Interlocking Transformation, reconfigurable elements dividing sectors (Fox,
2009, P. 32). .............................................................................................................. 23

Figure 17: The Bloomframe (HurksGeveltechniek, N/D). (a) In window state. (b) In
balcony state. ............................................................................................................. 24

Figure 18: (a) A diagram shows different ring units connected to each other while in
use (Kapfinger, N/D). (b) A ring unit (Serrats, 2005, P. 380)................................... 24

Figure 19: (a) An exterior view for the Wind Veil (Kahn, 2000). (b) A close view
for the aluminum panels of the Wind Veil (Kahn, 2000) .......................................... 25

Figure 20: Convertible umbrellas for the courts of the Prophet's Holy Mosque in an
opened and closed state (SL-RASCH-GMPH, N/D). ............................................. 26

Figure 21: The Bengt Sjostrom/Starlight Theater. Study model shows the building's
roof (mnartists.org, N/D) while: (a) opened and (b) closed. (d) An inner view for the
kinetic roof while opened (Galindo, 2005, P. 78). .................................................... 26

Figure 22: Mobile Dwelling Unit, the container plan while sub-volumes pushed out
(fabprefab, N/D). ....................................................................................................... 27

Figure 23: Mobile Dwelling Unit. (a) An exterior view while MDU in an opened
state (Gardiner, 2003, P. 132). (b) An exterior view while the MDU in a closed state
(Block, 2011). ............................................................................................................ 28

Figure 24: Diagram shows kinetic structures typologies (Fox, N/D). ...................... 31

Figure 25: (a) The Muscles Tower while activated (Detwiler, 2006). (b)The Carlos
Moseley Music Pavilion while being transported to its location and being assembled
(Mota, 2007). ............................................................................................................. 32

Figure 26: (a) Two of the modular units of the Flare-faade system and their control
mechanism (WHITEvoid, N/D). (b) A paper model for the Flare-faade system
(WHITEvoid, N/D). .................................................................................................. 34

Figure 27: The Kuwait Pavilion for Expo 92 while changing from closed state to
opened one (Hawarny, 2008, P. 30). ......................................................................... 34

Figure 28: (a) An interior view for Taipei 101 tuned mass damper (TMD)
(Wikipedia, N/D). (b) A diagrame shows where the Tuned Mass Damper is located
in Taipei 101 Building (Wikipedia, N/D). ................................................................ 35

Figure 29: The Implant Matrix (InteractiveArchitecture.org, 2006). ........................ 36

Figure 30: The AMX Whole Home Automation touch panel (AMX, N/D). ............ 37

Figure 31: The Stereoscope Project while playing an animation on Toronto City Hall
faade (AlternativeBerlin, 2010). .............................................................................. 38

Figure 32: The Interactive Restaurant (RobotectureInteractiveArchitecture, N/D) .. 43

XIV

List of Figures

Figure 33: An external view for Institut du Monde Arabe (WikiArquitectura, 2010).
................................................................................................................................... 48

Figure 34: (a) The Mashrabiya diaphragm used at Institut du Monde Arabe (Osmers,
2007).
(b) Mashrabiya unit sketch (Prisse dAvennes, 2007, P. 137). (c)
Mashrabiya used in a Ottoman residential building near Khan El-Khalili, Cairo,
Egypt (a.allegretti, 2012)........................................................................................... 49

Figure 35: An external view for the flat southern faade of Institut du Monde Arabe
shows the "Mashrabiya Diaphragms" that were used (IMA, 2001).......................... 49

Figure 36: (a) A view for a group of the mashrabiya diaphragms while functioning
(eliinbar, 2011). (b) A detail of the medium sized diaphragm (moreAEdesign, 2010).
(c) A detail of small diaphragms (moreAEdesign, 2010). ....................................... 50

Figure 37: A diagram showing reason for installing mashrabiya diaphragms on the
southern faade (Yucel, 1989, P. 92). ....................................................................... 51

Figure 38: An external view for GucklHupf while being opened (de la Torre, N/D).
................................................................................................................................... 53

Figure 39: The GucklHupf plans where the red colored rectangular is the main area
while the other parts are those being opened, slided or folded (de la Torre, N/D). .. 54

Figure 40: The GucklHupf section where the red color indicates the accurate area
when the structure is closed. Also this section shows the four different levels inside
the structure (Ballard Bell, 2006, P. 125).................................................................. 54

Figure 41: Transformation in GucklHupf starting from the closed state (Olson,
2009). ........................................................................................................................ 55

Figure 42: An exterior view for the Floirac House (OrgoneDesign, N/D). .............. 57

Figure 43: Plans for the Floirac House showing different ways to access levels
(Beck, N/D). The Blue color indicates the elevator platform, the red color indicates
the main staircase, the green color indicates the service staircase and the yellow
color indicates a staircase connecting two levels. ..................................................... 58

Figure 44: Long section though the Floirac House, where the blue color indicates the
elevator platform (Beck, N/D). (a) The elevator platform reaches the second floor.
(b) The elevator platform is on the ground floor....................................................... 58

Figure 45: An isometric section showing the elevator platform in red (Beck, N/D).59

Figure 46: Different views for the elevator platform while functioning (OMA, N/D).
(a) The elevator platform when settled in the upper level. (b) The elevator platform
while moving between different levels. .................................................................... 59

Figure 47: An external view for the Naked House (ShigeruBanArchitects, N/D).... 61

Figure 48: (a) A 3D modeling for the Naked House showing the rectangular open
space, the permanent installations as well as the movable rooms (boxes) (Unit-derelogement, 2012). (b) An interior view for the half-height wall separating the
wardrobes as well as the bathroom from the rest of the open space (Jeska, 2008, P.
73). ............................................................................................................................ 62

XV

List of Figures

Figure 49: Interior views of the Naked House (van Poucke, 2011). (a) A view for
mobile units when attached to each other. (b) A view for mobile units arranged
separately. .................................................................................................................. 62

Figure 50: (a) A section through the main double height open space (Bradbury,
2005, P. 185). (b) An isometric for the Naked House showing different layer of the
building's skin as well as different components (Bradbury, 2005, P. 181). .............. 63

Figure 51: (a) Different arrangements for the mobile room units (Guzowski, 2007,
P. 2). (b) A close view for the moveable units (Stang, 2005, P. 89). ........................ 64

Figure 52: An external view for the Milwaukee Art Museum Quadracci Pavilion
(Smith, 2007). ............................................................................................................ 65

Figure 53: (a) A water color sketch featuring the Quadracci Pavilion
(CALATRAVA, N/D-a). (b) A water color sketch featuring the pedestrian bridge
(CALATRAVA, N/D-a)............................................................................................ 66

Figure 54: The Burke Brise Soleil, the moveable wings of the museum ranging in
motion from totally closed to completely opened (CALATRAVA, N/D-a). ............ 67

Figure 55: (a) An interior view of the structural frame of the parabolic-shaped
skylight in the Quadracci Pavilion (CALATRAVA, N/D-a). (b) The arched
promenade at the Quadracci Pavilion (CALATRAVA, N/D-a). (c) The unique
shapes of the arched support concrete structures (solaripedia, N/D-b). .................... 68

Figure 56: An external view for the Gemini Haus (Salzburg.ORF.at, 2012)............ 69

Figure 57: Center of the house were all exhaust, supply air and waste water are fed
into (PEGE, 2001). .................................................................................................... 70

Figure 58: Panoramic views for the ground floor and the first floor (PEGE, 2001). 70

Figure 59: (a) Utility lines that are transferred to the rotating house through the firm
basement (PEGE, 2001). (b) Glass and aluminum fixes (van Poucke, 2008a). (c)
Vertical solar panels attached to the house (Lenardic, N/D). .................................... 71

Figure 60: (a) A detail for connection between dynamic solar panels and the
structure (PEGE, 2001). (b) A detail for the track on which the house moves (PEGE,
2001).......................................................................................................................... 72

Figure 61: An external view for Dragspelhuset (24H<architecture, N/D). ............... 73

Figure 62: (a) A view for the cabin while the retractable cantilever is pushed in
(Park, 2007, P. 60). (b) A view for the cabin while the retractable cantilever is
pushed out (Park, 2007, P. 60). ................................................................................. 74

Figure 63: Dragspelhuset plan (Park, 2007, P. 67). (a) Plan drawing for the
extension where the orange color indicates the area of extension when the
retractable cantilever is pushed in. (b) Plan drawing for the extension where the red
color indicates the added area after pushing the retractable cantilever out. .............. 74

Figure 64: A section showing the extension while the retractable cantilever is
pushed in creating a double skin (Park, 2007, P. 67). ............................................... 75

Figure 65: A section showing the extension while the retractable cantilever is
pushed out over the stream (Park, 2007, P. 67)......................................................... 75

XVI

List of Figures

Figure 66: The red cedar wood used for the exterior cladding (Zeisser, 2007, P. 12),
(Park, 2007, P. 59)..................................................................................................... 75

Figure 67: The reindeer hides covering the interior of the retractable cantilever
(Park, 2007, P. 66)..................................................................................................... 76

Figure 68: An exterior view for the Leaf Chapel glowing at night
(KleinDytham|architecture, N/D). ............................................................................. 77

Figure 69: A plan drawing for the Leaf Chapel showing the components creating the
chapel which are the chapel great hall, corridor and storage (A. Pearson, 2005, P.
244). .......................................................................................................................... 78

Figure 70: (a) The Leaf Chapel when in the closed state (KleinDytham|architecture,
N/D). (b) The Leaf Chapel when in the opened state by the end of the wedding
ceremony (KleinDytham|architecture, N/D). ............................................................ 78

Figure 71: (a) An interior view showing the black granite used for flooring as well
as the black wooden pews with clear acrylic backrest (KleinDytham|architecture,
N/D). (b) A detail for the lace patterns on the movable leaf
(KleinDytham|architecture, N/D). ............................................................................. 79

Figure 72: (a) A section drawing through the Leaf Chapel showing how the chapel
was tucked into the ground (Mr.Jacobsen, 2012). (b) An exterior view for the Leaf
Chapel featuring the sloping site where the chapel was located (Mr.Jacobsen, 2012).
................................................................................................................................... 80

Figure 73: The Shanghai QiZhong Forest Sports City Tennis Centre (corus, 2006, P.
24,25). ....................................................................................................................... 81

Figure 74: A view for the stadium while its roof petals are open presenting a flower
(TheTennisStory, 2011). ........................................................................................... 82

Figure 75: A plan showing different components and seating area for QiZhong
Forest Sports City Tennis Centre (ShanghaiCulturalInformation, N/D). ................. 82

Figure 76: (a) A drawing for the stadium roof while in a close state. (b) A drawing
for the stadium roof while in an open state. .............................................................. 83

Figure 77: The QiZhong Forest Sports City Tennis Center dynamic roof (van
Poucke, 2008b). (a) A close view for the roof petals while they are closed. (b) A
close view for the roof petals while they are being opened. ..................................... 84

Figure 78: An exterior view for the Kiefer Technic Showroom (Deisenberger, 2009,
P. 21). ........................................................................................................................ 85

Figure 79: Kiefer Technic Showroom floor plans (ErnstGiselbrecht+PartnerZTGmbH, N/D). (a) The ground floor plan where the red color marks the kinetic
faade. (b) The upper floor plan where the red color marks the kinetic faade. ....... 86

Figure 80: Different positions for the aluminum panels giving the faade a variety of
appearance (WorldBuildingsDirectoryOnlineDatabase, N/D).................................. 86

Figure 81: A close view for the moveable aluminum panels showing the guide rails
they move on (WorldBuildingsDirectoryOnlineDatabase, N/D). ............................. 87

Figure 82: A drawing shows different positions for the aluminum moveable panels
presenting the relation between solid and void where the grey color presents solid.88

XVII

List of Figures

Figure 83: An exterior view for the Sliding House (dRMM, N/D). .......................... 89

Figure 84: An isometric showing the different parts creating the building (dRMM,
N/D). .......................................................................................................................... 90

Figure 85: Plans for the sliding house while the red color presents the sliding part
once while closed and the other while completely open (Russell, 2010). (a) The
ground floor plan for the Sliding House. (b) The first floor plan floor the Sliding
House. ........................................................................................................................ 90

Figure 86: An isometric drawing showing different positions for the moveable
(dRMM, N/D)............................................................................................................ 90

Figure 87: (a) A view for the sliding exterior skin while creating an extra sunshade
for the terrace (Russell, 2010). (b) Different views for the sliding exterior skin
creating different enclosure between the three forms creating the house, and while
leaving the courtyard exposed to the sky (Waite, 2009). .......................................... 91

Figure 88: (a) A detailed section drawing for the glass form while it is closed by the
moveable roof/wall structure and while it is opened to the surrounding by sliding the
moveable roof/wall structure away (dRMM, N/D). (b) Views for the sliding exterior
shell once when closed and the other when completely open (Russell, 2010). ........ 92

Figure 89: Different exterior views for the house while the moveable structure in
different positions (Elite-Choice, 2009). ................................................................... 92

Figure 90: An external view for the Olympic Tennis from north across the
Manzanares River Center (Riley, 2005, P. 118)........................................................ 93

Figure 91: Perspective for the "Magic Box" showing the movable lids covering the
three courts while closed and opened (Riley, 2005, P. 120). .................................... 94

Figure 92: A plan drawing showing the Olympic Tennis Center main components
(Riley, 2005, P. 116). ................................................................................................ 94

Figure 93: A drawing to show the different 27 opening positions for the three lids
covering the courts (Jordana, 2012). ......................................................................... 95

Figure 94: A close view for a hydraulic jack (van Poucke, 2010). ........................... 96

Figure 95: An external view for the Cherokee Studios Lofts


(Brooks+ScarpArchitecture, N/D). ........................................................................... 97

Figure 96: Different residential units that vary from loft flats to tri-level units and
tow-homes (Brooks+ScarpArchitecture, N/D). ......................................................... 98

Figure 97: Different views for the operable aluminum panels


(Brooks+ScarpArchitecture, N/D). ........................................................................... 98

Figure 98: A diagram showing reason for installing a kinetic skin


(Brooks+ScarpArchitecture, N/D). ........................................................................... 99

Figure 99: (a) Close view of the perforated anodized aluminum


panels(Brooks+ScarpArchitecture, N/D). (b) Detailed view for the operable skin
(Brooks+ScarpArchitecture, N/D). ........................................................................... 99

Figure 100: A study showing the relation between solid and void through different
stages starting from all panels are close till reaching the stage when all panels are
opened. .................................................................................................................... 100

XVIII

List of Figures

Figure 101: A perspective for the exterior of The World Trade Center
Transportation Hub (WorldTradeCenter, N/D)....................................................... 101

Figure 102: (a) A sketch for a child releasing a dove into the sky which is the
inspiration of the designed building (CALATRAVA, N/D-b). (b) An exterior
perspective for the WTC Transportation Hub appears as a flying bird
(CALATRAVA, N/D-b). ........................................................................................ 102

Figure 103: A section for the WTC Transportation Hub (W. Dunlap, 2005). ........ 103

Figure 104: Section drawing showing the steel ribs that were supposed to move as
well as the lightening system (Yee, 2007, P. 63). (b) Interior prespective views for
the
main
hall
while
the
top
is
closed
and
opened
(LowerManhattanConstructionCommandCenter, N/D). ......................................... 103

Figure 105: A perspective for the Dynamic Tower (DynamicArchitecture, N/D). 105

Figure 106: (a) Drawing representing the installation of wind turbines and the way
they are involved in the design concept (DynamicArchitecture, N/D). (b) Drawing
representing the use of solar panels on top of each rotating floor
(DynamicArchitecture, N/D)................................................................................... 106

Figure 107: Dynamic Tower floor plans (DynamicArchitecture, N/D). (a) Plan
drawing for the villas which are located on the top 10 floors. (b) Plan drawing for
the hotel unites which is located on the first lower 20 floors.................................. 107

Figure 108: Drawing presenting the technical system will be used to construct the
tower (DynamicArchitecture, N/D). ....................................................................... 108

Figure 109: Drawings representing natural ventilation as well as sunlight filtering


(DynamicArchitecture, N/D)................................................................................... 109

Figure 110: Different views for the Dynamic Tower while in motion (Cherry, 2010,
P. 36). ...................................................................................................................... 109

Figure 111: The world map where the studied projects are located in Europe, NorthAmerica and Asia. ................................................................................................... 112

Figure 112: Structure systems used for analyzed buildings. ................................... 112

Figure 113: Share of materials used among the studied projects. ........................... 113

Figure 114: Different architectural environments in which kinetics were used. .... 113

Figure 115: Types of kineticism used in buildings under study, such as: (a) Institut
du Monde Arabe 1987 (eliinbar, 2011). (b) The Naked House 2000 (Stang,
2005,
P.
89).
(c)
The
Olympic
Tennis
Center

2009
(DominiquePerraultArchitecture, N/D). (d) The Leaf Chapel 2004 (Picasa, 2009).
(e) The Sliding House 2009 (Meunier, 2012). (f) The Dynamic Tower
(DynamicArchitecture, N/D)................................................................................... 114

Figure 116: Ways kinetics were installed in buildings. .......................................... 114

Figure 117: Reasons for using kinetics, such as: (a) Institut du Monde Arabe 1987
(Dumas, 2009). (b) GucklHupf 1993 (Olson, 2009). (c) Maison Bordeaux 1998
(OMA, N/D). (d) The Naked House 2000 (van Poucke, 2011). (e) Magnolia
Stadium 2005 (TheChicagoAthenaeum, 2007). (f) The Leaf Chapel 2004 (IaaC,

XIX

List of Figures

2010). (g) Cherokee Studios Lofts 2010 (Brooks+ScarpArchitecture, N/D). (h)


Dynamic Tower (DynamicArchitecture, N/D). ....................................................... 115
-

Figure 118: Reasons in which kinetic systems are applied. .................................... 115

Figure 119: Relation between structure systems and materials share. .................... 116

Figure 120: Structure systems effect on the way kineticism is installed. ............... 116

Figure 121: Relation between the different architectural environments and ways
kinetics are installed. ............................................................................................... 117

Figure 122: Relation between different architectural environments and the reason
kinetics are used. ..................................................................................................... 117

Figure 123: Different ways of controlling kinetic systems, such as: (a) Cherokee
Studios Lofts 2010 (SlowHomeStudio, 2010). (b) Gemini Haus 2001
(Salzburg.ORF.at, 2012). (c) Milwaukee Art Museum Quadracci Pavilion 2001
(CALATRAVA, N/D-a). (d) Kiefer Technic Showroom 2007
(WorldBuildingsDirectoryOnlineDatabase, N/D). .................................................. 118

Figure 124: Ways of controlling kinetic systems. ................................................... 118

Figure 125: Relation between different architectural environments and ways of


controlling kineticism. ............................................................................................. 118

Figure 126: Effect of using kinetic systems on buildings' visual quality. (a)
Dragspelhuset 2004 (HomesAndInterorDesign, N/D). (b) The Dynamic Tower
(Cherry, 2010, P. 36). (c) QiZhong Forest Sports City Tennis Center 2005 (IaaC,
2010). (d) The World Trade Center Transportation Hub 2014 (CALATRAVA,
N/D-b). .................................................................................................................... 119

Figure 127: (a) The dynamic faade of the Kiefer Technic Showroom
(WorldBuildingsDirectoryOnlineDatabase, N/D). (b) The movable solar panels
attached to the exterior of Gemini Haus (Lenardic, N/D). (c) The FLARE-faade
system (WHITEvoid, N/D). .................................................................................... 125

Figure 128: (a) The aluminum panels used for the Wind Veil (beautrincia, 2008). (b)
The perforated aluminum panels used for the Cherokee Studios Lofts
(Brooks+ScarpArchitecture, N/D). (c) The Mashrabiya Diaphragms used for the
Institut du Monde Arabe (eliinbar, 2011)................................................................ 126

Figure 129: (a) The Bloomframe (HurksGeveltechniek, N/D). (b) The Dragspelhuset
(24H<architecture, N/D). (c) The GucklHupf (Olson, 2009).................................. 127

LIST OF TABLES
-

Table 1: Kinetic Design Key Elements. .................................................................... 44

Table 2: Analyzed architectural projects. ................................................................ 111

XX

INTRODUCTION

Introduction

A. BACKGROUND
Since early ages, architecture has been static. A building is as good as its
structure could last. Although the first former definition for the term Kinetic
Architecture was in 1970, there are many evidence that kinetics has also been
historically used in building components; such as opening shutters and movable
bridges since long time ago. However, it had to wait for further advanced
technology before evolving into a higher state. By the beginning of the twentieth
century many kinetic attempts in buildings began to appear. Kinetic designs were
not only used as means to regulate sunlight, maximize space or vary the view, but
also they were developed to articulate new artistic, political and philosophical
ideas. Many theorists such as expressionist and constructivist designed many
untraditional forms emphasizing experience and motion while articulating
symbolic meanings. Although these forms that intened to rotate were drawn and
described, none of these were built. Later, the use of kinetics in several projects
varied from the use of kinetic building components such as stages and turn-tables
for both theaters and restaurants, to buildings that revolved as a whole. The use of
buildings varied as well from entertainment, to residential and even health
facilities. Kinetic structures also were used in extreme or hazardous
environments, and in emergencies caused by natural disasters and human will.
The relation between architecture and mechinery reflected the faith in progress
through technology and movement representing dynamic, mobility and hope for
the future.
A progress in the architectural field can be achieved through addressing
kinetic structures as part of a whole rather than independently or singularly.
Kinetics in buildings may include pragmatic or humanistic purposes or even both.
While pragmatic purposes may range from solving problems, optimizing
solutions, and implying space efficiency, security etc, humanistic purposes are
concerned with the physical and psychological effect of architectural
environments' changes upon their users and occupants.
Kinetic systems can be used in defferent trends. Kinetic systems can be
used in large open spaces that accommodate many different activities in order to
provide different configurations. They may range from interior re-organization to
complete structure transformation. The goal of using such kinetic systems is
creating spaces that are able to adopt, reconfigure and customize both by users
and changing surrounding conditions. Kinetic systems can be used to turn a single
space into a multi-function space that can occupy different activities by quickly
and spatially reconfigure itself to truly accommodate each particular function
when needed. As kinetic systems allow buildings to adopt and respond to changes
in the natural surrounding environment such as wind currents, tempreture and
light, they also allow buildings to respond and adapt to long-term changes such as
changes in the built environment and traffic patterns. By using kinetic systems,
buildings are able to respond and adapt to changes that occur beyond codes and
regulations. Kinetic systems can be used in designing mobile transformable
shelter and units ranging from entire buildings to small single person enclosures
that can be easily constructed, deconstructed, reassembled, stored and moved
from place to another.

Introduction

Designing
kinetic
systems
involves
mechanical
and
technological
principles. Advancement in material technology in different fields as aviation and
navigation amon others helps in creating much more developed, feasible and
intelligent kinetic systems. Materials may range from those characterized by their
light weight, flexibility or smart materials they inherent. In order to design kinetic
buildings, structures may include or consist of folding, sliding, expanding and
transforming parts. Some kinetic systems exist within a larger architectural whole
in a fixed location allowing it to respond to changing conditions. Other kinetic
structures exist in temporary location allowing buildings to be easily transported.
Some kinetic structures exist within a larger whole while acting independently
with respect to the larger context.
Acting as the brain of the kinetic system, embedded computation is needed
while designing kinetic systems. Embedded computation allow kinetic systems to
sense change and react according to the desired respond. Different means can be
used to detect change such as cameras as well as sensors. Embedded computation
systems allow kinetic structures to modify their behavior depending on the
changing variables that may rang from wind loads, secsmic conditions,
temperature and light. There are some embedded systems allow buildings the
abiloity to learn what the best performance will be. Other systems help users
control and change settings according to their needs such as acoustics, lighting,
climate and security. Embedded computation can allow kinetic system to be
remotely controlled through communication means such as the sms (short
message service), mail and internet. As a result of using embedded computation
long with materials technology and kinetic structures, adaptable environments are
created. These adaptable environments may vary from living environments to
working, intertainment and public environments.
Applying kinetic systems to built environments will not minimize comfort
they should achieve. Kinetic systems can create flexible solutions in order to
achieve sustainability. Also, such systems can present creative solutions to meet
clients changing desires and needs. Although it is important to imply kineticism
since the early stages of design process, kineticism can also be applied to existing
built environments as a renovating solution. Kinetic solutions may vary in their
complexity by using either local materials with/without embedded controlling
systems or advanced materials and high-technologies. The Egyptian environment
is valuable to apply kinetic architecture as it is blessed with a prestigious location,
moderate weather as well as availability of different sources for renewable
energy. Applying kineticism to the Egyptian built environment will help
presenting new era in the architectural field.
A.1. Research Problem:
The built environments in Egypt are usually not adaptable to their users
changing needs. In addition, they are not creating environmental solutions that
benefit from the natural resources that the Egyptian environment is blessed with,
such as solar energy, natural ventilation and land availability. This research
attempts to understand how kinetic systems can be applied to architectural
environments in order to provide solutions to the pressing needs for sustainability,
energy saving and the rising fuel prices.

