Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 436

C

1. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 - . . . . . . . 1
1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.2 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2.3 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.4 - . . . . . . . 10
1.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.2 -,
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1.4.3 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 10

. . . . . . . . . 10
. . . . . . . . . 18
. . . . . . . . . 20

1.5 - . . . . . . . 22

1.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2. - . . . . 25
2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.2.1 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.3.1 . . . . . . . .
2.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.4

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29
31
34
35

2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

3.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.3.1 . . . .
3.3.2
3.3.3 . . . . . .
3.3.4 . . .

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49
51
53
56

3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

4. -. . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3
4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.1 "-" . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.2 .
4.5.3 . . . . . . . . .
4.5.4

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63
65
66
67
71
74
75
76
78

4.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
4.7 , ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.8.1 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.8.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.8.3 , . . . . . . 88

4.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
4.10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

5.
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
5.1 . . . . 95
5.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
5.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
5.1.3 () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
5.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
5.1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
5.1.6 . . . . . . . . . . 104
5.1.7 . . . . . . . 105
5.1.8
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
5.1.9
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
5.1.10
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
5.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2
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5.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.4 .
5.2.5 . . . . .
5.2.6
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5.2.7
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. 112
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113
115
115
117

. 118
. 118

5.3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
5.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.4 . . . . . . . . .
5.3.5
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5.3.6
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5.3.7
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5.3.8
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5.3.9
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5.3.10
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118
119
119
122

. . 122
. . 124
. . 124
. . 127
. . 127
. . 129

5.4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
5.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.3 . . . . . . . .
5.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.5 . . . . . . .
5.4.6
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5.4.7
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130
132
133
138
139

. . . . . 139
. . . . . 143

5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
5.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
5.6.1
5.6.2
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5.6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.4 NaI(Tl)
7,65 7,65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.5 . . . . . . . .
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. . . 149

. . . 150
. . . 151
. . . 152
. . . 153
. . . 153

6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
6.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.3
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6.2.4. .

. . 156
. . 156

. . 157
. . 160

6.3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
6.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
6.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

6.4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
6.5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
6.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
6.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
6.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

6.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
6.6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.6
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6.6.7
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168
169
172
173
174

. . . 177
. . . 179

6.7 ,
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6.8 ,
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
6.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
6.9.1 - ,
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6.9.2
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6.9.3 -235 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.9.4 -239 . . . . . . . . .
6.9.5 .
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. . . . 183
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183
185
186
188
190

aa 7. epee ooae paa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193


7.1 eee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
7.2 ee opao paa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
7.3 Meoa aa-epe eoe opao . . . . . . . . . . 194

7.3.1 Ooooea aaa (eaec pa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197


7.3.2 ( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
7.3.3 Aapapa eoa ecoe opao. pee . . . . . . 199

7.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
7.4.1 Teop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
7.4.2 pee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
7.4.3 o o eoa ooe o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

7.5 M . . . . . . . 205
7.6 . . . . . . . . . 207
7.7
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
7.7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
7.7.2 Meoa ooe coce - . . . . . . . . . 209
7.7.3 epe aoo c UF6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

7.8 P
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
7.8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
7.8.2 . . . . . . . . 212
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

aa 8. -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
8.1 eee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
8.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
8.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
241
8.2.2 Pu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
242
8.2.3. Pu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.5

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217
218
219
219
219

8.3 ,
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8.3.1. 40 . .
8.3.2. 100 .
8.3.3 125 .
8.3.4 148 .
8.3.5 160 .
8.3.6 208 .
8.3.7 332 .
8.3.8 375 .
8.3.9 640 .

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221
226
228
230
232
234
235
237
237

8.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
8.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
8.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
242
8.4.3 Pu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

8.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
8.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
8.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
8.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

8.5.4 / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
8.5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

8.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
8.6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
8.6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
8.6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

8.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
8.7.1 -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.2 - . . . . . . . .
8.7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7.4 .
8.7.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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250
252
256
259
262
262

9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
9.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
9.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
9.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

9.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

9.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
9.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
9.3.3 . . . . . . . 272

9.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
9.4.1
9.4.2 . . . . . . .
9.4.3 .
9.4.4 . . . . . . . .
9.4.5 . .
9.4.6 . . . . . .

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274
276
277
279
282
282

9.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
9.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
9.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
9.7.1 K- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
9.7.2 LIII- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
10.2.1 .
10.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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306
307
308
312

10.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
10.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
10.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
10.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318

10.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

10.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
11.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
11.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
11.3 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
11.4 , (,n)
11.5 . . . .
11.6 . . . . .
11.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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336
343
345
348

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

12. . . . . . . . . 353
12.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
12.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
12.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.2 - . .
12.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2.4 .

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353
354
355
358

12.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
12.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
12.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

12.4 . . . .
12.5
12.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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365
369
372
374

12.7.1 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
12.7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
13.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2 . . . . . . . . . .
13.3 - .
13.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.1 3He BF3 . . .
4
13.4.2 , He CH4.
13.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
13.4.4 B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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377
378
382
386
386
392
394
396

13.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
13.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
13.5.2 -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398

13.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

13.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
13.7 . . . . . . . . . . . 406

13.7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
13.7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407

14. . . 409
14.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
14.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
14.1.2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410

14.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
14.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.4
14.2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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412
415
419
422
424

14.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
14.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
14.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429

14.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
14.4.1 .
14.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4.3 . . . .
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431
432
433
436

1
-

( . . )

1.1 -
- , . , , , , , , , , , -.
. , , .
. , ,
- 1018 (. . 1.1). ,
, . .
, (-

. 1.1. ,

-, ,

), - .
. .
1 ( , ,
1 . 1 1,60210-19 . (103 )
(106 )). - ,
10 .

, -
. .
1895 . ,
X- ( . .). ,
- , , ,
,
. , ,
.

. ,
, .
" " .
1899 . , 95 % 0,02 , 50 % 5 1,5 . "", , ,
""-. , . ,
. 1900 . ,
20 2-3 . , .
1903 . "" ,
"-, , ". ,
: , .
, - - - . -, ,

1. -

,
.
,
. , .
-,
,
.
-: - ,
.

1.2
1.2.1 .
, ,
, : , ,
, . . Z.
. N.
( ) (=Z+N).
:
n = n 0 e t,
(1.1)
n t;
n0 t=0;
, , .
. T1/2,
T1/ 2 = (ln 2) / .

(1.2)

, , (
). , , :
R=

132
, 10 16
,
A T1/ 2

R , ;
;
T1/2 .

(1.3)

(1.3)
.
- - -. , - , . ,
-, 235U, 185,7
54 %. -235 - 7,038108 . (1.3), , -, 7,98104 /. 54 % - - 185,7 . , - 4,3104 /.
- , ,
-, - - . , :
- 5 : 0,01 0,008 /2,
- 1 : 0,7 0,6 /2,
- 0,4 : 12 10,9 /2 ( ).
1.2.2 -
- , . - ,
.
:
A
A4
4
Z X Z 2 X + 2 He

(1.4)

,
, 42 He.

Q :
Q = (M p M d M He )c 2 ,

(1.5)

Mp,d,He ,
4
2 He;
c .
Q
- - :
E = Q(A 4) / A .

(1.6)

.
160 - 82. - 4 10 10-6 1010 . - .

1. -

, .
() : - .

- (, 10-14 -) , . ,
K-. ,
.

( -) , .
Z .
-
, , 10-14 .
, 10-6 , . 235mU, - 239Pu:
239

Pu 235m U(26 , 99,96 %) 235 U

239

Pu 235 U(0,04 %) .

(1.7)
239

235m

Pu
U, 26 . 235U 0,04 % . m
9141
Nb 60 .
-, - , , . , . ,
, , , , " " [1].
. 1.2 235U, - 239Pu. - 239Pu. , -
, . , -. , , , . , - 239Pu 235U
- 239Pu .

. 1.2. 235U. 239Pu -


239
Pu. [1]

1.2.3 -
- Z
, .
. -: -, + .
--, -
. - :
A
A

(1.8)
Z X Z +1 X + e + e .
-- ,
. 12,8 . - , , , , .
+- :
A
A
+
(1.9)
Z X Z 1 X + e + e .
+- .
, , -

1. -

, .
:

A
A
Z X + e Z 1 X +

e .

(1.10)

82
, (. . 1.3). - , , .. (p)
(d) :
--: Mp > Md ;
+-: Mp > Md + 2me ;
(1.11)
: Mp > Md .

. 1.3. 64Cu,
-

- ,
.
-
.

1.3
1.3.1
1,410-15 (A1/3) 21014 /3. , , . 10-9 10-8 .
. ,
, .
K, L1, L2, L3, M1, ..., M5
. . 1.4 .
,

. 1.4. . K-

b. ,
. K- .

.
.
. .
1.3.2

. .
-. , , .
,
Ebi, i- .
j-
.
Ebi Ebj - Ebi 2Ebj.
. i- , ,
i. . 1.5 K- .
Z ( Z > 70, K > 95 %).
Z
. ,
( K L)
.
, . ( ) - () ; , -

1. -

. 1.5. K- wK

.
, -. ,
, -.
1.3.3
. , . . 1.6 .
. , ; . . 1.1
K- . L-
M- .

. 1.6.
.

10

1.1 K- *

(.
.)

K2

K L2

94,67

99,55

K1

K L3

98,44

103,76

K1

K M3

111,30

117,26

22,0

22,2

K2

K N2-5

114,5

120,6

12,3

12,5

K3

K M2

110,41

116,27

11,6

11,7

**

61,9

62,5

100

100

* K- . [1].
** (100 ).

1.4 -

1.4.1
. 1.71.12 - ,
. . . 1.7
- 0 3 - 235U 234mPa, 238U.
- 140 210
235U ( . 1.8 ). . 1.9 , 238U, 238U. . 1.10 1.11
- 240Pu 14
6 %, . ,
(. 8). . 1.12 - 232Th; - .
1.4.2 -,
- .
- , , , .
(>104 /) -
. 1 5 , - 1 ,
. , - .

1. -

. 1.7. - (93 % 235U).


(
- - 2614 )

11

12

. 1.8. - , -, 235U

1. -

. 1.9. - (0,2% 235U). - 766 1001 238U 234mPa 238U. -


1001 234mPa ( ;
511 )

13

14

. 1.10. - 14 % 240Pu 1,2 % 241Am. . 1.11, . 203,5


(239Pu) 208,0 (237U, 241Pu)
.

1. -

. 1.11. - 240Pu 6 %

15

16

Th ;
6 ;
Be; 945 / ;
10 /
232

. 1.12. - 232Th . 232Th -.


232
Th 35 [6]

1. -

17

. 1.2 -, .
1.2 -,

*,

*,
/c

234

120,9

235


**,
Z,

U
U

238

238

239

240

241

241

Pu
Pu
Pu

Pu

Am

Z,

9,35 10

0,23

69

143,8

8,40 10

0,36

73

185,7

4,32 104

0,69

80

766,4***
1001,0***

2,57 10

10,0

139

7,34 10

13,3

159

152,7

5,90 106

0,40

75

766,4

1,387 10

129,3

9,5

139

1,436 10

0,27

71

413,7

3,416 10

45,2

3,80 10

160,3

3,37 10

642,5

1,044 10

3,7

106

0,07

25

0,45

76

7,4

127

148,6

7,15 10

0,37

74

208,0****

2,041 10

0,86

83

59,5

10

4,54 10

0,14

38

125,3

5,16 106

0,26

70

* [1], : [2], [3].


** ,
- "" .
(=10 /c3) (
Z, ). (=1 /c3) , ( Z, ).
[4].
*** 234mPa 238U.
**** 237U 241Pu.

18

1.4.3 -

. , ..
.
-
, - , .
- , 33 000 / U (-
), 21010 / ( )
, -
103 104 /.
-
.
Z
Z.
.
. ( ) ,
; .
1939 .
.
- -, 1.2.2 1.2.3, .
200 . ( ) ,
. , , - . :
137
97
n+ 235
92 U 55 Cs + 37 Rb + 2n .

(1.12)

. . -- (
-); -. . - .
. 1.13 1.14. . 1.13
, . . 1.14
. -
137Cs 661,6 .
(30,2 ), , (. 18 ).

1. -

19

. 1.13. - , . , 36,9 % 1,59

. 1.14. - ,
32000 / U (- )
9

20

1.4.4
- -
.
. , , .
, . , . 1.71.12. ,
, . .
- . , -. , .
0,038 1/2; 2000
0,055 1/2. 8,6 /. 34 40 .
- , , - , .
20 2
0,75 /.
. : ; , . 40K, 232Th , 235U 238U
. -40 0,0117 %
(10,67 %) -- (89,33 %) 1,277109 . - 1,461 , -. , 40K .
. 232Th ,
208Pb. 232Th 1,411010 .
- 208Tl, 212Bi 228Ac.
, , . -
- , .
- 230Th (8104 ),

1. -


238
235
( U+
U )
Ge(Li)
3
65
10

. 1.15. - . 214Pb 214Bi.


. 1.9; [7]

21

22


, . . 1.15
( . 1.9).
,
- .

- .
, . , 60Co, .
.

1.5 -
1.4 - . -
-,
. -,
.
.
1.5.1
, .
, ; , -,
.
-
. - , -, . . -, ,
.
, , [5].
1.5.2
, , -.
(n, ).
,

1. -

23

-. , :
n+ 238 U + 239 U
239
239

(23 ),

U e + + 239 Np

Np e + +

239

Pu

(2,3 ),
(24119 ).

