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Literacy Block

What Common Core State Standard(s) is this lesson series targeting?


(Knowledge) CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.K.9
With prompting and support, identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations,
descriptions, or procedures).
(Word Study) CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.K.3
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words
(Vocabulary) CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.K.4
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.
(Comprehension) CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.K.3
With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.
Set a Knowledge Goal
What are the characteristics of animals and how are they similar and different from each other?
Who are your readers?
Urban
20 Kindergarten students
Majority Low income
Majority European American/African American
9 students are Hispanic (8 are acquiring English)
Some families engage in shared literacy activities, some engage in teaching and learning for literacy
3 students immigrated within the past month (understand some English, speak little to no English). 2 of the 3 have not had
formal school and do not like to read or write. These students are from rural Latin America.
Motivation and interests vary among the students and so do their literacy skills and background knowledge. Some students
are more advanced than others and are better at noticing main points than less experienced students.
Many are reading below grade level text.

Small Group (On grade level with little scaffolding)


English Language Learners (ELLs) and monolingual English language speakers
Learn new skills and strategies quickly
Use scaffolding tools effectively and can guide other students
Mastered letter patterns previously introduced
Currently learning complex patterns (CVCe and long vowel patterns)
Strong Oral vocabulary
Eager to learn and understand new words
Good fluency and comprehension skills
Some students (ELLs) occasionally lack background knowledge
Ready to be challenged
Enjoy multiple readings of texts
For the most part, the students in this class enjoy learning. They are easily motivated and engaged when new strategies and skills are
presented. The students have strong oral vocabularies in L1 and are developing their oral vocabularies in L2. A majority of the class
are ELL students who have limited background knowledge of some topics because of their prior schooling experiences, or lack
thereof; low socio-economic status, and limited opportunities their families can provide; and varied interactions with literacy at
home. In terms of word study, the small group, where students are on grade level and require little scaffolding, are currently learning
CVCe and long vowel patterns. They have completed lessons on long vowel sounds and are primarily focusing on CVCe words.
Regarding vocabulary, since the students have strong L1 oral vocabularies, teaching words and concepts in L2 will be less of a
challenge; however learning words in L2 is difficult. Luckily, the students are eager to learn and understand new words. Their
comprehension skills are good, but when students are introduced to a topic for the first time, comprehension may be difficult due to
their limited background knowledge. Prior to this lesson, the students studied animals in general, but have never discussed reptiles
(specifically the chameleon and the gecko). They have had some experience comparing and contrasting, but this skill is not fully
developed.
Identify Texts:
Chameleon, Chameleon by Joy Cowley; Lizards, Frogs, and Polliwogs by Douglass Florian; Reptiles By Skylar Glenn
How can this text support your knowledge goal?
These books support the knowledge goal of comparing and contrasting characteristics of animals because the texts present a variety
of reptiles, with which students can discuss different characteristics, such as their appearance and movements. The books also
provide real-life illustrations of the reptiles, which support the ELL students need for literacy scaffolding. Students can read

Chameleon, Chameleon and apply their knowledge and understanding to the poems The Chameleon and The Gecko extracted from
Lizards, Frogs, and Polliwogs. The reptiles, a chameleon and a gecko, are discussed across both traditional texts in different
manners, which will support the students task of comparing and contrasting characteristics of animals. Students can further their
ability to discover similarities and differences by using the ebook Reptiles, which presents reptiles other than those acknowledged in
the traditional texts.
What are the demands of the text? What are the knowledge demands, linguistic features, and cognitive load?
Both Chameleon, Chameleon and Lizards, Frogs, and Polliwogs will discuss unfamiliar concepts (i.e. characteristics of reptiles);
these concepts are new to the students because of their lack of background knowledge on and limited interactions with this specific
group of animals. Notably, the unique characteristics of animals (i.e. the chameleons ability to camouflage and the geckos ability to
stick on surfaces) will be hard for students to comprehend, as these concepts are particular to these reptiles. Since students are
studying CVCe patterns and long vowel sounds, words such as hide, wake, home, safe, live, pale, and make (CVCe) and tree,
peaceful, and climb (long vowel) found in the texts may be initially difficult for the students. (Students have previously learned
about long vowel sounds, so this lesson will primarily focus on CVCe words). Additionally, new vocabulary words presented in L2,
such as action words like creep, hang, and greet; colors of animals, tangerine and turquoise; and the names of animals, chameleon,
gecko, scorpion, and insect, will be difficult for some students to understand. The teachers reading of the texts will help to enhance
the students fluency skills, as most of these students are not yet reading independently. While interacting with the ebook, Reptiles,
students will have less difficulty as this book just provides illustrations and corresponding names of the reptiles. Since only two
poems from Lizards, Frogs, and Polliwogs are discussed, and the animals they address are also apparent in Chameleon, Chameleon,
the cognitive load regarding the amount of animals being discussed in the lesson is minimal. However, students may be challenged
when learning multiple new vocabulary words and unfamiliar concepts (i.e. camouflage). The students enjoy challenges, so their
cognitive load will not inhibit their learning.
Identify a Literacy Goal(s)
Students will be able to:
Recognize CVCe words (Word study)
Understand and appropriately use new vocabulary words that describe the characteristics of reptiles (Vocabulary)
Compare characteristics of reptiles by using an asking and answering questions strategy (Comprehension)
Identify technology(s) to enhance teaching and learning:

Online game (http://free.kinderwebgames.com/animalgame)


Document camera
Interactive whiteboard (IWB)
iPad-- Popplet Application
eBook Reptiles by Skylar Glenn by (http://uniteforliteracy.com/book?BookId=236)
How do these technologies enhance teaching and/or learning?
Using these technologies, students will be able to meet our knowledge and comprehension goals. The technologies will enhance
teaching instruction because they will provide an alternative and interactive means to further students comprehension. The
document camera will allow students to see the text clearly and enable the teacher to zoom in on the illustrations when discussing
the visible characteristics of particular animals. The IWB will be used to display the online animal game and Popplet application in
airplay mode from an iPad. The IWB will allow the teacher to manipulate the app and provide the opportunity for students to
interact with the activity, which develops more student-led instruction and lets the students access the information in multiple ways.
The teacher will also provide the students with iPads to access the ebook Reptiles by Skylar Glenn. The ebook will enhance the
knowledge and comprehension goal because students will apply the skill of comparing animal characteristics to the new animals
presented in the ebook. This ebook will serve as a way to assess whether or not the students comprehended the discussion on
characteristics of animals.

Develop Instructional Activities for Whole Group Instruction

Before
Reading

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Teacher will activate


background knowledge by
displaying the online
animal game on the IWB.
Teacher will demonstrate
how to play the game and
then ask students to
participate.

Teacher will activate


background knowledge by
reminding students that
yesterday they focused on
activities the chameleon
does. Teacher will ask for
examples from a few
students to help the class
recall the book.

Teacher will activate


background knowledge by
asking students to share
their ideas about what else
sticks like glue from the
previous lesson.

Teacher will set purpose by


telling students they will be
reading a book,
Chameleon, Chameleon, to
learn about reptiles and
understand their
similarities and differences
(teacher will explain the
concept of comparison)
Teacher will explain skill
by telling students that
today they will first look at
the chameleons schedule;
Teacher will remind
students that they have a
classroom daily schedule
and that they should try to
focus on the different
activities the chameleon
does during his day

Teacher will remind


students that yesterday
they learned the CVCe
word pattern. Teacher will
ask for examples of CVCe
words (looking for
students to mention the
word move)

Day 4

Teacher will set purpose by


telling students that today
they will read Chameleon,
Chameleon again and focus
on another characteristic of
reptiles, their color, to be
able to compare reptiles in
a new way.

Teacher will explain


strategy by asking students
to focus on the illustrations
Teacher will set purpose
and colors described in the
by telling students that
text. Teacher will tell
today they will reread
students that some colors
Chameleon, Chameleon to may be unfamiliar.
learn about the different
characteristics of reptiles. Teacher will explicitly
Today they will be
teach bright and pale
learning about movements
(related to the CVCe word
move).
Teacher will explain

Teacher will
activate background
knowledge by
asking students to
share one unique
characteristic about
the gecko and one
unique
characteristic about
the chameleon.
Teacher will
mention that the
reptiles are
different. Then the
teacher will ask
about
characteristics that
make the
chameleon and the
gecko similar.
Teacher will set
purpose by telling
students they will
be rereading the
poems to compare
and contrast
reptiles.
Teacher will
explain strategy by