Introduction

A.2. Research Hypothesis:


Kinetic Architecture could provide a creative and effective solution to
environmental problems in both developed and developing countries.

B. RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


The research aims at providing non-traditional solutions for applying
sustainability using kineticism. This will be achieved through evaluating kinetic
architectural trends as well as comparing different uses of kineticism within the
architectural field.
In order to achieve the above mentioned aim, the objectives of this research
are to:
i. consolidate definitions, history, and the different trends used in
architectural environments.
ii. highlight the fundamental kinetic key elements that affect the design
process.
iii. analyze different examples in order to intrigue architects to the
enormous transformation kinetic architecture promises.
iv. explore different opportunities to apply "Kinetic Architecture" in our
environment.

C. MOTIVATION AND RESEARCH IMPORTANCE


This research is held out to introduce a new architectural approach, i.e.
"kinetic architecture". Also, it covers the area of using kinetics in architectural
environments whether they were living, work, entertainment or public
environments. Kinetics when used in the field of architecture can be a part of a
building or the building as a whole depending on how and why it is being used.
As a result, it is important when designing buildings to study their future
compatibility with changes that occur whether in the way of using, the number of
users, and their desires or any other changeable factors. Using kinetics will help
adding new possibilities for future adaptation. Also, it will maximize the benefit
of existing resources both natural and artificial. Kinetic building can maximize
the use of land, ex. changing orientation or expanding size according to need or
desire. Moreover, kinetic building can act and respond to weather changes as well
as to users' changeable needs.
New technologies will have a role in developing kinetic architecture, such
as new materials (nano materials and those being used in maritime, aviation and
space sciences). Computation and sensor technologies will help determining and
locating changes that happen within buildings' environment then responding to
that change.

Introduction

D. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research is primarily about introducing an architectural theory, its
definitions, ways, means and design elements. The adopted methods to achieve
this purpose include a literature review as well as analysis of several buildings
prototypes. In addition, this research adopts a framework for qualitative analysis
based on different factors that includes theoretical design elements along with
other elements. It was taken into consideration when selecting architectural
projects for the analytical study that they present uses as well as kineticism.

E. RESEARCH STRUCTURE
The research consists of three main parts in addition to both an introduction
and a section for conclusions and recommendations as follows:
Introduction:
This section includes the research background, its aims and objectives as
well as its motivation and importance which followed by the research
methodology to demonstrate the research premise.
Chapter One: What is Kinetic Architecture?
This chapter is based on introducing definitions and reviewing the history of
involving kineticism in the architecture that help understanding what is behind the
term "Kinetic Architecture". Also, it is based on investigating how advanced
technologies and kinetics could be employed in architectural environments by
reviewing different kinetic trends.
Chapter Two: Kinetic Design Key Elements:
The aim of this chapter is to cover the mechanical and technological
principals which are mentioned and explained in order to go through kinetic
design.
Chapter Three: Kinetic Buildings' Analysis:
Based on the previous chapters, this one will analyze different kinetic
projects and explain how those projects achieved different mechanical and
technological principals.
Conclusions & Recommendations:
In this section, the researcher attempts to correlate the concluded facts
aiming to improve and enhance the quality of the architectural product in seeking
the advancement of the Egyptian architectural field.

Introduction

What is Kinetic Architecture?


Summary

Definitions
Historical Review
Kinetic Trends in Architectural Environments

Kinetic Design Key Elements


Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement

Summary

Chapter One
Chapter Two

Theoretical Study

Fundamental
Knowledge

Introduction

Embedded Computation
Adaptable Architecture

Kinetic Building's Analysis


Institut du Monde Arabe
GuchklHupf

The Naked House


Milwaukee Art Museum "Quadracci Pavilion"

Dragspelhuset
The Leaf Chapel
Magnolia Stadium
Kiefer Technic Showroom
Sliding House
The Olimpic Tennis Center "Magic Box"
Cherokee Studios Lofts
The World Trade Center Transportation Hub
Dynamic Tower

Conclusion & Recommendations


Figure 1: Thesis Structure.

Summary

Gemini Haus
Analysis

Chapter Three

Case Studies

Floirac House

CHAPTER ONE: WHAT IS KINETIC ARCHITECTURE?

What is Kinetic Architecture?

1. What is Kinetic Architecture?


Through this chapter, the researcher introduces "Kinetic Architecture" by
covering three different areas. First, the definitions of the term "Kinetic
Architecture" will be presented. Next the researcher will go through the history of
"Kinetic Architecture". Last, different kinetic trends that can be found in
architectural environments are going to be examined by explaining each
supported by examples.

1.1. Kinetic Architecture Definition


The term "Kinetic" is an adjective that refers to everything produced by
movement. The term "Architecture" is a noun that refers to the design or style of a
building or buildings (Hornby, 2010).When combined together, the term "Kinetic
Architecture" refers to the design of buildings that are produced by movement. It
has been stated that, "If a building could mediate our needs and the environment
outside: its demand on physical resources could be slashed. If it could transform
to facilitate multi-uses; its function would be optimized. If a building could adapt
to our desires: It would shape our experience"(Fox, 2003 ). The previous
statement emphasizes the importance of kinetics in architecture and how it could
be used.
Historically, a building's success has been judged depending on the ability
to survive time and nature ravages but not by satisfying changing human needs
and desires as well as the changing surrounding environments. To start with the
term "Kinetic Architecture" it should be mentioned that the Pop Art a visual arts
movement in the 1950's and 1960's in Britain and the United States of America
had a great influence on the first formal definition by Zuc and Clark in 1970.
Thus, Zuc and Clark coined the term "Kinetic Architecture" as "a form should
react to the set of pressures establishing an equilibrium, it should not be stable
with reference to time. This is not intended to suggest that some structures should
not rightfully be static emotionally it may be necessary to provide some degree
of fixity and historical continuity but it is to suggest that the architectural form
must be free to adapt to changes that take place within the set of pressures acting
upon it and the technology that provides the tool for interpretation and
implementation of these pressures" (Zuk, 1970, Sanchez-del-Valle, 2005).
Many years later, kinetic architecture was defined by Michael A. Fox
(2003) founder of the Kinetic Design Group at MIT as: "buildings and/or
building components with variable mobility, location and/or geometry". Another
definition was offered later by Chuck Hoberman describing it as "the possibility
of movement", to create "transforming environments, responsive building
elements, or interactive public spaces" (Sanchez-del-Valle, 2005).
Hoberman structures are inspirations by the geometries found in nature.
When he described his structure the Retractable Dome for the German
Pavilion at Expo 2000 in Hannover, Germany, he said "I see this dome as a
kinetic architectural element", and "Such elements can make spaces that change
from indoors to outdoors, allow walls and roofs to disappear when not needed,
and create portable shelters that may be quickly unfolded"(Whitehead, 2000).

Chapter One

At the Smart Architecture Conference in Georgia, USA, Carmina Sanchezdel-Valle (2005) described the term "Kinetic" as "Having the capacity to be
affected by reversible geometrical changes in whole or in part without losing the
integrity of the system". It was also mentioned, that creating structures both
kinetic and adaptive, make them gain the ability to respond to changing
conditions like weather, sun location, etc. For that, she justifies the use of
adaptive kinetic structures due to the following reasons; economy of means,
responsibility towards the natural environment, and the satisfaction of human
needs and desires. Moreover, she justifies that these reasons are the same given
for most architectural projects; yet what makes adaptive kinetic structures differ
from others is their ability to produce work to better modulate efficiencies,
broaden the contemporary aesthetic and give it more relevant meaning by turning
the embodied energy fully visible.
Kinetic architecture was also defined by Kostas Terzidis (2008) as "The
integration of motion into the built environment, and the impact such results has
upon the aesthetics, design, and performance of buildings may be of great
importance to the field of architecture. While the aesthetic value of virtual motion
may always be a source of inspiration, its physical implementation in buildings
and structures may challenge the very nature of what architecture really is". In
addition, Robert Kronenburg (2007) said that "A building becoming kinetic at the
touch of a button can introduce a potent reinvention of something inanimate,
giving it the quality of being alive".
According to Michael A. Fox (2003), examples of adaptive kinetic
buildings are usually found among those referred to as intelligent, smart,
responsive, dynamic, and active. For instance, transformable building was defined
"One that changes shape, volume, form or appearance by the physical alteration
of structure, skin or internal surface, enabling a significant alteration in the way it
is used or perceived. This is architecture that opens, closes, expands or contracts"
(Kronenburg, 2007).
Adaptive kinetic architecture creates ecological system as its components
have shifting interdependencies when responding to changing environment
(Sanchez-del-Valle, 2005). That confirms that kinetic architecture is not only
about transformable or moving buildings but also about creating a relation
between the built environment and natural environments. "Buildings that
continuously
attune
their
configurations
in
accordance
with
changing
environmental conditions use less energy, offer more occupant comfort, and
feature better overall space efficiency than static buildings" (Hoberman, 2008).
Guy Nordenson, Ove Arup & Partners stated that "If architects designed a
building like a body, it would have a system of bones, muscles, tendons and a
brain that knows how to respond. If a building could change its posture, tighten its
muscles and brace itself against the wind, its structural mass could literally be cut
in half" (Fox, 2003 ).
To conclude all definitions listed above, "Kinetic Architecture" can refer to
buildings or building components that act in respond to surrounding changes
whether changes are indoor and/or outdoor and whether they are forced by
environmental factors and/or human ever-changing demands.

10

What is Kinetic Architecture?

1.2. Historical Review


By analogy to biological evolution, architectural adaptation was low
compared to higher biological or technological developments, although some
exceptions were found (Zuk, 1970).
The invention of the wheel was the motive of using kineticism in
architecture. Adaption and mobility were first seen architecturally as movable
stones, logs, or skins covering cave or hut openings. Wooden pivots or hinges of
leather and even stone pivots were used. "Mention should be made of the
removable rope and canvas roof over the Roman Colosseum (circa 70 A.D.),
spanning the oval form 620 feet by 513 feet. Sailors were assigned the task of
erecting and dismantling this vast early flexible roof supported by poles around
the edge of the colosseum" (Figure 2 a). Also, wooden sliding doors and
windows' covers were developed in the same era. Moreover, pivots and hinges
made of iron and brass were used after the introduction of metals. The use of
metal helped increasing the efficiency of both doors and window-shutters as well
as enhancing their appearance for the better (Figure 2 b). These adaptive devices
were used for both security and weather protection. The use of a variation of
doors and drawbridges took place in the Middle Ages for defense. However, the
use of drawbridges had to wait for further advanced technology before evolving
into a higher state (Zuk & Clark 1970).

(a)

(b)

Figure 2: (a) The Colosseum represented the first kinetic retractable roof covering the seating area
around the arena (Pepe, 2001). (b) An intriguingly simple device invented by Thomas Jefferson for his
home to allow both doors to open simultaneously whenever any is opened. As the device was concealed
beneath the floor, its principle was not known until it was uncovered in 1953 (Zuk, 1970, P. 29).

The start of using movable bridges was earlier than the Middle Ages; as
there is evidence of using this type of structures in Egypt in the fourteenth century
B.C. as well as in Babylon. "According to Herodotus, Queen Nitocris of Babylon
built a form of retractile bridge, for protective purpose, across the Euphrates at
about 460 B.C" (Koglin, 2003). These ancient movable spans and bridges were
used for military purposes as well as water traffic.

11

Chapter One

(a)

(b)

Figure 3: (a) A sketch showing how a drawbridge at medieval castle worked, typical of such structures
that were precursors of modern bascule bridges (Koglin, 2003, P. 4). (b) A view of the entrance door
and the drawbridge to Rocca Gradara one of the best preserved medieval structures in Italy which
was built in 12th to the 15th centuries (GeoSearch.Italia, N/D).

As mentioned before, movable bridges were first used for protective


purposes. They were used in medieval castles and forts over moats. The
drawbridge, which was usually a bascule type that pivoted upward on trunnions,
was commonly used in that era, (Figure 3 a,b). These bridges were used for
protective purposes not only while lowered by acting as simple bridges located
over moats, but also when raised the floor of their leafs acted as strong doors
impeding entry as well as providing resistance to projectiles fired from catapults.
The mechanism of these bridges' movement was by the direct pull of chains
near one end, assisted by winches and levers. Bascule bridges were developed in
the sixteenth century by Leonardo da Vinci. Lifting became much easier because
of the counterweight located on the opposite side of the pivot from the bridge,
which also provided against sudden falling from the raised position (Zuk, 1970).
The rotation in modern bascule bridges is accomplished by motor driven
gears about horizontal pintle, no longer chain hoists. Whenever movable bridges'
dead weight was kept to a minimum, the amount of counterweight, bearings,
machinery, and foundations needed would be reduced. Steel is commonly used in
such bridges, although few are of aluminum which reduced the dead weight by
one-half. For that, it is of a paramount importance to minimize the weight of any
kinetic structure. Moreover, kinetic structures will differ from conventional static
structures in both shape and material.

12

What is Kinetic Architecture?

Movable bridges may be classified into several types. Some are employed
occasionally such as: bobtailed swing spans, double rotating cantilever draws,
transporter bridges, and floating bridges (Figure 4 a). But the movable bridges
which are frequently used till today are: ordinary swing spans, trunnion bascule
bridges, rolling bascule bridges, and vertical-lift bridges (Figure 4 b and Figure 5
a,b).

(a)

(b)

Figure 4: (a) A scketch shows how a typical drawbridge works (Hall, N/D). (b) A scketch shows how a
typical trunnion bascule bridge works (Ryall, 2000, P. 669).

(a)

(b)

Figure 5: (a) A schematic of vertical lift bridge (S. Glover, 2007). (b) A rolling bascule bridge while
closed (Chase Hill, 1927, P. 467).

For a long time, kinetic architecture had never advanced beyond the using
of movable doors, windows, or temporary roof. However, few exceptions began
to appear in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. One of the dining rooms in
the Palace of Versailles in France was constructed with a floor part of it could be
lowered to another level where servants could set the banquet table and then
raised again to the room level.
Modern revolving stages took place at several theaters in Europe and the
United States at the beginning of the twentieth century (Figure 6 a). Ye Liberty
Playhouse was probably the first permanently revolving stage built in the United
States, in Oakland, California, in 1903. Harry Bishop, the manager who designed
the stage, had reportedly seen revolving Kabuki stages during a trip to Japan.

13

Chapter One

Stagehands rotated the 75 feet in diameter turntable, which rotated on caters, by


pushing off from stationary posts at the edge of the stage. "In the decades that
followed, architects, stage designers, and critics including Pierre Albert-Birot,
Oskar Strnad, and Walter Gropius developed plans for reconfigurable and rotating
theaters that exploded the established definition of performance spaces" (Randl,
2008).

(a)

(b)

Figure 6: (a) The construction of the Santa Barbara County bowl revolving stage in 1936 which was
destroyed by El-Nino floods during 1939 in the United States of America
(SantaBarbaraBowlFoundation, N/D). (b) Architect M. Engere Pettit and physician Lucien Pellegrine
"heliotropic house" 1903 (Randl, 2008, P. 57).

In 1903 the rotating "heliotropic house" was exhibited by famous French


architect M. Engere Pettit in consultation with physician Lucien Pellegrine at the
Exposition de l'Habitation in Paris. The model was based on a building called
Villa Tournesol Pattit which was constructed in south France (Figure 6 b). It was
often referred to as a "family Sanatoruim", because the physician's belief that the
sun was the cure for most diseases. For a maximum benefit of daylight in
different rooms at different times, the house had a cross-shaped plan with large
window openings on most walls. Also, it was set on a turntable with ground-level
ball-bearing raceway, which helped rotating the house to follow the sun by
moving a lever once an hour for a rotation of a few inches. A larger version with a
gasoline engine, to rotate the house once per day, was proposed.
In 1929 Jean Saidman, an early expert in the field of actinology, which is a
branch of science that explored the chemical effects of light, designed and
patented a new type of solarium to improve upon existing ultraviolet light
treatments with the assistance of architect Andre Farde. The first version was
constructed in the French spa community Aix Les-Bains the following year, and it
didn't look like any other building ever constructed (Figure 7). Examination and
waiting rooms were featured in the design's base (or pillar) ground floor. Its roof
was steeply pitched conical covered with diamond-shaped tiles. The ground floor
was connected to the rotating platform above with an elevator and a spiral
staircase, which were located in the reinforced concrete base. The eighty-ton steel
platform was rotated by an electric motor located in the basement.

14

What is Kinetic Architecture?

Figure 7: A view for Saidman's revolving solarium, Aix Les-Bains, France (Petit, N/D).

The platform consisted of a monitoring and control room in the center and
four glass-fronted treatment cabins at each side. The cabin platform was situated
high in the air for better ventilation as well as trees clearance. A small changing
room could be found at the back of each cabin. Also, an adjustable bed could be
found in these cabins, with a motorized assembly of nickel oxide or cobalt glass
screens, which helps blocking specific wavelengths, as well as lenses and lamps
that could be moved into various positions above the patient, connected it.
Moreover, lens panel and bed could be configured to direct the sun's ray
depending upon the illness and its prescribed treatment. Likewise, the rotation
helped keeping all the cabins in sunlight throughout the day. At last, the solarium
was used to treat various forms of rheumatism, dermatosis, tuberculosis, rickets,
and cancer.
Rotating designs were developed to articulate new artistic, political, and
philosophical ideas, while inventors and thinkers saw their rotating designs as an
engineered, rational means to regulate sunlight, maximize space, or vary the view.
This trend took place in Europe during a time when revolutionary styles of
painting, graphic design, literature and architecture were sweeping over the
continent, in the first half of the twentieth century. Revolving designs signaled a
dramatic break with the past by overturning traditional assumptions about
buildings that were stable and static. As well, they announced an allegiance
between architecture and machinery and made explicit the modern faith in
progress through technology and movement, which reflected dynamic mobility
and hope for the future.
Expressionist architecture, which was originated during the first decades of
the twentieth century in Germany and other Central European countries,
encompassed a broad range of forms that shared a common tendency toward
plasticity
and
away
traditional
design.
"Light-kinetic-principles"
were
experimented by architects such as Bruno Taut, Erich Mendelsohn, and others to
demonstrate the triumph of time and mobility over space. Biomorphic motifs and
inspiration from geologic forms were featured and drawn in some designs.
Therefore, the ending results were often eclectic, highly individual exercises,
which emphasized emotion, sensation, experience, motion, and the articulation of
symbolic meaning (Randl, 2008).

15

Chapter One

Figure 8: Max Taut's Rotating House, Frublicht (Dawn), 1920 (Randl, 2008, P. 67).

None of the expressionist designs that intended to rotate were built,


although they were drawn and described. In 1920, the Rotating House designed
by Max Taut and published in the short-lived magazine Frublicht (Dawn) was
to have been constructed six years earlier for Mr. Mendthal on the sand dunes
overlooking the Baltic Sea near Konigsberg (Figure 8). The design was a zigzagging glass walls wrapping around a generally cylindrical plan, which were
joined by a series of dormer-like roofs to a central steeply pitched pyramidal core.
The glass walls on the main level and the center core above were circled by railed
balconies. The primary motive for having the design rotate was philosophical,
although the site may have played a part. A text that described this house was
spiraling out from Taut's sketch, which helped accentuate the building's whirling
dynamism. Taut's Rotating House exhibited a close resemblance to the crystalline
forms, which were a central design motif of expressionist architecture, by its
faceted, glazed walls and spiked roofs. Later in 1920, designs for suspended and
swinging architecture were developed by expressionist Carl Krayl, for instance
the Crystalline Star House which hung from the side of a cliff. Crystal designs by
Krayl and Taut suggested movement even when static, by their shimmering
faceted panes and folded facades.
Concurrent with expressionism, constructivist architecture was a movement
that got influenced by constructivist art and originated in the new Soviet Union.
In the years following 1917 Russian Revolution, the new government supported
works that represented its social and political outlook away from the traditional
forms associated with the imperial past. Although constructivist designers worked
in a dynamic and heady atmosphere that featured an industrial vocabulary of
exposed structural frames, cross bracing and guy wires, their works turned to
utopian architectural fantasy because of the few resources available for building.
Abstract forms were shaped in concrete, steel, and glass. Kinetic elements were
sometimes featured in constructivist architecture designs which brought to life the
sense of motion.

16

What is Kinetic Architecture?

Figure 9: Tatlin's Monument to the Third International, designed in 1919 (Randl, 2008, P. 68).

In 1917, Vladimir Tatlin's Monument to the Third International (Figure 9)


marked as the best-known example of constructivist architecture was intended
to be the headquarters for the new communist government, as well as an
enormous physical symbol of industrial progress, dynamism, and transparency
same ideas hoped to be associated by the new regime. Unlikely, the project didn't
go further than sketches and a model was exhibited at parades and expositions.
The monument like the offspring of a union between the Eiffel tower and
a rollercoaster was consisted of an open iron framework spiraling upward from
a wide base to a tight peak, which supported and contained three separate glasswalled volumes that accommodated various legislative and administrative
functions. These three parts were different in shape and rotating rate. A cube that
was to rotate once per year on its axis set as the lower part of the monument, in
the middle a pyramid was formed with a revolving rate once per month, at last
and near the monument's top a cylindrical form was set and intended to rotate
once each day. The total height was to measure over 1,300 feet high. For that, the
Monument to the Third International was to be a sculpture more than architecture.
The structure would have exuded movement and energy even when static, same
as Taut's house which seemed to be in motion even at rest. Tatlin's monument was
to be the aspirations of a dynamic Soviet Union through a stretched coil of
latticework and rotating internal components that drew over connections to
industry and technology.
As rotation was symbolic and the challenges of creating kinetic structures
seemed of little interest to the architects of that time, the designs of Taut, Tatlin,
and others were utopian dreams that steeped in avant-garde artistic currents.
Nevertheless, the first half of the twentieth century witnessed many designs

17

Chapter One

developing full-size structures meant for year-round occupation, which rotated for
pragmatic reasons using applicable mechanisms, in Europe and the United States
(Randl, 2008).

Figure 10: Villa Girasole from the air, with the courtyard of the rotating section facing uphill,1935
(Randl, 2008, P. 77).

In the early 1935, Villa Girasole was created by an engineer from Genoa,
Angelo Invernizzi, along with a mechanical engineer Romolo Carapacchi, an
interior decorator Fausto Saccorotti, and an architect Ettore Fagiuoli (Figure 10).
As Girasole means sunflower, the villa traces the movement of the sun by
rotating so that its front will always face the sun. At the center of Villa Girasole, a
spiral staircase rises in the 42.35 meters tall tower topped by an elegant lantern, a
sort of conning tower or lighthouse, which the rotating movement hinges on. The
two storey (L) shaped villa rests on a 44 meter in diameter circular masonry base
where the track that it revolves on is located (Figure 11 a,b). Sewer and water
connections are made through pipes that lead down from the mobile core to
collection containers. These collection containers are hanged off the underside of
the house and are the architectural equivalent of colostomy bags. As the rotating
part of the house contains all the standard elements of a home, it is functionally
independent from the base (Mical, 2005).

(a)

(b)

Figure 11: Villa Girasole: (a) lower floor plan where the villa can rotate 360 degrees over rail tracks
(Davies, 2006, P. 87). (b) structural frame showing the spiral staircase as well as the tracks (Randl,
2008, P. 78).

18

What is Kinetic Architecture?

"In the 1950s, when few people talked about ecology or conserving energy,
Franois Massau, a local coal merchant-turned-builder, built what was among the
earliest revolving homes". His first house of three (Figure 12) was built in 1958 in
Belgium for his sick wife so she can enjoy sunshine and warmth anytime of the
day and the year. All three revolving houses Massau built are still functioning
today. The house rotates on a steel track supported by a stationary circular brickand-cement foundation. A small electric motor is used to make the house turn a
full 360 degree in 90 minutes. A stationary concrete slab supported by columns
creates its roof. A steady supply of water and electricity is assured as well as the
removal of sewage wastes even while the structure moves by its tangle of plastic
pipe and electrical switches in the cellar. Massau revolving house consists of four
bedrooms, kitchen, and a large crescent-shaped living and dining room, creating a
130 square-meter (1,400 square-foot) of energy efficient space (Tagliabue, 2008).

Figure 12: The 1,400 square-foot revolving house built by Francois Massau in 1958 still turns, making
a complete circle in 90 minutes, admitting more sunlight into its rooms as needed (Tagliabue, 2008).

Historian Anton Huurdeman has stated that telecommunication towers are


appreciated as symbols of the information society in the twentieth century, just as
high chimneys refered to the industrial progress in the nineteenth century. In the
1950's, the new microwave communication systems required a series of
transmitters linked by line-of-sight. At the time when most towers were steel
lattice frames, a structural engineer, Fritz Leonhardt, convinced government
authorities in Stuttgart, West Germany, to go with an elegant form made of
reinforced concrete to be the TV tower which was planned for a prominent hilltop
in Stuttgart. After completion in 1956, the Stuttgart Tower (Figure 13 a) was the
first reinforced concrete TV tower in the world. The final cylindrical head design
including two observation decks and a stationary restaurant overlooking the city
and its surrounding hills, vineyards, and forests is one located at a height of over
450 feet.
In 1959, three years later, based on the Stuttgart TV Tower design, a second
concrete TV tower was built in West Germany. Dortmund's Florianturm (Figure
13 b) featured an upper and lower head, and a stationary core at the center of its
head where the stairs, the elevators, restrooms as well as food preparation space

19

Chapter One

were located. In the lower head and revolving around the service core was a
turntable floor that carried the restaurant's tables, chairs and diners on a onceevery-hour circuit of view, what may have been the first revolving restaurant ever
built in a tower (Solaleya, N/D, HousesDesign, 2008).