- , .
8 9 .
(n,n)
-,
.
UF6 -,
, ,
. (,n) - .
:
19

F(, n)22 Na .
22Na -. +-() 22Na - 511
1275 . - PuF4 238PuO2
. ,
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

C.M. Lederer and V.S. Shirley, Eds., Tables of Isotopes, 7th ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1978).
R. Gunnink, J.E. Evans, and A.L. Prindle, "A Reevaluation of the Gamma-Ray
237
238, 239, 240, 241
Pu, and 241Am," LawEnergies and Absolute Branching Intensities of U,
rence Livermore Laboratory report UCRL-52139 (1976).
"Calibration Techniques for the Calorimetric Assay of Plutonium-Bearing Solids
Applied to Nuclear Materials Control," ANSI N15.22-1975 (American National
Standards Institute, Inc., New York, 1975) and 1986 revision.
J.H. Hubbell, "Photon Cross Sections, Attenuation Coefficients, and Energy Absorption Coefficients from 10 keV to 100 GeV," National Bureau of Standards report NSRDS-NBS-29 (August 1969).
T. Gozani, Active Nondestructive Assay of Nuclear Material, Principles and Applications,
NUREG/CR-0602 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 1981).
rd
F. Adams and R. Dams, "Applied Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy", 3 ed. (Pergamon
Press, Oxford, 1970)
R.L. Heath, "Gamma-Ray Spectrum Catalogue," Aerojet Nuclear Corporation report ANCR-1000-2 (March 1974)

2
-

. .
( . . )

2.1
-
, , -. "", - . - , -, , -
.
() -.
- - - , -,
-.
[1] [2].

2.2
- 1900 .
, , - -. 1909 . ,
- , .
2.2.1 -
. 2.1 .
- I0 L, I , , :
I = I0 e L ,
(2.1)
l

-1
l , .

26

. .

. 2.1. . I -,

I/I0 -.
. 2.2
-. ,
- .
, l -,
Z . ,
-, .
(2.1) . . 2.3 , , -.

,
. 2.2. -

27

, -1

2. -

,
. 2.3. NaI,
,

- - . -, . 2.2, . 1/l
. ,
- , , 1/ 0,37.
2.2.2
, ,
. , , ,
.
- , , , ,
P, . ,

28

. .

Z/A, . Z/A ,
:
(2.2)
P = Z / A,
P ;
Z ;
;
A .
l /
(2/). ,
. (2):
N
(2.3)
= 0 ,
A
N0 (6,02 1023);
.

- . 12
. , (2.1) :
I = I 0 e L = I 0 e x ,

(2.4)

x = L.
; ,
, , . , ,
- . [3] [4] . (2.5):
= iwi ,
(2.5)
i i- ,
wi i- .
(2.5) - 200 UF6 :
U U 200 = 1,23 2/;
F F 200 = 0,123 2/;
wU U UF6 = 0,68;
wF F UF6 = 0,32;
UF6 = 5,1 /3;
= UwU + FwF = 1,23 0,68 + 0,123 0,32 = 0,88 2/;
l = = 0,88 5,1 = 4,5 -1.

2. -

29

2.3
- 10 2000
: , .
-
.
- Z. - . Z. -
-. , 1 .
[3].
2.3.1
- , - (. . 2.4). -
, . . , , 1887 .,
. -,
- ,
.

. 2.4.

-, .
, . ,
K- ( 80 % K-) , -
K-. (2.6), , -

30

. .

- :
Z 4 / E3 ,

(2.6)

.
, Z 4,0 4,8.
- (.
. 2.5).
- ,
.
, ,
-
Eb:
Ee = E Eb .
(2.7)
, , , .
,
, . , -. - K-
,

. 2.5.

2. -

31

. , .
. 2.5 . , - K-. K-. - , K-. K-
, L-. LI-, LII- LIII-. (. 9 10).
2.3.2
, -
(LEb) (. . 2.6).
-, -
, , . , ,
-, .
-, , -:
E e = E E' ,

(2.8)

Ee ;
E -;
E -.
:
-. - , . (2.9) -, . 2.7
-.
E' = m0 c2 / (1 cos + m0 c2 / E) ,
(2.9)
2
m0c = 511 ;
- (. . 2.6).

. 2.6.

32

. .

. 2.7.
Eg -.
,

,
- 180, -. - (2.10), (2.11):
E'() = m0 c 2 / (2 + m0 c 2 / E) m0 c 2 / 2 = 256 ,

(2.10)

Lm0 c 2 / 2.

E e () = E / [1 + m 0 c 2 / (2E)] E m 0 c 2 / 2 = E 256 ,

(2.11)

Lm0 c / 2.

(0) - , -, . , , , (2.11).
, , , , -. , ,
(2.11). -. . 2.8
- -
(137Cs). 662 , - -

2. -

33

. 2.8. 137Cs,
(), -
662 .

, , . , , , -
. 470
, -
662 . , (2.11) . 2.9. 188 . 2.8 . ,
- (180) , -

. 2.9. -

34

. .

, . (2.10), ,
256 . -. - . ,
- , ,
, .
, ,
.
, Z/A
.
, - (. . 2.3).
2.3.3
- 1,022 ,
, -
(. . 2.10). , ,
- . 1,022 ,
, . - 1,022 ,
.
, - 1,022 .
, , . , - 0,511 . -

. -
(. . 2.11). . - , - . -, .

. 2.10.

2. -

35

Ce (T =284,4 ) Pr(T =17,3 )


Ge(Li) 55
: 1,18 / Be
: 10
144

144

1/2

1/2

. 2.11. - 144Pr, () () 1674 1163 ,


, - 2186

- ,
, 0,511 . - ,
, 1,022 .
- .
, 232U, -
.
- 2186
144Pr. - 144Pr (. . 2.11)
, - 2186 .
-
1,022 .
(. . 2.3). Z
Z, . 20 % - 1,5
, 50 % 2,0 . 2 4 %.
2.3.4
, ,
. - .
. 2.12 ,

36

. .

. 2.12. .
-,

. . , , , ,
. . , , . , 25
(), 200
2000 . 1 2 . , - 10 . 2
Z ,
.
(. . 2.12) .

2.4
, -
, . -, , -

2. -

37

, ,
. -
.
, -
, , . . 2.12,
. , , -, , -.
-
. , , 241Am, - 60 . -
- . 241Am .
. 2.1
2 . - 60 ,
. 1 2 60
. 250
. - 239Pu 414 , , - 100 200 - 60 . ,
60 , 82
48. , K- 88 , . 2.5 2.3.1.
2.1
, ./*
,

241

60

129
1,29 10

208

414

8,50 10

2,02 104

3,57 10

0,1

2,40 104

0,67 104

6,76 104

1,85 104

0,2

1,86 102

0,34 104

5,37 104

1,69 104

239

241

* Am = 0,135 %; Pu = 81,9 %; Pu = 1,3 %.


2 , 1 , 0,13 .

235U ,
- 9

38

. .

120 -
186 235U. . - 144Ce-144Pr 2186

(), (. 18). - 500 900
- 2186
10 15 .


. - , . ,
- 241Am 60 ,
23 . ,
. K- 8 , , ,
. , K-
73 75 , K- 23 . Z .

2.5
-
. - ,
. , ,
11,35 /3, 82 . ; , ,

.
( 74),
(17 /3), .
. 2.2 .
,
. . 2.2 , 500
, . ,

2. -

39

, .
500 ; . , , .
,
.
-, , -.
2.2
, -1

, *

**

**

1000

0,77

1,08

2,98

2,14

500

1,70

2,14

1,35

1,08

200

10,6

11,5

0,22

0,20

100

60,4

64,8

0,038

0,036

* 10 %- .
** : 90 % , 6 % , 4 % .

1.
2.
3.
4.

R.D. Evans, The Atomic Nucleus (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1995).
G.F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement (John Wiley & Sons, New York,
1979).
E. Storm and H. Israel, "Photon Cross Sections from 0,001 to 100 MeV for Elements 1 through 100", Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-3753 (1967).
J.H. Hubbel, "Photon Cross Sections, Attenuation Coefficients, and Energy Absorption Coefficients from 10 keV to 100 GeV", National Bureau of Standards report NSRDS-NSB 29 (August 1969).

3
-
. , .
( .. )

3.1
- , . , - . , -, ,
.
. ( ),
( ), - .
, , - .
-, ()
. , -, 4.
- [1 2].

3.2
- . , , .
,
, , - .
3.2.1
( )
(. . 3.1).
, , ()
, .

42

. . , . .

. 3.1. . () .
. , , ,

( )
.
, , . , .
,
,
. ,
/ .
, -,

NaI (Ge) .
- ,
( )
.
,
, , , . , ( )
,
. -.
- , , ; , . -, .
-
. , ( 100-1000 ). 13,
.

3. -

43

3.2.2

(, ),
"" , , -; (,
). ; . , .
, (, ).
(NaI), (CsI),
(ZnS) (LiI). , NaI CsI.
(Bi4Ge3O12), BGO, ,
- / [3
4]. [1, 2 5].
- , () ,
.
. ,
,
. ( ).
, , , . , . , -, NaI(Tl).
,
(,
MgO) (. . 3.2). . . ,
( ), .
, ( 104 ) . , () . , -

44

. . , . .

. 3.2. .
. ( 1-13 .) .

; . , ,
, , , , ,
, , - ( ). , , - . ,
, ( ) , , ,
. 3.3.
3.2.3
, , . - , , ().
. 3.3. - (

. 3.3. . - p-n ,
. -
(. 4)

3. -

45

) ,
.
.
. 3.3, , , . .

- Ge(Li).
.
(), , .
, , :
.
. . 3.4. ( )
(. . 3.4 (,)). , , ,
, . , ,
-. ,
( ) .
, 1 20 (, . 3.4 ()). .
- (, L- -

()

()

()

. 3.4. :
() , () () . p- n-. ,
i, , . , p-i-n

46

. . , . .

). . , ; , , - .
- . , , . , , (,
, ), . ,
, -
, ,
.

.
, , . , .
. 3.5 [6]. , 109 /2,
1010 /2 [7]. n-
. ,
() [8].

- [1, 2 9].
- ( ). (77 ). , :
,
, .
[10],
.
- Si(Li).
50 (. 2), 1 50 () (.

3. -

47

. 3.5. - 60
(f). Co 1,33 . .
( [6])

48

. . , . .

10). 50 -
, , - . , -
.
-
. ,
-, , , . ,
CdTe, HgI2 GaAs [11].
. . 3.1.
,

, .
, .
3.1



- ()*


122 **,

Ge (77 K)

32

2,96

0,46

CdTe (300 K)

48, 52

4,43

3,80

HgI2 (300 K)

80, 53

6,50

3,50

GaAs (300 K)

31, 33

4,2

2,60

NaI (300 K)***

11, 53

14,2

* , (.
3.3.3).
** , [12].
3.3.3 5.
*** , NaI .

3. -

49

3.3
- , , .
.
(), 4.
() , .

- , .
3.3.1
,
. - 0, . 3.6 (). -
,
.
: 1 ( ) 2
-. , , , . , ""
, , 0.
-
, ,
, .
, 0, , , 0, . 3.6 (). ,
, . 3.6 (), . , -, , , ,
(.
).
- ,
,
.
.
, - , , -

50

. . , . .

. 3.6. :
;
;

(. . 3.1). , , . ,
, , . .
,
. ,
, , , .

,
. , , ,

3. -

51

, . . 3.6 (). ,
, 180. , ,
,
( . 3.6 ()) "" , .
(. . 3.6 ())
-, . , , , (. 3.3.3).
3.3.2
-, -, . 3.7. , , .
. (). ,

. , . ,
, , ,
(. 3.3.3 4). 0.

. 3.7. - -.

52

. . , . .

.
. . , c (. . 3.6), , .
.
. . , .
, , - 0 .
"" ,
, - 180 (. 2.3.2). (2.11).
. " ".
, ,
(
) , .

.
, .
. . -,
,
. -, 110-120,
200 250 . , -,
(. [1] 2.3.2). (2.10).
. .
- , , , (. 4).
- .
. . ,
" ", , ,
, -

3. -

53

.
, , .
(. 4), .
-, , , , , .
3.3.3

() , . , , ( ) FWHM (
. .). , , :
FWHM = 2 ln 2 ,

(3.1)

.
( ) , , . -, .
, ,
-.
, , - ,
. , , , "-" .. ,
.
4.
- : NaI(Tl)
. ,
NaI, , . . 3.8, ,
- , NaI.
, ,
. n, , -

54

. . , . .

. 3.8. - 239Pu 94,2 %, Ge(Li)


NaI

, -:
n = E / .

(3.2)

n .
, (..
) ,
[13]:
2 (n) = Fn = FE / .

(3.3)

, , , ,
( ). .
, n (F=0).
, ,
(F1). F ; , 0,15 [1 2]. n (. (3.2)),
:
E /E = 2,35 (n) / n = 2,35[F / E]1 / 2 .

(3.4)

. 3.2 . () , ,
. ,
:

3. -

55

2 = 2 + 2 = + .

(3.5)

. 3.9 [14] , . 5.2.


, , , .
, , . ,
. , , , , , . , , , .
. [1].
3.2
300 -
-


n

*,
300 **
n***

****,

*****,

Ge

2,96

1,0 105

0,0032

0,86

1,60

30,00

1,0 10

0,010

2,73

NaI

1,0 10

BGO

8,0 101

4
3

0,032

22,6

30,0

0,11

77,6

100,0

* , -
.
** / =300 ( (3.2)).
*** (n)/n (1/n)1/2 .
**** (3.4). : 0,15 1,0 .
.
***** 1332 (60Co) , ,
. , .
******
, ; , NaI [1], BGO
, 8 % NaI [1].

56

. . , . .

. 3.9. NaI, Si(Li) ( [14])

3.3.4
()

=

.
,

(3.6)


, , . :
= c .
T

(3.7)


, .
= A / (4r 2 ),

(3.8)

;
r ( 5.5).
.
,
.
( , ..),
,
. ( K1) -

3. -

57

, .
:

= exp i (E )i x i ,

(3.9)

i i- ;
i i- ;
xi i- .
.
(CF), 6. -, . , c
, exp[(x)s],
1 exp[(x s )] T 1
.
(3.10)
=
=
(x)
ln T
.
,
-, ,
. :
= 1 exp(x),

(3.11)

;
;
.
, . ,
r, -, . , :
aE b .