Teacher will set purpose by


telling students that when
they read the book, there
will be some difficult
words that are hard to read
and understand
Teacher will explain skill
by showing students the
CVCe word pattern on the
IWB and telling that the
challenging words fit this
pattern (but telling the
students that they will
focus more on this during
small groups after reading
Chameleon, Chameleon)
During
Reading

Teacher will read


Chameleon, Chameleon
making sure to implicitly
teach the names of animals
as they appear in the book
(insect, scorpion, gecko,
chameleon, frog,
caterpillar)
Teacher will model skill by
cognitively modeling how
to notice when a new
activity occurs (thinking
aloud) (i.e oh, now the

strategy by telling students


that this time they should
focus on the different
movements the reptiles do
(i.e. climb, rest, greet)

telling students to
focus on different
characteristics of
the chameleon and
the gecko while
reading the poems.

Teacher will set purpose


by telling students that
there will be difficult
words that describe the
movements of animals
Teacher will explain
strategy by telling students
to listen for difficult
words/words they do not
understand during the
reading
Teacher will reread
Chameleon, Chameleon
and cognitively model
noticing a difficult word
by using emphasis while
reading and saying, for
example, oh, climbs, Im
not sure what that means.
Teacher will guide
application by asking
students to raise their
hands when the teacher
reads a word that is

Teacher will read


Chameleon, Chameleon
and cognitively model
noticing the descriptions of
the chameleons colors
(oh here the chameleon is
bright, but here it is pale)
Teacher will guide
application by asking
students to talk to a partner
and compare the colors of
chameleons they noticed in
the illustrations or in the

Teacher will read The


Gecko and The Chameleon
to the students,
emphasizing the colors and
movements as they are
mentioned
Teacher will guide
application by asking
students to share
characteristics they noticed.
The teacher will write these
characteristics in a Popplet

chameleon meets another


reptile.)

unfamiliar to them.

text.

Teacher will guide


application by restating the
previous activity, repeating
the current activity, and
wondering what the next
activity will be (First the
chameleon woke up, now
he wants a juicy insect, I
wonder how he will find
his food. Lets keep reading
to find out).
Teacher will guide
application by asking
students what do you
think will happen next?
when appropriate. Students
will turn and talk to a
partner, and share their
predictions.

Develop Instructional Activities for Small Group Discussion: On grade level with little scaffolding

on the IWB (an iPad is


being used on airplay)

Before
Reading

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Teacher will activate


background knowledge by
reminding students that
they just read about the
chameleon and his daily
schedule.

Teacher will activate


background knowledge by
reminding students that
they are focusing on
challenging words that
describe the movements of
reptiles.

Teacher will activate


background knowledge by
asking students what they
noticed about the colors of
the chameleon in the story
(looking for students to
mention that the chameleon
was different colors at
different times)

Teacher will activate


background knowledge by
showing students the
Popplet they just made and
mentioning again some of
the defining characteristics.

Teacher will activate


background knowledge by
telling students that there
were some challenging
words in the story.
Teacher will set purpose by
explaining to students that
they will closely focus on
the challenging words so
that they can better
understand what the
chameleon does during his
day.
Teacher will explain
strategy by presenting a
word sort on the IWB and
explaining how to use it.
The CVCe word pattern is
written along with CVCe
words taken from
Chameleon, Chameleon
(i.e. move, wake, home,

Teacher will set purpose


by telling students they
will focus on the
movement words rest,
climb, creep, hang, and
greet found in
Chameleon, Chameleon
(these words are written
on the IWB)
Teacher will set purpose
by also telling students
they will read a poem
about a gecko to learn
about how, specifically,
the gecko moves.
Teacher will explain skill
by telling students that
some words in the poem
might be tricky because
words sometimes have
more than one meaning

Teacher will set purpose by


explicitly teaching the
concept of camouflage and
telling students that this is
a unique characteristic of
the chameleon.
Teacher will set purpose by
telling students that they
will read a poem about a
chameleon to learn more
about how the chameleon
camouflages
Teacher will explain skill
by telling students that
some colors might be
unfamiliar and that they
should raise their hands
when they hear a color they
do not recognize

Teacher will set purpose by


telling students they will be
reading an ebook Reptiles
to compare more reptiles
using the characteristics
theyve been learning
about.
Teacher will explain
strategy by reminding
students of the vocabulary
and CVCe words they
focused on (i.e. move,
wake, hide, pale, rest,
climb, creep, hang, etc);
Teacher will tell students
that these words fall into
the categories of
movements and colors
characteristics they should
be thinking about when
comparing reptiles.