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 13: (a) The Stuttgart Tower in Stuttgart, Germany (Smart-Travel-Germany.com, N/D). (b) The
Dortmund's Florianturm in Dortmund, Germany (Janberg, N/D-a). (c) The concrete Henninger Turm
in Frankfurt, Germany (Janberg, N/D-b). (d) The Cairo Tower in Cairo, Egypt (Wikipedia, 2004).

In the late 1950's, construction began on other towers with revolving


restaurants but not serving as TV towers. A concrete tower in Frankfurt,
Germany, the Henninger Turm (Figure 13 c), was a silo complex storing 16,000
tons of barley for local brewery and was opened in 1961. The three-storey head
with two revolving restaurants and an observation gallery were added on the top
of the tower at a height of over 330 feet to serve as rooftop amenities, which
converted a potential public eyesore to a landmark structure generating additional
income. The entire head structure of Henninger Turm revolved on the exterior
(Randl, 2008).
In 1961, the 187 meter-tall landmark designed by Naoum Shebib, Burg AlQahira (Cairo Tower) was the tallest freestanding concrete structure of its time
(Figure 13 d). Located in Nile's Gezira Island, the structure served as a TV tower.
The tower is taller than the pyramids by some 45 meters. The exterior lattice
structure of the 14 meters in diameter Cairo Tower resembling a lotus blossom,
which was next to the papyrus one of the most revered plants in the ancient
Egyptian history, was made of granite and ornamented with approximately eight
million tiny porcelain mosaic tiles. A viewing platform and a revolving restaurant
located at the tower's top made it possible for users to explore the beauty of this
ancient yet cosmopolitan city (WACKER, 2009, Peterson, 2003, Golia, 2004).

20

What iss Kinetic Arrchitecture??

Fiigure 14: Thee Solaleya Doome House, a house for a clean


c
and susstainable futu
ure (Solaleya,, N/D).

Designned by Pattrick Marssilli, the Dome


D
Houuse (Figuree 14) is a futuristicc
hoouse solutiion to achhieve eageerness for clean elecctricity andd sustainab
bility. Thee
hoouse rotatees 360 deegrees on a mechaanical struucture that maximizee the sunn
abbsorption by
b the rooof mountedd solar pan
nels. Also, the overaarching roo
of with itss
skkylight is adding sunnlight to the
t
interiorrs. As thee Dome H
House is ecco-friendly,,
niinety perceent of it iss made of FSC cerrtified woood as well as eco-friendly corkk
thhat is used for insulaation. Moreeover, to feature
f
secuurity, the hhouse is designed
d
too
w
withstand
caategory 5 hurricanes and earthquakes up to magnittude 8 on the MSK
K
sccale. The first
f
model of the Dome Housee was buillt in Francce in 1988 (Solaleya,,
N HousesDesign, 20008).
N/D,
In 20002, the eleven storeyy Suite Vollard (Figuure 15 a,b)) designed by Brunoo
De Franco and
a
built by
b Design Essentials SA in Cuuritiba, Brazzil, is mark
ked as thee
firrst full reevolving high-rise appartment building.
b
T
The
buildinng has a cylindricall
shhape with a rectilineear block connected
d to it onn one sidee. Each flloor is ann
appartment unit
u
which rotation speed
s
and direction are controlled by itss residentss
seeparately from
fr
other units. Thhe cylindriical part, with its ffully glazeed exteriorr
w
walls
and the
t
balconiies extending around
d, consists of the liiving space of eachh
appartment, which
w
incluudes dininng room, living
l
room
m, bedroom
m, and offfice. Eachh
flooor rotatess on a riing-type tuurntable arround the stationary core that hosts alll
pllumbing, electricity
e
a
and
HVAC
C connectiions. The rectilinear block wh
here stairss
annd elevator are located is static sam
me as the ceenter core (R
Randl, 20088).

(a)

(b)

Fiigure 15: (a) The


T Suite Voollard, the firrst fully revollving high-risse apartment building (Zeeiler, 2011, P..
3662). (b) A plan
n for the Suitte Vollard showing the fix
xed core and the rotating p
part (van Pou
ucke, 2008c)..

21

Chapter One

1.3. Kinetic Trends in Architectural Environments


As a result of all advanced technologies and capabilities available in the
present time, the use of kinetics in architecture can be extended far beyond what
has been possible previously. Progress in the architectural field can be
accomplished when addressing kinetic structures as a part of a whole rather than
independently or singularly. Pragmatic adaptability of employed kinetics is
varying from full mobility to interior reconfiguration, and is used in buildings that
are efficient in form, lightweight, and inherently flexible with respect to contexts
and purposes' diversity. Kinetics is divided into two categories: pragmatic and
humanistic. On one hand, pragmatic applications concerned with solving
problems, optimizing solutions, and implying space efficiency, shelter, security,
transportation, safety, and economics. On the other hand, humanistic are
concerned with the physical and psychological effect of the architectural
environments' changes upon their users (Fox, 2009). Kinetic trends in
architectural environments are dissected into four categories addressing the
pragmatic or humanistic considerations, or both:
1.3.1. Spatial Optimization Systems
Spatial optimization systems are most common in large open spaces that
may accommodate many different activities. Such spaces have a built-in
transformable infrastructure that can provide differing configurations limited by
it; for example banquet halls, convention centers, and school gymnasiums. Spatial
optimization is defined as, "kinetic architecture that can, from a practical
standpoint serve as a means for adjusting spatial configurations based on
changing stimuli triggered by environmental and/or human actions". Movable
objects creating transformable systems will open an exponential layer of
adaptability. Applications in this category may range from multi-use interior reorganization to complete structure transformability. The goal is creating spaces
that are capable of adapting, reconfiguring, and customizing both by their
inhabitants and by the changing surrounding environments as well as needs, thus
reducing both social and environmental costs. The inhabitants' desires and needs
may range from privacy to publicity, so it is important to understand and
accommodate humanistic considerations on top of the pragmatic spatial
optimization of the space.
An example could be the second prize winner project "Interlocking
Transformation" for the "Domus BBJ Design Competition" (Domus, 2008). This
project aimed to create a responsive interior space configured by the users of a
specific flight and could be partially reconfigured in-flight. The interior is divided
into three resizable sectors equipped with the technical and the physical apparatus
necessary for various parts of the program (Figure 16 a,b).

22

What is Kinetic Architecture?

(a)

(b)

Figure 16: (a) Interlocking Transformation, an interior diagram (Fox, 2009, P. 32). (b) Interlocking
Transformation, reconfigurable elements dividing sectors (Fox, 2009, P. 32).

1.3.2. Multi-Function Design


Although multi-function design is commonly used in many products, most
architectural spaces are designed to accommodate a single function. Architectural
spaces are not limited to the function they were designed to accommodate, for
example how a kitchen is used to prepare food for a few hours of the day, and
also used for eating or watching TV and sometimes for discussions although it is
not designed to accommodate such activities. Another example could be a living
room which could be used by a group of people, a couple or even a single person
each to accommodate different activities with different lighting and acoustic
needs. That also may happen not only within residential spaces but within work
spaces as well. As a result, it is important to involve multi-function design in the
architectural field in order to create spaces that can determine their configurations
quickly and spatially to truly accommodate each particular function when needed.
Kinetic elements should not be only integrated into the system of the building but
also should be flexibly embedded into the fabric of that building. The change
could be in walls that might disappear to turn several smaller rooms into a bigger
one, or reconfigurable floor and ceiling that could divide a space psychologically.
Moreover, it could be through the adjustable fenestration that changes the
connection with the outside environments depending on the changing desires of
the inhabitants. In the architectural scale, the multi-function design is commonly
used as a secondary system integrated within the space as furniture, and little has
been achieved integrally with the building as a whole. At last, multi-function
design was defined as moving physical architectural objects that can share a
common physical space to provide the means for a plurality of uses (Fox, 2009).
The Bloomframe (Figure 17 a,b), designed by Hofman Dujardin Architects,
is an example of a multi-functional system integrated within the architectural
space. The Bloomframe is a window frame that can be transformed into a
balcony. This system provides additional outdoor space for compact apartments,
offices as well as hotel units (HurksGeveltechniek, N/D). This system is made of
steel, glass and aluminum. It consists of three components which are technique,

23

Chapter One

frame and electronic control. The size, materials and color can be changed upon
request, although the maximum width is 3 meters. The faade element can be
produced in several transparent and opaque materials. This system can be
installed to new as well as existing facades. The Bloomframe can be
automatically operated and single control that can open it in just 15 seconds. To
achieve maximum safety and security requirements, the system includes
provisions to guarantee against collapse during opening and closing, the fully
open position is limited mechanically, and an optional infrared detection during
electrical movements is installed. The first models are for an apartment building
in Arnhem , The Netherlands (Brownell, 2008).

(a)

(b)

Figure 17: The Bloomframe (HurksGeveltechniek, N/D). (a) In window state. (b) In balcony state.

The turn-on house, designed by the Austrian design studio Alles Wird Gut
in 2002, is an example of the multi-function design (Figure 18 a,b). This design is
tracking the idea of astronauts' capsules. The turn-on house is divided into
individual ring zones that could be connected to each other and that accommodate
different functions. By rotating these ring zones different needs could be achieved
according to the users' needs, for example, in a kitchen ring unit a stove could be
rotated up and out of the way when not used, or a sofa and a bed could be built
into the same ring unit also rotated according to what is needed (Kapfinger, N/D).

(a)

(b)

Figure 18: (a) A diagram shows different ring units connected to each other while in use (Kapfinger,
N/D). (b) A ring unit (Serrats, 2005, P. 380).

24

What is Kinetic Architecture?

1.3.3. Contextual Adaptability


Contextual issues in architecture are categorized into three areas: form
(space, shape, scale, and materials), activity patterns, and climatic patterns.
Contextual adaptability will focus upon form and climatic patterns as activity
patterns have been considered in spatial optimization systems and multi-function
design. Architects are skilled and intelligent in developing solutions for
contextual response and flexible adaptability, yet they rarely combine the two into
a single system within buildings. As contextual architecture confirms the
continuity of the present with the past while rarely considering the future,
buildings should have the built-in life-cycle ability to adapt to long-term changes
that occur over time such as changes in the built environment, traffic patterns,
wind currents, etc. Natural environments should be considered in buildings equal
to the architecture of historic buildings already present in an area through a
comprehensive contextual approach. The aim of contextual adaptability is
creating buildings that can deal with changes in site conditions that occur beyond
codes and regulations and through flexibility built into the architecture itself.
The Wind Veil, by Ned Kahn, is 79.248 meter (260 feet) long by 6 storey
tall faade for the largest parking garage in Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
(Figure 19 a,b). This dynamic faade consists of 80000 small aluminum panels
that are hinged to move freely in the wind (Kahn, 2000). The faade transforms
the invisible wind waves into visible metallic grass waves. On the other hand,
these waves create never ending patterns of light and shade inside the building.
This system was designed to provide ventilation and shade for the interior of the
parking building (Margolis, 2008).

(a)

(b)

Figure 19: (a) An exterior view for the Wind Veil (Kahn, 2000). (b) A close view for the aluminum
panels of the Wind Veil (Kahn, 2000)

The convertible umbrellas for the courts of the Prophet's Holy Mosque in
El-Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (K.S.A), are an example for the contextual
adaptability. These twelve 17x18 m umbrellas are used as a convertible shade
roof for the two large inner courts of the mosque. They are designed to blend in
harmoniously with the traditional stone architecture of the mosque. These

25

Chapter One

umbrellas created a translucent vault spanning between the columns and the
arcades surrounding the courts, thus making for clear and expansive spaces.
These convertible umbrellas are designed in consideration of the extreme seasonal
changes in climate so that the internal climate of the building could be radically
influenced and at mean time keeping the energy consumption to a minimum
(Figure 20 a,b). The opening and closing of these structures are controlled by
computer systems that recalculate different factors such as seasons, sun position,
external temperature, wind speed, and clouds (SL-RASCH-GMPH, N/D, Addis,
1997).

(a)

(b)

Figure 20: Convertible umbrellas for the courts of the Prophet's Holy Mosque in an opened and
closed state (SL-RASCH-GMPH, N/D).

The Bengt Sjostrom/Starlight Theater (Figure 21 a, b and c), designed by


Studio Gang Architects and completed in 2003, is another example of the
contextual adaptability. This building was designed to replace a popular outdoor
venue by ensuring the proceeding of the shows that took place within the building
regardless of the weather as well as maintaining the open-air atmosphere. The
roof created an origami-like transformable element that looked like a flower
petals, and consisted of six identical triangular panels hinged along the bottom
edge (StudioGangArchitects, N/D, Galindo, 2005).

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 21: The Bengt Sjostrom/Starlight Theater. Study model shows the building's roof
(mnartists.org, N/D) while: (a) opened and (b) closed. (d) An inner view for the kinetic roof while
opened (Galindo, 2005, P. 78).

26

What is Kinetic Architecture?

1.3.4. Mobility
Since old days people used mobile buildings to move from place to another
to follow food or due to seasonal changes. Nowadays, such buildings are being
used for political as well as climatic reasons. Although mobile architecture is used
in wars for encampments and hospitals, it is also used for world expositions,
concerts, and street fairs where function is greatly needed. Mobile buildings are
characterized by their ability to be easily constructed, deconstructed, moved from
place to place, reassembled, and stored. Mobile architecture can take on a variety
of scales that range from entire buildings to small single person enclosures.
Lighting, thermal performance, acoustics as well as waterproofing are factors that
determine the mobile building life-cycle, and while considering such factors
unknowns in temporary locations could be easily and quickly adapted to. Mobile
architecture is also designed and implemented for a diverse range of life-cycles,
which has implications on everything from materials to connections and
ultimately the costs. Some projects are designed as an alternative to the financial
problems of fixed living such as high land prices. Others are designed as
emergency residence. Even hotels are being designed to be mobile with rooms
that can be taken or delivered to remote or urban locations such as campgrounds,
festivals, and the like (Urbanist, 2007).
The Mobile Dwelling Unit (MDU) (Figure 22 and Figure 23 a,b) is an
example of mobility. it was designed by LOT-EK in 2002. This mobile unit is a
container that acts as a space to live, work or even store. Cuts in the metal walls
of the container allow for extruded sub-volumes that contain different facilities.
When these sub-volumes are pushed out from the sides, they free up the inner
space creating a general living area. When they are pushed in, they fill the entire
container, interlocking with each
other and leaving the container's outer skin
flush to allow worldwide standardized shipping. The MDUs were not only
designed as individual units but also as ever changing colonies when gathered
(LOT-EK, N/D, Kronenburg, 2008)

Figure 22: Mobile Dwelling Unit, the container plan while sub-volumes pushed out (fabprefab, N/D).

27

Chapter One

(a)

(b)

Figure 23: Mobile Dwelling Unit. (a) An exterior view while MDU in an opened state (Gardiner, 2003,
P. 132). (b) An exterior view while the MDU in a closed state (Block, 2011).

1.4. Summary
From all definitions mentioned above, the term "Kinetic Architecture" can
be explained as buildings or building parts that act in response to surrounding
changes whether these changes are in/out doors as well as environmental/human.
Although the first formal definition for the term "Kinetic Architecture" was
in 1970, many kinetic solutions that varied from building components to building
as whole existed. The use of kinetics was for different reasons such as protective
(bridges), entertaining (stages and revolving restaurants), medical (sanatorium
and solarium), and residential.
Kinetic trends in architectural environments currently address pragmatic or
humanistic conditions or even both, and are divided into four categories:
i. Spatial optimization systems
ii. Multi-function design
iii. Contextual adaptability
iv. Mobility

28

CHAPTER TWO: KINETIC DESIGN KEY ELEMENTS

Kinetic Design Key Elements

2. KINETIC DESIGN
This chapter "Kinetic Design Key Elements" will cover the main three
principles in kinetic design which are structural innovation and materials
advancement, embedded computation, and at last adaptable architecture. Each of
these principles will be explained separately, listing its main points and
supporting it with examples.

2.1.Kinetic Design Key Elements


To go through intelligent kinetic design in architecture, some general
mechanical and technological principles should be mentioned and explained.
These principles are divided into three general categories which are: structural
innovation and materials advancement, embedded computation, and recently
adaptable architecture.

2.1.1. Structural Innovation and Materials Advancement


In developing kinetic systems, dealing with structures should not be
independently but rather as a part of the whole system. For best structural
solutions, ways and means are highly considered. The ways of kinetic structural
solutions may include folding, sliding, expanding, and transforming in both size
and shape, among others. While the means of kinetic structural solutions may
include pneumatic, chemical, magnetic, natural or mechanical means (Fox, 1999).
As a result of recent technological innovation, manufacturing technologies
have evolved to the degree where creating intelligent kinetic architectural
solutions became effective and feasible. These kinetic systems depend upon
advanced computer control technology as well as high quality manufactured
kinetic parts. New materials may include ceramics, polymers and gels, fabrics,
metal compounds and composites, nano materials, and plastics, which can help
creating highly intelligent responsive kinetic systems. Developing materials
technology helped in facilitating creative solutions not only for kinetic structural
systems but also for membrane systems, tensegrity systems, as well as thermal
and acoustic systems.
Kinetic Structures Typologies
Kinetic structures are classified into three main categories, which are
embedded, deployable, and dynamic kinetic structures (Figure 24).

Figure 24: Diagram shows kinetic structures typologies (Fox, N/D).

31

Chapter Two

a. Embedded Kinetic Structures

Embedded kinetic structures are defined by Michael A. Fox as "systems that


exist within a larger architectural whole in a fixed location". The main function is
controlling the architectural system as a whole in response to changing factors
such as environmental changes especially seismic and wind conditions.
Embedded kinetic structures are the most developed of the three categories and
are always coupled with computational control.
The Muscles Tower is an example of embedded kinetic structures that could
be installed in a larger architectural whole. The project was the winner of the
MIT's first mini-skyscraper competition in 2006 (Figure 25 a). The Muscles
Tower is a 35 feet skyscraper consisting of an articulated spine controlled by a
series of pneumatic muscles that allow the structure to bend in different directions
by twisting the jointed core. When the muscles are not active, the tower's rigid
core keeps the entire structure straight. By activating several muscles one could
cause the tower to curve making it appear to bow. In a full-scale tower, such
systems could help stabilize the structure against changing forces such as wind
and earthquakes (Than, 2006, Plan65, 2006).

(a)

(b)

Figure 25: (a) The Muscles Tower while activated (Detwiler, 2006). (b)The Carlos Moseley Music
Pavilion while being transported to its location and being assembled (Mota, 2007).

32

Kinetic Design Key Elements

b. Deployable Kinetic Structures


While embedded kinetic structures are fixed in their locations, deployable
kinetic structures are described by Michael A. Fox as "structures that typically
exist in a temporary location and are easily transportable". These systems are
characterized by their ability of being constructed and deconstructed in reverse
which afford mobility rather than motion within a fixed structure. They are
commonly used in exhibit design as well as pavilion and stage design which are
driven by the need to be easily and quickly assembled and disassembled. Unlike
embedded kinetic structures, deployable kinetic structures are rarely coupled with
computational control.
The Carlos Moseley Music Pavilion is a state-of-the-art performance
facility that creates an example for a deployable kinetic structure (Figure 25 b).
The design of the Carlos Moseley Music Pavilion allows the structure to be easily
constructed and deconstructed, then moved to the next performance location. The
pavilion consists of seven semi-trucks that carry the entire facility to any open
site. One trailer is for the stage and rear truss, two trailers are for the structural
trusses, one truck for the fabric and lighting, one trailer for sound towers, one
truck for electrical distribution, and the last truck for props. The centre trailer
contains folding beams when opened; it provides a structure for the stage. On the
same trailer, hydraulic pistons unfold hinged panels that serve as the stage
surface. In its final position, the stage rests upon the two front corner trailers and
the two rear corner cabs, and the entire assembly is joined together to form one
continuous rigid structure(FTL, N/D, Addis, 1997).
c. Dynamic Kinetic Structures
"Dynamic kinetic structures exist within a larger architectural whole but act
independently with respect to control of the larger context" (Fox & Kemp 2009).
Dynamic systems are the most commonly used of the three listed categories. They
include small architectural elements as well as large ones, such as doors,
windows, movable partitions, furniture, and ceilings. As they act independently, it
is quite common to have dynamic kinetic systems within a building that has an
embedded kinetic system as well. They are becoming increasingly automated and
intelligent as a result of the technological innovation nowadays.
Dynamic kinetic systems are sub-categorized into:
i. Mobile systems: are those that could be physically moved within an
architectural space to different locations.
ii. Transformable systems: are those capable of changing shape to take on
a different spatial configuration and can be used for space-saving or
utilitarian needs.
iii. Incremental kinetic systems: are those that can be added to or
subtracted from a building like LEGO pieces (Fox & Kemp 2009).
The Flare-faade system is a modular dynamic system that can be installed
on building's faades or any wall surface. This system creates a living skin
allowing the building to express, communicate and interact with its environments
(WHITEvoid, N/D). The Flare-faade system consists of a number of tiltable
metal flake bodies. These units are controlled by computer to form any kind of

33

Chapter Two

surface animation. Sensor systems inside and outside the building communicate
the buildings activity directly to the Flare-system which acts as the building
lateral line. Each of the units reflects the bright sky or sunlight when in vertical
standby position. On the other hand, when it is tilted downwards, its face is
shaded from the sky light and appears darker (Jiang, 2011).

(a)

(b)

Figure 26: (a) Two of the modular units of the Flare-faade system and their control mechanism
(WHITEvoid, N/D). (b) A paper model for the Flare-faade system (WHITEvoid, N/D).

The Kuwait Pavilion for the Expo 92 in Seville, Spain, by Santiago


Calatrava is an example of dynamic kinetic structures (Figure 27). The structure's
roof reflects the organic shapes of palm fronds that can be moved to reflect the
weather or time of a day. Sketches drawn by Calatrava showed two hands coming
closer to each other then folding together as in prayer creating a rare theme of
offering hands and linking of fingers (Harris, 2006, Feuerstein, 2002).

Figure 27: The Kuwait Pavilion for Expo 92 while changing from closed state to opened one (Hawarny,
2008, P. 30).

2.1.2. Embedded Computation


As Guy Nordenson mentioned, "A kinetic environment without the
computation is like a body without a brain incapable of moving". In this
statement, computation is the brain that can control the required change and
motion. Users and inhabitants of architectural space can have environments that
change and adapt according to information gathered by means of computation and
sensing technologies. This is the importance of kinetics as well as embedded
computation. The importance of embedded computation is not only for the ability
to sense change in the environment but also for its ability to control the response
to this change. Embedded computation is the combination of computational
processors and information gatherers such as sensors, cameras, and microphones.

34

Kinetic Design Key Elements

2.1.2.1. Trends in Embedded Computation


Ubiquitous computation is the combination of embedding hardware and
software, information processors and coded intelligence. Creating networks of
information and computers is the trigger behind the development of
computational devices. The wireless architectural world is becoming cheap,
effective, and standardized. Architectural projects that involve embedded
computation range from being purely pragmatic environmentally responsive to
adaptive intelligence that understands human behaviors. Trends in embedded
computation consist of four categories:
a. Active Control Research
Active control is the most applicable research in designing intelligent
systems that focus on modifying the structural behavior depending on the
changing demands. Changing variables in buildings may include wind loads,
seismic conditions, temperature, light and live mechanical loads. Active control
systems are defined as structures that are affected by an externally activated
device to change the response. In these systems sensors are used for
measurements and computers are used to activate the required external force by
digital signals. Active control research is a system that solves purely pragmatic
although often unpredictable environmental changes (Fox & Kemp 2009).
Such systems have successfully been installed in many buildings that are
located in high wind or earthquake-prone locations. Active control technology
includes seismic base isolation systems, passive (tuned) mass dampers and energy
dissipation devices for buildings and other structures, and seismic floor isolation
systems for critical spaces that house computers or medical equipments. Such
systems employ numerous members to provide control through a very specific
response for suppressing forces either by cables used as active tendons or by
hydraulics used as muscles (Fox & Kemp 2009).
The Taipei 101 building is an example for such active control research
systems. It consists of 101 floors above the ground and 5 floors underground. It is
508m height from the ground to the structural top. The tower has the world's
largest passive tuned mass wind damper that is 5.5 meters in diameter and
weights 660 metric tons (Figure 28 a). The Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) is
designed to reduce the wind movement in the building. The TMD is located
between the 87th level and the 92nd floor (Figure 28 b) (Taipei101, N/D).