(3.12)

, :
l NaI: 1332 (60) NaI 7,67,6
25 -:
NaI (Ge) = 100 (Ge, 1332 ) / (NaI, 1332 ) .
(3.13)
(NaI, 1332 ) 25
1,210-3. , , 30 %
1332 25 , 3,610-4.
l : (
). -

58

. . , . .


:
= N .

(3.14)

N , ,
.
(.
6 (3.10)) , ,
.
( ) - . 8,
,
, . 8.14.
,
- . , ,
, ; .
, . 3.10 3.11 [15], Ge(Li) , .
:
1.
,
. , -, .
2. - . -.
3. -
. ,

.
. 3.10 3.11 , NaI.
, 186
51,27 ,
414 55 .

3. -

59

. 3.10. 54 Ge(Li) 33 6,8 ( [15]). -.


(e); -
(e)

60

. . , . .

. 3.11. 83 Ge(Li) 38 3 ( [15]).


. 3.10

3.4
, .
4.
- ( ). ,

(85-100 ) 400 .
LIII- 15 30 (. 9), 400 1000 (.
8) 238U 600
1000 . -
. 1.2. , ( ) , -
( ) , -

3. -

61

. , ,
NaI . , NaI. .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

G.F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement (John Wiley & &Sons, Inc.,
New York, 1979).
F. Adams and R. Dams, Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (Pergamon Press, New
York, 1975).
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Methods A242, 480 (1986).
P.E. Koehler, S.A. Wender, and J.S. Kapustinsky, "Improvements in the Energy
Resolution and High-Count-Rate Performance of Bismuth Germanate", Nuclear
Instruments and Methods A242, 369 (1986).
J.B. Birks, The Theory and Practice of Scintillation Counting (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1964).
H.W. Cramer, C. Chasman, and K.W. Jones, "Effects Produced by Fast Neutron
Bombardment of Ge(Li) Gamma-Ray Detectors", Nuclear Instruments and Methods 62, 173 (1968).
P.H. Stelson, J.K. Dickens, S. Raman, and R.C. Trammell, "Deterioration of Large
Ge(Li) Diodes Caused by Fast Neutrons," Nuclear Instruments and Methods 98,
481 (1972).
R. Baader, W. Patzner, and H. Wohlfarth, "Regeneration of Neutron-Damaged
Ge(Li) Detectors Inside the Cryostat," Nuclear Instruments and Methods 117, 609
(1974).
R.H. Pehl, "Germanium Gamma-Ray Detectors," Physics Today 30, 50 (Nov.,
1977).
J.M. Marler and V.L. Gelezunas, "Operational Characteristics of High-Purity
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E. Sakai, "Present Status of Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detectors," Nuclear Instruments and Methods 196, 121 (1982).
P. Siffert et al., "Cadmium Telluride Nuclear Radiation Detectors," IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science NS 22, 211 (1975).
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62

. . , . .

14. A.F. Muggleton, "Semiconductor X-Ray Spectrometers," Nuclear Instruments and


Methods 101, 113 (1972).
15. H. Seyfarth, A.M. Hassan, B. Hrastnik, P. Goettel, and W. Delang, "Efficiency Determination for some Standard Type Ge(Li) Detectors for Gamma Rays in the
Energy Range from 0,04 to 11 MeV," Nuclear Instruments and Methods 105, 301
(1972).

4
-
.
( . . )

4.1
- . 3 , -
, -. -
, .
(, . . 1.10 1)
, -, . , () , . , ,
-
-.
, - ,
.
, . - , .
, -
. -
.
-
:
() (). . 4.1 4.2
- . , -
, . 4.2
. 4.3 4.8

64

. 4.1. - - ,
,

- ; , . 4.9 . , , , . 4.1
. 4.2. ,
, , , , .

. 4.2. - -

4. -

65

4.2


. , , ,
. ,
, ,
, .
, , . , .
, , 0,5 2,0
, , NaI 20 60 .
, , . ,
.
,
. -,
, .
- ,
, , .
, , .
; , .
, ,
, .
, , , , , , ,
.
, , NaI
,
. ,
.
, , , . .
, ,
, .

66

4.3

- , , -
. ,
, .

.
, < 10-9 .
. 5
100 . , .
0 5 .
(< 100 /), , , . , ,
, , .
, . " " , , .
(), , , . , 1
10 .
,
. , 100 ,
, .
.
NIM (Nuclear Instrumentation Module), "" (NIM-""),
. NIM-
, ,
. NIM-"",
. , ,
45,7 .

4. -

67

NIM- .
,
.
.
, , .
, NIM-, . -
.
, . ,
,
. , , ,
, .

4.4
,
NaI. ; , 10 200 .
, , - .
/
-,
.
, .
, , . .
, , ,
.
;
,
, . -
,
.
, .
. NaI ,
.

68

. 4.3. , ,

. , , . . 4.3
.
,
. ,
-
. - (. 5).
.
;
. NaI
.

4. -

69

, . , 50
100 . , , , - . ,
, .
. 4.4, . -.
,
,
.

. 4.4. .
(0,5 ). (50 )

, . , , , ( ) .
(/c), .

(/c). -, ( ), .

70

NaI. , . , .
- . , , . ,
, .
200 . , , .
. , ,
,
. , ,
, , . , .
-
. , . -
(< 10000 ./c), . , 50000 ./, .
; , . (< 10 3) ,
, . , . , .
. 4.5 , .
, - .
,
, . - - , . - , 5000 /c 50000 /,

4. -

71

. 4.5. - . - ,
,

. - ( < 100 200 ) .


, -
. . ,
,
.

4.5
- , ,
. NIM .
,
.
,
0 10 . . , 10 .
12 .
, , 10 5000.

72

( ), .
. , /
- .
, - ,
.
, - .
.
, , - . . 4.4 , 0,25
0,5 . /,
, . , , /, .
, ,
, . , , ,
, , /. , /, ; ,
.
,
,
, . , . , , .
, . , , - , . ,
. 0,25 12 .
, (. . 4.6).
.

4. -

73

. 4.6.

3 4 .
6 8 ,
8 12 . ,

. ,
, , , :
.
,
. NaI,
1020 ,
0,25 1,0 . , , 0,01 . , ,
. , ,
.
: .
. . 4.6 . /
,
.
, , (, )
. .
. ,
. , -

74

; , , .

. . 4.7
.

. 4.7.

4.5.1 "-"
,
"-", 1967 .
, ,
. . "-" , , .
: ,
. ,
. "-"
, . , . "" "",
. ,
- ,
, "" "".
. . 4.8 , "-".
"-" , ,

4. -

75

. 4.8. "-" ()
(). "-", ""
"" . "-".
"-", ""
""

. , .
4.5.2
() "-".
"-", .
"-" ;

76

. "-" "", ;
,
. ,
.
.
4.5.3
.

-. , - -,
. . 4.9 ,
-, . ,
, 0,5 .
, .
;
. . 4.10 , . ,
,
.
,
, .
, , .

. 4.9. .

,
,

4. -

77

. 4.10. 137Cs, (50000 ./),


(). : . :
661,6 . : 1323,2 ;
25 ,

78

,
-
. .
"-", -.
, - . , . , - .
4.5.4
-
.
, / .
.
.
-
. -

. ,
, ,
. , ,
, ;
. ,
, .
, . - , .
. . 4.11
.
-
. - ,
, 106 ./, 80000 ./.
. 4.12 ,
.

4. -

79
. 4.11.

,

. ,
-

. 4.12. ,

,
.

4.6
() - . . 4.1 . -
.
, , , 5 1 , . -. ,
-, ,
.
.
, . , - -

80

. 4.13. ( , )

. . 4.13 .
- , .
, . () - (. . 4.14). ,

.
,
, .
, .
, . , -
.

4. -

81

. 4.14. - , NaI. 4096- , 100- . ; , 4096-


100- .

,
.

4.7 , ,

/, . 4.1,
; .
. , , . , ,
. " " 10.
, .
, ,
. . , -

82

. ; , / .
,
, .

2107 ./ ,
50 .
, .
, , . , . ( ) . ,
, .
, .
(60
, 50 ) . , ,
. ,
.
, , 0,1 %, .
/ , , , . .

, , . , , . . , ,
.
, .
/, ; 1 , . , .

- . -

4. -

83

,
.

4.8
, . 4.2 ,
(),
- . - . , , .
-,
,
- , .
4.8.1 -
- ()
. ;
, . .
, ,
, , , " ", 5 . , 0 8 10 ,
. -
"" ,
.
, , 2 . 1950- 100 256 . 10 16384 . ; 0,6 . . . 4.15 8192- , . ,
. . ,
10 .

, , - . -

84

. 4.15. 8192- , . 375 239Pu

- - . (4.1):
E = mX + bE,

(4.1)

: E , ;
X ;
m , /;
b X, .
m -
; 0,05 1,0 /. ,
(b=0), .
X ,

. , -
60 420 . 0,1 /,
20 , 4096- 20 429,6 - 413,7 .
. ,
X.
,
.
, - , , (4.1), . -
, . -

4. -

85

: .
;
. ,
. .
, ,
. - ,
. , ,
. ,
1%, .
: . , . , , ,
.
.
, . ,
. 12 212 ( 4096) . , , . -, . , , .
. , . , ,
. , 25 %, , 25 % .
( 2
3 ). 450 100 , , 12 43
- 4000- . (4096 ) - 4 12 .
-,
. 4096 , , , .
, 512,
400 , 3 .

86

, , . ,
. , . - - ,
, .
.
,
. , , .
-, . ; . , . . .
NIM
.
4.8.2

,
. , , , . 4000-
;
.
,
.
,
. - , (
).

.
,
, , .

4. -

87

-, , . .
. ,
; .
:
,
. ,

. , (,
E = 0,1 X).
, .
-, .
, -.
.
- (. 5).
,
. NIM
.
;
. ,
; , .
NaI. , , NaI
. ( 1 2 %/C), NaI , .
, , . , ,
, ,

88

.
NaI NIM
/ . NaI , ,
, ;
NaI .
- , - .
. NaI , -
(, 241Am). - NaI
, -. , - -, ,

.
4.8.3 ,

, .
, ,
.
4096 ,
, 1024, 8192 16384 . NaI, . , 0,1 /;
1024-
100 . . 16384-
4096- . ( 65536).
, ,
, , . 65536 . 106 ,
, , 1,6107,
2,56108 4109 ( , , , - ). 106
, , , . -

4. -

89

, , .
, ; ,

. . , .
, ,
. , . , . , ; ,
,
.
,
.
,
.
- ,
, 1515 .
, ; . , .
,
. , , .
-
, .
16 ;

. , , .
;
.
,
, ,
, .
, .
. -

90

, , ().
,
.
, ,
. , .

4.9
. 4.1 4.2 - . , .
, - , .

, ,
. ; 50 , , .
, .
- .
,
.

, . , . "" ; .

. ; . . "".
-. ,
. / . -

4. -

91

, , - . : ;
; ;
.
, , :
. .
, .
,
, - .
, ,
, ,
. ,
, .
. , , , .
.

, -
, . , , , . -
,
, .
.

4.10
, , - . , . ,
, . ,

92

, , .
[1-4] - . , -, ; , , .
-, , . ,
, , , - . ,
; ,
. ,
. ,
, NaI
, .
- 25 , , . .
, . , , . , , (
106 ./) . NaI,
.
-, .

1.

G.F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement, second edition (John Wiley &
Sons, Inc. New York, 1988).

, - . .
, . , , - .
2. P. W. Nicholson, Nuclear Electronics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, 1974).
,
.
, , - ,
- .

4. -

3.

93

F. Adams and R. Dams, Applied Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1970).
, [1], -. NaI .
4. W. J. Price, Nuclear Radiation Detection, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New
York, 1964).
, ,

. , , , .

5

-
. .
( .. )

,
-, 7- 10- .
- ,
:
l ;
l ;
l ;
l ;
l ;
l .

5.1

5.1.1
-
, - , . - ()
(), ().
(PO), -.
:
E = mx + b,
E , ;
m ;
x ;
b ( ).

(5.1)

96

(). , , .
, . -
0,01 0,05
- ,
0,001 .
(, NaI(Tl))
(5.1) (b = 0).
.
, .
, , - , . . 5.1
, . 5.2 (0,7 % 235U).

.
- . . 5.1 , : 59,54; 129,29; 148,57; 164,57; 208,00; 267,54; 345,01; 375,04 413,71 .
[1, 2].
, ,
- . . 5.1 ,
[3]. - ,
. , , .
. 0,1 100 .
, . , . , , - - .

5. -

. 5.1. , .
.
10 20

97

98

. 5.2. (0,7% 235U), .


4

5. -

99

5.1 *

241

Am

137

T1/2
433 .

59,54

-4
, 10

Cs

29,9 .

661,64


K-
Ba

Ba

10,9 .

81,0; 276,40; 302,85;


356,00; 383,85

,
-

Co

5,3 .

1173,23; 1332,51

2,8 .

511,01

133

60

22

Na

1274,51
55

Fe

2,7 .


K- Mn 5,9; 6,5

Cd

1,2 .

88,04

K-
Ag 22,16 24,9

Mn

312

834,8

244

511,01

109

54

65

Zn

1115,5
57

Co

75

Se

271

122,06; 136,47

120

121,12; 136,00; 264,65;


279,53; 400,65

- ,
,

* .
, , 1 ,
100 .

-
.

. SRM-4275 (NBS) 125Sb ( 2,75 .),
154
Eu ( 8,49 .) 155Eu ( 4,73 .)
18 - ,
27 1275 . 18 - 1 %.

100

5.1.2
(5.1)
. x1 x2 , E1 E2, m b
:
(E - E1 ) ,
(5.2)
m= 2
(x 2 - x 1 )
(x 2E1 - x1E2 )
.
(5.3)
(x 2 - x1 )
,
, , .
, . , ,
59,5 413,7 ,
;
78 .
,
.
,
.
m b n :
n x iE i - x i E i ,
(5.4)
m=

b=

b=

x 2i Ei - x i x iEi ,

2
2
= n x i ( x i ) .

