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Photosynthesis

How plants make their own


food

Aidhm

Experimental activity:

Question Time
From your knowledge of JC Science
1.What is photosynthesis
2.What things are needed for
photosynthesis
3.What type of organisms photosynthesise
4.What is produced in photosynthesis
5.Why is photosynthesis necessary? (3
reasons)

Photosynthesis - why is it
important?

1. Animals get their food from plants


2. It produces oxygen needed for
respiration
3. Removes carbon dioxide from the air
4. Responsible for forming fossil fuels

Photosynthesis
Is the way in which green
plants make food
Takes place in chloroplasts
How do the leaves make the
food?
converts solar (sun) energy
into chemical energy in food
is one of the main differences
between plants and animals.

Factors needed for


photosynthesis
1. Carbon dioxide (a gas)
passes into the leaves
from the air through tiny
openings called stomata.

Carbon
dioxide

2. Water
enters the roots from the
soil
passes up through the
stem through xylem
enters the leaves in the
veins.

Water

Factors needed for


photosynthesis
3. Light/sun
The sun provides
the energy for
photosynthesis.

Sun

Light

4. Chlorophyll
is a green pigment
made by plants
(chloroplasts)
Absorbs light and
allows
photosynthesis to
take place

Chlorophyll
Water

Carbon
dioxide

Products of
photosynthesis

1. Glucose

is a sugar/carbohydrate
may be used in the plant for:
respiration (i.e. it is broken down to release
energy)
storage in the form of starch
making cell walls (i.e. it is converted to
cellulose).

Products of
photosynthesis
2. Oxygen
A gas that
mostly passes
out of the
stomata into the
air.
may be used in
the plant for
respiration

Equation for
photosynthesis

Photosynthesis can be summarised as:

Carbon
dioxide

Water

Sunlig
ht
Chlorophy
ll

Glucose

+
Oxygen

Can you write out the


balanced equation for
photosynthesis?

Main stages in
Photosynthesis
1.Light is absorbed

Sun

Chlorophyll (in the leaves) traps the


sunlight and this sunlight provides the
energy to make glucose

2. Water is split
Some of the trapped sunlight energy is then
used to split the water molecules
Every hydrogen atom is made of a hydrogen ion/proton
(H+ ) and an electron (e-). So when two water molecules
are split they form four protons, four electrons and a
molecule of oxygen gas (O2)

2H2O

Sunlig
ht

4H+ + 4e- + O2

2H2O

Sunlig
ht

4H+ and 4e- and


O2
H+
H+

H+
H+

ee-

ee-

O2

3. Products of splitting water


Some of the trapped sunlight energy is then
used to split the water molecules
Sunlig
+
2H2O
4H
+
4e
+ O2
ht
1. The protons are released into a storage pool of
protons in the chloroplast for later use
2. The electrons are passed to the chlorophyll
3. The oxygen
some passes out of leaf into the atmosphere.
some oxygen may be used within the leaf for
respiration

An overview of
photosynthesis

4. Light energises electrons


Some of sunlight energy trapped by the
chlorophyll is passed on to the electrons in
the chlorophyll to form high energy electrons

An overview of
photosynthesis

5. Glucose is formed
The high energy electrons from the
chlorophyll and the protons from the pool
of stored protons are combined with the
CO2 to form a carbohydrate (glucose
C6H12O6)

An overview of
photosynthesis

Main stages in
Photosynthesis
1. Light is absorbed
2. Water is split
3. Products of splitting water are produced
(4 protons, 4 electrons and oxygen)
4. Light energises electrons
5. Glucose is formed

Using your notes/book to answer the following


questions
1. Light is absorbed

What part of the


chloroplast traps light?
Where is the energy
passed to?

2. Water is split

What type of energy is used to split the water


What does a hydrogen split up into
What do 2 water molecules split up into?