hide, safe, move) scattered


on the IWB (there are also
a few words that do not fit
the pattern).
During
Reading

Teacher will read the pages


from Chameleon,
Chameleon that have the
CVCe words being used
during this lesson in the
text.
When a CVCe word is
read, the teacher will drag
the CVCe word to the
correct box on the word
sort; each time a word is
dragged, the teacher will
reread the word and
explicitly explain why it
fits the CVCe pattern.
Teacher will guide
application by asking
students to turn and talk to
a partner and state which of
the remaining words on the
IWB fit the CVCe word
pattern. Teacher will ask
partner groups to share.

Teacher will read the


poem The Gecko
(implicitly teaching the
word roam) displayed on
the document camera. The
teacher will reread the
poem, this time
emphasizing the phrase
like glue it sticks.
The teacher will guide
application by asking
students to think silently
about like glue it sticks
might mean.

Teacher will read the poem


The Chameleon,
emphasizing the phrase
hard to find and colors
yellow, green, turquoise,
blue, and tangerine.
Teacher will guide
application by asking
students which colors they
know (i.e. yellow, green,
blue) and which colors they
are unfamiliar with
(turquoise, tangerine).

Teacher will show the


ebook on the IWB using
airplay. The ebook does not
have text, so the teacher
will cognitively model
looking at the first two
reptiles and noticing their
characteristics.
The teacher will ask
students to turn and talk to
a partner to discuss the
characteristics of the
chameleon presented in the
ebook, as the teacher
prompts the questions (i.e.
What color is the
chameleon? What if it was
on a blue background?
Etc).

After Reading

Teacher will remind


students of the CVCe word
pattern and ask for
examples of words they
just learned that fit the
CVCe pattern.
Teacher will prompt
application to new contexts
by telling students they will
work with the whole class
to create a schedule for the
chameleon and that they
will use these newly
learned CVCe words to do
so.

Teacher will extend


learning by asking
students to share with a
partner what they think
like glue it sticks means.
Teacher will then
reintroduce the movement
words from Chameleon,
Chameleon by explicitly
teaching each word.
The teacher will prompt
application to new
contexts by asking
students to think of other
animals, or people, who
do the movements
discussed and share their
ideas with a partner (i.e.
students would say that
people greet each other,
and monkeys climb on
treesthe teacher should
make sure to reemphasize
that people do not stick
like glue, as the poem
explains)

The teacher will extend


learning by asking the
students if they remember
the colors they saw in the
pictures or in the text from
the book Chameleon,
Chameleon
Teacher can scaffold
students to understand that
colors can be described in
different ways (i.e.
peaceful, angry, bright,
pale, happy). Teacher will
remind students of bright
and pale (asking students
what word pattern pale
followsCVCe).
Teacher will prompt
application to new contexts
by using the IWB. On the
left side will be the word
bright with a square of
bright tangerine and a
square of bright turquoise.
On the right will be the
word pale with a square
of pale tangerine and a
square of pale turquoise
Teacher will ask students to
discuss with a partner the

The teacher will recap by


reminding students that
they just discussed the
characteristics of a
chameleon.
The teacher will prompt
application to new contexts
by ask students to think
about how the chameleon
is similar or different from
the reptiles the teacher
discussed during reading.

differences between the


pale and bright squares of
the same color. Teacher
will also explicitly teach
that tangerine is another
name for orange and
turquoise is another name
for blue.
Teacher will extend
learning to new contexts by
asking students to tell a
partner about other things
that are the colors they just
learned (i.e the sky is blue,
the grass is green, the sun
is yellow)

Develop Instructional Activities for Whole Group Instruction (CONTINUED)


After Reading

Teacher will remind


students that they learned
CVCe words to help them
make complete sense of the
chameleons day
Teacher will ask students
help create a
schedule/timeline of the
chameleons day on the
IWB (with prewritten
eventsi.e. The

Teacher will remind


students that they just
learned about the different
movements reptiles do and
ask students to share a
movement and explain
it/act it out.
Teacher will prompt
application to new
contexts by asking
students to think about