(5.5)

.
xi m b .
.
.
. 5.2
. - 241Am
59,536 395,0, - 239Pu 413,712 3937,0,
: E ()=0,1x + 20,0.
. 5.2 ,
.
, . ,
,

5. -

101

~ 0,03
~ 0,017 . , ~ 0,1 (~ 0,01 ), ~0,01 .
5.2

, *

59,536

395,00

---

- 0,017

129,294

1092,77

0,014

- 0,001

148,567

1285,51

0,014

0,000

164,58

1445,80

0,029

+ 0,015

208,000

1879,96

0,022

+ 0,009

267,54

2475,37

0,019

+ 0,007

345,014

3249,98

0,001

- 0,009

375,042

3550,40

0,013

+ 0,004

413,712

3937,00

---

- 0,008

* , , . m = 0,099993 /, b = 20,039 . m = 0,099996 /, b = 20,021 .

5.1.3 ()
, , . , ,
. :
y(x) = y 0 exp[(x x 0 ) 2 / 2 2 ] ,
(5.6)
y(x) x;
y0 ;
x0 ;
2 .
[4, 5 6]
. x0,
. y0
, . -

102

2 () FWHM :
FWHM = 2 2 ln 2 = 2,35482 .

(5.7)


A = 2 y 0 = 2,507y 0 = 1,0645(FWHM)y 0 .

(5.8)

(5.8) , .
.

,
( ). .
, , , , , .
. 5.3(), () () 60Co 1332,5
. . 5.3()

.
. . 5.3() , ,
. . 5.3() ,
, . 5.3(), ,

. , ,
.
5.1.4
. ,
. (), , .
5.1.5
. 5.4 137Cs, NaI(Tl) 7,627,62
. , , . . -

5. -
. 5.3. 60 1332,5 : ()
; () ; () .

103

104

. 5.4. 137Cs, NaI


7,627,62 .
,

.
.
5.1.6
y(x) :
x=

x2
x1 x y(x) dx
x2
x1

y(x) dx

xiyi ,
yi

(5.9)

x1 x2 ;
yi xi.
,
(5.9) y(x). ( (5.6)) x = x0. , . x f%;
FWHM .
, ,
. , ,
. , ,
, . . 5.5 . .
. -

5. -

105

. 5.5. ,

,
,
. ,
, , .
5.1.7

. :
y (y y m 2 ) y m1 (y m y m+ 2 )
x 0 = x m + m+1 m
,
(5.10)
y m+1 (y m y m 2 ) + y m1 (y m y m+ 2 )
m ;
yi xi.

106

(5.10) , . ,
. (5.10) ,
FWHM 6 30 ,
. , , ,
.
.
5.1.8
,
. x0 . , ,
.
, ,
- [7].
Q (x) = ln

2x
y(x 1) 2
=
x 20 ,
y(x + 1) 2

(5.11)

y(x) x.
(5.11) , y(x) . Q(x) m b,

m = 2/2;
2

b = 2x0/ .

(5.12)

x0,
2

2 = 2/m;
x0 = b/m.

(5.13)

(5.14) [x, Q(x)] :


b=

m=

x
xQ
1 x i2 Q i
2 2 2i i 2 i ;
si
si
si
si

x
Q
1 1 x iQ i
2 2 2i 2i ,
si
si
si
si

xi
;

s i2 s i2 s i2
1

x i2

s i2 Q(x).

(5.14)

5. -

107

Q(x)
y(x):
s 2 [Q (x)] = s r2 [y(x 1)] + s r2 [y(x + 1)] ,

(5.15)

s r (y) s(y) / y
, ,
s r2 [y(x)] 1 / y(x) .

(5.16)

,
5.3.3, s2[y(x)] :
s 2 [y(x)] = y t (x) +

k =

B
1 2 Bh
+ (2 k)2 l2 ,
k
2
4 N h
N l

(5.17)

2(x x l)
.
(x h x l)

yt(x) x, 5.3.3.
s2 m b:
1
1
s 2 (m)~ 2 ;
si
(5.18)
1 x
s 2 (b)~ 2i .
si
, , . -
, , - , , . n
n-2 Q(x).
, ,
, . , , x0. , , , x0
~ 0,1 .
.
- 2/ . Q(x) x
:
2 / =

1 1

2
2 [Q i (mx i + b) ] ,
n 2 s i

(5.19)

108

m b (5.14 ), n 2
Q(x), . / 1,00 (. [5],
2
2
/). / ~ 1,00 ,
. 2
, / , .
2
/ ,
. ;

, 2
2
/. / .
. 5.6 , (FWHM ~ 19 ),
. Q(x) x ,
.
5.1.9

,
,
.
( (5.6))
ln y = c 2 x 2 + c1x + c 0 ,
(5.20)
c 2 = 1 / 2 2 ;
c1 = x 0 / 2 ;

c 0 = ln y 0 x 20 / 2 2 .

(5.20) (xi, ln yi) c2, c1 c0,


:
x 0 = c1 / 2c 2 ;

= 1 / 2c 2 ;

ln y 0 = c 0 c12 / 4c 2 .

(5.21)

,
, y. , , y0 : x0 b,
. , (5.8).
. 5.7
- 57Co 122,0 . , . 5.3().

5. -

109

. 5.6. , ,
.
Q(x)

,
, . . 5.3 () 5.7 ,
122 . 5.7 ,
1332 . 5.3 ().

110

. 5.7. 57o 122,0 .


.


. , S1, S2, ..., S8.
S6 S2 S3
1
c0 =
S7 S3 S4 ,

S8 S4 S5

S1 S6 S3
1
c1 =
S2 S7 S4 ,

S3 S8 S5
S1 S2 S6
1
c2 =
S2 S3 S7 ,

S3 S4 S8

(5.22)

5. -

111

S1 S2 S3
= S2 S3 S4 ;
S3 S4 S5

S1 =

S5 =

s i2
x i4
s i2

S2 =

S6 =

xi

s i2

ln y i
s i2

S3 =

x i2
s i2

; S7 =

S4 =

x i ln y i
s i2

x 3i
s i2

; S8 =

x i2 ln y i
s i2

, . yi . ,
:
s i = s(ln y i ),
s(ln y) =

s(y)
,
ln y

(5.23)

s(y) (5.17). /, , :
2

2 / =

1 1

2
2
2 [ln y i (c 2 x i + c1 x i + c 0 )] ,
n 3 i s i

(5.24)

n , c2, c1 c0 ,
(5.22).
, , , 2/ . ,
, 16- , .
5.1.10

. , ,
. .
, ,
-.

112

5.2
5.2.1
, , .
. , , .
(FWHM FW0,5M)
.
() , . ,
, : FWHM2 a + bE. , , .
,
. , , FWHM
. FWHM ( FW0,5)
(FW0,1M); FW0,1M/FW0,5M 1,9
. , ,
FW0,02M/FW0,5M FW0,01M/FW0,5M.
. 5.3 . , .
.
5.3
FW0,1M/FW0,5M

FW0,02M/FW0,5M

FW0,01M/FW0,5M

1,823

2,376

2,578

122,0

1,829

2,388

2,599

(1,003)*

(1,005)*

(1,008)*

1,856

2,428

2,640

(1,018)*

(1,022)*

(1,024)*

1332,5

* .
, ,
. , . , , -

5. -

113

. [8],
( 2 )G = ( 2 )A + h 2 / 12,

(FWHM2 )G = (FWHM2 )A + 0,462h 2 ,

(5.25)

( )G ;
(2)A ;
h ( ).
, , h /, FWHM , h=1,00, FWHM . . 5.4 (FWHM)A /(FWHM)G.
0,1 %,
, 15
(FWHM)G. (FWHM)G 3 , (FWHM)A
~ 3 %. . , , ( , 0,01 %), ,
y0 ,
.
5.4 (FWHM)A (FWHM)G
FWHMG,

FWHMA /FWHMG

3,0

0,9740

5,0

0,9907

10,0

0,9971

15,0

0,9990

20,0

0,9994

25,0

0,9996

30,0

0,9997

35,0

0,9998

40,0

0,9999

5.2.2

,

. .
- .

114

FWHM ~1 %, , FWHM 10 . , , . . 5.8 ,


.
,
, .
, . "" . FWHM, , . , . - 57Co
122,06 136,47 - 60Co 1173,2
1332,5 .

. 5.8. ,
. FWHM

5. -

115

. 5.9. 137Cs, NaI


1. , FWHM, 122 1332,5 , (/).
FWHM () 1 %.
5.2.3
,
( 5.1.5);
.
. . 5.9 137Cs, . 5.4, ,
FWHM.
5.2.4
, , , . FWHM, , .
, .
1

- 57Co
60
14,413 , - Co 159,27 .

116

. 5.10 , .
, , , . , K- ,
xl =
xh =

K y p y1
y 2 y1
y3 K yp
y3 y4

+ x1 ,
+ x3,

(5.26)

K ,
;
yx, ;
yp ;
xl K- ;
xh K- ;
x1, x2 x1;
x3, x4 xh.

. 5.10. FWKM . K
0,0 1,0

5. -

117

K- (FWKM)
y 3 Ky p Ky p y1
FWKM = x h x l = (x 3 x1 ) +
.

y 3 y 4 y 2 y1

(5.27)


yp. ,
. Kyp
FWKM.
,
. yp . , . FW 0,01M yp ~ 106 , 0,01 ~ 1 %. ; .
5.2.5

, . 2 .
(5.6)
:

(x x 0 )2 y(x) dx (x i x 0 )2 y i

yi
y(x) dx
2

(5.28)

(5.7) FWHM.
(5.28) . ,
FWHM.
, .
, , , . ,
, .

118

5.2.6
5.1.8 , (5.11)
. FWHM ( (5.7) (5.13)).
. (
) .
- .
5.2.7
5.1.9 ,
x.
(xi, ln yi) x0, y0
, .

5.3
5.3.1
- - -.
- . , .
,
- .
.
, . ,
, 1,0, .
.

.
,
[9].

5. -

119

5.3.2
() , .
.
.
.
99,96 % x0,
FWHM . (x0 1,75 FWHM)
0,0082 % x0, , , . ,
, FWHM, , 3,5 4,0 FWHM , ~ 99,9 % .
, , . ,
.
, 0,5 1,0 FWHM.
0,1 /
. ,
. ,
3FWHM, ; .
, .
, , , FWHM.
,
( ).
, ; , , FWHM.

. , . , . ,
,
.
5.3.3
-
. . 5.11 , , ,
. , -

120

,
. ,
:
B = [Y(Fp ) + Y(L p )](N p / 2) ,
(5.29)
Y(Fp ) = mFp + b ;
Y(L p ) = mL p + b
m = (Yh Yl) / (X h X l) ;
b = (X h Yl X lYh ) / (X h X l) .

B
2

N p 2 Bh
B
+ (2 K)2 l2 ,
S2 (B) =
K
2
Nl
2 Nh

K =

(Fp + L p 2X l)
(X h X l)

(5.30)

(5.30)
Bh Bl , S2(Bl) = Bl S2(Bh)=Bh. (5.30) ,
. , B S2(B) . ,
(Fp Xl) = (Xh Lp) K = 1, :
Bh B l N p
Y + Yh
B= l
+

Np =
2
Nh Nl 2

(5.31)

N p Bh B l
+
S2 (B) =
.

2 N h2 N 2l

(5.32)

(5.31) (5.32) ,
, ,
. ( ), . , (5.29) (5.30) ,
.
,
, . Nh = Nl Nc, (5.31) (5.32)

5. -

121

. 5.11. () ,

B=

Np
2 Nc

(Bh + Bl)

(5.33)

Np
S (B) =
(Bh + Bl) .
2 Nc
2

(5.34)

, Nc = Np/2,
:
B = (Bh + Bl)
(5.35)

S2 (B) = (Bh + Bl) = B .

(5.36)

122

5.3.4

. -
- . -, , ,
- ; .
[10] ,
. , , .
.
. 5.12 - . , . 5.11,
n
i= n
Bn = Yl D (y i Yh )
i= X l +1

i= X h

i= X l +1

(y i Yh ) ,

(5.37)

yi i;
D = Yl Yh;
B(Xl) = Yl;
B(Xh) = Yh.
Yh ,
-
-
. (5.37) ,
.
,
, (5.37). ( (5.30)),
, .
5.3.5

. , NaI
235
U 239Pu.

5. -

123

. 5.12. ,

,
. :
B=

Np
Nh

s(B)

Bh ,

Np
Nh

s(Bh ) .

(5.38)
(5.39)

,
,
.
, , , (5.38)

B = KBh ,
(5.40)
K , .
, K
" ". -
, K .
K . , , .

124

5.3.6

235U - 185,7 . , K (5.40) .
E = C(P KB) ,
(5.41)
235
, % U/. ,
, (5.41)
E1 = C(P1 KB1 ),
(5.42)
E 2 = C(P2 KB 2 ).

,
C = (E 2B1 E1B2 ) / (P2B1 P1B2 ) ,
K = (E 2P1 E1P2 ) / (E 2B1 E1B2 ) .

(5.43)

(5.41)
E = aP bB ,

(5.44)

a =

E 2B1 E1B2
;
P2B1 P1B2

b=

P1E 2 P2E1
.
P2B1 P1B2

(5.45)

(. 7
, ).
5.3.7


,
. -
, .
.
, :
A =PB,
;
.

(5.46)

5. -

125

S2(A), , , .
,
S2 (A) = S2 (P) + S2 (B) = P + S2 (B) .
(5.47)
(5.29) (5.36) S2() ,
. . 5.5. ,
. , , - .
,
(5.46) (5.37) ,
Lp
Xh
n

A = P Yl D (y i Yh )
(5.48)
(y i Yh ) .

n = Fp
i
X
i
X
=
+
1
=
+
1
l
l

,
S2(A) .
S2(A), . 5.5.
, (5.46)
, S2(A) (5.47). , ( (5.38)),
A S2(A) :

A=P

Np
Nh

Bh ,
2

Np
S2 (A) = P +
Bh .
Nh

(5.49)

( (5.40)) A S2(A) :
A = P KBh ,

S2 (A) = P + K2Bh .