(a)

(b)

Figure 28: (a) An interior view for Taipei 101 tuned mass damper (TMD) (Wikipedia, N/D). (b) A
diagrame shows where the Tuned Mass Damper is located in Taipei 101 Building (Wikipedia, N/D).

35

Chapter Two

b. Adaptive control
Adaptive control system is computer controlled automation whereby an
architectural control system actually programs itself through observing both the
user needs and changing environmental conditions. These systems have the
ability to learn what the best preference is in just three or four user settings. Such
systems can respond to many environmental conditions by installing temperature
detectors or thermostats. For example, on cold days heating systems will switch
on preventing pipes from freezing, and on hot days motorized windows will open.
Also, scheduled timed programs can be used such as switching the heating or air
conditioning on and off, controlling the thermostat, or operating garden sprinklers
on regular times.
Adaptive control is highly developed in manufacturing industries although
recent applications are based on users' behavior within a home environment.
Adaptive control used in buildings can range from fire safety to security system
solutions to energy efficiency. Such systems that are able to learn how to adapt
will make buildings more comfortable, safe, productive, efficient and therefore
less costly to operate while at the same time minimizing errors. These systems
help a contently growing dialogue to take place between the space and its users.
The Implant Matrix is an example for adaptive control systems (Figure 29).
This matrix acts as an interactive geotextile. This system is capable of mechanical
empathy and consists of a network of mechanisms that reacts to human
occupants. The system responds to human presence by subtle grasping and
sucking motions, ingesting organic materials and incorporating them into a new
hybrid entity. The matrix's interactive systems employ capacitance sensors,
shape-memory alloy wire actuators and distributed microprocessors. The Implant
Matrix is installed at the InterAccess Media Arts Center in Toronto
(PhilipBeesleyArchitectInc., N/D).

Figure 29: The Implant Matrix (InteractiveArchitecture.org, 2006).

c. Home Automation
Home automation systems are systems that focus on changes in human
action, adapt to how they use architectural space, and respond to their behaviors.
Home automation systems have become robust and affordable enough to reach a
general public audience. These systems are fully automated and deal with all

36

Kineticc Design Keey Elementss

hoome system
ms that rannge from lighting, climate,
c
to security aand entertaainment. Inn
thhe near futture, home automatioon systems will allow
w the hom
me to alert its ownerr
too uncommoon and daangerous situations
s
by
b email or text-baased messaages on a
phhone. Thesse systems link all individual systems in
i a singlee home to
ogether, soo
thhat an acction by the owneer can cause manny sub-actions acrosss severall
suubsystems.
Although home automationn systems are becooming sophisticated, embeddedd
coomputation is becom
ming more simplified and afforrdable and hence commerciallyy
acccessible. Devices
D
suuch as sennsors and cameras are used in home automationn
syystems to sense andd detect changes
c
in human actions
a
witthin the architecturall
sppace. Althoough homee owners understand
u
their hom
me and its deficienciees as welll
ass their dessires, they purchase not system
ms but indiividual devvices that need littlee
teechnical exxpertise to install. These
T
devices are coonnected tto a self-eexplanatoryy
innterface thaat makes it
i easier for
f
an ordinary home user to set and control
c
thee
syystem.
The AMX
A
Whoole Home Automatio
on (Figure 30) is aan examplee of suchh
hoome autom
mation systeems. The AMX
A
Who
ole Home Automationn is a single system
m
thhat offers homeownerrs the abiility to co
ontrol and manage w
wide rangee of homee
syystems. Thhis system has a touch panel connectedd to all oother system
ms in thee
hoome, from where hoomeowners can operaate, control, program, and re-prrogram thee
syystem. The AMX Whhole Homee Automatiion system controls eelectronic as well ass
m
mechanical
devices suuch as auddio and viideo devicees, lightingg, openingss, and thee
likke (AMX, N/D).
N

Fiigure 30: Thee AMX Wholle Home Autoomation touch panel (AM
MX, N/D).

d. Exteernal Comm
munication
n
Externaal communnication syystems allo
ow local automation
a
to take place
p
whilee
innformation is being remotely
r
innputted into
o the systeem. Such ssystems wiill make itt
poossible for architectuural environnments to be interacctively viewed, contrrolled, andd
exxperienced not only within the space but
b also beeyond its walls. Wh
hen wiringg
syystems beggan to takke place outside
o
thee space annd was coonnected to
t externall
deevices, exxternal com
mmunicatioon started.. Since then methhods of controllingg
obbjects remootely havee changed. The tech
hnological advancements and affordability
a
y
off mobile technology
t
helped users
u
to co
ommunicatee informattion acrosss networkss
inn a wireleess way. These sysstems mak
ke it posssible to iinfluence the space,,
acctivities within the space, as well as people ussing the sspace. Pro
ojects withh
exxternal com
mmunicatioon systemss evolve robotic syystem conntrolled th
hrough thee

37

Chapter Two

World Wide Web (WWW) and a live camera that allow the controller to view
manipulations. Although the technology and software of messages became more
sophisticated, logging in and playing rudimentary games with the building and
against each other became possible.
The Stereoscope (Figure 31) is the latest Blinkenlights project and an
example for an external communication system. In this project, Toronto City Hall
works as an interactive three dimensional computer display. Wireless
technologies are used to control the lights placed behind the 960 windows of City
Hall which allow for a large scale visual concert during the night. People can
interact with the building by playing classic computer games on the faade while
using a mobile phone. Also a simple animation tool and an open animation data
formats enable people to create simple movies for Stereoscope and then play
those on the faade (ProjectBlinkenlights, N/D).

Figure 31: The Stereoscope Project while


playing an animation on Toronto City Hall
faade (AlternativeBerlin, 2010).

2.1.2.2. Level of Control Mechanisms


As kinetic in the architectural context is the application of objects which
could be set in motion by having mechanical parts, several levels of machines
may exist simultaneously in different kinetic architecture typologies. Computer
controlled systems help observing the users' needs as well as the changing
environmental conditions by reprogramming themselves as they learn what the
perfect setting for each condition is. Many examples of such systems could be
found in the area of "Home Automation". And it may include systems that control
heating or air conditioning, lighting, garden sprinklers, and motorized openings.
These systems could act independently or as a part of a whole by operating cooperatively to optimize conditions (Fox, 2009). Levels of machines could be
listed by their ability to adapt to different needs as:
a. Singly variable-man control
Singly variable man control was the first category developed by man, which
was the extension of the tool which in turn was extension of the hand. This
category of machines was designed to perform a repetitive operation. Increasing
and decreasing speed as well as starting and stopping of these machines were
done by human control and in some machines even the motive power was
supplied by humans (Zuk, 1970).

38

Kinetic Design Key Elements

b. Multivariable-man control
This category of machines was more developed than the first one not only
by their complexity degree but also by their ability to perform several functions in
sequence or simultaneously, although they were still controlled by humans (Zuk,
1970).
c. Multivariable automatic control
These machines differ by their ability of partial or full control of
multivariable operations. Sensors are essential in this category of machines which
help in detecting different tangible and intangible factors such as velocity,
acceleration, light, heat, pressure, odor, sound, radiation, weight, voltage, current,
magnetism, length, and size. In this category computers replace the human
functions by carrying out only those specific instructions and operations early
predicted by human programmer in anticipation of certain specific data and
reactions. These computer controls are coupled with backup systems or human
control ability for emergencies (Zuk, 1970).
d. Multivariable heuristic control
Technology, computers, and the science of cybernetics that deals with manmade systems performing functions like those of a human brain have become
more developed. As a result, creating computers and systems that are capable of
learning from their previous actions and experiences become more reasonable. In
this category, machines are not only multivariable and automatically controlled
but also coupled with heuristic and learning capability. This kind of machines is
well known as "Robot Machines". This type is developed to perform adaption,
ranging from machines that construct whole buildings automatically and
completely to those that repair and reproduce themselves automatically (Zuk,
1970).
2.1.2.3. Ways and Means of Embedded Computation
The relationship between users and programmable embedded intelligence
ultimately dictates the intensity of the ever changing dialogue between bodies in
space and the space itself. Understanding the behavior of an architectural space or
object will make it possible to not only monitor but also control environments
even remotely. Ways and means are defined as the controlled source of actuation
addressing embedded computation that controls mechanism for kinetic function
which accommodates and responds to changing demands. These systems are used
to interpret functional circumstances and direct physical movements and data sets
in order to suit changing demands and needs.
Controlling kinetic motion is affected by design and construction
techniques, kinetic operability and maintenance, as well as human and
environmental interaction. Embedded computation in the materials that make up
the space allows users to control the type of information the space receives
through communication methods similar to those used to communicate with
people. While designing interactive kinetic architecture, the structure of the

39

Chapter Two

information hierarchy that governs the relationship between users and space must
be considered. Sensors technology is one of the most important means that are
used to actively control kinetic objects in the built environment in response to
change.
a. Sensors
Sensors are devices that gather information from the real physical
environments such as light, motion, temperature etc. They have dramatically
developed from the most simple being an invisible infrared beam that is broken to
detect motion to more sophisticated ones that can detect color definition, motion
directionality, voice and facial characteristics, gain etc. More detailed
information is provided when combining sensors with processing software to
track bodily movements, which will help providing information of individual
users' behaviors to the building. Web cams and other optical input devices as well
as conventional sound/text input devices are used as means of gathering
information.
2.1.2.4. Typologies of Controlling Change
It is important to consider the amount of information dialogue between
users and computation. Understanding the possible relationship between
computation and response will help controlling the desired change. Creating
subsystems that act independently can be incorporated into kinetic design (Fox,
2009). Means of controlling space are categorized into five general types:
a. Direct Control
In this type of controlling change the information is directly translated into
an outcome. Direct control involves an information exchange that is usually an
"on" or "off" state. The movement is actuated directly by any of numerous energy
sources including electrical motors, human energy or biomechanical change in
response to an adjacent exchange of information between users and the computer.
b. In-Direct Control
This type of controlling change involves a level of decision making
embedded into the system itself. In-direct control systems depends on a sensor to
detect change and then send a message to a control device which in return relays
an on/off operating instruction to an energy source for the actuation of movement.
This controlling system has the ability to both constantly monitor incoming
information and update the response of the system.
c. Responsive In-Direct Control
The difference between in-direct control and responsive in-direct control
systems is that in the second one the control device receives input information
from numerous sensors and then makes an optimized decision to send to the

40

Kinetic Design Key Elements

energy source for the actuation of movement for a singular object. This system
requires a governing hierarchical computational system to interpret information
from multiple sources and act accordingly.
d. Ubiquitous Responsive In-Direct Control
This system depends on many autonomous sensor/motor (actuator) pairs
acting together as a networked whole to actuate movement.
e. Heuristic Responsive In-Direct Control
This system differs from responsive in-direct control and ubiquitous indirect control systems with its ability to learn through successful experiential
adaptation to optimize a system in an environment in response to change. The
computation that is embedded in a system can be written or programmed in a way
that can build upon the system's prior experiences. This is achieved by rewriting
previous methods of making decisions. An example could be a skylight system
that records the weather patterns and associates behavior patterns while being
operated. Such a system can use gathered information to respond accurately to
changing climate patterns while learning the most efficient response for
individual parts the system consists of. Connecting this system to other intelligent
systems in the building will achieve similar goals.

2.1.3. Adaptable Architecture


Kinetic architecture is built on both embedded computation (intelligence)
and the physical counterpart (structural engineering and kinetics), which satisfies
adaptation within human and environmental interaction. The combination of these
two areas will make it possible for any environment to reconfigure itself, to
automate physical change, to respond, react, adapt, and interact. Adaptability is
defined as the flexibility of space to face changing demands on the system.
Adaptability in built projects was either embedded in the logic of the creation of a
system such as manually adjustable modular panels and structure systems by
Fuller, or embedded in the logic of the kinematics such as manually adjustable
awnings and domes by Calatrava and Hoberman.
Past kinetic projects were adaptable although they relied on their user to
manually change the size, color, shape, or location of an object that made up the
space in respect to the new demands. The difference between those past kinetic
projects and new ones is that in new projects spaces are being interactive with
their ability to sense information from the users or the environment and then
adapt themselves. Adaptable architecture may range from interior organizational
disposition to external environmental mediation to complete structure
transformability/transformation. Adaptable architecture is divided into four
categories which are living, working, entertainment, and public environments.

41

Chapter Two

2.1.3.1. Living Environments


Interface design is important as a way in which users interact in a living
environment. A keyboard is a primary device for inputting data, but that is going
to change when environments are ubiquitously gathering and receiving data via
sensors, cameras, microphones, and the like. Personal information is always
needed in living environments. There is a direct relationship between the amount
of information a system can gather and the usefulness of that system. Privacy
becomes a major issue according to the balance between the gathered information
and the amount of privacy one has to give up. Home automation systems are the
most developed area of living environments. These systems are fully automated
and are capable of controlling all systems in a home such as lighting, climate,
security, and entertainment. The user is able share information with one or more
users, either in the same location or in remote ones, which can be made feasible
via video-conferencing. In all those possible links, the privacy level can be
controlled by simply turning off the connection to others whenever needed (Fox,
2009).
2.1.3.2. Working Environments
Many work environments are being constantly changed by upsizing and
downsizing the space according to the number of occupants needed for the
commissioned work. Desks and worktables are being moved around to make
room for the additional number of employees needed, or are being moved back
after the work is done. For weekly meetings, a large conference room set for
fourteen to twenty users is needed, and yet for all other meetings the room may
only be used by four to six users at a time. Also, some office spaces are being
used sporadically during the day. For instance, a person's desk - while not in use may be transformed to be used by another person while satisfying the specific
needs of its new user such as lighting, privacy, acoustics ...etc. Another example
could be the conference rooms, which are either able to reconfigure themselves or
manually being reconfigured according to the number of users and their needs.
An interactive kinetic work environment can also deal with all of the peripheral
needs for spatial optimization that go beyond the effective usage of space to
include lighting, wiring, acoustics, privacy, and view (Fox, 2009).
2.1.3.3. Entertainment Environments
Entertainment environments that embrace interactivity either provide
leisure, social engagement, or educational benefits. In order to capture an
audience, elements that adopt interactivity such as sculpture, fountains, and
building facades have been enormously used. Museums, as entertainment
environments, have adopted interactivity in presenting and viewing exhibits and
artifacts. Collaboration between interactivity and adaptability can positively affect
the temporal nature of changing displays and the way visitors interact with those.
Most entertainment applications include educational elements in which a
kinesthetic learning is combined with entertainment experiences. These
environments enable users to utilize both their bodies and minds in collaborative
ways. Edutainment is a commonly used term for such entertainment environments
that are designed to equally educate and amuse (Fox, 2009).

42

Kinetic Design Key Elements

2.1.3.4. Public Environments


Interactive adaptive systems can be employed immensely in the public
sphere. Also, achieving commercial benefits through specific consumer trends
instead of individual basis is an important point in designing such public systems.
Moreover, the interactive adaptive design in the public sphere engages both the
social and cultural dimensions of space. Spatial defining interaction is commonly
used as a mechanism to understand and promote social interaction. The physical
architecture can be used to include or exclude people from one another, to
facilitate, dissipate, or focus crowds of people. Public environments are used in
testing both the durability of materials and the time frame of particular interactive
strategies within the context of unpredictable participants. For example,
commercial outlets and grocery stores could make an active inventory that moves
itself to the forefront to either target a particular customer or show specific items
when they are more desirable during parts of the day. Restaurants as well could
use all of their seating more efficiently rather than seating a party of two at a table
designed for four (Fox, 2009).
The Interactive Restaurant (i-Dining) project (Figure 32) by Art Center
College of design is an example of such environments. This project consists of six
major systems which are floorscape, ceilingscape, tables, vanity/faade, acoustics
(walls), and bar. Each of these systems aims to create an environment with
behaviors. The floorscape aims to create constantly evolving and forming groups
of any size or shape or number of users. In that case the seating is one element
that will influence other systems to further interact with customers
(RobotectureInteractiveArchitecture, N/D).

Figure 32: The Interactive Restaurant (RobotectureInteractiveArchitecture, N/D)

43

Chapter Two

2.2.Summary
From all mentioned above, it is important to mention and explain the
mechanical and technological principals to go through kinetic design. There are
three key elements that kinetic design is based upon. The table below briefly lists
these three key elements and the main points in each (Table 1).

Kinetic Design Key Elements


Structural Innovation &
Materials Advancement

Ways &
Means of
Structural
Solutions

Ways: folding,
sliding,
expanding, or
transforming
Means:
pneumatic,
chemical,
magnetic,
natural or
mechanical

Embedded Computation

Adaptable Architecture

Active Control
Research

Living
Environments

Trends in
Embedded
Computation

Embedded
Deployable

Levels of
Control
Mechanisms
Kinetic
structures
Typologies

Dynamic

Typologies
of
Controlling
Change

Adaptive
Control

Home
Automation
External
Communication
Single
Variable-man
Control
Multivariableman Control
Multivariable
Automatic
Control
Multivariable
Heuristic
Control
Direct Control
In-Direct
Control
Responsive InDirect Control
Ubiquitous
responsive InDirect Control
Heuristic
Responsive InDirect Control

Table 1: Kinetic Design Key Elements.

44

Working
Environments

Adaptive
Architecture
Environments

Entertainment
Environments

Public
Environments

CHAPTER THREE: KINETIC BUILDINGS' ANALYSIS

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3. KINETIC BUILDINGS' ANALYSIS


In the previous chapter kinetic design key elements are presented from
structural innovation and materials advancement to embedded computation as
well as adaptive architecture. In order to understand the different aspects of
kinetic buildings, this chapter will attempt to analyze and evaluate different
kinetic buildings. This evaluation will end up with a comparative analysis aiming
at providing explanations on the different factors affecting the use of kineticism in
buildings in their specific environments.

3.1. Architectural Projects:


From a large number of buildings that encompass kineticism, only fifteen
buildings are selected. The selection of buildings is based on a set of criteria
comprising the year of completion, buildings' use and type of kineticism they
present. Buildings are selected among those completed from 1980 up till present.
They are listed in chronological order. Also, they are selected to cover a wide
range of uses that vary from multi-family housing, private houses, workplace and
sports facilities. Moreover, buildings are selected to include different ways of
dynamics that range from envelope dynamic elements, to indoors kinetic elements
or even buildings that are able to be in motion as a whole.
The cumulative information and findings deducted from the previous
chapter are used to establish a set of evaluation criteria. These criteria will assist
in the analysis of kineticism in the selected buildings and therefore will help in
formulating an understanding of the most suitable techniques and methods that
can be used in the Egyptian environment. The evaluating criteria include the
following:
a. Kineticism in the building:
- Kinetic elements.
- Reason for motion.
b. Kinetic design key elements which are presented by:
- Structural system.
- Used materials.
- Embedded computation / control mechanism.
- Adaptive architecture.
c. Building quality:
- Indoor environment quality.
- Building visual quality.

47

Chapter Three

3.1.1. Institut du Monde Arabe:

Figure 33: An external view for Institut du Monde Arabe (WikiArquitectura, 2010).

3.2.1.1.

General Information:

a.

Completion Year:

Construction completed in 1987.

b.

Architect:

The project is designed by Jean Nouvel.

c.

Building Cost:

47,500,000
USD
approximately.

d.

Introduction:

(52,000,000

Euro)

Institut du Monde Arabe (Figure 33) is built in Paris, France. It is conceived


as one of the new architectural landmarks of the capital. Situated in the center of
the capital the building provides a meeting place for the two cultures which have
produced it: France and twenty Arab countries. It provides a place for continuing
artistic, technical and scientific exchange between two old civilizations which
have continuously enriched each other.
In 1981 a site was selected for Institut du Monde Arabe. The site was
allocated at the 15th arondissement, on rue de la Federation near the Boulevard
Grenelle, located in a residential district not far from the Eiffel Tower. The
residents of that neighborhood protested against building on a site that was used
as a sports area. A first project had been prepared for that site for Institut du
Monde Arabe and was designed by architect Henry Bernard.
Later a new site was selected at the 5th arondissement. Culturally and
historically the new site had a higher value located on the oldest part of Paris and
facing Notre-Dame. To encourage new architects a competition was held for a
new project cancelling the old one and seven architects were invited. A preselection was made by an Evaluation Committee and the final selection was by
the President Mitterand. The winning project was designed by Jean Nouvel
(Yucel, 1989).

48

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

e.

Location:

The Institut du Monde Arabe is situated at the historical heart of Paris,


France. The building site is surrounded by the Seine and St. Bernard quay on the
north while facing l'Ile St. Louis and la Cite the old settlement of Lutece.
a. Concept:
In the Institut du Monde Arabe, Jean Nouvel used Mashrabiya units (Figure
34 a) to represent the Arabic culture. Mashrabiya is a type of a window cover that
consists of combinations of backdrop of cut wood and latticework patterns
(Figure 34 b). Mashrabiya characterized the Islamic architecture of the Middle
Ages and was popular in many Islamic countries such as Egypt (Figure 34 b) and
Iraq. The architect combined the need for sun shading with a "Mashrabiya"
pattern and the idea of a light controlling diaphragm in a camera lens (Figure 35).
This resulted in a gigantic Islamic pierced screen, which makes this modern hightech building a permanent reference to traditional Islamic architecture (Heylighen,
2004).

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 34: (a) The Mashrabiya diaphragm used at Institut du Monde Arabe (Osmers, 2007).
(b) Mashrabiya unit sketch (Prisse dAvennes, 2007, P. 137). (c) Mashrabiya used in a Ottoman
residential building near Khan El-Khalili, Cairo, Egypt (a.allegretti, 2012).

Figure 35: An external view for the flat southern faade of Institut du Monde Arabe shows the
"Mashrabiya Diaphragms" that were used (IMA, 2001).

49

Chapter Three

b.

Building Components:

The usable floor area was estimated to cover 13000 m2 and the whole builtup area 20000 m2, to be consisted of:
The Museum of Arab Art and Civilization (permanent and temporary
exhibition space).
The Library, Documentation Centre and Actualities Hall.
The Auditorium and Conference Hall.
The High Council Hall and related offices.
Hall.
Restaurant and Cafeteria.
Public services.
Other administrative, technical and service spaces including the
parking area.
3.2.1.2.
a.

Kineticism in the Building:


Kinetic Elements:

The mashrabiya diaphragms (Figure 36 a) were influenced by the


orientation and are aiming at aesthetic and connotative architectural expressions
rather than solutions to climatic constraints in a high-tech air-conditioned building
context. The flat southern facade is composed of 240 squares panels, reproducing
vertically the horizontal pattern of the parvis. Constituted of 16320 kinetic
modules, these diaphragms consist of lozenges, squares, hexagons, circles and
combination of them whose reflection matches the mosaic patterns on the
Institut's floors. Each kinetic panel consists of one large diaphragm in the center,
surrounded by sixteen medium sized diaphragms and fifty-five small diaphragms
(Figure 36 b,c).

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 36: (a) A view for a group of the mashrabiya diaphragms while functioning (eliinbar, 2011). (b)
A detail of the medium sized diaphragm (moreAEdesign, 2010). (c) A detail of small diaphragms
(moreAEdesign, 2010).

50

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

b. Reason for Motion:

Daylight

10%-30% of Daylight

The mashrabiya unites are functioning as diaphragms of a camera shutter.


These metallic irises filter the sunlight through the glazed surface, allowing 10%
to 30% of the light to be kept (Figure 37).

Figure 37: A diagram showing reason for installing mashrabiya diaphragms on the southern faade
(Yucel, 1989, P. 92).

3.2.1.3.
a.

Kinetic Design Key Elements:


Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement:
a.1. Structural Systems:
The structural system is a steel frame with different spans
according to the general shape of the building. Steel columns,
beams, trusses and secondary supporting elements for the curtainwall facades were used.
a.2. Used Materials:
Stainless steel, aluminum, tempered glass, plastics, marble
and finally the mashrabiya diaphragms.

b. Embedded Computation / Control Mechanism:


The kinetic southern faade of the institute is considered as a computer
output device. All of the mashrabiya diaphragms are linked together and
controlled by photo-voltaic cells that close or open them depending on the
intensity of sunlight on that part of the faade. Users of the building can't interfere
and/or control the diaphragms to change settings in their environment.

51

Chapter Three

c.

Adaptive Architecture:

This building is used as a cultural center that aims to introduce the Arab
culture with all its rich historic and temporary dimensions, which creates an
entertainment environment. Kinetic elements were installed in the building's
southern faade in order to control light inside it. Those kinetic elements have the
shape of "mashrabiya" which is an architectural element used in traditional
Islamic architecture that are presented in a modern way that mixes history,
tradition with science and technology. Although the kinetic faade doesn't interact
with the building's users, it yet has an indirect educational benefit.
3.2.1.4.

Indoor Environment Quality:

The stuff works in the building feels that transparent walls make privacy
impossible. They feel enclosed in a small space with very low ceiling. All of
them, librarians, museum keepers, and staff officers alike, feel they need more
room for their projects. Although it appears large in photography, in fact, the
building is small n size. Visitors and architects alike expect it to be larger than it
actually is.
3.2.1.5.