3. What happens to the products of the water molecules?


4. How is glucose formed and what is its chemical
formula?

Sources of light for plants


1. Sunlight
2. Artificial light (light bulb) is often used
in greenhouses
3. Increasing light can increase
photosynthesis rate up to a certain
saturation point where no more
light can be absorbed and
photosynthesis
will level off
Sun

Sources of carbon dioxide for


plants
Two sources of carbon dioxide
1. External: from the atmosphere
2. Internal: from their own cellular
respiration
Sometimes artificial sources of carbon
dioxide are used to stimulate growth
eg. burning gas in a green house

Sources of water for plants


From the soil by the roots of plants
by osmosis
This water passes up the stem and is
used for photosynthesis

Increasing photosynthesis
rate
1. Increase light: Artificial light (light
bulb) is often used in greenhouses .
Increasing light can increase growth up to
a certain saturation point where no more
light can be absorbed and photosynthesis
will level off
2. Increase carbon dioxide: Artificial
sources of carbon dioxide are used to
stimulate growth eg. burning gas in a
green house

Learning Check

2 stages of Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis

Light Stage

Dark Stage

Light Stage
or
Light Dependent
Stage

In the chloroplast.
Dependent on light
It involves a flow of high energy electrons
There are two pathways in the light stage
Very fast, no enzymes needed

Light (Dependent) Stage


Pathway 1 (cyclic
Photophosphorylation)

Revision bk pg 31

Light Stage (HL):


Pathway 1

1. Light is absorbed
Chloroplasts contain a number of
pigments, including chlorophyll.
2. Light energy is passed
from one pigment to the next, until it
reaches the reaction centre
chlorophyll. Beside an electron
acceptor.

This light energises the electrons.


High energy electrons leave the reaction
centre chlorophyll and are passed on from
one electron carrier to the next until they
come back to the chlorophyll molecule

ADP: Adenosine
Diphosphate

Found in cells of all organisms


Low energy molecule
(like an empty delivery
van)

ATP: Adenosine
Phosphorylation: when phosphate
Triphosphate
is added to a molecule
ADP + energy + P

Extra phosphate bound


Rich in energy and stores this
energy carrying it around in
the cell (like a delivery van full
of cargo)

ATP + water

As electrons pass from one carrier to


the next, they loose a bit of energy.
This energy combines with a
molecule of ADP and P to form the
high energy ATP and water

ATP contains a
third phosphate,
held in place by a
high energy bond ~
When the cell
needs energy, the
bond is broken to
release energy.

The source of energy for photosynthesis is


light
-photo
The addition of a phosphate to a molecule
-phosphorylation
The making of ATP in this way is called
photophosphorylation
The electrons return back to chlorophyll
-cyclic
Cyclic Photophosphorylation: electrons
that leave, turn ADP into ATP and
return back to chlorophyll.

Light stage pathway 1


The end products of Light stage
pathway 1
1.ATP
2.Water
ATP will be used in the dark stage
to form glucose

Learning Check
Where does the light stage occur?
Why is it called the light stage?
What absorbs the light energy?
How many possible pathways can the electron be
passed on?
6. Where does the electron go to from the
chlorophyll in pathway 1?
7. What happens to the electron as it is moved
around?
8. What is phosphorylation?
9. Why is this pathway called cyclic
photophosphorylation?
10.What are the end products of pathway 1?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Nicotinamide Adenine
Dinucleotide
Phosphate
NADP+ and NADPH Photosynthesis
NAD+ and NADH Respiration

NADP+ and NADPH


NADP+ is a low energy molecule
involved in photosynthesis
NADP+ can combine with 2 high energy
electrons and a proton to form NADPH
NADPH is a very high energy molecule
Its energy is used to form glucose in
photosynthesis

NAD+ and NADH


NAD+ is used in respiration
It can combine with 2 high energy
electrons and a proton to form NADH
which is very high in energy
Remember P for photosynthesis, NADP+
and NADPH are used in photosynthesis
NAD+ and NADH are used in respiration

How does NADP+ change into


NADPH?????

NADP+ + 2 electrons + H+
NADP+ is a low
energy molecule
involved in
photosynthesis

NADP+ can combine


with 2 high energy
electrons and a proton
to form NADPH

NADPH
NADPH is a
very high energy
molecule

Learning Check
Is NADP+ used in photosynthesis or
respiration?
What combines with NAD+ and
NADP+ to form NADH and NADPH?
What do NADH and NADPH provide
for reactions in cells?
How do they provide these things?