(5.50)

, (5.49) (5.50) , - , .

126

5.5
* ( )**

B = [Y(L p ) + Y(Fp )](N p / 2),

Y(L p ) = mL p + b Y(Fp ) = mFp + b

m = (Yh Yl) / (X h X l),

b = (X h Yl X lYh ) / (X h X l)

S 2(B)

B = (Yl + Yh )

Np
S 2 (B) =

2 Bh
B
+ (2 K) 2 l2 ,
K
N l
N h2

K=

2(X X l) (Fp + L p 2X l).


.
=
(X h X l)
(X h X l)
2

Np

B
B Np
N p Bh B l
= h + l
+
S2 (B) =


2 Nh Nl 2
2 N h2 N 2l

(Fp X l) = (X h L p )


Nl = Nh = Nc

B=

Np
2 Nc

(Bh + Bl)

B = (Bh + Bl)

Np
S2 (B) =
(Bh + Bl)
2 Nc

S2 (B) = (Bh + Bl) = B

Nl = Nh = Np / 2
* A = P B,

S 2 (A) = P + S 2 (B).

** . . 5.11;

;
;
Fl, Ll ;
Fp, Lp ;
Fh, Lh ;
Bl, P, Bh , ;
Nl, Np, Nh , ;
Yh = Bh/Nh ;
Yl = Bl/Nl ;
Xh, xl ;
Y(Fp) Y(Lp) Fp Lp;
m b= (Xl, Yl) (Xh, Yh).

5. -

127

5.3.8
5.1.3, y0
, ,
(5.8). , , , ,
, , . , , . NaI
, . .
.
,
FWHM .
FWHM , , .
, ,
FWHM .
,
x0 , y0 ,
(5.6) y0. y0, x0,
.
5.1.9 , , ln(yi) x0, y0 . (5.8).
.
5.3.9
, . .
, , , , .
( (5.6)) - . x0 , y0. -

128

x0 .
- ,
x0 .
, FWHM2 = a + bE, - 100 . ,
.
. , , . ,
, , i-

y i = A1 F1i + A2 F2 i + A3 F3i ,
(5.51)
A1, A2 A3 , ,
F1, F2 F3 , . ,
:
F1 = exp[K1(x i x10 )2 ],

F2 = exp[K2(x i x 2 0 )2 ],

(5.52)

F3 = exp[K3(x i x3 0 )2 ],

x10, x20, x30 ;


K1, K2, K3 = 1 / 2 12,2,3 ;
i = (FWHM)i / (2 2 ln 2 ).

A1, A2,
A3 . ,
A1, A2, A3:

y F1 F1 F2 F1 F3
1
A1 =
y F2 F2 2
F2 F3 ,
D
y
F
3
F
3
F
2

F3 2
F12
y F1 F1 F3
1
A2 =
F2 F1 y F2 F2 F3 ,
D
F3 F1 y F3 F3 2

5. -

129

F12
F1 F2 y F1
1
2
A3 =
F2 F3 F2
y F2 ,
D
F3 F1 F3 F2 y F3
(5.53)

F12
F1 F2 F1 F3
2
D = F2 F1 F2
F2 F3 .
F
3
F
1
F
3
F
2

F3 2

(5.53) . F1, F2 F3 A1, A2 A3. , ,


.
, .
, I1, I2 ... . , (5.51)
y i = A F1i + A3 F3i ,
2

(5.54)
2

F = exp[K1(x i x10 ) ] + (I2 / I1 )exp[K2(x i x 2 0 ) ] .


(5.54) , A A3. , F 1/E1 I2/I1E2, E1 E2 -
. , ,
,
E1 E2. -
, , ,
E1=E2 , .
5.3.10


. . [11] , .

( ), . ,
. -

130

.
, .
; ,
.
,
.
; ,
" ." ,
-, .
,
. . , . , ,
.

5.4
5.4.1
4, - () ,
. .
,
.
, . , ,
. , 100 ,
4000 ~ 55 .
- .
, NaI(Tl),
. .

5. -

131

4. . 4.9 ,
, , , ,
. . 4.10 .
, , , . ;
. , , , ; - , .

, ,
, , .
, , .

,
(., , 3 [12]). ,
, ""
; "" . , ;

. , .
- (R) -:
CR = RR CF(RL) CF(AT) ,

(5.55)

RR ;
CF(RL) ;
CF(AT) (. 6).
, CR

. CR
, 239Pu 235U.
(5.55).

132

5.4.2

""
; .
- , , ""
.
D, CR :
CR =

RR
.
1 RR D

(5.56)

RR,
RR =

CR
1
=
.
1 + CR D 1 / CR + D

(5.57)

CR , RR 1/D, .. . "" , RR , 1/D. RR 0,


CR , "".
, (5.56) (5.57) , D
. , , .
. -, , , /, 50 , . -, ,
. NaI(Tl) , ~ 3 ,
. , NaI 1020 , , ,
. -
NaI .
. 5.13 , ,
,
. .
. ,
.

5. -

133

T, , , . [1,3], , :
P(N) =

(RT)N e RT
,
N!

(5.58)

P(N) N , T,
R.
,
, , (5.58) N = 0:
P(0) = e RT .
(5.59)
F
F = 1 P(0) = 1 e RT .

(5.60)

RT 1, (5.60)
F RT .

(5.61)

.
- , (5.59)
. RR
(5.62)
RR = Re RT ,
R .
(5.62) , RR R=1/T,
R, ,
1/e 0,37. ,
. , , -RT
e , 1-RT
1/(eT) RT e .
. 5.14.
5.4.3
. 5.14 , - . =50 ( ), 1/=20 000 -1
7350 -1. ,
. , , ,
. 0,6 (1/)

134

. 5.13. ( ),
1,5 FWHM. , . ,

90 % ; 0,5 (1/) 82 % .

. 2/ (40 000 -1 = 50 ) 14 % , -
~ 7. , , . , (.
[13] 4).
(5.59) (5.62) , R . R .


0,5 1,0 , -. R (5.56),
.

5. -

135

. 5.14.

1/

. R , , .
.
, , (. . 5.13). 1 2 %.

, .
, ,
. , , , , . , 1,5
.
. , ,
. .
, . ;

136

,
,
, . ,
. ,
, . ,
35 ( , ~ 6 ) 15 , , 90 % ,
,
, .
, , ,
. , , . 0,5 1,0 . , , , , , .
3 ,

, ,
, .
-.

. . , - , ,
, ,
.
,
. , , . ,
, ,
-. - , ,
. , - ,
. 10 % . ,
, .

. . 5.15
- , -

5. -

137

. 5.15.
- . 100 %-

(. 4) .
241Am.
~ 85000 -1 ~ 300000 -1. 110000 -1 300000 -1, .. . 60 ~ 0,63
100000 ./, ~ 0,72
1000000 ./. 5.16 241Am
,
, 6 , 100 8192- .
- . ~ 2800 -1, 60 ~ 0,34 ~ 0,44
21500 -1. ,
. FWHM 2 , , , . ,
, , . 5.14 "" .

138

. 5.16. - , . 100 %-

5.4.4 .
(FEIR) -
.
FEIR =

A( )
CF(RL) ,
TT

(5.63)

A() ;
TT ;
CF(RL) .
.
. . . - . , .
, - . , .

5. -

139

5.4.5 .
, , , .
0,5 1,0 .
, . , - ,
, ,
. , , , .
, , , ,
; .
. , , 20 , , ~ 1 , .
, 1 %. . "" , .
, . , .

.
.
, 90 %.
.
5.4.6

;
. "",
. , , -, , -. ,
- , -

140

, -.
, -. , ,
.
, ,
-. , , . , , .
"" . ""
, - "" , .

-, "" -
. ""
( )
. "-" .

, ,
. ,
,
, ,
100 .
, - - ,
CF(RL) = N / A(P) ,
(5.64)
N ( ) ;
A(P) ( ) .
CF(RL) 1,00 , .
(5.64) ,
, , - . , - , , .
-

5. -

141

CF(RL)
:
N
CF(RL) =
(1 + RTD )(1 + RT) ,
(5.65)
A(P)
R ;
TD ;
T .
TD
, . T
1,5 2 . R 100 , . TD
T, 20 ,
1,002, CF(RL) ~ 0,4 %.
R, TD T, .
R 1000 , .
, . , -.
, - , - ,
. - , , , .
, ,
P, P
S 2 (P) = P(1 P / N),
1
(5.66)
Sr2 (P) = (1 P / N),
P
N , .
, , - A :
S 2 (A) = A,
(5.67)
S 2 (A) = 1 / A.
r

. 5.17 Sr(P) P P/N, , P/N 0,5 .


, S(P) - . ,
( ) ,
(5.66).
"".

142

. 5.17. Sr(P) P P P/N, N


, , ; "-"
"".
. , . - (1+2RT).
, CF(RL)
(5.64). ,
,
. , , -.

, , . , ,
. ,
, ,
. , [14]. , , ,
. , -

5. -

143


.
5.4.7

, . - . , .
, , .
. A()
FEIR() , ,
-,
- R. F , TT ,
A( ) = F FEIR( ) TT,

(5.68)

A(R) = F FEIR(R) TT.


A( ) / A(R) = FEIR( ) / FEIR(R) ,

(5.69)

F, TT. - A()/A(R), , CF(RL) FEIR().


-
CF(RL) = FEIR(R) TT / A(R) .
(5.70)
(5.63) :
FEIR( ) =

A( )
FEIR(R) ,
A(R)

(5.71)

. (5.55)
CR
CR( ) = FEIR( ) CF(AT) =

A( )
FEIR(R) CF(AT) .
A(R)

(5.72)

CR() , ,
.
, FEIR(R) .
( )

144

CR(). (5.73) (5.75) K , s , , u , :


Mu =

CR( )u [A( )u / A(R)u ]FEIR(R) CF(AT)u .


=
K
K

(5.73)

:
K=

CR( )s [A( )s / A(R)s ]FEIR(R) CF(AT)u


=
.
Ms
Ms

(5.74)

(5.73) (5.74)
Mu =

[A( )u / A(R)u ]CF(AT)u


Ms ,
[A( )s / A(R)s ]CF(AT)s

(5.75)

FEIR(R).
FEIR(R) ,
FEIR(), FEIR(R) CF(RL),
, - . ,
, .
FEIR(R)

- .
- .
. , -. , . , ,
.
,

. , , ,
.
, , ,
.
- . - -

5. -

145

, -, .

- .
, .
239Pu, - 413,7 , 133Ba. - ,
356,0 , - , 60 . , 10,3 .
133
Ba -, 414 .
, -
, 109Cd. - 88,0 , 109Ag ~ 25 ,
.
~ 453 .

-, , . K2- - 109Cd 88,0 . ,
109Cd , . , (, ),
.
235U - 57Co
122,0 . , 271 , ,
, . -
122,0 -
136,5 -,
. , 57Co , - 234U 120,9
. ,
, ,
185,7 , 57Co, 234U.
241Am. - 241Am 59,5 186 , , , ,
. , 433,6 , .
, -241 .
235U 169Yb.
,

146

- 59,5 ,
.

, . , , ,
. ,
. ,
:
l ,
;
l , , ,
. ;
l , . ,
10;
l .

, .
, - 0,1 % .
,
, . , ,
.

5.5


-. , I -
. F - R - , R
, .
4R2, F :
F=

I
.
4 R 2

(5.76)

, -

5. -

147

, , .. 1/R2. , - . , -
, , .
,
.
: , 1/R2.
.
, , .
, D
I ( 5.18).

CR = 2

r
0

I
I
.
dr =
2
D
+D

(5.77)

1/R, 1/R2.
, , 1/R.
, R
, R. , ,
-.
,
. -
, . . R, D
(. 5.19). D R,
, 1, 2, 3 4, .
, D = 3R,
CR(2)/CR(4)=4.
R ( 1 . 5.19)
CR(R)
1
=
.
CR(1) 1 + (R / D)2

(5.78)

, , R,
D . . 5.6
R/D, CR(2)/CR(1) . 5.19. ,

148

. 5.18.

. 5.19. .

. 1/R2;
.
, , . -, 10 % .

5. -

149

5.6
R/D

CR(R)/CR(1)
()

CR(2)/CR(1)
( )

1/2

1,33

4,0

1/3*

1,125

2,25

1/4

1,067

1,78

1/5

1,042

1,56

1/6

1,029

1,44

1/7

1,021

1,36

* . . 5.19.

- . , 10 %, -
. , 180.

5.6
5.6.1
-, , -, -.
. , :
A ( ) = FEIR( ) / ER( ) ,

(5.79)

A ;
ER() -.
FEIR 5.4.

. -
.
. , -

150

0,5 2,0 %. . 5.1 -. ,


SRM-4275 (. 5.1.1),
.
, .
-. - , NaI-,
- , . FEIR . ,
,
- .
-, .
SRM-4275
, ,
-.
5.6.2


- ,
. A
I

A =

I ,
4

(5.80)

, 4
, - . (5.80) I. I .
,
, . . 5.20 ,
D R.

D
,
= 2 1
(5.81)
D2 + R 2
D / D2 + R 2 = Cos ;
, . 5.20.

5. -

151

:
A / D2 = R 2 / D2 ,

(5.82)

A . (5.82) , , 2
, A , 4D . (5.81) (5.82)
, D R,
(5.82) . D/R = 8, 1 %;
D/R = 1, ~ 70 %.

. 5.20.

5.6.3
, .
, .
,
, .
- ,
, . , - , [15].
(5.79)
:
R = A( ) / B( ) ,
(5.83)
B() ,
A().

152

1,00 . , . . 5.21 ,
133
Ba. , , -
, . ,
, .