Building Visual Quality:

High technology is what holds the IMA together. The volumns are simple,
giving forth a message of restraint, a restraint based on understated wealth. It is in
the rich quality of its materials and its finish that the building shines. Glass shines,
and the surfaces of aluminium shine. These shiny new qualities pervade the entire
building, projecting a cool and perfect exterior faade. The IMA building appears
to set a model for the Arab countries, not only in the technical field but also on
the level of ideas, or golas to be achieved. No easy pastiche of Islamic motifs and
designs is present in this building, no arches, no niches and no dames. The
mashrabiyas are used to explore geometric patterns, and are extraordinary
technological innovations. Even when Nouvel uses the essential Islamic
architectural idea of hiding a rich interior behind blank walls, he totally
transforms it. His exterior facades reflect the outside world, and bring them into
the interior spaces. It may be a message indicating the way for the future of the
Isalmic World.

52

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.1.2. GucklHupf

Figure 38: An external view for GucklHupf while being opened (de la Torre, N/D).

3.2.2.1.

General Information:

a.

Completion Year:

The GucklHupf was completed in 1993.

b.

Architect:

Building was designed by Hans Peter Wrndl.

c.

Building Cost:

No information available.

d.

Introduction:

The building's name is related to the neighboring Guglhupfberg. The


Gucklhupf (Figure 38) is a walk-in sculpture an exploration of architecture and
art. It was built to mark "The Festival of the Regions" on a private lake property
on Lake Mondsee. The theme of the festival was "The Stranger".
e.

Location:

The GucklHupf was built on 1500 m2 of private grounds. The structure is


surrounded by nature, at the Mondsee in Innerschwand / Upper Austria. Under
public pressure the building is now removed from the site.
f.

Concept:

As the theme of "The Festival of the Regions" was "The Stranger", the
architect tried to create a relation between strangers and intimacy, relaxation and
exercise as well as living and traveling. As a result, the out coming building was a
structure that does not tend toward an absolutely final state but allows a
progressive deviation from its initial state of stereometric object. The building is

53

Chapter Three

used by its owners during the six week long summer opening as a contemplative
space, stage for small performances, music pieces and poetry readings with clear
reference to the Arcadian myth. It is also being used as a house on the lake or as a
temporary shelter during the rest of the year, while in winter it is transformed into
a storage place for boats "boat-house".
g.

Building Components:

The building consists of 2 floors (Figure 39). By moving the individual


cube by half the storey height results in the interior of 4 different levels and a
terrace on the roof (Figure 40). For the development of the upper floors a ladder
was installed. The building is 7m height and the enclosed space is of 4m x 6m x
7m.

Figure 39: The GucklHupf plans where the red colored rectangular is the main area while the other
parts are those being opened, slided or folded (de la Torre, N/D).

Figure 40: The GucklHupf section where the red color indicates the accurate area when the structure
is closed. Also this section shows the four different levels inside the structure (Ballard Bell, 2006, P.
125).

54

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.2.2.2.
a.

Kineticism in the Building:


Kinetic Elements:

The movable wood panels creating the GucklHupf can be rotated, pulled,
tilted and folded. These wooden panels act as a wrapping that can be peeled away
or pulled up to open and close the space according to its users desires.
b. Reason for Motion:
The GucklHupf movable panels create a multi-purpose structure. The
structure is used as a lake house that can hold different activities from being a
shelter in summer days to a contemplative space with a small stage or even as
storage in winter days when closed (Figure 41). Also, the movable panels helped
the users to control views and the amount of light according to their needs and
desires. This transformation creates a communicative interior-exterior space
object that provides a shaded, ventilated, temporary location in the landscape
while controlling the level of connectivity with the nature and landscape around.

Figure 41: Transformation in GucklHupf starting from the closed state (Olson, 2009).

55

Chapter Three

3.2.2.3.
a.

Kinetic Design Key Elements:


Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement:
a.1. Structural Systems:
The building was constructed in frame construction, a frame
construction consisting of a linear structural skeleton of squared
timber and an outer cladding stabilizing the support frame is
formed.
a.2. Used Materials:
Plywood, wood, aluminum, glass and silk screen printing.

b. Embedded Computation / Control Mechanism:


All moving parts of the GucklHupf are being controlled through an
automated system that is comprised of automatic devices and retracing panels.
This system is connected to the structure through dowels, flaps and stainless steel
cables.
c.

Adaptive Architecture:

The GucklHupf is a multi-purpose private property that creates an


experimental living environment. The building is being used all year long, while
its uses vary from being a lake house to a performances stage and storage.

3.2.2.4.

Indoor Environment Quality:

When inside the structure, the user has the ability to edit and frame views of
the surrounding landscape. The user has a control over their relationship with the
surrounding landscape, while hiding within the protection of the small, contorting
structure.
3.2.2.5.

Building Visual Quality:

The Guklhupf guides the eyes and the movements of its inhabitants as
everyone is free to choose a visual sequence and the number of openings,
generating an intimate or visually permeable space. Externally, the facade recreates the interior losing its role of wrapping skin. The structure creates a
continuous relationship with its surrounding landscape as well as its users. The
GucklHupf is in harmony with its surrounding even when not in use and close.
The structure when closed looks like a large wooden box that was erected in the
landscape. But once one begins to open the many wooden panels that can rotate in
different directions, pull, tilt and fold: There are ramps, doors, windows, terraces
and hatches (minimalspace, N/D).

56

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.1.3. Floirac House "Maison Bordeaux"

Figure 42: An exterior view for the Floirac House (OrgoneDesign, N/D).

3.2.3.1.

General Information:

a.

Completion Year:

The house was designed in 1994-1996 and was


built in 1996-1998.

b.

Architect:

The Floirac
Koolhaas.

c.

Building Cost:

No information available.

d.

Introduction:

House

is

designed

by

Rem

This house was built for a wealthy publisher and his family whose dream
was to have a simpler life. Dreams changed after a fatal car accident the husband
barely survived and resulted in being confined to a wheel chair. Years later, the
dream of having a new house was still there but this time with a new context.
Simplicity was no more wanted, this time the client sought complexity to define
his life. As a result, the Floirac House (Figure 42) was built as a monumental
accommodation to this fact (Vanstphout, 2005).
e.

Location:

The house is located on a hill overlooking Bordeaux, in France.


f.

Concept:

The architect imagined the architectural potential in this family's life as a


special case that differs from any other families. Rem Koolhaas imagined the
lower body of the publisher with its whole arsenal of trusses, carts and belts for
support as the architecture. The complexity of the building can be experienced
immediately through the links between the different zones and levels, between
inside and outside, and finally between the house and the city. There are several

57

Chapter Three

ways to go across the various zones and levels (Figure 43). Three staircases
provoke the inhabitants to select their routes and an elevator platform located in
the middle of the house "A machine is its heart" (Figure 44). The movement of
the elevator platform continuously changes the architecture of the house. By
creating a relation between small, private, painful and sad fact of the husband and
the architecture of the house itself resulted in a beautiful place for living the
Floirac House "Maison Bordeaux".

Figure 43: Plans for the Floirac House showing different ways to access levels (Beck, N/D). The Blue
color indicates the elevator platform, the red color indicates the main staircase, the green color
indicates the service staircase and the yellow color indicates a staircase connecting two levels.

(a)

(b)

Figure 44: Long section though the Floirac House, where the blue color indicates the elevator platform
(Beck, N/D). (a) The elevator platform reaches the second floor. (b) The elevator platform is on the
ground floor.

g.

Building Components:

The house consists of three floors. The lower level is a series of caverns
carved out from the hill, designed for the most intimate life of the family; the
ground floor on garden level is a glass room half inside, half outside for
living; and the upper floor is divided into a children's and a parents' area (OMA,
N/D).

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Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.2.3.2.
a.

Kineticism in the Building:


Kinetic Elements:

The heart of the house is a 3x3.5m elevator platform (Figure 45) that moves
freely up and down alongside a tall book-stack connecting the three levels
together, while becoming part of the living space or kitchen or transforming itself
into an intimate office space.

Figure 45: An isometric section showing the elevator platform in red (Beck, N/D).

a. Reason for Motion:


The elevator platform was designed to connect different levels together in
an easy accessible way that allows the owner to move around as he is now
confined to a wheelchair after surviving a car accident. The elevator platform was
not only designed to function as a vertical connector but also to be a living space
in the middle of the house (Figure 46). The platform grantees husband's access to
books, art work and the wine cellar (Gargiani, 2008).

(a)

(b)

Figure 46: Different views for the elevator platform while functioning (OMA, N/D). (a) The elevator
platform when settled in the upper level. (b) The elevator platform while moving between different
levels.

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Chapter Three

3.2.3.3.
a.

Kinetic Design Key Elements:


Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement:
a.1. Structural System:
Although the uppermost floor appears as if held down from
floating away by a rod attached to large steel I-beam across its
roof and anchored into the ground of the courtyard, this concrete
box is supported in three places: the cylinder of the circular
staircase, the L-shape structure that is propped by a steel
stanchion rising from the kitchen below (Unwin, 2010).
a.2. Used Materials:
Concrete walls, panels of glass and aluminum were used for
the exterior. Aluminum sheets were used for the flooring of the
studio and the living area.

b. Embedded Computation / Control Mechanism:


The door that leads to narrow west part of the house is an electrically
operated panel of metal opened by means of a large illuminated joystick alongside
the courtyard. An embedded complex system including rail switches controls the
movement of the large glass panels moving on floor-ceiling tracks, drapes,
tapestries, curtains, paintings, lamps, doors and even a cave for doves. Same as
other parts of the house, the elevator platform is controlled through a remotecontrol device.
c.

Adaptive Architecture:

This house is considered as a living environment. The kinetic element


installed in the structure which is the elevator platform in located in the house's
centre. This elevator platform is not only a mean to connect different levels of the
house, but also it is a work space for the wheel-chair bound.
3.2.3.4.

Indoor Environment Quality:

The house appears to be living with its moving walls, lifting bedrooms,
automated windows and platform allowing its handicapped owner a free
accessibility to different levels (Gargiani, 2008). The narrow patio separating the
two bedroom units allow for natural lightening. Layering opaque and transparent
spaces provides for satisfying the needs for both community and privacy.
3.2.3.5.

Building Visual Quality:

As the house takes place on the top of the hill, no colors were used that will
make it visible from the valley of Bordeaux adding extra privacy. The lowest part
of the house appears as a series of caverns carved out from the hill. Although the
house looks like a space station waiting to be launched into orbit, it reveals a great
connection with its surrounding landscape.

60

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.1.4. The Naked House

Figure 47: An external view for the Naked House (ShigeruBanArchitects, N/D).

3.2.4.1.

General Information:

a.

Completion Year:

Building was completed in 2000.

b.

Architect:

Design is by Shigeru Ban.

c.

Building Cost:

The owners of the house wanted to spend only


250 million yen, or about $225.000 which was
a challenge for the architect.

d.

Introduction:

The client didn't want the family to live separated each in his/her own room,
so Shigeru Ban was asked to create a communal space with the ability to find
privacy when needed.
e.

Location:

The house is located in rural Kawagoe, Saitama, Japan. The house site is
surrounded by rice fields with greenhouses by the river Shingashi.
f.

Concept:

Working within the concept of different generations of one family are


integrating their lives, Shigeru Ban came up with a translucent shed-like structure
containing a single common space in which private areas were reduced to a
minimum and the house was naked of partitions (Figure 47). The open-plan and
neutral space of the shed can be organized and transformed as needed
(ShigeruBanArchitects, N/D).

61

Chapter Three

g.

Building Components:

The building consists of a simple, rectangular, shed-like space of two storey


high and four cubicle mobile room units (Figure 48 a). The internal main space is
bordered on one side by the kitchen, the bathroom and the wardrobes which are
the only permanent installations in the house and are separated from the open
space with a half-height wall or white curtains (Figure 48 b), while on the other
side it is bordered by a translucent and opaque wall. Four movable cardboard
boxes form the family's private accommodation (Jeska, 2008).

(a)

(b)

Figure 48: (a) A 3D modeling for the Naked House showing the rectangular open space, the permanent
installations as well as the movable rooms (boxes) (Unit-de-relogement, 2012). (b) An interior view for
the half-height wall separating the wardrobes as well as the bathroom from the rest of the open space
(Jeska, 2008, P. 73).

3.2.4.2.
a.

Kineticism in the Building:


Kinetic Elements:

In the Naked House, the cubical room units can be moved about on wheels
to any location. The rooms can be moved around in different configurations. The
character of the home's space can be dramatically reconfigured in a moment by
moving the rooms around to create barriers or openings (Stang, 2005).

(a)

(b)

Figure 49: Interior views of the Naked House (van Poucke, 2011). (a) A view for mobile units when
attached to each other. (b) A view for mobile units arranged separately.

62

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

b. Reason for Motion:


Kineticism was involved in the design in order to provide flexibility. Using
movable rooms allowed residents to control privacy level as well as activities
taking place within these rooms. These rooms can be grouped together or stay
separated and the family can choose whether to sit inside or on the top, outside
these rooms or in the main space. Also, they can be moved around the open
spaced or moved to the outside (Guzowski, 2007).

3.2.4.3.

Kinetic Design Key Elements:

a.

Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement:


a.1. Structural System:
The design of the structure was basic with its double-height
rectangular shell. The shell is made of wooden frame with
corrugated plastic panels affixed to it (Figure 50 a).
a.2. Used Materials:
While the exterior walls are made of corrugated fiberreinforced plastic panels, the interior is lined with nylon attached
with Velcro strips. Clear plastic bags filled with polyethylene
foam are used for insulation (Figure 50 b). The mobile units are
made of paper honeycomb panels on timber frames (Bradbury,
2005)

(a)

(b)

Figure 50: (a) A section through the main double height open space (Bradbury, 2005, P. 185). (b) An
isometric for the Naked House showing different layer of the building's skin as well as different
components (Bradbury, 2005, P. 181).

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Chapter Three

b. Embedded Computation / Control Mechanism:


The mobile room unites were manually moved around the house or pushed
to the garden. No embedded computation systems were installed.
c.

Adaptive Architecture:

Although the house itself is a living environment, the four mobile units
create portable living environments within the main space. Those mobile living
environments does not only may have different uses such as being a gathering
place, sleeping place, playing place or even a garden shed, but also they may
differ in size according to whether they are separately used or some/all of them
gathered together (Figure 51 a).

(a)

(b)

Figure 51: (a) Different arrangements for the mobile room units (Guzowski, 2007, P. 2). (b) A close
view for the moveable units (Stang, 2005, P. 89).

3.2.4.4.

Indoor Environment Quality:

The interior is lit by a soft, diffuse light filtering throw the translucent walls
adding a sense of spaciousness. Sliding doors provided on two sides of each unit
can be closed, left open or even totally removed (Figure 51 b)depending on the
level of privacy needed and level of visual connection with the surroundings
desired (Jeska, 2008).
3.2.4.5.

Building Visual Quality:

The translucent walls for the naked house merge the indoor with the
greenery of the surroundings. Also, the lack of an opaque wall exposes occupants
throughout the house. As a result, any kind of movement inside is visible from the
exterior of the building providing limited privacy on the inside and from without
(Guzowski, 2007).

64

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.1.5. Milwaukee Art Museum "Quadracci Pavilion"

Figure 52: An external view for the Milwaukee Art Museum Quadracci Pavilion (Smith, 2007).

3.2.5.1.

General Information:

a.

Completion Year:

Building was completed in 2001.

b.

Architect:

Extension is designed by Santiago Calatrava.

c.

Building Cost:

Construction
USD.

d.

Introduction:

cost

approximately

122

million

The Milwaukee Art Museum (MAM) project features the new Santiago
Calatrava designed Quadracci pavilion (Figure 52), renovated and reinstalled
galleries in existing Museum buildings designed by Eero Saarinen (1957) and
David Kahler (1975), and an elegant network of gardens, hedges, plazas and
fountains designed by landscape architect Dan Kiley.
The Milwaukee Art Museum (MAM) commissioned Santiago Calatrava to
design a 58,000 square foot addition to the Museum in 1994. Since completion of
the first model in 1995 and as fundraising that exceeded expectations, the
Museum made a strategic decision to expand the scope of the project. Major
visitor amenities, such as the south terrace and a parking garage, were added to
the design, and space for the expansion was increased to 142,050 square feet to
accommodate the additions. The expansion provides a 30 percent increase in
overall gallery space, from 90,000 to 117,000 square feet.

65

Chapter Three

e.

Location:

The Museum is located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. The museum is


located on the lakefront of Michigan Lake in Milwaukee. The Reiman Bridge is a
250 foot long suspended pedestrian bridge that links downtown Milwaukee
directly to the lakefront and the Museum. The bridge features a distinctive 200
foot angled mast with cables that reflects Calatrava's unique experience in bridge
design throughout Europe.
f.

Concept:

Calatrava, inspired by the dramatic, original building by Eero Saarinen, the


topography of the city and Frank Lloyd Wrights Prairie-style architecture,
initially proposed a small addition, with a pedestrian bridge connecting the
Museum to downtown (Figure 53 a,b). The expansion of the Milwaukee Art
Museum added a sense of sensitivity to the culture of the lake , the boats, the sails
and the ever changing landscape (Solaripedia, N/D-a).
Wind-hover Hall is the grand entrance hall for the Quadracci Pavilion. It is
Santiago Calatravas postmodern interpretation of a Gothic Cathedral, complete
with flying buttresses, pointed arches, ribbed vaults, and a central nave topped by
a 90-foot-high glass roof. The halls chancel is shaped like the prow of a ship,
with floor-to-ceiling windows looking over Lake Michigan. Adjoining the central
hall are two tow-arched promenades, the Baumgartner Galleria and Schroeder
Foundation Galleria, with expansive views of the lake and downtown. The
pedestrian bridge extends like an arm connecting the museum with the city adding
a sense of direction and movement which is taking it up to the roof, the cables and
the canopy that extends on both sides.

(a)

(b)

Figure 53: (a) A water color sketch featuring the Quadracci Pavilion (CALATRAVA, N/D-a). (b) A
water color sketch featuring the pedestrian bridge (CALATRAVA, N/D-a).

g.

Building Components:

The Quadracci Pavilion incorporates three major components: a central


building, the Burke Brise-Soleil an immense movable wing-like structure and
a cable-stayed pedestrian bridge. The 142,050-square-foot Quadracci Pavilion
was planned to primarily contain public spacesa reception hall, auditorium,
caf, store, and parking, plus 10,000 square feet of flexible space for temporary
exhibitions (MilwaukeeArtMuseum, N/D).

66

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.2.5.2.
a.

Kineticism in the Building:


Kinetic Elements:

The Museums signature wings, the Burke Brise Soleil, form a moveable
sunscreen with a 217-foot wingspan. The brise soleil is made up of 72 steel fins,
ranging in length from 26 to 105 feet. The entire structure weighs 90 tons. It takes
3.5 minutes for the wings to open or close (CALATRAVA, N/D-a).
b. Reason for Motion:
The movable wings the Burke Brise Soleil are used to control the
temperature and light in the reception hall. But it is hard to deny that their primary
purpose is to endow the museum with a landmark presence it never had
underneath the war memorial.

Figure 54: The Burke Brise Soleil, the moveable wings of the museum ranging in motion from totally
closed to completely opened (CALATRAVA, N/D-a).

3.2.5.3.
a.

Kinetic Design Key Elements:


Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement:
a.1. Structural System:
A reinforced concrete structural system (Figure 55 a,b,c)is
used for the 142000 square foot building with mat foundation.
This foundation system doesn't only work to spread loads but also
allows installation of more-robust waterproofing system. The
Burke-soleil is composed of a central spine of cylindrical crosssection and located above the central building of the pavilion
(solaripedia, N/D-b).
a.2. Used Materials:
The structure incorporates both cutting-edge technology and
old-world craftsmanship. The hand-built structure was made
largely by pouring concrete into one-of-a-kind wooden forms. It
is a building that could have only been done in a city with
Milwaukees strong craft tradition. Steel fins are used for the
movable wings.

67

Chapter Three

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 55: (a) An interior view of the structural frame of the parabolic-shaped skylight in the
Quadracci Pavilion (CALATRAVA, N/D-a). (b) The arched promenade at the Quadracci Pavilion
(CALATRAVA, N/D-a). (c) The unique shapes of the arched support concrete structures (solaripedia,
N/D-b).

b. Embedded Computation / Control Mechanism:


The fins of the Burke Brise Soleil are moved by hydraulic motors connected
to sensors located on those fins and are automatically controlled. Those sensors
continually monitor wind speed as well as direction. When the monitored wind
speed exceeds 23 mph for 3 seconds, the wings are automatically closed.
c.

Adaptive Architecture:

This building creates an entertainment environment. Although kineticism


was installed to strengthen the design concept, it has an environmental impact on
the interiors and it turned the Milwaukee Art Museum from being just a building
into a piece of the city.
3.2.5.4.

Indoor Environment Quality:

The interior of the museum is a bright open space that continues the flowing
exterior design all the way to its underground parking lot. Also, the interior of the
main hall and the exhibit spaces have clean and distinct lines adding feels of
smoothness to the surfaces. Natural light is allowed in the interior of the pavilion
through the day and by night artificial illumination is provided by powerful light
set low around the concrete ring beam (solaripedia, N/D-b).
3.2.5.5.

Building Visual Quality:

The building reflected the culture of the lake with its movable wings. Those
wings, the Burke Brise Soleil, response to the lake weather by opening and
closing as a huge bird over the lake trying to fly. Also, the entrance hall, the
Wind-hover Hall, appears like a ship prow with its floor-to-ceiling windows
viewing the Michigan Lake. As well, the cabled pedestrian bridge with its soaring
mast resembles a sailboat. Although natural light is washes the interiors of the
museum by day, at night the pavilion glows on the downtown lake front radiating
light in all directions.

68

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.1.6. Gemini Haus

Figure 56: An external view for the Gemini Haus (Salzburg.ORF.at, 2012).

3.2.6.1.

General Information:

a.

Completion Year:

Structure was completed in 2001.

b.

Architect:

This house is designed by Roland Msl.

c.

Building Cost:

No information available.

d.

Introduction:

The innovative residential solar application was devised by Roland Msl


who detailed the concept in the 1992 book Aufstieg zum Solarzeitalter (Advance
to the solar age). The idea received attention in 1993 when Msl won a prize at
the prestigious World Exhibition of Innovation, Research and New Technologies
at Brussels Expo. The concept of Msls turning solar home took form in the
cylindrical Gemini Haus prototype in 2001 as part of the Styria County Energy
Exhibition in Weiz (Figure 56).
e.

Location:

The house is located in Weiz, Austria.


f.

Concept:

The Gemini Haus behaves just like a planet and tracks the sun over the sky.
The house features 150 square meters of solar panels. The Gemini Haus is a oneof-a-kind solar experience that creates an energy surplus. The unique, streamlined
design and energy efficient systems are complemented by integrated furniture that
create a clean, modern interior. During the energy exhibition, the living space

69

Chapter Three

served as lecture hall and backdrop for guided tours that showcased the homes
innovative energy strategy. In the Gemini Haus, minimalist design meets luxury
living. Included in the concept are elements like a whirlpool bath and central
vacuum that makes living around the sun even more of an adventure. All exhaust,
supply air and waste water are fed into the center of the rotating house (Figure
57). By this house the architect aims to find connections between technology and
nature as well as ecological construction and design.

Figure 57: Center of the house were all exhaust,


supply air and waste water are fed into (PEGE,
2001).

g.

Building Components:

The building consists of two floors. The living room is located in the
ground floor and served as a lecture hall during the exhibition. The first floor
includes two rooms in a semicircle form (Figure 58).

Figure 58: Panoramic views for the ground floor and the first floor (PEGE, 2001).

70

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.2.6.2.
a.

Kineticism in the Building:


Kinetic Elements:

The house turns around and tracks the sun. And for more efficiency the
solar equipment can rotate independently from the house.
b. Reason for Motion:
The house can rotate 360 degrees maximizing the use of solar energy. The
energy radiation from the sun can be optimally used through the rotation of the
house. At night, all means of automatically controlled sliding glass panels are
hidden, so that the energy radiated at night can be as low as possible. Solar panels
installed on the exterior skin for the house moves around the sun providing better
efficiency, extreme thermal insulation, efficient design and heat recovery system.
The solar equipment attached to the exterior of the Gemini Haus can turn
independently allowing its users to control the indoor environment not only
through rotating the house.
3.2.6.3.
a.

Kinetic Design Key Elements:


Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement:
a.1. Structural System:
The building is a tilt structure. The two-storey house can
rotate over the firm basement where all fixtures and cables are
located (Figure 59 a).
a.2. Used Materials:
Organic materials were used such as wood, recycling paper
as well as glass and aluminum (Figure 59 b,c).

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 59: (a) Utility lines that are transferred to the rotating house through the firm basement
(PEGE, 2001). (b) Glass and aluminum fixes (van Poucke, 2008a). (c) Vertical solar panels attached to
the house (Lenardic, N/D).

71

Chapter Three

b. Embedded Computation / Control Mechanism:


Two gear-motors are used for turning the house although tests proved that
one would completely have been sufficient.

(a)

(b)

Figure 60: (a) A detail for connection between dynamic solar panels and the structure (PEGE, 2001).
(b) A detail for the track on which the house moves (PEGE, 2001).

c.