Light stage pathway 2

2H2O

4H+ and 4e- and


O2
H+
H+

H+
H+

ee-

ee-

O2

Light Stage (HL):Pathway 2


2 high energy electrons are passed from
chlorophyll to the electron acceptor and then
along another series of electron acceptors
They lose energy as they pass from electron
acceptor to electron acceptor and this energy
is used to make more
ATP
Pathway 2 starts off
the same as pathway 1

Overview of Light Dependent


Stage: Pathway 2

Electron Pathway 2 (HL)


Eventually the 2 electrons are passed to
combine with NADP+ to form NADP The chlorophyll molecule is now short of
electrons and gains more from the
splitting of water
2 water molecules split up into four
electrons, four protons and oxygen
Photolysis: The splitting of water by
light

The protons that were stored in the


proton pool are attracted to NADPand combine with it to form NADPH
Because the electrons start at a
chlorophyll and finish at NADPH and
form ATP on their way this pathway is
known as Non cyclic
photophosphorylation

Light stage: Pathway 2

2 stages of Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis

Light Stage

Dark Stage

End Products of the Light Stage


(HL)
End
product
ATP

NADPH

Oxygen

Fate
provide energy for the dark
stage
provide protons and
energised electrons for the
dark stage
Used in respiration and
released into the

Learning Check

Overview of Dark Stage or Light


Independent Stage (HL)
Controlled by
enzymes and
therefore can be
affected by
temperature

Dark Stage (HL)


Carbon dioxide from the air enters
the chloroplast
NADPH (from the light stage) gives
up a proton and electrons to CO2.
This makes glucose
NADP+ returns to be used in the light
stage reactions

Dark Stage (HL)

Making glucose needs energy.


It uses energy got from breaking
down ATP
ATP

ADP + P

Learning Check

Light Stage in Summary


Light dependent. It involves the energising of electrons
and their passage along 2 pathways
Pathway 1: Light energising electrons from chlorophyll
are passed onto electron carriers and return to
chlorophyll. In this process, they loose energy to form
ATP
Pathway 2: Two electrons go to NADP+ to form NADP-.
Energy is lost to form ATP. Photolysis of water occurs,
2 electrons go chlorophyll and protons got to NADP - to
form NADPH
Products formed
ATP for dark stage
NADPH for dark stage
O2 for respiration or is released

Dark Stage in Summary


Light is not required. Carbon dioxide
is needed. It supplies the carbon to
make glucose.
Two products from light stage
NADPH supplies H+ and electrons
ATP supplies energy

Main product is glucose


(monosaccharide)

Energy and Electron Carriers


Summary
ATP:
provides energy
Reduces carbon dioxide
Used to make glucose

NADP+:
Accepts electrons
Is a H+ carrier
Used for dark stage
Used to make glucose

Chloropl
ast

Split
Water
Phosphoryl
Autotro
ation
NADP
ph
Proto
Chlorop
H
ns
hyll
Hydrog
Light
en
Dark
Stage
Stage
Electro
Oxyg
ns
en
CO2 + 6H2O

Sunlight

Can you.

Sources of light for plants


1. Sunlight
2. Artificial light (light bulb) is often used
in greenhouses
3. Increasing light can increase
photosynthesis rate up to a certain
saturation point where no more
light can be absorbed and
photosynthesis
will level off
Sun

4.7 (a) To
investigate the
influence of light
intensity on the
rate of
photosynthesis

Step 1
Elodea is used
because it easier to
measure the rate of
photosynthesis

Cut the stem of the elodea at an angle. Remove several leaves from
the cut end of the stem.

Step 2
Sodium bicarbonate
allows for a constant
concentration of carbon
dioxide during the
experiment

Drop the elodea, stem up, into a test tube of water saturated with sodium
bicarbonate.

Step 3
A water bath
keeps the
temperature
constant

Place the tube, containing the elodea into a water bath


at 25C.

Step 4
The amount of
bubbles a
measure of the
rate of
photosynthesis

Switch on the light source and place the water bath


containing the elodea 1 m from the lamp. Wait 5
minutes.

Step 5

Observe bubbles being released from the cut end of the stem.
Count and record the number of bubbles for 1 minute. Repeat
twice more. Calculate the average bubbles per minute. released per
minute..

Step 6

Repeat the experiment, varying the distance (80cm, 60cm,


40cm and 20cm) between the water bath and the lamp.

Table of results:
(No. of bubbles/ minute)

Distance from
light source
(cm)

Light Intensity
or
10000 2
/d

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

100

1.00

80

1.56

60

2.78

10

40

6.25

20

25.00

Average

Step 7

Plot a graph of light intensity against average no. of


bubbles/minute.

Expected Results

Risks:
Glassware breakages
Risk Management:
Careful when handling all glassware
Follow teacher instructions
Skills:
Observation
Recording
Interpretation of observations and results
Skill application:
.

Precaution

Allow time before


counting the bubbles
because the plant needs
time to adjust