. 5.21.
~50 ~400 , 133Ba

5.6.4 NaI(Tl) 7,65 7,65


, NaI(Tl) 7,657,65 . 1332,5 -, 25 , NaI(Tl). ,
NaI(Tl) 0,0012 .
:
FEIR(1332,5) / ER(1332,5)
RNaI =
100 ,
0,0012

(5.84)

5. -

153

FEIR(1332,5) - , ER(1332,5) . - ,
.
5 , 24,5
.
60 , (5.84) :
RNaI =

1351
, A(1332,5)
,
A(p)I0 exp(0,1318T)

(5.85)

A(1332,5) A(p) 1332,5 , T


60
, , Co I0 . , I0
.
5.6.5
, .
, . ,
,
, .
, ,
FEIR -.
FEIR
, .

, . [16]
. , .

1.
2.

R. Gunnink, J. E. Evans, and A. L. Prindle, "A Reevalution of the Gamma-Ray


237
238,239,240,241
Pu, and 241Am," LawEnergy and Absolute Branching Intensities of U,
rence Livermore Laboratory report UCRL-52139 (1976).
M. E. Anderson and J. F. Lemming," Selected Measurement Data for Plutonium
and Uranium," Mound Laboratory report MLM-3009 (1982).

154

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Table of Isotopes, 7th ed., C. M. Lederer and V. S. Shirely, Eds, (Jon Wiley & Sons,
Inc., New York, 1978).
R. D. Evans, The Atomic Nucleus (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1955),
Chapters 23-25.
P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences
(McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1969).
Y. Beers, Introduction to the Theory of Error (Addison-Wisley Publishing Co., Inc.,
Reading, Massachusetts, 1962).
T. Mukoyama, "Fitting of Gaussian to Peaks by Non-Iterative Methods," Nuclear
Instrument and Methods 125, 289-291 (1975).
S. L. Meyer, Data Analysis for Scientists and Engineers (Jon Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
New York, 1975), p. 37.
R. B. Walton, E. I. Whitted, and R. A. Foster, "Gamma-Ray Assay of Low-Enriched Uranium Waste," Nuclear Technology 24, 81-92 (1974).
R. Gunnink, "Computer Techniques for Analysis of Gamma-Ray Spectra," Lawrence Livermore Laboratory report UCRL-80297 (1978).
R. G. Helmer and M. A. Lee, "Analytical Functions for Fitting Peak From Ge Semiconductor Detectors," Nuclear Instrument and Methods 178, 499-512 (1980).
G. K. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement (Jon Wiley & Sons, Inc., New
York, 1979).
J. G. Fleissner, C. P. Oertel, and A. G. Garrett, "A High Count Gamma-Ray Spectrometer System for Plutonium Isotopic Measurements," Journal of the Institute of
Nuclear Materials Management 14, 45-56 (1986).
H. H. Bolotin, M. G. Strauss, and D. A. McClure, "Simple Technique for Precise
Determination of Counting Losses in Nuclear Pulse Processing Systems," Nuclear
Instrument and Methods 83 1-12 (1970).
R. A. Meyer, "Multigamma-Ray Calibration Sources," Lawrence Livermore Laboratory report M-100 (1978).
J. E. Cline, "A Technique of Gamma-Ray Detector Absolute Efficiency Calibration for Extended Sources," Proc. American Nuclear Society Topical Conference of
Computers in Activation Analysis and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico (1978), pp. 185-196 (Conf. 780421).

6

.
( . . )

6.1
()
. 2 220 , . -
, , , , .

, .
, , , , ,
, -.
,

-. , .
ANSI
N15.20-1975 [1] ,
", ",
- . , ,
" ". . - , , , .
6.26.6
CF(AT). [2]. 6.7 , 6.8 ,
.

156

6.2
6.2.1
, ,
- . ,
, , ,
, .
- , - , -. : , - ,
,
. -
- , .
5.
6.2.2
, ( (5.55) 5.4)

CR = RR CF( RL) CF( AT)

CR = FEIR CF(AT) ,

(6.1)

CR ;
RR ;
CF(RL) ,
;
CF(AT) ;
FEIR .
, CR
, , (,
) . CR ,
-.

CR = K M ,

(6.2)

, K , -

6.

157

,
-. CF(AT) , CR , ,

.
, ,
-. :
1) ;
2) (), ;
3) - ;
4) , ;
5) , .. , , CR , .
RR CF(RL) , 5.
6.2.3
CF(AT) ,
-, ,
? l, -, , . CF(AT) l.
-
:
l , -,
;
l , -, , .
,
,
-, . , , l .
, . ,
.

158


. , , -, .
, .
( 2)
, , ,
, -. . 6.1 (Z = 1) (Z = 94).
-. , 185,7
, 413,7 . ,
235U 185,7 , , 239Pu -
413,7 . 80
, , .
. 6.2. 1 -, D, D
. , UO2 =10 /3
200 D 0,28. 10 % - 185,7
.
-, . (PuO2, UO2, U3O8 ..) , , , . ()
(HTGR) , 5-10 %,
[5]. ( 10 ) - ,
,
,
. ( 100 )
,
.

-, ,
=D, :

2
2

2
1 X 2 + exp( X) X + X 2 .

. [4].
F=

3
2X

6.

159

. 6.1. ( ) Z, 1 94 [3]

Z , Z. 2-3 . -
.
,
-. , , ( ) . , , 1 %,
. (,

160

. 6.2. -,
mrD. ()

113 ) < 10 %, c .
, -, ,
, , , ,
. , , , ,
.
6.2.4.
l
[6]. , . , .
,

. ,
, l , , CF(AT). , - -

6.

161

. , .
l
, . l ,
. l , . , ,
. l . [3 7] .
CF(AT) - ( ),
. ,
l .
, . ,
- . ,
, .
l
- .
-,

T = exp( lx) ,

(6.3)

. l,

l =

ln(T)
.
x

(6.4)

,
. ,
, , . l .
, - .
, ,

CF(AT). 0,01 0,001. -

162

0,001 ( )
.

6.3

6.3.1
CF(AT) . , .
CF(AT) , , :
CF(AT) =

FEIR( l = 0; T )
,
FEIR( l 0; )

(6.5)

FEIR(l = 0; ) FEIR,
,
(l = 0)
;
FEIR(l 0; ) FEIR .

CF(AT) (6.5); l ,
. ,
CF(AT) ,
.
. , . , , , ,
, ,
.
(- )
,
. [8]
.
6.3.2
:
l ;
l ;
l .

6.

163


, CF(AT) , . , ,

CF(AT), ,
. ,
, , . ,
, l
.
, .
. l .
,
, ,
l . CF(AT)
, . ,
.

6.4
CF(AT) . ,
( ):
l l ;
l ;
l l ;
l ;
l ;
l , .
CF(AT)
. ,
, CF(AT) , .
,
, CF(AT) l -

164

, , .
, ( " "). -
. , -, .
.
,
, , . ,
.
CF(AT),
l , ( )
. l -
= (-l ), CF(AT) ln().
CF(AT) , ,
:

CF(AT) =

lx
,
[1 exp( lx)]

(6.6)

, .
= (-l ),

CF( AT) =

ln( T)
.
(1 T)

(6.7)

K 1, CF(AT) ln(T),
CF(AT) ln(AT) . . 6.3 , (6.7).
CF(AT) ln(T) , . CF(AT) k ln(T) K 1. ln(T) .

6.

165

. 6.3. ,
,

6.5

CF(AT) .
: ( ),
. . 6.3 CF(AT)
, . 6.1
.

166

6.1 ,

**

**

1,0000

1,000

1,000

1,000

0,8000

1,116

1,097

1,086

0,6000

1,277

1,231

1,202

0,4000

1,527

1,434

1,376

0,2000

2,012

1,816

1,701

0,1000

2,558

2,238

2,054

0,0500

3,153

2,692

2,431

0,0200

3,992

3,326

2,956

0,0100

4,652

3,826

3,370

0,0010

6,915

5,552

4,805

0,0001

9,211

7,325

6,288

*
**

6.5.1
. (6.5)
CF(AT) , (
, ),

CF(AT) =

I dV
v

I exp( lr ) dV

(6.8)

, /3;
I - , /;
;
l ;
r , ;
dV .
, I l ,
. .

6.

167

, . 6.4. I
, l , . , .
.

CF(AT) =

dx

exp[ l ( X x)] dx

(6.9)

CF(AT) =

lX
,
1 exp( lX)

(6.10)

(6.6)

. 6.4. ( ),

6.5.2
, , [9]

CF(AT) =

lD
1
,
2 I 1 ( lD ) L 1 ( lD )

L1 ;
I1 ;
D ;
l .

(6.11)

168

, - [10]. (6.11)
, . 6.3. , CF(AT) ,
( ). - ; -,
, , CF(AT) .
6.5.3

[4]:
1

3 / 2
2
2
2
.

CF(AT) =
+
exp(

D
)
+
1

2
2
l
lD ( lD)
lD ( lD)

(6.12)

. 6.3. CF(AT)
, . - , ,
. , CF(AT) -,
, , . . 6.2 (6.12).

6.6
6.6.1
( ),
, . , , . . , ,
.
, -. A -, - . - , CF(AT).
, CF(AT) -

6.

169

. .
.

CF(AT).
6.6.2
,
. , , . , , rd, rs, D d (. 6.5). d rd rs, - ~ 10 . cos 0,95 < 19, , - , , . ,
, d D
l , . 6.6.

-, , CF(AT).
, CF(AT) , :
D dx D [exp( x)]dx
l
CF(AT) =
,
/
2
(d + x) 2

0 (d + x) 0

(6.13)

. 6.5.
,
CF(AT)

170

. 6.6. CF(AT)

,
-. D/[d(d + D)].
, . CF(AT)
:
D
CF(AT) =
/
d(d + D)

I =1

{exp( l x(I 0,5)x)} x


[d + (I 0,5)x] 2

(6.14)

= D/N, N .
N 100, 0,1 %. , ,
,
. (6.14)
CF(AT) d, D l , . D . d, , ,
- , . , d D, , l , d (6.14)
, CF(AT),

l . d .
. 6.7
. 25 10 2 ( 3,57 2,5 ). 5 500 /, 75Se, , . 4,0 .
- 136,0 75Se
CF(RL) ~ 10 %, -

6.

171

. 6.7. ,
CF(AT) = CF(T)

- CF(AT)
~ 275 %.
75Se, 136,0
. .
0,5 % .
8 ,
9,0 . CF(AT),
, -
, . d CF(AT),
CF(AT) .
d .
, ,
CF(AT) , .
CF(AT), , CF(AT), , (1+D/d) l . CF(AT), , , -

172

,
.
6.6.3
(. 6.8). ()

, CF(AT) .
, D R (. 6.9).
-, . ,

CF(AT)

m =1

( / 2) ln[1 R 2 / D 2 ]
N

{exp[ lt ( m, n)]A ( n) / L2 ( n, m)}


n =1

(6.15)

. 6.8. ,
CF(AT)

[2].
CF(AT), , CF(AT),
, , (D2/R2) ln(1R2/D2).
CF(AT)
D/R. . 6.10 CF(AT) D/R . ,
CF(AT)
D/R; .
. CF(AT) , D/R .
(D/R=) . 6.11. > 0,001
D/R > 50 1 %. D/R 50

6.

173

. 6.9. CF(AT). , , , . , 0 a p, b p/2 0 g p

. CF(AT)
, D/R.
, . 6.10 . 6.11, =200 N=200, 0,1 % , . 40000,
2 . ,
, . 1 . ,
200 , .
6.6.4

. (. 6.12)
, , .
, .

5,0 5,0 . , .
.

174

. 6.10. , .
D/R .
D ,
R

( ) , . , , - .

, .
, -,
.
; [2].
6.6.5
CF(AT)

. , , CF(AT)
( l )
CF(AT) . .

6.

175

. 6.11. CF(AT)

D/R

. 6.12. ,
CF(AT)

176

CF(AT) log(T) (. . 6.3),

CF( AT) = A + B log( T) + C[log( T)]2 .

(6.16)

,
, .
. , ,
CF(AT) 0,3 % 0,008 < T < 0,30.
CF(AT)
: -ln(T)/(1-T). ,
(. . 6.3),

ln( Tk )
,
CF( AT)
(1 Tk )

(6.17)

k < 1
. ln(T) K1 ,
. . 6.13 . 6.14 ,
. . 6.13 (6.17) ( (6.11)) T k. . 6.14

, D/R=5/1. . 6.13 k=0,82
CF(AT) 0,01 % 0,01 < T < 1,0,
. 6.14 k=0,75 CF(AT)
1,5 % 0,01 < T < 1,0.

. 6.13. CF(AT),
CF(AT)= -k ln T/(1-Tk),
k

6.

177

. 6.14. CF(AT),
CF(AT)= -k ln T/(1-Tk), , D/R = 5.

k


CF(AT) ,
.
, 235U, , , CF(AT). 25 %
, ,
CF(AT). , ,
1 %,
.
6.6.6

, -
. , CF(AT) , . , CF(AT)
.

CF(AT). . 6.15 CF(AT).
:
CF(T) = CF(AT) ;
G .

178

f t ,
CF(AT), u s , .

G f CFf ( Tu ) / CFt ( Tu )
=
.
Gt
CFf ( Ts ) / CFt ( Ts )

(6.18)


CF(T), . ~ 1,00, , CF(AT).

. 6.15. CF(AT). CFf(T)


CF(AT), CFt(T) . Tu Ts ,

,
(
), . , , ,
CF(AT).
CF(AT), , ? , ,
. -

6.

179

, .
6.6.7
, -, -. 0,1 %.
. ,
, .
, .

CF(AT) . CR, (. (6.1)) CR=FEIRCF(AT).
, (CR), (FEIR)
[CF(AT)],
( [11 12]).
, (R).
CR , (R). , CF(AT) , (CR)
. (CR)
CF(AT) CF(AT) CR, (CR). 6.6.2
CF(AT) .
(CR) (6.7) (6.17) CF(AT). k
, . , CF(AT) (CR).
(CR) ,
[CF(AT)]. [CF(AT)] , (CR). , FEIR CF(AT),

r (CR ) = 2r ( FEIR ) + 2r [CF(AT)] ,


r() ()/.

(6.19)

180

, FEIR CF(AT),
(6.19) , CR
.
, . .