Adaptive Architecture:

This house creates living environment. Kineticism is not only involved as


the movable solar panels connected to the exterior skin of the house but also as
the house itself can rotate.

3.2.6.4.

Indoor Environment Quality:

Although the house was designed to meet low building site requirements,
minimum internal circulation area and small land availability, it offered its
residents all means of comfort and luxury as well as flexibility for home-office
activities.
3.2.6.5.

Building Visual Quality:

The house is an eye-catching structure that appears as if it was taken out of


a science fiction movie with all solar panels attached.

72

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.1.7. Dragspelhuset:

Figure 61: An external view for Dragspelhuset (24H<architecture, N/D).

3.2.7.1.

General Information:

a.

Completion Year:

The house was completed in 2004

b.

Architect:

This project is by 24H<architecture.

c.

Building Cost:

Construction cost 80000 .

d.

Introduction:

This is an extension to a cabin that dates from late 1800's. Although the
Swedish building regulations doesn't allow building along the lake shore, an
exception is made for existing building's extension. Also, there are restrictions for
maximum floor area. As a stream forms part of the cabin site boundaries, another
restriction that states a distance of 4.5 m to the stream should be followed
(Zeisser, 2007).
e.

Location:

The house (Figure 61) is located on the shore of the lake vre Gla in the
nature reserve Glaskogen in Sweden.
f.

Concept:

24H designed an extension that can both meet restrictive building


regulations and adapt to different conditions. The building can literally adjust
itself to its environment depending on weather conditions, season, or the number
of occupants (Figure 62 a,b). The extension was designed to unfurl like a butterfly
transforming from a cocoon in winter to a butterfly in summer (Park, 2007).

73

Chapter Three

g.

Building Components:

The extension contains a stove and a seating fitted into permanent slots in
the floor. The kitchen and the dining area are located in the permanent part of the
extension.
3.2.7.2.
a.

Kineticism in the Building:


Kinetic Elements:

The added extension involves a movable cantilever that can be pushed out
over the stream.

(a)

(b)

Figure 62: (a) A view for the cabin while the retractable cantilever is pushed in (Park, 2007, P. 60). (b)
A view for the cabin while the retractable cantilever is pushed out (Park, 2007, P. 60).

b. Reason for Motion:


Kineticism was installed to the building in order to make it flexible to meet
different conditions varying from changing weather conditions to different
seasons and number of occupants (Figure 63 a,b). In winter, pushing the moving
cantilever inside the extension will compact it with a double skin against the cold
weather. In summer-time wings, can be unfolded for extra shelter during rainy
days, and windows on the cabin head can be open wide (Figure 64 and Figure
65).

(a)

(b)

Figure 63: Dragspelhuset plan (Park, 2007, P. 67). (a) Plan drawing for the extension where the orange
color indicates the area of extension when the retractable cantilever is pushed in. (b) Plan drawing for
the extension where the red color indicates the added area after pushing the retractable cantilever out.

74

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

Figure 64: A section showing the extension while the retractable cantilever is pushed in creating a
double skin (Park, 2007, P. 67).

Figure 65: A section showing the extension while the retractable cantilever is pushed out over the
stream (Park, 2007, P. 67).

3.2.7.3.
a.

Kinetic Design Key Elements:


Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement:
a.1. Structural System:
The extension is a rotproof timber frame structure.
a.2. Used Materials:
Red cedar wood is used as a cladding for exterior walls
(Figure 66), while the interior walls are finished with pine lattice
(Figure 67).

Figure 66: The red cedar wood used for the exterior cladding (Zeisser, 2007, P. 12), (Park, 2007, P. 59).

75

Chapter Three

Figure 67: The reindeer hides covering the interior of the retractable cantilever (Park, 2007, P. 66).

b. Embedded Computation/Control Mechanism:


The extendible part can move in and out in a low-tech manner. A system of
ropes and pulleys are used.
c.

Adaptive Architecture:

This cabin creates living environments that can be changed in response to


weather patterns or area needed. Kineticism is installed as a part of the structure
itself which is the retractable cantilever.
3.2.7.4.

Indoor Environment Quality:

The cabin users can control their indoor environment according to changing
needs and weather. Covering the walls of the retractable extension in reindeer
hides works as an insulation treatment. Also, adding flexibility to the extension
design enhanced the indoor environment as the structure can be closed to itself in
winter or open to the outdoor in summer.
3.2.7.5.

Building Visual Quality:

Materials used on the exterior of the building allow the structure to


naturally blend with its surrounding rough forest. As red cedar wood was used for
the exterior skin, it naturally changes its color to grey to match surrounding rocks.
As windows are hidden in the structure's skin, no reference of the house is visible
when it stands alone in the forest. Also, during coming years moss will grow on
the wooden roof making it appear as a giant granite rock.

76

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.1.8. The Leaf Chapel:

Figure 68: An exterior view for the Leaf Chapel glowing at night (KleinDytham|architecture, N/D).

3.2.8.1.

General Information:

a.

Completion Year:

Construction completed in 2004.

b.

Architect:

Design is by Klein Dytham Architecture.

c.

Building Cost:

No information available.

d.

Introduction:

Soaring naves, mysterious lighting, and bold murals have always played a
great role in church architecture. Klien-Dytham Architecture has taken this
strategy into the 21st century, using its own form of stagecraft to add drama to a
small wedding chapel in the Japanese Alps. The chapel needed to have its own
identity and at least the semblance of spirituality. But because people of many
different faiths would get married there, it needed an ecumenical design with no
iconography associated with any particular religion or sect.
e.

Location:

The Leaf chapel (Figure 68) sits within the grounds of the Risonare hotel
resort in Kobuchizawa, a refreshingly green setting with beautiful views to the
southern Japanese Alps in Kobuchizawa, Japan.
f.

Concept:

Given an attractive garden setting, the architects decided to make nature an


important theme of their design. At first, the architects thought of making both
leaves creating the chapel out of glass, but soon realized a backdrop offering
views of the rolling garden would prove distracting to guests during the wedding
ceremony. As a result, one leaf was developed as a veil, a perforated metal
surface that would allow light in but block views (KleinDytham|architecture,
N/D).

77

Chapter Thhree

This notion waas translateed into a built form that climactic mom
ment of eveery
wedding. When the ceremony reaches itts end and the groom
m lifts the bride's veeil,
a curving wall slidess up and out
o of the way. Arranged in a looping ivvy pattern set
s
into the 11
1 ton movving wall, 4700 polyycarbonate lenses prooject light into a nylon
scrim stretched 10 incches from thhe wall's insside surface.
g.

Build
ding Compoonents:

The building consists of


o the chaapel main space, a storage rooom and an
entrance coorridor for bride's
b
entraance (Figuree 69).

Figure 69: A plan drawin


ng for the Leeaf Chapel sh
howing the co
omponents crreating the ch
hapel which are
a
the chapel great
g
hall, corrridor and stoorage (A. Peaarson, 2005, P.
P 244).

3.2.8.2.
a.

Kineticcism in thee Building:


Kinettic Elementts:

n one of its walls innto a moving


Kineeticism wass installed in the chaapel to turn
element. As
A the weddiing reaches its end, thee glass leaf is
i being liftted.

(a)

(b)

Figure 70: (aa) The Leaf Chapel


C
when in the closed
d state (KleinDytham|arch
hitecture, N/D
D). (b) The Leeaf
Chapel wheen in the opeened state byy the end off the wedding ceremony (KleinDythaam|architectu
ure,
N/D).

78

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

b. Reason for Motion:


Kineticism was applied to the design in order to achieve a conceptual aim
by following the wedding ceremony. The disappearing wall not only offers a
theatrical way of ending the ceremony, but also serves the more prosaic function
of quickly ushering guests out of the chapel and into the garden to celebrate. With
everyone out of the chapel, the steel veil closes allowing workers to prepare for
the next wedding.
3.2.8.3.
a.

Kinetic Design Key Elements:


Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement:
a.1. Structural System:
The chapel was designed as a light weight steel structure so
it can ride out earthquakes. A concrete basement provides space
for radiant heating and cooling that is blown into the sanctuary.
a.2. Used Materials:
Interior: Black granite was used for the flooring, stained
black pine for the walls, and black wood pews. Clear acrylic
backrests on the pews encase translucent green flowers that seem
to dance when sunlight hits them (Figure 71 a).
Exterior: One leaf made of glass with delicate lace pattern
Figure 71 b). The other one is made of steel quarter inch thick
steel panels welded together and attached to a tubular steel frame.

(a)

(b)

Figure 71: (a) An interior view showing the black granite used for flooring as well as the black wooden
pews with clear acrylic backrest (KleinDytham|architecture, N/D). (b) A detail for the lace patterns on
the movable leaf (KleinDytham|architecture, N/D).

b. Embedded Computation / Control Mechanism:


Two hydraulic rams (one at each end) lift the steel veil as if it is a roll up
garage door.

79

Chapter Three

c.

Adaptive Architecture:

This chapel creates public environment. Kineticism was installed on its wall
to take place within the ceremony and declares the end of the event by
announcing the couple as married.
3.2.8.4.

Indoor Environment Quality:

Although the design of the chapel isolates it from the surrounding, it opens
up to the landscape when the event reaches its end. Also, the patterns on the
movable wall help filtering light adding move spiritual effect to the hall.
3.2.8.5.

Building Visual Quality:

The chapel was pushed 12 feet into the ground and was tucked into a
sloping site in order to minimize its visual impact on the garden when viewed
from the nearby hotel rooms.

(a)

(b)

Figure 72: (a) A section drawing through the Leaf Chapel showing how the chapel was tucked into the
ground (Mr.Jacobsen, 2012). (b) An exterior view for the Leaf Chapel featuring the sloping site where
the chapel was located (Mr.Jacobsen, 2012).

80

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.1.9. QiZhong Forest Sports City Tennis Centre "Magnolia Stadium"

Figure 73: The Shanghai QiZhong Forest Sports City Tennis Centre (corus, 2006, P. 24,25).

3.2.9.1.

General Information:

a.

Completion Year:

Construction was completed in 2005.

b.

Architect:

This Stadium is designed by Mitsuru Senda +


Environment Design Institute.

c.

Building cost:

Construction cost about 200 million $.

d.

Introduction:

The Shanghai Municipal Commission of Construction and Administration


requested international bids in 2003, for building the stadium. The winning bid
was submitted by Japanese architect Mitsuru Senda and his company
Environment Design Institute. The Shanghai QiZhong Forest Sports City (Figure
73) Tennis Center is planned to be an international sport event center.
e.

Location:

The stadium is located in Minhang District, Shanghai, China.


f.

Concept:

The architect was inspired by the national flower of Shanghai, the magnolia.
As magnolia blossoms are known with their ability to open and close their petals
in response to weather condition as well as season, the stadium was designed to
respond to weather conditions by acting like a flower allowing it to open and
close its roof (Figure 74). The roof enables the stadium to host both indoor and
outdoor tennis events.

81

Chapter Three

Figure 74: A view for the stadium while its roof petals are open presenting a flower (TheTennisStory,
2011).

g.

Building Components:

The tennis centre covers a total area of 338,836 square meters, of which
85,000 square meters are made up of structures. The Center has a parking with
capacity of 993 parking spaces. It has four floors, for a total height of 40 m above
ground level. The center has a 15,000-seat center court, a 6,000-seat court, and 20
indoor courts and 22 outdoor courts. There is also a tennis activity center, tennis
club, and a players lounge (ShanghaiMinhang, N/D). The stadium includes
journalist working area, organizer working area, foreign integration office, VIP
reception as well as different rest areas (Figure 75).

Figure 75: A plan showing different components and seating area for QiZhong Forest Sports City
Tennis Centre (ShanghaiCulturalInformation, N/D).

82

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.2.9.2.
a.

Kineticism in the Building:


Kinetic Elements:

The Shanghai QiZhong Forest Sports City Tennis Centre has a dynamic
roof. The roof of the main stadium consists of eight moveable petals that can be
opened and closed (Figure 76 a,b).

(a)

(b)

Figure 76: (a) A drawing for the stadium roof while in a close state. (b) A drawing for the stadium
roof while in an open state.

b. Reason for Motion:


As the weather in Shanghai varies between much rains and strong sun, a
roof system for the stadium was necessary. The dynamic roof system is installed
in order to respond to changing weather conditions. When the weather is sunny,
the roof petals are opened providing sunshades all around the stadium. On the
other hand, when the weather is rainy, roof petals are set to close. Also, this
dynamic roof system is used to control the internal temperature of the stadium.
When the roof petals are opened, they help drawing cool air from the outside
down to the seating area. On the other hand, when the petals are closed, the
stadium is kept warm by re-circulating the warm air the rises and ducting it back
to under the seats (Starford, 2010).
3.2.9.3.
a.

Kinetic Design Key Element:


Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement:
a.1. Structural System:
The tension ring structure was used for the stadium that
creates
strong
and
reliable
Colosseum-shape
(ShanghaiCulturalInformation, N/D). Each of the moveable petals
is a steel cantilever structure system. Each petal was constructed
on the ground before hand and tested, then raised to the roof. This
system allows the structure of the stadium as well as the dynamic
roof to resist bad weather conditions, strong wind and typhoons.

83

Chapter Three

a.2. Used Materials:


Steel, glass and aluminum were used in the stadium, while
15050 m2 of aluminum sheets were used for the construction of
the moveable roof petals.
b. Embedded Computation / Control Mechanism:
Although the moveable roof is extremely simple, the movement system is
the first time in the world to be used (Figure 77 a,b). Each of the eight moveable
roof petals moves and turns around on one fulcrum, all at the same time. Under
each petal, a round truss with an inverted triangle section is located supporting the
petal. Each moveable petal can move by one fulcrum and three rails. This
mechanical system allows the roof to be opened in 8 minutes
(ShanghaiCulturalInformation, N/D).

(a)

(b)

Figure 77: The QiZhong Forest Sports City Tennis Center dynamic roof (van Poucke, 2008b). (a) A
close view for the roof petals while they are closed. (b) A close view for the roof petals while they are
being opened.

c.

Adaptive Architecture:

This Sports center creates an entertainment environment. Kineticism was


used as roof elements that allow the structure to respond to different conditions,
control indoor environment and host other international indoor sports events such
as basketball, volleyball, ping pong, or gymnastics.
3.2.9.4.

Indoor Environment Quality:

The design of the stadium added a sense of unity between players and
spectators. Also, the dynamic roof created a comfortable environment for both
players and spectators. Moreover, this dynamic roof makes it possible to host
different events and activities.
3.2.9.5.

Building Visual Quality:

The kinetic roof petals of the QiZhong Forest Sports City Tennis Centre
don't only create a landmark for Shanghai, but they also create an efficient
building altogether. At night, when the tennis center is lighted up, it glows and
radiates light in all directions.

84

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.1.10. Kiefer Technic Showroom

Figure 78: An exterior view for the Kiefer Technic Showroom (Deisenberger, 2009, P. 21).

3.2.10.1. General Information:


a.

Completion Year:

The showroom was completed in 2007.

b.

Architect:

Design is
Architektur

c.

Building Cost:

No information available.

by

Ernst

Giselbrecht

Partner

d. Introduction:
Kiefer Techin is a company specialized in state-of-the-art operation theatre
equipment and doors. The client asked for a showroom that can present the
products in the best way (ErnstGiselbrecht+PartnerZT-GmbH, N/D).
e.

Location:

The showroom is overlooking a park in Bad Gleichenberg, Austria.


f.

Concept:

As office buildings were characterized by their modular facades divided


with window strips, a new concept was presented by giving the Kiefer Technic
Showroom (Figure 78) a dynamic faade. The architect expanded the possibilities
to be afforded between privacy and transparency by installing a moveable
cladding on the entire southern faade of the showroom. This cladding made it
easy to realize the transparent faade while maintaining the cozy atmosphere in
the rooms. The dynamic southern faade blended architecture with computation
allowing the building to dynamically change its appearance.

85

Chapter Three

g.

Building Components:

The building consists of a ground floor and an upper floor that includes
office spaces and exhibition space (Figure 79 a,b).

(a)

(b)

Figure 79: Kiefer Technic Showroom floor plans (ErnstGiselbrecht+PartnerZT-GmbH, N/D). (a) The
ground floor plan where the red color marks the kinetic faade. (b) The upper floor plan where the red
color marks the kinetic faade.

3.2.10.2. Kineticism in the Building:


a.

Kinetic Elements:

On the south side, a double skin faade is located. The faade consists of
two layers; a static one made of polygonal glass and a dynamic one located in
front of it. The dynamic layer (Figure 80) consists of 122 aluminum panels that
can be moved vertically into numerous positions (Deisenberger, 2009).

Figure 80: Different positions for the aluminum panels giving the faade a variety of appearance
(WorldBuildingsDirectoryOnlineDatabase, N/D).

86

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

b. Reason for Motion:


Kineticism was installed in the Kiefer Technic Showroom faade in order to
control the indoor climate and light. By using 56 different engines in the facade,
the level of light and temperature can be adjusted in any room to achieve optimal
conditions for different activities. The faade responds to both environmental
conditions and individual needs (Priebe, 2012).
3.2.10.3. Kinetic Design Key Elements:
a.

Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement:


a.1. Structural System:
The shell construction of the facade consists of solid brick
walls, reinforced concrete ceilings and floors, and steel encased
concrete columns.
a.2. Used Materials:
Stainless steel and glass are used. The dynamic faade is
made of white perforated aluminum panels.

b. Embedded Computation / Control Mechanism:


Aluminum panels of the dynamic faade are moved though a complex
system of hinges, guide rails (Figure 81) and electrical motors. The system is
controlled though an electronic control system (Deisenberger, 2009).

Figure 81: A close view for the moveable aluminum panels showing the guide rails they move on
(WorldBuildingsDirectoryOnlineDatabase, N/D).

87

Chapter Three

c.

Adaptive Architecture:

This building creates a work environment. Kineticism was installed as a


faade element allowing the building to respond to different conditions that
includes environmental changes, individual desires and different activities that
may take place within the building.
3.2.10.4. Indoor Environment Quality:
The dynamic faade created comfortable indoor environment as it works as
a sun protection as well as light and temperature regulator. Also, the transparent
faade connected the internal environment of the building with the surrounding
landscape and park opening it to the external views.
3.2.10.5. Building Visual Quality:
Adding movement to the building's faade turned it into a kinetic sculpture
that can continuously present new faces through an almost infinitely changeable
and programmable position patterns (Figure 82). The architect used Kiefer Techin
technology in the dynamic faade adding an extra privilege to the showroom by
turning it to an eye-catcher advertisement for the services as well as the quality
the company is capable of presenting.

Figure 82: A drawing shows different positions for the aluminum moveable panels presenting the
relation between solid and void where the grey color presents solid.

88

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.1.11. Sliding House

Figure 83: An exterior view for the Sliding House (dRMM, N/D).

3.2.11.1. General Information:


a.

Completion Year:

Construction completed in 2009

b.

Architect:

The house is designed by dRMM Architecture.

c.

Building Cost:

No information available.

d.

Introduction:

The site where the house is located offers a combination of agricultural


environments from England and Holland. The site has restrains by stringent local
planning parameters for rural development. The client wanted a house where they
can grow food, entertain and enjoy the surrounding landscape (dRMM, N/D).
e.

Location:

This project is located in Suffolk, UK.


f.

Concept:

The architect designed a building which consists of three conventional


forms with unconventional detailing and performance. These forms represent the
main house, the garage and guest annex. Different materials and colors were used
to characterize each form. The garage was pulled of the other forms axis in order
to create a courtyard between the three forms. The house has a sliding exterior
skin that can connect the different forms together creating different enclosures.
The house can be extended in the future by adding a pool.

89

Chapter Three

g.

Building Components:

(Figure 84). The main house and the annex consist of two levels each. The
main house ground floor includes a bedroom, TV room, dining room, kitchen,
toilet and storage, while the annex ground floor includes a bedroom, kitchen and a
toilet (Figure 85 a). The main house first floor includes the living room and the
master bedroom with its bathroom as well as dressing room, while the annex first
floor includes office and living space (Figure 85 b).

Figure 84: An isometric showing the different parts creating the building (dRMM, N/D).

(a)

(b)

Figure 85: Plans for the sliding house while the red color presents the sliding part once while closed
and the other while completely open (Russell, 2010). (a) The ground floor plan for the Sliding House.
(b) The first floor plan floor the Sliding House.

3.2.11.2. Kineticism in the Building:


a.

Kinetic Elements:

Kineticism was involved in the building as a moveable 20 ton roof/wall


structure that can slide over the longitudinal axis of the house. This moveable
structure acts as a second skin for the exterior that can be slid back and forth
(Figure 86).

Figure 86: An isometric drawing showing different positions for the moveable (dRMM, N/D).

90

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

b. Reason for Motion:


The moveable structure is used to control the incoming sunlight. Also, it is
used to adjust the cooling and heating loads of the house according to season and
weather. Moreover, by sliding the moveable exterior skin it creates extra
sunshade for the terrace (Figure 87 a) or different enclosures between the three
parts creating the building (Figure 87 b). As well, the sliding part is used to
respond to inhabitants' desires, the level of privacy they need allowing them to
create their relation with the surrounding landscape and views.

(a)

(b)

Figure 87: (a) A view for the sliding exterior skin while creating an extra sunshade for the terrace
(Russell, 2010). (b) Different views for the sliding exterior skin creating different enclosure between the
three forms creating the house, and while leaving the courtyard exposed to the sky (Waite, 2009).

3.2.11.3. Kinetic Design Key Elements:


a.

Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement:


a.1. Structural System:
The house is a timber frame structure.
structure is a steel and timber frame structure.

The

moveable

a.2. Used Materials:


Materials such as steel, red and black stained larch timber,
red rubber membrane and glass were used.
b. Embedded Computation / Control Mechanism:
The moveable skin is remote controlled. This skin moves on railway tracks
that can be extended in the future. The movement is powered by hidden electric
motors on wheels integrated into the wall thickness (Figure 88 a).
c.

Adaptive Architecture:

This house creates a living environment. Kineticism was used as a part of


the building allowing it to adapt to different conditions varying from
environmental changes to occupants' needs and desires (Figure 88 b).

91

Chapter Three

(a)

(b)

Figure 88: (a) A detailed section drawing for the glass form while it is closed by the moveable roof/wall
structure and while it is opened to the surrounding by sliding the moveable roof/wall structure away
(dRMM, N/D). (b) Views for the sliding exterior shell once when closed and the other when completely
open (Russell, 2010).

3.2.11.4. Indoor Environment Quality:


The sliding skin offers a variety of interior spaces, sun shading as well as
views by creating combinations of both enclosure and open-air living spaces.
3.2.11.5. Building Visual Quality:
By sliding the moveable structure over the house, it changes the different
facades of the house according to look and behavior (Figure 89).

Figure 89: Different exterior views for the house while the moveable structure in different positions
(Elite-Choice, 2009).

92

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.1.12. The Olympic Tennis Center "Magic Box"

Figure 90: An external view for the Olympic Tennis from north across the Manzanares River Center
(Riley, 2005, P. 118).

3.2.12.1. General Information:


a.

Completion Year:

This project was completed in 2009.

b.

Architect:

The stadium is
Perrault Architecte.

designed

c.

Building Cost:

Construction
taxes.

d.

Introduction:

cost

by

150,000,000

Dominique
excluding

Although the origins of the Olympic games dates back to 776 BC in


Olympia in Greece, it is the world's foremost sports competition that currently
held every two years with more than 200 nations participating in it. Nowadays the
bidding process for the Olympics lets cities adorn their applications with star
architects. For the Summer Olympics 2016, at the time when the first phase of the
bidding process officially launches at May 16, 2007, many cities planned already
carefully their campaign. June, 2002 the Spanish capital city Madrid invited
several leading architects for their international competition. The winner for the
Olympic Tennis Center (Figure 90) was Dominique Perrault.
The project, does not only aims to reinforce the candidature of the
Olympics, but should be versatile for profitable later on events. With these
guidelines Dominique Perrault designed a multi-functional sports complex, which
he calls the Magic Box.
e.

Location:

This project is located alongside the Manzanares River and contains a small
lake. The Olympic Tennis Center "Magic Box" is located in a former slum
housing area in the middle of a busy motorway and train network in Madrid,
Spain.

93

Chapter Three

f.

Concept:

The Olympic Tennis Center encloses sports and multi-functional buildings.


It opens up and shapes itself to the various uses. Instead of locating seating areas
or the circulation in a way that can view the outside surrounding landscape, the
three stadiums are carved out of a simple larger volume. Each of these stadiums
creates a different court. The main court characterizes the interior volume, while
the other two courts inhabit the remainder and are located on the southern edge
(Figure 91). Audiences, athletes, press and staff can separately enter the center
through two different entries located opposite to each other. Audiences can enter
the Olympic Tennis Center though a long footbridge that leads to the center's
ground level which is the main hub. This footbridge sits over the lake. The other
entry is for athletes, press and stuff. The metal mesh cladding used for the
building's outer skin is one of the architect's design characteristics.