The teacher will recap the


lesson by reminding
students they just learned
about the colors of a
chameleon and how it can
change to different colors.
To prompt application to
new contexts, the teacher
will put yellow, green, and
blue squares on the IWB.
Scattered around the IWB

The teacher will recap by


re-explaining that students
are comparing and
contrasting characteristics
of reptiles (specifically
their colors and
movements)
The teacher will prompt
application to new contexts
by giving pairs of students
an iPad with the ebook

chameleon wakes up and is


hungry for a juicy insect)
Teacher will prompt
application to new contexts
by asking students to think
of their own daily
schedules in and out of
school

what else sticks like


glue.

will also be yellow, green,


and blue chameleons. The
teacher will call up
students to drag a
chameleon to its
corresponding background
so that the chameleon is
hard to find or
camouflaged (i.e. a green
chameleon goes with a
green background).

Reptiles on it. The teacher


will ask each pair to choose
a reptile from the book and
discuss its characteristics
with their partner. Then the
teacher will ask the
students to find another
pair of students. The two
pairs will compare and
contrast the characteristics
of their different chosen
reptiles using the CVCe
Teacher will ask students to and vocabulary words
think about other things in taught in previous lessons.
the classroom or at home
that are hard to find/
After the game, the teacher
camouflaged.
will ask students to think
about different animals
they see in their
neighborhoods and how
they are similar and
different from each other
(thinking about how they
move and what colors they
are).

Rationale
This lesson series is intended to teach kindergarten students from an urban classroom. The lessons are effective in meeting the
knowledge goal, comparing and contrasting characteristics of animals, as well as the literacy goals pertaining to word study,
vocabulary, and comprehension. In addition, the lesson series allows students to implicitly learn good fluency skills and understand
how to write for the purpose of learning. By the end of the lesson series, on Day 4, the students are capable of applying their
knowledge of movements and colors of chameleons and geckos to other reptiles found in the ebook Reptiles with little teacher
scaffolding. The students success during this activity demonstrates their ability to compare and contrast, a skill that meets the
knowledge goal of this lesson series, as well as the corresponding CCSS, as both focus on comparing and contrasting. The students
from this classroom live in urban environments, and it can be assumed that many of them have never interacted with reptiles like the
chameleon or the gecko before. Therefore, their limited background knowledge on reptiles only allows the students to infer as much as
their knowledge allows; they may need assistance when using the comprehension strategies of making predictions and asking and
answering questions. Duffy (2014) explains, comprehension is inferential because the reader can only make a calculated guess about
the authors meaning since the author was operating from one set of experiences and the reader from another (p. 17). On Day 1, the
teacher attempts to overcome this challenge by asking the students to predict what the chameleon might do next during his day, while
referring to the daily schedule of the classroom so that students can use it as a point of reference to make appropriate predictions.
Students are also asked questions to prompt discussions and further their understanding of important concepts as a way to enhance
comprehension of the texts.
This lesson series effectively releases responsibility throughout the four days. Clark (2004) notes that students should be
prepared to eventually handle reading on individually. On Day 1, the teacher gradually releases responsibility during a CVCe word
sort activity. At first the teacher demonstrates how to use the word sort causing the activity to be predominantly teacher-led. Since this
activity is taking place in small groups and these students learn new skills quickly, the teacher releases responsibility entirely onto the
students, asking them to complete the chart by turning and talking to a partner to appropriately sort the remaining words. The lesson