6.7 ,
, , .
.
, , -, , .
- RR FEIR. , . , CF(RL) CF(AT) , , .
( (6.2)) , , , ,
.
(6.2) K .
, , ,
, . ,
CF(RL) CF(AT) (6.2) . ,
()
CF(RL) CF(AT), .
. , , ,
, . , . . , .

6.

181

, , , .
CF(AT) . , CF(RL)
, . . , 235U - 185,7 . ( 25 ) 235U ~10 / ~0,5 % 1000 . 235U, 0,1 /,
CF(AT) ~5 % 1000 ,
, , . 100000
235U 0,1 /
0,5 %, . .
, , , , CF(AT) CF(RL)
,
.
- ,
. , ,
1 % 50000 -1, 1 % 50000 -1,
~ 2 % 40000 -1.
, CF(RL) CF(AT), .

, , ,
, .
- .
, , - ,
.

182

6.8 , -
, -,
CF(AT).
,
. l CF(AT)
- .
, , - 1 2; , .
(6.6), ()

A 2 CF( E 1 ) l ( E 1 )
lx >> 1 .
=
=
A 1 CF( E 2 ) l ( E 2 )

(6.20)

Z ,
CF(E). ,
-
, .
- , 6.2.3.
,
.
, ,
, , .
-
. , Z. ,
. , ,
.
,
. ,

, , .
.
, ,
. , , ,
:

6.

183

) , ;
) ;
)
;
)
.
, .

6.9
, -, . [13] -.
6.9.1 - ,
, ,
, . (
-). :
-
-;

, ; - - -, .
() .
. . 6.2
, .
6.9.2
.
, . 6.2, , 235U - 185,72
169Yb 177,2 198,0 . -

184

E2 E
E E1
T( E ) =
T1 +
T2 .
E 2 E1
E 2 E1

(6.21)

=185,7, 1=177,2 2=198,0, ()=0,591(1)+0,409(2).


6.2

238

Pu
766,4
239

Pu
413,7
235

U
185,7
238

U
1000,1
237

Np
311,9



137

Cs
661,6
75

Se
400,1
169

Yb
177,2, 198,0
54

Mn
834,8
203

Hg
279,2



133

Ba
356,3
133

Ba
356,3
57

Co
122,0
137

Cs
661,6
235

U
185,7

-, , ( 21 ), , -
, . -, ,
-,
, . -
Z (U, Pu, Th ..),

( E ) = KE ,

(6.22)

K . , ln(-lnT) ln E ,
.
,
.

T = Tt ,

(6.23)

= /t ,
, t
.

6.

185

, 239Pu (414 ),
137Cs (662 ).
, ,
. . 6.3 (/t)
(FPu). 10 % Pu
, =1,27 .
6.3 m(414 )/m( 662 )

FPu

= (414 )/(662 )

1,21

0,1

1,33

0,3

1,54

0,5

1,71

0,7

1,84

0,9

1.95

, 2/
414

662

Pu

0,26

0,13

0,093

0,077

6.9.3 -235
. 6.4 235U 13

. 80
. 241Am . 1, 2 3 (CF186) m,
- (186).
6.6.2. 4, , ( (6.6)). . 6.4 235U (),
13 .
. 13
0,999, ~0,5 %, ~ 1,1 %. , , , , ,
1,26 3,30.

186

6.4


5,4

8,26 ( ) 17 ()

14,7 ( )
5 ()

5,08 () 0,25
0,50
()

U HNO3
HCl

93,12

93,15

U3O8

U, %


HNO3

92,83

235

10,08

200,0 100,0

50,0

10,00 155,8 103,7

52,0

4,246 2,546 0,848 21,49 9,579 9,058

U,

185,7

46,4

9,28

5,24

3,956 2,371 0,790 20,02

0,022 0,091 0,184 0,335 0,033 0,064 0,123 0,249 0,377 0,588 0,210 0,499 0,518

235

186

CF

186

3,30

92,8

2,32

1,88

1,54

15,70 10,45

8,92

8,44

2,994 2,552 2,132 1,729 1,493 1,263 1,976 1,388 1,365

,
(c 235U)-1

5,104 5,038 5,042 5,096 5,084 5,116 5,090 5,104 5,110 5,104 5,101 5,074 5,074

1,002 0,989 0,989 1,000 0,998 1,004 0,999 1,002 1,003 1,002 1,001 0,996 0,996

, . 6.4, , .
- (, ) , .
, -.
6.9.4 -239
, . 6.16,
239Pu. 10 2 4,0 . 40 ; 25 .
5 , 7 8 . ,
CF(AT). ,
, . , , .

6.

187

. 6.16. , , .
239Pu

- 109Cd 88,0 () / . .
,
, . - 129,3

, - 413,7 . - 413,7 ,
, , -
129,3 . ,
- 129,3 413,7 ,
, , .

CF(AT), 6.6.2. -

188

. 239Pu 1 % 1 400 Pu . , 1000 , , 1,0 % > 1 Pu .


6.9.5
6.6.4
,
F(AT).
, .

, .
. , , .
.
; ,
, , , 1 239Pu 235U.
. 6.17 , , ,
, 239Pu 20 .
. . 6.18 - (SGS).
. , . . 6.17 1,25 10 . 113 208
5 20 . , ,
. .
, , .

.

6.

189

. 6.17. - .
239Pu

( 1,5 ) ( 0,8 ) 241Am , , . 235U , 241Am 60


, .
239Pu 75Se, 133Ba. 10 75Se , 1 ,
.
, . -
133
Ba 356,0 ; , . 10,4 ;
.
10 ,
; , .
,
. . ,
. , , , ..
, . , , .

190

. 6.18. SGS 55

. . ,
, .
, ,
, 169Yb
235U. , [14] [15].

1.
2.
3.
4.

American National Standard Guide to Calibrating Nondestructive Assay Systems,


ANSI N 15.20-1975 (American National Standards Institute, New York, 1975).
J. L. Parker, The Use of Calibration Standards and Correction for Sample
Self-Attenuation in Gamma-Ray Nondestructive Assay Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-10045 (August 1984).
J. H. Hubbell, Photon Cross Sections, Attenuation Coefficients, and Energy Absorption Coefficients from 10 keV to 100 GeV, National Bureau of Standards report NSRDS-NBS 29 (August 1969).
J. P. Francois, On the Calculation of the Self-Absorption in Spherical Radioactive Sources, Nuclear Instruments and Methods 117, 153-156 (1974).

6.

5.
6.
7.
8.

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

191

J. L. Parker, A Correction for Gamma-Ray Self-Attenuation in Regular Heterogeneous Materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-8987-MS (September 1981).
J. L. Parker and T. D. Reilly, Bulk Sample Self-Attenuation Correction by Transmission Measurement, Proc. ERDA X- and Gamma-Ray Symposium, Ann Arbor,
Michigan, May 19-21, 1976 (Conf. 760539).
W. H. McMaster, N. Kerr Del Grande, J. H. Mallett, and J. H. Hubbell, Compilation of X-Ray Cross Sections, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory report
UCRL-50174, Sec. II, Rev. 1 (1969).
J. E. Cline, A Technique of Gamma-Ray Detector Absolute Efficiency Calibration for Extended Sources, Proc. American Nuclear Society Topical Conference on
Computers in Activation Analysis and Gamma Ray Spectroscopy, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico (1978), pp. 185-196 (Conf. 780421).
Self-Shielding Correction for Photon Irradiation of Slab and Cylindrical Samples, Gulf General Atomic, Inc., Progress Report GA-9614 (July I, 1968-June 30,
1969).
Handbook of Mathematical Functions With Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical
Tables, Milton Abramowitz and Irene A. Stegun, Eds., National Bureau of Standards, Applied Mathematics Series 55 (1970).
Yardley Beers, Introduction to the Theory of Error (Addison-Wesley Publishing
Co., Inc., Reading, Massachusetts, 1962).
Philip R. Bevington. Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences
(McCraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 1969).
Handbook of Nuclear Safeguards Measurement Methods, Donald R. Rogers, Ed.,
NUREG/CR-2078, MLM-2855 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 1983).
E. R. Martin, D. F. Jones, and J. L. Parker, Gamma-Ray Measurements with the
Segmented Gamma Scan, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-7059-M
(December 1977).
American Society For Testing and Materials, Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Special Nuclear Material in Low-Density Scrap and Waste by
Segmented Passive Gamma-Ray Scanning, Vol. 12.01, C853-82, 1989, p. 366,
ASTM, Philadelphia.

aa 7
epee ooae paa
cc A. C, .
( . . )

7.1 EEE
Opa paa o epo oo e p
cec ooo po aao coepa, oo coca
opao aco c oeo epe (c. a 8). o ae paccop cea ca oooo aaa: opeeee eoo coepa ooo paao epe, aoee aco pec opeee coepa eeoc ooa 235U
opaa paa. oo aa "ooaee paa". Tep
"ooaee" coec oo, o coepae 235U oo e, e ppoo pae.
ppoe peoaa p ooa paa ( p coa peeo coepae aoo ooo): 238U (99,27 %), 235U (0,720 %) 234U (0,006 %).
234
U opaec aa-paca 238U:
238

(24 ) 234 m
(1,2 ) 234
U
234 Th

Pa
U.

(7.1)

c opae oe peaope, o pccoa pe


oo , a 236U, peae aaa epoa
235
U, 237U pea (n,2n) a 238U.
"Aoapoe coepae" 235U pae opeeec :
E a ( .%)=

235 U
100% .
a U

(7.2)

Ooaee a e oe paeo a "ecooe coepae":


E w (.%)=

235 U
100% .
U

e e ooae cooocc a
235E a
235
E w (.%)=

Ea .
238 0,03E a 238

(7.3)

(7.4)

Ooaee paa oe eoo peaopo LWR (Light Water


Reactor) oo eco poeo. Peaop a CANDU (CANadian Deuterium-Uranium reactor) co ppo pa, a aepaoeece peaop MTR (Materials Testing Reactor) cooooae pa
(ooaee o 20 o 90 %). Opeeee ooae paa opaa ec
e epee eooec poecca p opoe po
a pep ooa o, a a-

194

. C, .

e oe a p eapo ce o ep apa oepe co paoo o p e.


p epe ooae o cooa opeee coepa ooo, ec paaoe apaepc oeopc eoope ceae co epe. aee poc ocae pa eo epe ooae pee.

7.2 EE OPAO PAA


oo paa cca aa-, ea-, epooe aa-e.
ee, coe p acco epapae
opao paa, ec aa-ee, oopoe oo peoaae p pacae 235U. Oao opao paa oo ooae aoee ec ooeo cepe e ec peeocoe ee. p
epe ooae 235U aoee aco coe - ep aa-ao 186 . Oa ec cao eeo ooo e aa-e opao paa c ooaee 235U
e ppooo po. Oo pe e, poe peeeppoaoo oa, oopo aa-a c epe
236 ooa 212Pb, oepeo poa 232Th, oo aaac a
235
U. a. 7.1 pee aoee ece aa- epec
ooo paa [1]. ae o aa- epoo e ooo paa
ae o ae [1]. a pc. 7.1 [1] . 7.2 [2] ep
aa-ao opao paa pao cee ooae, aa-eeop oo cooo papee, cooeceo.

7.3 MEOA AA-EPE EOE OPAO


ooae paa o aa-e [3-5] epe
pee opo aoo c UF6 [6]. Ocoa eoa epe
ae ce opaa paa epe aa oaopa
eeopo aa-e (pc. 7.3). Ooaee opeeec o ecoc aa-ao ooa 235U c epe 186 . Ec opae ocaoo
, eeopa oca aa-a c epe 186 oo o ac oeo oea opaa, coo ooe ep
aepaa, oop pa. " oe" opaa opeeec oaopo, eoepe eeopa o coooo poea
e c epe 186 aepae opaa. Eo paep (oaa a
pc. 7.3 po e) e ac o ooae, .. ae oo
paa e coe ooae coca. Ec a opaa o oc
oaopa oo oe, e a coooo poea ao c epe
186 aepae opaa, ce opa co co ec cocao pecae e e oeo. o ec pepe a
aaeo "ecoeo" o. a. 7.2 pee coooo
poea "ecoeo" o aa-ao c epe
186 oo cpeac pao cec. o pao ae-

aa 7. epee ooae paa

195

pao pep "ecoeo" oeopec p ocaoo opao paa. Oao, oco aae p opaa e e, e a opeeeoe paccoe, aaoe a. 7.2, epe
ooae o aa-e aco oocc oo oepoc paooo aepaa. Ta opao, o epe ooae a
opaa, aepa oe oopo ooo .
Taa 7.1 aa-ee ooo paa [1]
oo

ep
aa-e,

ea ecoc,
a/c ooa

129,1

6,5 108

270,5

3,0 107

327,8

2,7 107

119,0

3,9 104

120,8

3,2 104

146,4

6,6 104

164,6

6,4 104

245,3

3,8 104

291,3

5,8 104

317,2

8,3 104

234

120,9

5,4 105

235

143,8

7,8 103

163,4

3,7 103

185,7

4,3 104

202,1

8,0 102

205,3

4,0 103

742,8

7,1

766,4

2,6 10

786,3

4,3

1001,0

7,5 10

232

233

U
U

238

U c 234mPa

196

. C, .

Pc. 7.1. Cep aa-e ppooo paa (0,7 % 235U) 90 %- ooae, epee e Ge(Li) eeopo c eoc
14 %. , ooaee 238U (234mPa) o pacaa 234mPa. ooe ooae . Opae ae a peoaae cepe a c epe 186 o
pacaa 235U [1]

Pc. 7.2. Cep aa-e opao paa: ppooo, 5 93 %- ooae,


epee co eeopo NaI(Tl). p ee ooae
235U e c epe 186 caoc oee ec, a o
(o poo pacaa 238U) c epe e a ocaeae [2]

aa 7. epee ooae paa

197

Pc. 7.3. Ocoe ac cao epe ooae paa o aa-e.