Figure 91: Perspective for the "Magic Box" showing the movable lids covering the three courts while
closed and opened (Riley, 2005, P. 120).

g.

Building Components:

The project consists of the magic box that includes three indoor/outdoor
courts with covered area for 20,000 spectators, each with different seating
capacity. Also, the project includes 16 outdoor courts, five courts with a covered
area for 350 spectators each, six practice courts, an indoor swimming pool,
headquarters for the Madrid Tennis Federation, a tennis school, clubhouse, press
center, stadium boxes and VIP spaces and restaurants (Figure 92).

Figure 92: A plan drawing showing the Olympic Tennis Center main components (Riley, 2005, P. 116).

94

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.2.12.2. Kineticism in the Building:


a.

Kinetic Elements:

The three courts creating the Magic Box are covered with movable roofs.
Each kinetic roof acts as a lid for the stadium it covers. Together the three
movable lids provide a combination of 27 different opening positions (Figure 93).
The movable lid covering the central court can have a vertical opening that
reaches up to 20m, while the horizontal opening can slide as much as its width. In
addition, the other smaller lids covering the other two courts can vertically open
up to 25 degrees and can also horizontally slide leaving the inside of the stadiums
completely exposed to the sky.

Figure 93: A drawing to show the different 27 opening positions for the three lids covering the courts
(Jordana, 2012).

b. Reason for Motion:


The movable lids covering the courts are designed to allow the building to
adapt to weather changes, to allow for passage of air and sunlight by being
opened or closed. Also, these lids allow controlling the environment where the
events are taking place varying from exposed to public or not depending on the
degree of the opening and how far. If the stadium is lidded, the even taking place
within remains quiet and unknown to the outside. On the other hand, if the lid is
open, audible traces of the activity will spill out the box.

95

Chapter Three

3.2.12.3. Kinetic Design Key Elements:


a.

Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement:


a.1. Structural System:
A lightweight shell is used as the structure system for the
Olympic Tennis Center.
a.2. Used Materials:
The magic box is composed
aluminum, glass and concrete.

of

various

fabrics:

steel,

b. Embedded Computation / Control Mechanism:


The lids are mounted on hydraulic jacks that serve to partially or totally
open courts' roofs (Figure 94).

Figure 94: A close view for a hydraulic jack (van


Poucke, 2010).

c.

Adaptive Architecture:

This sports facility creates an entertainment environment. Kineticism is


installed on the building's top turning its roof from a static state into a dynamic
one, while allowing it to respond to different conditions.
3.2.12.4. Indoor Environment Quality:
The vibrant skin filters the sunlight and serves as a windbreak. The kinetic
roof for the Olympic Tennis Center makes it flexible to celebrate almost any kind
of sports events as well as others such as concerts, fashion shows and political
meetings.
3.2.12.5. Building Visual Quality:
The Olympic Tennis Center appears as a large box that is raised above the
water on a series of columns, making it appears as if hovering above the ground.
Also, raising the building turned the area beneath into a public space that can be
used by pedestrians day and night. Moreover, the metallic mesh on the exterior
makes the building appear as if shimmering in daylight. At night, the light
radiating from within signals the events taking place inside.

96

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.1.13. Cherokee Studios Lofts

Figure 95: An external view for the Cherokee Studios Lofts (Brooks+ScarpArchitecture, N/D).

3.2.13.1. General Information:


a.

Completion Year:

The project was completed in 2010.

b.

Architect:

Design is by Pugh + Scarpa Architects.

c.

Building Cost:

No information available.

d.

Introduction:

The Cherokee Lofts (Figure 95) is the first "green" Leadership in Energy
and Environmental Design (LEED) Certified mixed-use, market rated multifamily building per the U.S. Green Building Council certification system in
Southern California, making it the most advanced as well as distinctive of its kind
in Los Angeles. The design of the mixed-use development did not only meet the
goals of a green building, but also enabled the building to be more
environmentally sensitive as well as aesthetically appealing.
e.

Location:

The project is in Los Angeles, California, USA.


f.

Concept:

The British artist Patrick Hughes painting series "Prospectivity" was the
inspiration for the Cherokee Lofts building as these painting appear to be ever
changing and physically moving while being viewed. The project is located in a
tight site that allows no space for storm-water infiltration and requires open space.
The storm water infiltrated under the public sidewalk on the right of the way
resulting in a design that captures rain-water from the city street creating an
opportunity to landscape the front of the building rather than having a barren

97

Chapter Three

concrete sidewalk with a couple of street trees. The building's top designed to be a
green roof deck not only to meet the open space requirements, but also to reduce
the heating and cooling loads of the building, reduce the heat-island effect as well
as capturing and filtering storm-water. The Cherokee Lofts building has an
operable screen that makes it look as if living.
g.

Building Components:

The Cherokee Studios building is a 4 storey mixed-use housing


development that consists of 12 units (Figure 96), 2800 ft2 of commercial retail
space on the ground floor and one underground level for parking
(Brooks+ScarpArchitecture, N/D). There are 7 two-storey town homes that are
located 30 ft to 50 ft above street level. On the fourth floor, 38 ft above street
level, the living space for the town home is located. This living space consists of a
state-of-art kitchen, great room, bathroom and home recording studio/office.
Three units are tri-level and have 17 ft high ceiling with mezzanine and open to
the landscaped courtyard. The last two lofts are flats with 10 ft high ceiling and
open to the landscaped courtyard as well. All units include 2 to 3 bathrooms and
with 1 to 4 bedrooms (RethinkDevelopementCorp., N/D).

Figure 96: Different residential units that vary from loft flats to tri-level units and tow-homes
(Brooks+ScarpArchitecture, N/D).

3.2.13.2. Kineticism in the Building:


a.

Kinetic Elements:

The design features an owner-controlled operable double faade system that


consists of perforated anodized aluminum panels (Figure 97).

Figure 97: Different views for the operable aluminum panels (Brooks+ScarpArchitecture, N/D).

98

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

b. Reason for Motion:


The kinetic screen for the building aims to provide shade to cool the
building, reduce noise, enhance privacy and yet allows for marvelous views.
Also, the perforated screen helps controlling indoor daylight and maximizing the
natural ventilation efficiency even when closed (Figure 98).

Figure 98: A diagram showing reason for installing a kinetic skin (Brooks+ScarpArchitecture, N/D).

3.2.13.3. Kinetic Design Key Elements:


a.

Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement:


a.1. Structural System:
The structure is a concrete skeleton.
a.2. Used Materials:
Materials such as formaldehyde-free fiberboard, concrete,
natural stone, and natural solid woods were used. Green Materials
and Products are used throughout that are recycled, renewable,
and contain low or no VOCs. Perforated anodized aluminum
panels are used for the operable skin (Figure 99 a).
.

(a)

(b)

Figure 99: (a) Close view of the perforated anodized aluminum panels(Brooks+ScarpArchitecture,
N/D). (b) Detailed view for the operable skin (Brooks+ScarpArchitecture, N/D).

99

Chapter Three

b. Embedded Computation / Control Mechanism:


The building's screen is operated manually; a hand push will turn the
operable panels from completely closed to fully opened (Figure 99 b).
c.

Adaptive Architecture:

This development is considered as a living environment although it has


some commercial spaces on the ground level. Kineticism is installed in the
building's faade allowing its residents to control the relation between the interior
and the surrounding environment.
3.2.13.4. Indoor Environment Quality:
The location of the two-storey town home living space helped maximizing
city sky-line views and both daylight and energy efficiency. All interiors designed
to be eco-luxury with simple and modern lines while maintaining sustainability.
The green roof for the Cherokee Lofts was designed as a garden with two terraces
providing a pleasant place for its residents with breathtaking views. The
perforated aluminum panels used on the south facing wall adds an unexpected
depth while creating a sense of security for the residents by filtering the coming
direct sunlight.
3.2.13.5. Building Visual Quality:
Dividing the faade into small moving panels added motion to the building
by making it appear as if moving with pedestrians and cars (Figure 100).

Figure 100: A study showing the relation between solid and void through different stages starting from
all panels are close till reaching the stage when all panels are opened.

100

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.1.14. The World Trade Center Transportation Hub

Figure 101: A perspective for the exterior of The World Trade Center Transportation Hub
(WorldTradeCenter, N/D).

3.2.14.1. General Information:


a.

Completion Year:

The project is still


(completion staled in 2014).

under

construction

b.

Architect:

The hub is designed by Santiago Calatrava.

c.

Building Cost:

The project costs 3.8 billion USD.

d.

Introduction:

The World Trade Center Transportation (WTC) Hub will not only add an
architectural beauty to downtown Manhattan, but it will also enhance the level of
services (Figure 101). The transportation hub is designed to accommodate 250000
pedestrians per day along with tourists and visitors of the World Trade Center and
Memorial. Through the hub pedestrians will be able to access different directions
as the hub is connected to 13 subway lines, Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH)
trains, Hudson River ferry terminals as well as a possible direct rail link to John
F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport. The design of the hub was first revealed
to the public in 2004. Later in 2005 and 2008, the design was revised to meet
security, engineering and feasibility requirements.
e.

Location:

The hub is located close to the northeast corner of the WTC site at Church
and Fulton Streets (between Towers 2 and 3).

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Chapter Three

f.

Concept:

Santiago Calatrava got inspired by the gesture of a child releasing a dove


into the sky (Figure 102 a,b). The hub entrance, the Oculus, consists of 300 steel
pieces that features two 150 ft high wings located over a body built of two sets of
glass and steel arches that are over 30 ft tall and weights between 10-25 tons for
each. As the architect considered the light an important material involved in the
design adding a welcome spirit to the interior, sunlight can go down way into the
interior of the building to the rail platforms that are 60 ft below street level
through the roof's ribbed glass and steel arches. In 2008, in order to reduce
construction costs, the design of the steel wings was changed to a non-retractable.

(a)

(b)

Figure 102: (a) A sketch for a child releasing a dove into the sky which is the inspiration of the
designed building (CALATRAVA, N/D-b). (b) An exterior perspective for the WTC Transportation
Hub appears as a flying bird (CALATRAVA, N/D-b).

g.

Building Components:

The new WTC Transportation Hub (Figure 103) will include:


A multi-storey central transit hall designed in the style of Grand
Central Terminal, incorporating a lower concourse, an upper
(balcony) concourse, a public waiting area, and first-class retail
amenities.
Enhanced permanent PATH facilities and services incorporating three
full-service extended 10-car platforms, as well as an additional
platform to accommodate service needs and five tracks.
An integrated network of underground pedestrian connections from
the lower and upper concourses, which will lead to adjoining New
York City Transit subway stations and the proposed MTA Fulton
Street Transit Center through the Dey Street Corridor. Pedestrians
also will be able to access locations on and around the WTC site,
including the five WTC office towers, the Memorial and Museum,
Hudson River ferry terminals, the World Financial Center, PATH
trains, 13 subway lines, and the proposed JFK rail link.
Retail facilities of approximately 200,000 ft2 within the transit hub
and the pedestrian concourses accommodating a variety of restaurants
and stores.

102

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

Figure 103: A section for the WTC Transportation Hub (W. Dunlap, 2005).

3.2.14.2. Kineticism in the Building:


a.

Kinetic Elements:

In the original design, the steel ribs with glass panels between them creating
the ceiling of the hub were meant to open to 45 ft wide (Figure 104 a,b) before
being reduced to 30 ft wide and changing the ceiling design into fixed later in
2008.

(a)

(b)

Figure 104: Section drawing showing the steel ribs that were supposed to move as well as the lightening
system (Yee, 2007, P. 63). (b) Interior prespective views for the main hall while the top is closed and
opened (LowerManhattanConstructionCommandCenter, N/D).

b. Reason for Motion:


The retractable glass and steel roof was planned to cover the freestanding
grand pavilion which was going to open each year on the anniversary of the
September 11th attacks in which a hanging American flag recovered from the
ruins of the Twin Towers was going to be featured. Also, it was planned to be
used to maximize natural light inside the hub.

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Chapter Three

3.2.14.3. Kinetic Design Key Elements:


a.

Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement:


a.1. Structural System:
The structure is a freestanding steel farm work.
a.2. Used Materials:
Steel, glass and concrete are used.

b. Embedded Computation / Control Mechanism:


The design of the transportation hub features advanced controlling,
monitoring, security and signal systems. Those systems include closed-circuit
television (CCTV) systems, physical intrusion protection, chemical, biological
and radiological security. Also, platforms and mezzanines are climate controlled.
The retractable wings were supposed to be automated, moved by hydraulic
motorized system that is connected to automatic control devices.
c.

Adaptive Architecture:

A kinetic element was meant to be the building's wings allowing it to open


on September 11th, the building itself was to be a magnificent memorial for the
attack on the Twin Towers. The World Trade Center Transportation Hub creates a
public environment that allows its users to access different directions and means
of transportation as well as hosting commercial spaces.
3.2.14.4. Indoor Environment Quality:
The underground concourse, mezzanine and platform levels were designed
to be free of vertical columns to maximize the sense of light, movement and
openness. Opening the roof to allow sunlight to flood the interior of the
transportation hub is an unusual strategy for a New York subway station.
Sustainable design principles are applied to the project from energy efficient
systems, indoor environmental quality, life-cycle costs and impacts, material
resource and conservation, to enhance the interior and exterior building quality.
3.2.14.5. Building Visual Quality:
The design of the World Trade Center Transportation Hub calls for a
soaring and a skeletal structure that is punctuated by white spires meant to
represent a bird in flight. Although the station appears transparent, it seems to be
protecting its users with the huge wings. The unusual style for the World Trade
Center Transportation Hub is not only enjoyable by its users or the moving by
pedestrians but also by the users of the towers above by looking down upon the
hub.

104

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.1.15. Dynamic Tower

Figure 105: A perspective for the Dynamic Tower (DynamicArchitecture, N/D).

3.2.15.1. General Information:


a.

Completion Year:

The tower was originally scheduled to open in


2010. Although the construction of the tower
did not start until now, the architect insists that
the reason is due to delays in land approvals
not in financing and/or technical problems.

b.

Architect:

The
tower
is
Architecture Group.

c.

Building Cost:

The tower will cost approximately 700 million


USD.

d.

Introduction:

designed

by

Dynamic

David Fisher, the founder and chairman of Dynamic Architecture Group,


thinks that building construction and materials used in the architectural field
didn't develop since over 100 years ago when reinforced concrete was first used.
Buildings are designed and built to last for 50 years while in old ages they lasted

105

Chapter Three

longer even for thousands of years. With means of construction and materials
used in buildings today to achieve good quality, they result in expensive buildings
that are unaffordable by many, slow to build and difficult to maintain. These
buildings also are not capable to stand natural catastrophes such as earth quakes,
hurricanes, typhoons or even strong winds, also adding errors done by humans
such as malfunctioning of plumping, gas or electrical systems. David Fisher
searching for a mean to design and construct buildings based on logic and
engineering as well as being much safer, feasible and environment friendly
resulted in the "Dynamic Tower". The Dynamic Tower (Figure 105) is an
industrial production making it the easiest to design and build as all its floors look
the same although they may host different uses. What adds the fancy shape to the
building is motion making it not only a building but a living machine.
e.

Location:

The tower is planned to be located in Dubai, UAE.


f.

Concept:

The architect aims to create a safer building that can last and resist for a
longer time by building the Dynamic Tower. The tower will be 420 m (1380 ft)
tall. It is designed to be self powered by sun and wind as well as being
industrialized making it sustainable and smart. There will be 79 wind turbine
systems installed horizontally in the gaps between each of the rotating floors
(Figure 106). Also, photovoltaic solar cells will be installed on the roof of each
floor to produce solar energy (Figure 106 b). With energy produced from 20% of
each of the 80 roofs exposed to sun and light next to the energy produced by wind
turbines, the tower will be able not only to fulfill its needs of energy but also to
supply 10 similar sized buildings with energy. As almost 90% of the tower will be
constructed in factory, the number of on-site workers will be reduces from almost
2000 to 90 (Fisher, 2010).

(a)

(b)

Figure 106: (a) Drawing representing the installation of wind turbines and the way they are involved in
the design concept (DynamicArchitecture, N/D). (b) Drawing representing the use of solar panels on
top of each rotating floor (DynamicArchitecture, N/D)

106

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

g.

Building Components:

The Dynamic Tower is made up of 80 pre-fabricated floors. The retail space


is located in the first lower 20 floors, while the hotel takes place in the next 15
floors. The residential part of the tower is located in the top 45 floors, 35 floors
are dedicated for apartments while the top 10 floors are for luxurious villa-style
apartments (Figure 107 a,b). The residential space will range in size from 124 m2
(1330 ft2) for apartments to 1200 m2 (12900 ft2) for villas and all are with a
parking space inside.

(a)

(b)

Figure 107: Dynamic Tower floor plans (DynamicArchitecture, N/D). (a) Plan drawing for the villas
which are located on the top 10 floors. (b) Plan drawing for the hotel unites which is located on the first
lower 20 floors.

3.2.15.2. Kineticism in the Building:


a.

Kinetic Elements:

The Dynamic Tower consists of 80 floors that rotate creating the first
kinetic element in the tower, while the second element is the 79 wind turbines
located between each of those floors.
b.

Reason for Motion:

While the tower's wind turbines produce energy, the floors may rotate to
fulfill their users' desires of changing views or to follow sun and light to produce
energy.
3.2.15.3. Kinetic Design Key Elements:
a.

Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement:


a.3. Structural System:
The
Dynamic
Tower
will
be
pre-fabricated
and
industrialized. The only part of the tower that will be constructed

107

Chapter Three

on-site is the tower central core. Each of the tower floors will
consist of 12 modules that will be fully built in factory before
arriving at the site. Those modules will be assembled around the
core base and then will be lifted up by cranes and cables (Figure
108).
a.4. Used Materials:
The tower's units are made of steel, aluminum, carbon fiber
and other high quality modern materials. Natural and recyclable
materials including stone, marble, glass and wood are intended
for the interior finishing.

Figure 108: Drawing presenting the technical system will be used to construct the tower
(DynamicArchitecture, N/D).

b.

Embedded Computation / Control Mechanism:

It is planned to install the most advanced monitoring systems and


technologies to the Dynamic Tower. Tower residents and users will be able to
control rotation and other installed systems though out a voice-active mechanism.
c.

Adaptive Architecture:

Although the tower hosts retail spaces, the Dynamic Tower is considered to
create living environment as the residential part (hotel, apartments and villas)
create 75% of the tower uses. Kineticism creates the tower itself because each of
its 80 floors separately revolves around the central core.
3.2.15.4. Indoor Environment Quality:
The tower residents will be able to rotate the floors according to their desire
whether to choose their favorite view, follow the sun or even set it to slowly

108

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

rotate to enjoy all possible views. Using smart, recyclable and natural materials as
well as advanced technologies offers all tower users sustainable, clean and safe
environments to live and/or work within (Figure 109). With such technologies it
is possible to control all systems installed just by voice (Cherry, 2010).

Figure 109: Drawings representing


(DynamicArchitecture, N/D).

natural

ventilation

as

well

as

sunlight

filtering

3.2.15.5. Building Visual Quality:


The tower will have a futuristic look. As the floor plans are triangular and
they separately move according to desire, the tower will continuously change its
form and shape in varies variety of configurations. According to the architect, the
Dynamic Tower will never look the same twice in its lifetime (Figure 110).

Figure 110: Different views for the Dynamic Tower while in motion (Cherry, 2010, P. 36).

109

Chapter Three

Floirac
House

Naked
House

Gemini
Haus

Dragspelh
uset

Sliding
House

Cherokee
Studios

Dynamic
Tower

Completion
Year

1993

1998

2000

2001

2004

2009

2010

Constructio
n didn't start
yet

Architect

Hans Peter
Wrndl

Rem
Koolhaas
(OMA)

Shigeru Ban

Roland
Msl

24>H
architecture

dRMM
Architcts

Brooks +
Scarpa

Dynamic
Architecture
Group

Cost

N/A

N/A

225,000
USD

N/A

80,000

N/A

N/A

700 million
USD

Mondsee,
Austria

Bordeaux,
France

Saitama,
Japan

Weiz,
Austria

Glaskogen,
Sweden

Suffolk, UK

California,
USA

Dubai, UAE

Building

Elevator
platform

Moveable
boxes

Building
and solar
panels

Expandable
room

Sliding
structure

Aluminum
panels

Building

Whole
Structure

Indoor
element

Indoor
element

Indoor
element

Structure
part

Structure
part

Elevation
elements

Whole
Structure

Functional
creating
flexible
spaces

Environmen
tal control
light, adjust
cool and
heat loads

Environmen
tal light
control,
reduce
energy
consumptio
n and
natural
ventilation

Luxurious
and
environmen
tal

Reinforced
concrete
structure

Prefabricate
d structure

Aluminum

Steel,
aluminum
and carbon
fiber

Manual
control

Remote
control
deivce
Voiceactive
system

Kinetic
Elements
Reason for Motion
Control
Mechanism

Kineticism in the Building


Kinetic Design Key Elements

Structural Innovation &


Materials Advancement
Structural
Used Materials
System

Adaptable
Architectu
re

General Information

Picture

GucklHupf

Location

Name

The table below briefly highlights the analytical criteria for each of the
fifteen evaluated buildings. Buildings are categorized according to type of indoor
environment.

Fuctional
creating
flexibile
spaces

Functional accessibility

Functional
creating
flexibile
spaces

Environmen
tal light
control,
reduce
energy
consumptio
n and
natural
ventilation

Frame
structure

Reinforced
concrete
structure

Frame
structure

Frame
structure

Frame
structure

Frame
structure

Wood, glass
and
aluminum

Aluminum
sheets and
steel

Timber and
paper
honeycom
panels

Steel and
glass

Red cedar
wood, pine
lattice and
steel

Steel,
timber and
glass

Automatic
device
Automated
system

Remote
control
device
Automated
system

Manual
control

Automatic
device
Automated
system

Manual
control
system of
robs and
pulleys

Remote
control
device
Automated
system

Living environment

110

Institut du
Monde Arabe

Milwaukee Art
Museum
"Quadracci
Pavilion"

QiZhong
Forest Sports
City Tennis
Center

The Olympic
Tennis Center
"Magic Box"

The Leaf
Chapel

The World
Trade Center
Transportatio
n Hub

Completion
Year

2007

1987

2001

2005

2009

2004

To be
completed in
2014

Architect

Ernst
Giselbrecht +
Partner
Architektur

Jean Nouvel

Santiago
Calatrava

Mitsuru Senda

Dominique
Perrault
Architecte

Klein Dytham
Architecture

Santiago
Calatrava

Cost

N/A

47,500,000
USD

122 million
USD

200 million
USD

150 million

N/A

3.8 billion
USD

Location

Bad
Gleichenberg,
Austria

Paris, France

Wisconsin,
USA

Shanghai,
China

Madrid, Spain

Kobuchizawa,
Japan

New York,
USA

Aluminum
panels

Mashrabia
diaphragms

Steel wings

Roof petals

Roof lids

Leaf wall

Steel wings

Elevation
elements

Faade
elements

Roof element

Roof elements

Roof elements

Walls

Roof elements

Environmenta
l light
control

Environmenta
l light
control

Environmenta
l light
control

Environmenta
l light
control and
adating to
weather

Environmenta
l light
control and
adating to
weather

Desing
concept

Concept and
environmental
light control

Reinforced
concrete
structure

Frame
structure

Frame
structure

tension ring
structure

Reinforced
concrete
structure

Frame
structure

Frame
structure

Aluminum
panels, glass
and stainless
steel

Glazed
aluminum,
steel, glass
and light
sensitive
diaphragms

Steel and
wind sensors

aluminum

aluminum

Steel and
glass

Steel and
glass

Control Mechanism

Automatic
device
Automated
system

Computer
output device
Automated
system

Automatic
device
Automated
system

Automatic
device
Automated
system

Automatic
device
Automated
system

Automated
control

Automatic
device
Automated
system

Working
environment

Kinetic
Elements
Reason for
Motion

Kineticism in the Building


Kinetic Design Key Elements

Structural Innovation & Materials


Advancement
Structural
Used Materials
System

General Information

Picture

Name

Kiefer Technic
Showroom

Adaptable
Architecture

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

Entertainment environment

Table 2: Analyzed architectural projects.

111

Public environment

Chapter Three

3.2.Analysis:
3.2.1. Location:
The selected projects are located in three continents; Europe, NorthAmerica and Asia (Figure 111). Eight projects are located in Europe where three
of them are located in Austria, two are located in France and one is located in
each of UK, Spain and Sweden. Three of the selected projects are located in
North-America where all are located in the USA. The last four projects are
located in Asia where two are located in Japan, one is located in China and one is
planned to be located in the Dubai, UAE.

Figure 111: The world map where the studied projects are located in Europe, North-America and
Asia.

3.2.2. Structural Systems and Used Materials:


Different structural systems are used for kinetic buildings varying from
frame to concrete structures as well as tension ring and prefabricated structures.
The most common type used in the buildings analyzed is the frame structure with
46% represented in 7 projects followed by concrete structure with 40%
represented in 6 projects (Figure 112).
50
40
30
20
10
0
Frame Structure 46% Concrete Structure 40% Tension Ring Structure Prefabricated Structure
7%
7%
Figure 112: Structure systems used for analyzed buildings.

