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S D H

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WHY GO TO SDH ?

¸ STANDARD INTERFACES AT ALL LEVELS.


¸ ELIMINATES MULTIPLEXING/DEMULTIPLEXING AT
ADD/DROP LOCATIONS.
¸ ACCEPTS A WIDE VARIETY OF SIGNAL TYPES.
¸ VENDOR INDEPENDENCE.

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SDH: DISCUSSION AREA
WHAT IS SDH ?
EVOLUTION
DRIVING FORCES
LIMITATIONS OF PDH
ADVANTAGES OF SDH
SIGNAL HIERARCHY
MULTIPLEXING STRUCTURE
FRAME REPRESENTATION
NETWORK ELEMENTS
NETWORK TOPOLOGY, etc....

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?  SDH ?
SYNCHRONOUS :
ONE MASTER CLOCK & ALL ELEMENTS
SYNCHRONISE WITH IT.

DIGITAL:
INFORMATION IN BINARY.

HIERARCHY:

SET OF BIT RATES IN A HIERARCHIAL


ORDER.

÷
?  S D H ? (CONTD)

SDH IS AN ITU-T STANDARD FOR A HIGH CAPACITY


TELECOM NETWORK.

SDH IS A SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL TRANSPORT


SYSTEM, AIM TO PROVIDE A SIMPLE, ECONOMICAL
AND FLEXIBLE TELECOM INFRASTRUCTURE.

Æ
SYNC STANDARDS -EVOLUTION

ATTEMPTS TO FORMULATE STANDARDS FOR


TRANSMISSION OF SYNCHRONOUS SIGNALS
BEGAN IN U.S. AT THE BEGINNING OF 1984, BY
ANSI ACCREDITED T1X1 COMMITTEE.

IN 1985 µSONET¶ STANDARD WAS BORN.

IN 1986 CCITT BECAME INTERESTED IN SONET


STANDARD.

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SYNC STANDARDS -EVOLUTION
(CONTD)

CCITT PROPOSED CHANGES TO µT1X1¶


COMMITTEE TO ACCOMMODATE BOTH
AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN HIERARCHIES.

FINAL AGREEMENT WAS REACHED IN 1988


AND CCITT WORKING GROUP-XVIII CAME
OUT WITH RECOMMENDATIONS ON SDH.

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LIMITATIONS OF PDH
 NON STANDARD EXPERIENCES:
-THREE DIFFERENT HIERARCHIES WITH
DIFFERENT SIGNAL FORMATS AND LINE
ENCODING METHODS.

 INABILITY TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL CHANNELS


IN A HIGHER-ORDER BIT STREAM.

 RESTRICTED NETWORK MANAGEMENT


CAPABILITY

9
PDH HIERARCHIES

EUROPE (Mbps) USA (Mbps) JAPAN (Mbps)

565 400
276
x4 x4
140 x6 100

x4 45 x3
34 32
x7 x5
x4
6 6
8
x4 x4 x4
2 1.5 1.5

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SDH- ADVANTAGES

SIMPLIFICATION (ABILITY TO DIRECTLY DROP LOWER TRIB)

CAN ACCOMMODATE BOTH EXISTING AND FUTURE SIGNALS


IMPROVED SERVICE QUALITY

ADVANCED N/W MANAGEMENT

N/W SURVIVABILITY
DYNAMIC N/W CAPACITY MANAGEMENT
MULTI VENDOR NETWORKING

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SDH ACCOMMODATES
EXISTING SIGNALS

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SIGNAL HIERARCHY
SONET vs SDH BIT RATES
SONET SDH
SYNCHRONOUS „  BIT RATE SYNCHRONOUS
TRANSPORT SIGNAL   MBPS TRANSPORT MODULE

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{BIT RATES FOR HIGHER ORDER IS N-TIMES THE LOWER ORDER

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MULTIPLEXING STRUCTURE
xN x1
STM-N AUG AU-4 #VC-4 C-4 c(9YÆV$

x3
x1
x3 TUG-3 TU-3 ###VC-3

VV"(Æ$
AU-3 # # VC-3 x7
C-3 (V(ÆP$

x7
x1
 C-2
TUG-2 TU-2 ## VC-2 Æ(cY$

  ! x3
#####  TU-12 ## C-12 YVP$
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# VC-12
#
x4 #
#
TU-11 #
##VC-11 C-11 c÷VV$
##

GENERALIZED MULTIPLEXING STRUCTURE



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) -%%.c
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(MATRIX REPRESENTATION)
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9 270
1 4-4
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RSOH
3
4 5  Payload
5 &"""-'

MSOH

RSOH:
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MSOH8  !0%"/
Payload: ",,3""
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2"3""-8Y"!9!P!P9c÷÷÷Y$
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9 270
1 4-4
1
RSOH
3
4 AU Pointer Payload
5 &"""-'

MSOH

RSOH: Regenerator section Transport capacity of one Byte: 64 kbit/s


overhead Frame capacity: 270 x 9 x 8 x 8000
MSOH: Multiplex section overhead = 155.520 Mbit/s
Payload: Area for information Frame repetition time: 125 s
transport
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OVERHEAD PAYLOAD

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(MATRIX REPRESENTATION)
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? NUMBER OF ROWS = 9
? NUMBER OF COLUMNS = 9+261=270
? NUMBER OF BYTES = 9x270
? NUMBER OF BITS = 9x270x8
? NUMBER OF BITS / SECOND = 9x270x8x8000
=155520000
=155.520 Mbps (STM-1)
? BIT RATE OF STM-N = (Nx155.520) Mbps


NETWORK ELEMENTS

SYNCHRONOUS MULTIPLEXER (MUX):


* MAPPING OF PDH SIGNALS INTO SDH.
* MULTIPEXING OF LOWER -ORDER SDH SIGNALS INTO SDH

63 Nos. OF 2Mbps or PDH


3 Nos.of 34Mbps or
1 Nos. of 140Mbps or
TM
combination of above
STM-n
STM-m

(m<n)

NETWORK ELEMENTS
ADD & DROP MULTIPLEXER (ADM):
* PERMITS ADD& DROP OF LOWER ORDER SIGNALS.

STM-n
ADM STM-n

(m<n)

STM-m PDH

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NETWORK ELEMENTS
SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL CROSS CONNECT (SDXC):
* PERMITS SWITCHING OF TRANSMISSION LINES WITH
DIFFERENT BIT-RATES.
* DXC CAN ADD AND DROP LOWER-ORDER SIGNALS.

STM-n STM-n

STM-n STM-m/PDH
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NETWORK ELEMENTS
SYNCHRONOUS REGENERATOR (REG):

* REGENERATES THE INCOMING LINE SIGNAL.


* SUPERVISE THE TRANSMISSION QUALITY OF THE LINE

STM-n REG STM-n

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NETWORK TOPOLOGY

* POINT-TO-POINT:

 

* POINT-TO-MULTIPOINT:

  

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NETWORK TOPOLOGY
* HUB-TOPOLOGY:
CO
TM ADM TM

TM ADM TM

(a) HUB WITH TM & ADM

TM DXC TM

TM TM

(b) HUB WITH TM & DXC

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NETWORK TOPOLOGY
* RING-TOPOLOGY:

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SDH NETWORK
STRUCTURE

SDH ISLAND PDH SDH ISLAND


NETWORK

a) Mixed SDH-PDH network

STM -16
MAJOR TRUNKS
STM -4
REGIONAL
STM -1 LOCAL

b) Typical use of SDH rates.


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