series also gradually releases responsibility over the course of all four days. On the first few days, the teacher scaffolds the students by
asking questions and redirecting students attention to specific characteristics of the reptile being discussed (i.e the chameleon
camouflages, the gecko sticks like glue). On the fourth day, the students are capable of choosing a reptile from the ebook and
applying previously learned characteristics to a new reptile and comparing the new reptile to either the chameleon or the gecko. This
activity is entirely student-directed, as each pair of students can choose their own reptile and lead their own discussion on its
characteristics, as well as choose with whom to compare it. After the comparison activity at the end of the fourth day, the teacher
continues to transfer responsibility to the students by asking them to notice animals elsewhere in their environments and focus on their
similarities and differences. Graves (2011) explains, knowledge and skills that transfer become tools that students can use throughout
their lives (p. 33). Applying the skill of comparing and contrasting is extremely crucial for the students in their futures.
Throughout the lesson series, the students are actively motivated and engaged. There are two activities in the lesson series that
explicitly allow choice, a method that helps to motivate students to learn and participate (Graves, 2011). The first occurs at the end of
Day 3, where students can approach the IWB and choose which chameleon they want to pair with a background of the same color to
demonstrate camouflage. While choosing a different colored chameleon does not alter the activity, students are more likely to want to
participate and remember the activity if they choose a preferred color. The second activity that requires student choice is at the end of
Day 4, when students choose a reptile from the ebook with which to compare to another reptile. Choosing a preferred reptile will also
engage students in the activity because they are discussing a reptile they enjoy, rather than one they dislike or one to which they have
no personal connection. Another way students are motivated and engaged during the lessons is through the turn and talks with a
partner. Graves (2011) notes that students in cooperative groups showed superior performance in academic achievement and
generally displayed better overall psychological health (p. 64). Through active discussion about a topic, students can enhance their
understanding and comprehension of new concepts that may be initially confusing. Reflection is also a tool used by teachers to engage
their students (Guthrie, 2011). At the end of Day 2, the teacher asks the students to think about other things that stick like glue; At the
beginning of Day 3, the teacher reflects back to the lesson on Day 2 and asks students to answer the question what else sticks like

glue? By having students answer the question, they are not only incorporating outside observations, which improves their
background knowledge, but they are also forced to think back to the previous lesson and recall what they learned.
The lesson series also incorporates technologies that enhance teaching. The document camera and IWB allow students to learn
fluency and writing to learn skills, implicitly. While reading, the teacher will place the book under the document camera to let the
students see the text and follow along as the teacher models good fluency skills. The IWB is used to display vocabulary words, word
patterns (CVCe), and the Popplet app, which are all elements to teach students that writing can be used for learning. The IWB is also
used to teach concepts, such as camouflage. The students are asked to manipulate colored chameleons and backgrounds to pair them
appropriately to model the concept of camouflage. The interactivity and numerous colors enhance teaching. Had this activity been
conducted without using technology, the students may have received the same understanding of the concept, but simply placing a
paper chameleon on a paper background provides no feedback for the students, whereas an IWB has the option of incorporating sound
effects to announce right or wrong answers (considering the teacher wants to use this form of feedback). Lastly, the ebook, Reptiles,
allows students to apply information previously learned to new contexts. Cahill and McGill-Franzen (2013) explain, young
childrens interaction with enhanced digital books also advances their facility to communicate and comprehend across modes and
platforms (p.31). Hutchinson (2012) furthers this claim by noting that the mobility of the iPads (on which the ebook is used) is useful
because students can use them anywhere in the classroom. Students can communicate and interact with each other and with the texts
in various environments and situations, which also helps to transfer skills on to new contexts.
The demographics of this classroom are comprised of multiple English Language Learners (ELLs), with varying linguistic
abilities and experiences with formal schooling. Because these students are developing English, the activities during this lesson series
are intended to support their linguistic needs. Graves (2011) explains that students learn best when challenged, but also supported. The
animal game activity, where students are asked to identify a specific animal when presented with four animals, on Day 1 is useful in
teaching ELLs because the animals involved are known to many students, so the activity will not seem too challenging while still
requiring the students to think. The question is written on the screen and the website also provides the ability for it to be read aloud.
Hearing and seeing the question supports the ELL students variety of linguistic needs. Additionally, the vocabulary the teacher

teaches to the students supports the fact that many of the students are just learning the English language and may have not encountered
these words previously. The names of specific reptiles help to scaffold the limited background knowledge the students have on
reptiles, and the vocabulary words taught that pertain to movement serve to support the students knowledge of L2. While the students
may know the words creep, climb, rest, etc in L1, they may not know the words in L2. Another way the teacher differentiates
instruction is by calling attention to the illustrations in the texts. On multiple occasions during the lesson series, the students are asked
to recall concepts. Since the kindergarten students are new English speakers, they may have difficulty solely relying on the text. By
allowing the students to use the illustrations, they can still use the vocabulary taught to them (most of the students have good oral
vocabularies) and fully meet the knowledge and literacy goals.

References
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Clark, K. (2004). What can I say besides sound it out? Coaching word recognition in beginning reading. The Reading Teacher,
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Guthrie, J. T. (2011). Best practices in motivating students to read. In L. M. Morrow & L. B. Gambrell (Eds.) Best practices in literacy
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