112

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

Many materials are used in kinetics installed on/in buildings. Sometimes


only one material is used, while on other times a combination of different
materials are being used. Most materials commonly used are characterized by
light weight as well as flexibility like aluminum, paper, stainless steel and fibers.
Steel and aluminum are the most materials commonly used combined with other
materials like glass or some other smart materials such as sensors (Figure 113).
100
80
60
40
20
0
Steel 60% Aluminum Glass 86% Wood 46% Paper 13%
Smart
60%
Materials
33%

Stainless
Steel 13%

Carbon
Fiber 7%

Figure 113: Share of materials used among the studied projects.

3.2.3. Indoor Environment Types:


Based on the kinetic design key elements, studied projects are categorized
into four environments which are living, working environments, entertainment
and public environments (Figure 114). 53% of the analyzed buildings are
categorized under living environments varying from single-level private houses to
multi-levels private houses and multi-storey residential buildings. Entertainment
environments, varying from cultural centers to museums as well as stadiums,
have a share of 27%, while public environments that varied from transportation
hubs to more spiritual facilities like wedding chapels have a share of 13%. Work
environments came at the end with a share of only 7% based on one analyzed
building which is Kiefer Technic Showroom.
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Living Environments Work Environments
Entertainment
Public Environments
53%
7%
Environments 27%
13%

Figure 114: Different architectural environments in which kinetics were used.

113

Chapter Three

3.2.4. Kinetic Elements and Reasons for Motion:


Kinetics are being used in buildings by different ways. In buildings under
study kineticism is used in six different ways; as kinetic elevation elements,
interior elements, roof elements, kinetic walls, kinetic part of the structure itself
or as the building as a whole (Figure 115). Sometimes a building can adopt
different types of kineticism. The most common kineticism used in the buildings
under study are kinetic elevation and roof elements (Figure 116).

Institut du Monde Arabe


Kinetic Elevation Element

(a)

The Naked House


Kinetic Interior Elements

(b)

The Leaf Chapel


Kinetic Walls

(d)

The Olympic Tennis Center


Kinetic Roof Elements

(c)

The Sliding House


Kinetic Structure Part

(e)

The Dynamic Tower


Whole Kinetic Structure

(f)

Figure 115: Types of kineticism used in buildings under study, such as: (a) Institut du Monde Arabe
1987 (eliinbar, 2011). (b) The Naked House 2000 (Stang, 2005, P. 89). (c) The Olympic Tennis Center
2009 (DominiquePerraultArchitecture, N/D). (d) The Leaf Chapel 2004 (Picasa, 2009). (e) The
Sliding House 2009 (Meunier, 2012). (f) The Dynamic Tower (DynamicArchitecture, N/D).
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Elevation
Interior
Roof Elements
Elements 26% Elements 13%
26%

Walls 13%

Figure 116: Ways kinetics were installed in buildings.

114

Structure Part
Whole
13%
Structure 13%

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

There are some reasons behind using kinetics in the sample studied. They
may vary from environmental reasons, design concepts, creating flexible spaces
and luxury (Figure 117). In some cases there are more than one reason for using
kinetics. The most common reason for using kinetics is controlling and filtering
the incoming light (Figure 118).

Institut du Monde
Arabe
Light Control

(a)

GucklHupf
Space Flexibility

(b)

Magnolia Stadium
Respond to Weather
Changes

(e)

(c)

The Leaf Chapel


Design Concept

(f)

Maison Bordeaux
People with Special
Needs Accessibility

Cherokee Studios
Lofts
Natural Ventilation

(g)

The Naked House


Reduce Energy
Consumption

(d)

The Dynamic Tower


Luxury

(h)

Figure 117: Reasons for using kinetics, such as: (a) Institut du Monde Arabe 1987 (Dumas, 2009). (b)
GucklHupf 1993 (Olson, 2009). (c) Maison Bordeaux 1998 (OMA, N/D). (d) The Naked House
2000 (van Poucke, 2011). (e) Magnolia Stadium 2005 (TheChicagoAthenaeum, 2007). (f) The Leaf
Chapel 2004 (IaaC, 2010). (g) Cherokee Studios Lofts 2010 (Brooks+ScarpArchitecture, N/D). (h)
Dynamic Tower (DynamicArchitecture, N/D).
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Light Control
Space
People with Reduce Energy Respond to
Design
67%
Flexibility 27% Special Needs Consumption
Weather
Concept 20%
Accessibility
27%
Changes 27%
7%

Figure 118: Reasons in which kinetic systems are applied.

115

Natural
Ventilation
14%

Luxury 7%

Chapter Three

3.2.5. Relation between Structural System and Used Materials:


There is a relationship between the structure system and the materials used
across the buildings. When frame structures are used, materials such as steel,
wood and paper along with other smart materials were easily applied as the
structure itself is light weighted. When much heavier structures are used like
reinforced concrete structures and tension ring structure, aluminum is the most
used to add flexibility and smoothness to the system (Figure 119).
14.00%

Steel

12.00%

Aluminum

10.00%

Glass
Wood

8.00%

Paper

6.00%

Smart Materials

4.00%

Stainless Steel

2.00%

Carbon Fiber

0.00%
Frame Structure

Concrete Structure

Tension Ring
Structure

Prefabricated

Figure 119: Relation between structure systems and materials share.

3.2.6. Relation between Structural System and Used Kinetic Elements:


Using frames as a structure system made it easier to install different kinetic
systems in buildings that varied from elevation elements, interior elements, roof
elements, kinetic structure part and kinetic walls. Kinetic walls as well as kinetic
structure parts are the most used when structures are frames. Reinforced concrete
structures allow for limited flexibility when using kinetic systems. Kinetic
elevation elements as well as kinetic interior elements are the most common when
structures are concrete (Figure 120).
18.00%
16.00%
14.00%

Elevation Elements

12.00%

Interior Elements

10.00%

Roof Elements

8.00%

Walls

6.00%

Structure Part
Whole Structure

4.00%
2.00%
0.00%
Frame Structure

Concrete
Structure

Tension Ring
Structure

Prefabricated

Figure 120: Structure systems effect on the way kineticism is installed.

116

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.2.7. Relation between Building Environments and Used Kinetic Elements:


When kinetics were applied to living environments, they varied from kinetic
elevation elements, interior elements, kinetic walls to kinetic structure part as well
as kinetic whole buildings. Using kinetic roofs were most common with
entertainment environments as well as public environments (Figure 121).
25.00%
20.00%
Elevation Elements
15.00%
Interior Elements
10.00%

Roof Elements
Walls

5.00%
Structure Part
0.00%

Whole Structure
Living
Environment

Work
Environment

Entertainment
Environment

Public
Environment

Figure 121: Relation between the different architectural environments and ways kinetics are installed.

3.2.8. Relation between Building Environments and Reasons for Motion:


Kinetics were used in living environments to achieve different possibilities
that varied from creating flexible spaces, handicap accessibility, controlling light,
responding to weather changes, reducing energy consumption, improving natural
ventilation as well as design concept and luxury. Light control was the common
reason to apply kinetics in work environments as well entertainment and public
environments (Figure 122).
16.00%
14.00%
Light Control

12.00%

Space Felxibility
10.00%

Handicapped Accessibility

8.00%

Reduce Energy Consumption

6.00%

Respond to Weather Chnages

4.00%

Design Concept
Natural Ventilation

2.00%

Laxury
0.00%
Living
Environment

Work
Environment

Entertainment
Environment

Public
Environment

Figure 122: Relation between different architectural environments and the reason kinetics are used.

117

Chapter Three

3.2.9. Ways of Controlling Kineticism and the Relation with Building


Environments:
Controlling kinetic systems varied from using simple systems to using more
complicated ones connected to sensors, detectors and computers. There are four
ways to control kinetic systems installed to analyzed projects which are: manual
control, automatic control, automatic control with pre-programmed settings and
automatic control with pre-programmed settings while allowing users to modify
settings according to their needs and desires (Figure 123). The most used way of
controlling kineticism is automatic control systems with pre-programmed settings
(Figure 124). Automatically controlled kinetic systems with pre-programmed
settings are widely used in entertainment environments, while manually
controlled kinetic systems are used in living environments (Figure 125).

Cherokee Studios Lofts


Manual Control

(a)

Milwaukee Art Museum


Automatic Control with
Pre-programmed
Settings

Gemini Haus
Automatic Control

(b)

(c)

Kiefer Technic Showroom


Automatic Control with
Pre-programmed Settings
while Allowing Users to
Change Settings

(d)

Figure 123: Different ways of controlling kinetic systems, such as: (a) Cherokee Studios Lofts 2010
(SlowHomeStudio, 2010). (b) Gemini Haus 2001 (Salzburg.ORF.at, 2012). (c) Milwaukee Art
Museum Quadracci Pavilion 2001 (CALATRAVA, N/D-a). (d) Kiefer Technic Showroom 2007
(WorldBuildingsDirectoryOnlineDatabase, N/D).
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Manual Control Kinetic Systems
20%

Automatic Control Kinetic


Systems 20%

Automatic Control Kinetic


Systems with Pre-programmed
Settings 33%

Automatic Control Kinetic


Systems with Pre-programmed
Settings with Users Ability to
Change Settings According to
Their Needs 27%

Figure 124: Ways of controlling kinetic systems.


30

Manual Control Kinetic Systems

25
20

Automatic Control Kinetic Systems

15
10

Automatic Control Kinetic Systems with Preprogrammed Settings

5
0
Living
Environments

Working
Environments

Entertainment
Environments

Public
Environments

Automatic Control Kinetic Systems with Preprogrammed Settings with Users Ability to
Change Settings According to Their Needs

Figure 125: Relation between different architectural environments and ways of controlling kineticism.

118

Kinetic Buildings' Analysis

3.2.10. Kinetic Systems Effect on Buildings' Visual Quality:


Kinetic systems that are applied to the exterior of buildings helped
improving the buildings' visual quality. In the analyzed projects, kinetic systems
affected the visual quality by either allowing the building to hide and melt with its
natural surrounding environment such as the Dragspelhuset in Sweden or
reflecting the changeable daily patterns such as the Dynamic Tower to be built in
Dubai, UAE (Figure 126 a,b). Other kinetic systems presented cultural dimension
such as the QiZhong Forest Sports City Tennis Center in Shanghai with is kinetic
roof appearing as a magnolia blossom which is the national flower of Shanghai
(Figure 126 c). Also, other kinetic systems presented social dimensions such as
the World Trade Center Transportation Hub that acts as a 9/11 memorial (Figure
126 d).

Dragspelhuset
Hide and Melt with the
Natural Surrounding
Environment

(a)

The Dynamic Tower


Reflect Changeable Daily
Patterns

(b)

QiZhong Forest Sports City


Tennis Center
Present Cultural Dimension

(c)

The World Trade Center


Transportation Hub
Present Social Dimension

(d)

Figure 126: Effect of using kinetic systems on buildings' visual quality. (a) Dragspelhuset 2004
(HomesAndInterorDesign, N/D). (b) The Dynamic Tower (Cherry, 2010, P. 36). (c) QiZhong Forest
Sports City Tennis Center 2005 (IaaC, 2010). (d) The World Trade Center Transportation Hub
2014 (CALATRAVA, N/D-b).

3.3.Summary:
Based on the analytical study for various architectural projects, the
following is proposed:
Although the Middle-East is well known for its sunny and hot
weather and can greatly benefit for kinetic architecture, most of the
buildings understudy are located in Europe, while only one building
is planned to be located in the Middle-East.
As kinetic systems are installed in/on different structural systems, it is
important to mention that frame structures present more flexible
solutions for interiors. Also, frame structures allow a wide range of
kinetic systems to be applied.
While a wide range of kinetic materials varying from
fabricated/industrialized to natural materials, almost all used kinetic
materials are light weight.
Kineticism is applied to different environments, but it is most
commonly used in living environments whether they are part of
multi-family housing, private houses or even residential sky-scrapers.

119

Chapter Three

There are different ways for kinetic systems to be installed in/on a


building. These systems can allow the whole building to be in motion
or just a part of it, whether indoor or outdoor. The most common
kinetic systems used in buildings examined are kinetic roof elements.
Kineticism is applied to buildings in order to adapt to weather
changing patterns, save energy as well as allow for environmentfriendly energy sources, allow for natural ventilation and control
light. There are many other reasons to adopt kinetic systems in
buildings, but as previously mentioned environmental reasons are the
most common.
There are different factors that affect how kineticism is applied to
analyzed architectural projects which include used structure systems,
used materials, reason behind applying these types of systems as well
as other factors. Each of these factors is affected by the rest. When
frame structures are used that reflected on used materials which
varied from steel, to wood and paper. Also, using other structure
systems affected the materials used.
The used structure system affected the installed type of kineticism.
The most common structure system used in the analyzed projects is
frame structure. This type of structure system allows for many types
of kinetic systems to be installed, such as elevation kinetic elements,
kinetic walls and other systems.
Structure systems are not the only factor that affected the used type of
kineticism, the environment within the building equally affects the
type of kineticism. Using kinetic facades, or walls as well as interior
elements is suitable to living environments.
The reason behind applying kinetic systems is affected by the nature
of the environment that the building creates. When a kinetic system is
installed to a living environment that is to allow for more privacy,
create more flexible living spaces, to add luxury as well as other
environmental reasons.

120

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusions & Recommendations

Conclusions
According to different definitions for the term "Kinetic Architecture" it can
be described as a building or building parts that act in response to surrounding
changes that occur indoor and/or outdoor whether they are caused by natural
and/or human factors. Based on the definition, kinetic design is based on three
main key elements: 1) structural innovation and materials advancement,
2)
embedded computation, and 3) adaptable architecture. The first key element in
kinetic design structural innovation and materials advancement represents the
building and building parts, while the second key element embedded
computation allows building to detect change and act according to it, thus
creating environments that are able to adapt and interact representing the third key
element which is adaptable architecture. Based on different parts of this research,
a building analyses was carried out in order to understand the different means and
ways in which kineticism could be applied to built environments. Selection of
buildings was based on different factors included completion year, building's use
and type of kineticism involved. The analysis criteria incorporated means and
reasons for including kineticism in the design as well as the effect of using such
kinetic solution on both the indoor environment quality and the building visual
quality. Based on this study the following is concluded:

When kinetic systems are installed in buildings, they can be


controlled by different means. Controlling kinetic systems may range
from simple means by manual control to complicated automatic
control. Automatic control complexity can vary from just allowing
users to take a certain action by turning the system on and off to more
complicated pre-programmed automatic systems. These systems can
be fully automated while being connected to a set of sensors and
detectors to realize any changes that occur allowing these kinetic
systems to respond according to pre-programmed settings in which
buildings' users can't interfere or change. Also, some pre-programmed
automated kinetic systems may be set to allow users to interact with
systems adding changes and modifications even when connected to
sensors. Moreover, kineticism can be installed in buildings without
using any kind of embedded computation and/or automated systems
allowing buildings users to manually fold, slide or even push different
parts creating the environments they desire.
There are many ways where kineticism can be used in the
architectural field representing a wide range of solutions. Kinetic
systems can be used as indoor elements ranging from small elements
such as furniture to larger elements such as walls/partitions, floors
and ceilings. Kinetic systems can be used to create the building's
envelope represented by walls and roof elements or even kinetic
systems that can be attached to the building's outer-skin. Kineticism
can appear as a part of the building's structure or as the structure as a
whole allowing it to transform.

123

Conclusions & Recommendations

No matter how kinetic systems are being controlled and even how
they are installed to buildings, they allow the environments they
create to be flexible and adaptable to changes. Kineticism, when
installed to buildings, will allow users to reconfigure environments
they occupy. Kinetic systems will allow users to control the relation
with the surroundings by allowing for more privacy or transparency.
These systems will allow users to change how they are connected to
other parts of the building or even how they are open to the outdoors.
Kinetic buildings' users may be able to reconfigure space by changing
its size to bigger or smaller depending on their needs and desires.
Installing kinetic systems in buildings will increase costs, on the other
hand, if those systems are employed to maximize the use of sunlight,
natural ventilation and energy efficiency, which will result in
reducing buildings' running costs on the long run. The cost of using
such kinetic systems is affected by the materials used as low-cost
materials can be used as well as those environment-friendly and hightech materials. The way to control kinetic systems can affect the cost
as well. Using manually controlled systems can decrease cost while
using pre-programmed automated systems involving sensors and
detectors can push cost even higher.
There are many reasons to involve kineticism in the architectural
design. Kineticism can be used to achieve environmental goals. Such
systems can be used to increase the efficiency of natural light and
ventilation as well as to save energy. Using kineticism can achieve
space efficiency by not only increasing the indoor environment
quality but also by allowing it to transform in size and shape. Kinetic
systems can be used for conceptual reasons in order to attract
audience and represent cultural as well as social dimensions.

Egypt is blessed with its special location at a crossroad between Africa,


Asia and Europe. The Nile River flows across Egypt from south to north creating
the Nile Valley and Delta which is the main region. In addition there are three
other regions which are the Western Desert, the Eastern Desert and Sinai
Peninsula. Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea on the North and the Red
Sea on the East. The Egyptian environment is not only blessed with special
location but also with many natural resources, moderate weather and land
availability. As kinetic systems represents untraditional solutions for different
problems that may face architects, applying such systems to the Egyptian
architectural environment will increase its efficiency. Kinetic systems can be used
in the Egyptian environment in order to maximize the use of renewable energy
sources. Also, kinetic systems will both improve and increase natural light and
ventilation efficiency as well as space efficiency when installed to the Egyptian
environment.

124

Conclusions & Recommendations


Energy Saving:
Despite the fact that Egypt is being characterized by its sunny weather
most of the day all year round, solar energy is still in its infancy. Kinetic
systems can be applied to the Egyptian architectural environment to
maximize the use of solar energy. These systems will include solar
panels/photovoltaic cells, sensors and/or detectors. They can be designed
not only to act as source for renewable energy but also as means of
thermal insulation and energy radiation controller. Such kinetic systems
can be suitable for different types of environments varying from living
environments to work, entertainment and public environments.

(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure
127:
(a)
The
dynamic
faade
of
the
Kiefer
Technic
Showroom
(WorldBuildingsDirectoryOnlineDatabase, N/D). (b) The movable solar panels attached to the
exterior of Gemini Haus (Lenardic, N/D). (c) The FLARE-faade system (WHITEvoid, N/D).

These systems can be designed to create kinetic skin for the whole
building. The kinetic system used for the Kiefer Technic Showroom
(Figure 127 a) is an example of such systems where it can be modified to
involve solar panels as well as perforated panels depending on the design
and need. Also, they can be designed whether to be attached to the static
exterior walls of the building while only solar panels are able to fold,
rotate or even slide, or allow the structure to revolve as a whole in order
to follow the sun. The kinetic system used at the Gemini Haus (Figure
127 b) is an example where movable solar panels are attached to the
exterior walls of the house. Systems such as the FLARE-faade system
(Figure 127 c) can be installed to existing building facades while the
FLARE units are modified to allow photovoltaic cells to be added on top
of them. Such addition will turn the building from its static form to a
dynamic one by adding motion to it, at the same time photovoltaic cells
will increase the energy efficiency for the building by utilizing the power
of solar energy.
Natural Light and Ventilation Efficiency:
Kinetic systems can be used in order to control the natural light and
ventilation whether for major projects like museums, cultural centers and
sports facilities or for residential projects varying from single family

125

Conclusions & Recommendations

housing to high-rise residential buildings. Such systems can be designed


to be manually controlled or automated. Also, a wide range of materials
can be used in such systems varying from low-cost materials to high-tech
materials. These systems can also allow users to control their privacy
level and their relation to the outdoor environment especially in
residential projects.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 128: (a) The aluminum panels used for the Wind Veil (beautrincia, 2008). (b) The perforated
aluminum panels used for the Cherokee Studios Lofts (Brooks+ScarpArchitecture, N/D). (c) The
Mashrabiya Diaphragms used for the Institut du Monde Arabe (eliinbar, 2011).

These kinetic systems can be designed to be able to move freely by wind


such as the Wind Veil (Figure 128 a). This system needs to be controlled
neither manually nor automatically. As wind blows all over Egypt, there
are several regions that are promising to be high source for wind energy
such as the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba as well as Western Desert. Yet that
system will not be used as an energy source. This system turns the
building faade from a static condition to an ever changing dynamic
condition depending on wind direction and currents. The perforated
aluminum screen used for the Cherokee Studios Lofts (Figure 128 b)
represents another kinetic system used to improve the use of natural light
and ventilation that can be applied to the Egyptian environment using
local materials. The previously mentioned systems can be applied to
residential buildings allowing users not only to control the natural light
and ventilation but also to control their relation with the outdoor
environment by improving privacy level and decrease noise level. The
Mashrabiya Diaphragms (Figure 128 c) used for the Institut du Monde
Arabe is an example of complicated kinetic systems that are
automatically controlled through pre-programmed settings. Such system
represents solutions to be applied to major project not only in order to
control daylight but also to attract audience. It is recommended when
using automated kinetic systems to be accompanied with renewable
energy feeding source in order to reduce energy consumption.
Space Efficiency:
Kinetic systems can be applied in the Egyptian environment in order to
improve space efficiency whether by allowing it to transform in size
and/or shape or by allowing its users to reconfigure it depending on their

126

Conclusions & Recommendations

needs and desires. Such systems can be efficiently used for temporary
buildings, multi- purpose buildings as well as residential and work
environments. Although it is better to involve kinetic systems into the
design since its early stages, some kinetic systems can be solution for
existing buildings. These systems can be used not only to improve space
efficiency but also to control the relation with different parts of the
building as well as the outdoor environment. The cost of such systems
can vary depending on the level of technology applied, materials used
and controlling systems used.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 129: (a) The Bloomframe (HurksGeveltechniek,


(24H<architecture, N/D). (c) The GucklHupf (Olson, 2009).

N/D).

(b)

The

Dragspelhuset

In low-income housing built by the Egyptian government, residents seek


illegal means in order to expand their living spaces by building illegal
extensions to the main structure. To face such means, there are systems
that can provide flexible kinetic solutions to expand spaces. The
Bloomframe (Figure 129 a) is a kinetic system that can be applied to
existing buildings in order to allow users to expand the size of the space.
This kinetic system can be of great use for living environments. Such
system can be installed to residential buildings and hotels that are
characterized by their small areas. This system can be applied to the
Egyptian architectural environment allowing designers to improve space
efficiency by using all area possible for main living facilities while
balconies will be optional, occupants can choose whether to open or
close them depending on their needs and desires. Another example of
kinetic system that can be applied to the Egyptian environment in order
to improve space efficiency is that used for the Dragspelhuset (Figure
129 b). This system consists of a retractable cantilever that can be pushed
out/in according to needs. The GucklHupf (Figure 129 c) is an example
of kinetic systems that can be applied to the Egyptian environment
especially for buildings that are not in use all year round such as sea
cabin that are used only during summer season.

Presenting untraditional modern solutions by applying kinetic


systems to the Egyptian architectural environment can be
accompanied with Egyptian heritage and culture through the

127

Conclusions & Recommendations

conceptual design of the kinetic system itself and/or through the


materials used.

Recommendations:
Although architecture has an influence on the environment it creates, it is
affected by different factors that include technology, users and environment
whether natural or built. In order to improve the quality of the architectural
environment, kinetic architecture can be the solution to create environmentalfriendly, safe, organized, enjoyable and adaptable environments. To achieve
extremely useful results, architects should work in teams to improve research with
collaboration with specialists from different fields. These fields may range from
engineering such as information technology, communications, mechanical and
structural engineering to social as well as environmental science.
Involving researchers from different fields of engineering and science will
result in improving and developing locally designed kinetic systems. Locally
designed kinetic systems will act more efficiently in the Egyptian environment.
These systems will be designed using local materials and systems. They will also
be designed to meet different weather conditions such as high temperatures,
humidity, sandstorms (Khamasin winds) and rain. Also, designing local kinetic
systems will consider the different Egyptian cultural backgrounds for each region
they will be applied to.
Although Egypt is considered as a developing country, it has a lot of areas
including villages and rural developments that lack basic services such as
medical/health care and educational services. In order to fulfill these services, it is
of great importance to employ kinetic design in creating multi-functional units
that can transform to meet each function separately and efficiently. These
functions may vary from medical convoy units to general and specialized clinics
as well as one-day schools, literacy classes, units for technical schools and
applied faculties. Also, it is of great importance to involve kinetic systems in
designing portable multi-functional units that can be used in emergencies and
natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes.
Planners should work hard in order to look for means and ways to invent
and implement ideas at the rate requested for keeping up with the rest of the
world. It is of great importance to carry out researches in order to understand how
kinetic architecture will affect urban planning. Kinetic design will provide
planners with creative means for problem solving using technological
advancements that facilitate decision making and collaboration between different
interest groups during the process. Whether it is the continuing influence of
Internet or new ways of using clean energy, a wide range of technological
innovations will help shape cities of the future. If urban planners will consider
events, activities and changes rather than buildings and structures, they can
provide greater comfort and safety for all residents.

128

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