C e aoc paep "oo oea" ee ooceo eeopa oaopa. Oo a "oo oea" ee,
e paccoe o coa o eeopa

7.3.1 Ooooea aaa (eaec pa)


aao eoep eeop-oaop ce opa coo eaecoo paa e oao "" oe, oco a coooo poea aa-ao c epe 186 oa a e aoo opaa.
peae, eeop "" ee 235U ooo oo e oeca paa,
eaco o opaa. ecoc e c epe 186 ,
o coooaeoo, poopoaa c aoo 235U o oee, .. poopoaa aoapo opa.
Taa 7.2 Cpe poea "ecoe" o ao c epe 186
pao

ooc , /c3

Cpe a
poea, c*

"ecoea"
oa, c**

18,7

0,04

0,26

4,7

0,20

1,43

10,9

0,07

0,49

UO2 ()

2,0

0,39

2,75

U3O8 ()

7,3***

0,11

0,74

2,8

0,43

3,04

UF6 ()
UO2 ()

* Paa 1/ p 186 aepaa.


**Opeeec a cpe poea, .e. accoe, oopoo
"ecoe" opa eee, e 0,1 % (c. paee (7.8)).
*** opoo.

198

. C, .

7.3.2 ( )
T ooae opae co pa aepa ap
(oo c ao oepo Z). eoep epe oo a e, o
oaaa a pc. 7.3, o ooe aopo epe ec ooee aepae ap. cepaa coa eop aoo a epe [7,8]. He pee ee aeaece pea, eooe aaa epe ooae.
Paccop epe aa-e ooeoo opaa oo D, oa paccoe o opaa o eeopa eo o cpae c o oo oea. a ocoeoc ooe peepe ea opa
1/r2 eppoa o oe opaa. Copoc cea o ecoeo ao
ac opaa (c. pc. 7.3) aec paee:
dR = E w S dmU exp(x) exp( cc t c ) ,
(7.5)
dmU = A U dx;
;
Ew , (. (7.3));
A ;
S ea aoc aa-e 185,7
(c. a. 7.1);
e oe ooe ao ao ep oeepe opaa;
tc oa oo ce oeepa opaa.
ea pecae coo e oe ooe ao cec paa U ap m p ao ep:
= U U + mm .
(7.6)
eppoae pae (7.5) o oe opaa ae o copoc
cea ep 186 :
D

R = E w S A U exp( cc t c ) exp(x) dx ,
0

(7.7)

oopoe peopaoaec
F exp( cc t c )
Ew = U R
,
S A 1 exp(D)

F = 1 + ( mm / UU ) .

(7.8)
(7.9)

Ec oa opaa D ocaoo ea, oa ea coe


aeaee (7.8) peepeo aa o cpae c , ea
e ee paepo opaa. o ec ocoo
"ecoeo" o. epa coa (7.8) coep oe, ace oo o apaepc popa ( A) coce coc
paa (U S), , a opao, caaae oco epe. Ec ccee caap opae
e ee oeep, oa ea exp(cctc) oe eea

aa 7. epee ooae paa

199

; o cae a ea oa cooaa ee opa a oeep (c. ae 7.7).


F (7.8) opaae e ap . Ec
caap ccee opa oaa e e coca
ap, o oe oe e
. Ec F ap cceeoo opaa oaec o Fs ap caapoo opaa, oa ae eooa eoa opaa a pa. a. 7.3 F/Fs pa coee paa [2].
Taa 7.3 oe F/Fs a aepa [2]


( Fs)

( F)
U

UC

UC2

UO2

U3O8

UF6

U (100 %)

1,00

1,00

1,00

1,01

1,01

1,04

UC (95 % U)

1,00

1,00

1,00

1,01

1,01

1,03

UC2 (91 % U)

0,99

1,00

1,00

1,00

1,01

1,03

UO2 (88 % U)

0,99

0,99

1,00

1,00

1,00

1,03

U3O8 (85 % U)

0,99

0,99

0,99

1,00

1,00

1,02

UF6 (68 % U)

0,96

0,97

0,97

0,98

0,98

1,00

U (47 % U)

0,92

0,92

0,93

0,93

0,93

0,95

7.3.3 Aapapa eoa ecoe opao. pee


Ocoo epeo aapap ec opoa eeop
aa-e cooeca epoa. pae apae aa aapapa SAM-II (Stabilized Assay Meter) co
eeop NaI(Tl) [6]. c aa-ao aapoac aa
aaaopo, oo oo oopoo o acpoeo a oac ep 186
(C1 a pc. 7.4), a poe oo acpoeo a oac oa e cceeoo a
(C2 a pc. 7.4).
Ooaee paa poopoao co ce 186
(R pae (7.8)), oop aec paee:
(7.10)
R = C1 f C2 .
a opa pecae ae oa oeo cea pao oac a c epe 186 . Ocoo a o oc cooepe aa-a oep poo pacaa 238U, oope ca
ooocoe paccee eeope. C2 ,
,
oe f, oe opeec p . o-

200

. C, .

co ooaee (a aoapoe, a ecooe) poopoao co ce R, ee


E = a R F exp( cc t c ) = F exp( cc t c )(a C1 a f C2) .

(7.11)

ce eoepece , apaep coca paa, pae (7.8). Koe ap F opa a ocaee cee oeepa exp(cctc)
, oa caap ccee opa ooe pa aepao aoa pae oeep. Ec epe oc aepaa oo e , aoa oeep ,
o oe F exp(cctc) oe e .
Toa ooaee epe epee e C1 C2 acaec e
(7.12)
E = a C1 + b C2 .
a b (= af) a ocaee oeepe apaepc ap. opeec e epe caap opao c ec ea ooae 1 E2.
co SAM-II oc ca ooaa aaaopo epe poe oe
aco. Peepc epece pop oaae pa e acapoa ea C1 C2, .e. oaae ooaee paa. a aooo aoe opce caoe cpoe epe
SAM-II [9]. O aoc caa oee 12 e pooae opopoa o po (oo UF6) c ooceo opeoc 0,25 %
(1 ). Aapapa a papaoaa epepoo opeee a ooae 235U (o aa-epe), a ooae 234U (o epo epe; c. pae 7.6 a 15). opaee aa-epeo ac aapap peeo a pc. 7.5.

Pc. 7.4. Cep aa-e paa, c papeee,


oaa e epeece oac, coee p epe ooae

aa 7. epee ooae paa

201

c. 7.5. eeop cpoco a epe ooae a aooo


aoe opce (CA). po UF6 poeae epe aep, e epec ecoc aa- c epe 186 opeee
ooae UF6 [9]

oee copeeo [10] co opa, c aape ae popoeccop ooaa aaaop c eeopo NaI (pc. 7.6). Aapapa o cep paa, eppe
oeco oceo pa oac, cooec oa C1 C2 (apep, a a pc. 7.4), paccae ooaee cacec pecae pea a eo-poo cee. popaoe oeceee ae ea eoa o
apaepa c oo caap opao. ooa eoa coec p o poepa ooae a caoa eoop aoo
[11]. aa-cepoepece eo coc o paoc oe pee, a epe UF6 aoe eoc. Ka oee pa , o o copee pee coec eeop NaI [6]. Oao ce poe aoe e oep poo pacaa 238U,
oepoc oeepo, oee ea cepoep c co-

202

. C, .

Pc. 7.6. Oopoae epe ooae paa o aa-e, aee


opa popoeccop ooaa aaaop eeop aa-e NaI(Tl). Aapapa oe ac o aape poa
pee oe

papeee a ae opooo eeopo. eeop coo


pape ocoeo oee, oa ece poecc po oeppoa oep poo 238U ooe cao paoo aepae. eoop pooce poecca aa ecpaoe eee oepa oep poo 238U. ee oep poo
coae co oooc o eeope, oop oe ap eee a 185,7 .
acae a , o oa peoa eo "ecoeo" o coac e cpoo, o ee eco p epe, oe aaec ec aopaop eoop o pooc, apep, p "eepa ep " oe, a Ceepa Kapoa (CA). Heoe eooec aepao pacopc poaac e paae o opao papaa
caap aa. oepe po 238U ac pacopa epe epee. opa oea eeop NaI c ooe poo epe e cpae c aeo oopa caap opaa ooo. a eoa oe oece oe o (0,1 0,2 %) opo ooae paa. pa eepa ep eeoo poo c cooae o eo epe c opao.

aa 7. epee ooae paa

203

7.4
7.4.1 Teop
poo "eecoe" opao (apep, o o, ooe ape paae pacopo) opeee ooae oe po oppepoa ecoc aa-e c epe
186 a ooee. a poc oo, o oe
[1 exp(-D)] (7.8) oe . Meoa ooe
o pee ep ooe ecoc aa-e oco
ooo cooa opa opeee ooae paa.
Meoa, ocoo, ea eoe ooo aaa o, ocao ae 8. pocee cae oo ooae 235U, 235U
238
U, coc, c ece ooea . T.. a
oo coepa f o cae paa , aoapoe 235U
( pae (7.2)) cocae
E a = f235 = N(235) / [N(235) + N(238)] = (1 + f238 / f235 )1 .
(7.13)
Ec opae pcc a oeca 234U 236U,
oo ep pe ooe aa-o oo. Toa paee aoapoo 235U oo a ce pe ooe (. a 8 pep oo aa o).
eoe ooe o ec opeeee oooo ooe f238/f235. Haoee ec a aa-e
238
U c o eo oepeo ooa 234mPa, aoec epeeco aaoe o 700 o 1000 (c. a. 7.1). oa paa ep e
aa-aa 234mPa (238U) aa-aa 186 o 235U eae eooo cece opa a ooce eoc eeopa, a ooee ao aepaa opaa oeepa.
pa ooceo eoc a ep pee epe
ecoc ec o epeeco aaoe (. ae 8 eaoe paccopee, oocec ooo aa o).
epe paa opee eco aa-o o ooo (235U 238U) oppoa pea epe a o p eoc.
7.4.2 pee
oo pee o eo oppoo oe k e p ooceo eoc ecoc aa-e 235U 238U opeeec eoo oceoae pe [12]. oapoe (7.13) pao
E a = [1 + k( 235 / 228 )]1 ,
(7.14)
e A ocoa pee paoaoo pacaa ooa acco A;
k ooee aoce epec ooo, opeeeoe eoo oceoae pe:
k = A(238 U) / A(235 U) .
(7.15)

204

. C, .

p ocpoe po ooceo eoc


aa-e 258,3 o 234mPa 63,3 o 234Th pace
a o - paca 238U a oac
ep, oopo aa-a 235U.
[13-16] cepo aa-e c co papeee o aaoe ep o 89 o 99 . oo
ooo [13-15] oo epe cooa , pacooee oac o 92,4 o 93,4 : ecoc 92,4 92,8 o
234
Th cooa ep oepa 238U opae, a
op K1 c epe 93,35 a epa oepa 235U. a
238
U 93,35 e p . Peeoca K- paa cooaac p o ep eoc. aopaop o oco coace c acc-cepocoec aa e, e 1 %. p po ooe [16] cooaac peeoca K- 89,9 op paca 235U e 92 aa-e 234Th; pea coacc co caap ea
peea 1 %.
Oa cocoa oace oepe o ocoac a paoec e oep 234Th aepc 238U ooa. T.. epo opacaa ooa 234Th cocae 24 , paoece oo oc epe epo pee o 120 o 168 e (97 99 % o paoeco aoc,
cooeceo) oce ecoo paee. epeec aao
cae o a eopeeeoc ac o ep ooce
eoc pecpa ooo, peapeoe opeeee
eoc aoo opaa eae eo epe ooae
eee aco o a aepa ap. Oao oa oepeeca eoa o c op e aa ooe oac pee.
7.4.3 o o eoa ooe o
Ocae e eo e peeco o, o epec ooee o. oo opee ooaee paa e cooa
caap opao ooae opeee ac o eoep
epe . opa e oa oeop "ecoeo" o. Kpoe oo, opa a ooce eoc eac aoo opaa a ooee e
oo aepae opaa, o oeepe o ce e ooe.
epe oooo cocaa o, cae ae 8, e e e cae
peeca. Heocaa o eo c:
l a ecoc e oep poo 238U cooepe eo;
l eoooc cae paoec e 238U eo oep poa;
l eoooc ooo oopooc opaa.
Heoooc ooo oopooc , oa oeepe ep oe oaac ocao aepaa o

aa 7. epee ooae paa

205

p opa, apep, p epe a c UF6, oop pa o


pe ap oe ooc a cea a.
Meo opeee ooae paa o ooe o o, pe, ae pe "ecoe" opao. Oao ca eo ooe o oee poe pooe oo e e
peeca p eo epe ooae, oope poe, cpee eee opo.

7.5 M

pee cae ooae "eecoeo" opae
ec epee UF6 aoo ae. oo [17-20] oepa 235U opee epe copoc R cca aa-ao c
epe 186 p pacae 235U, a oa oepa paa epe
poca T60 epe UF6 aa-ao c epe 60 o eeo coa 241Am. Ha pc. 7.7 oaa ccea epe c eeopo NaI(Tl) epeo aepo pacooee coa
241
Am. Aoapoe Ea cooocc c epeo copoc cea R
ao 186 o ope
E a = R / (C ln T60 ) ,

(7.16)

e R a oep o epoo pee ocae ae,


C , a ln (T60) poopoa oe coepa
paa opae.
T.. epee ee ooc UF6, aa e ac o
ae UF6. o eo pea opo c opeoc epe
e, e 1 % ooce aaoe ooae UF6 o 0,72 o 5,4 % co oooe . UF6 c ooaee 1,0 % p ae
700 p.c. oea oocea 0,74 % p pee epe 1000 c [19]. a eoa pe p ooceo co ae
UF6. cae peoaa ee o aoopaoo UF6,
a o ooe paa a pee oepoc aep
eae. p ca oee oo popa 1982 . a ae poopoo aooo ao O-Pe cooac eeop aa- NaI(Tl). pop oeppoa pecpa
aa-ao c co papeee ca 1983 . poo popa c
co papeee [20, 21] aoepoo ooaeoo aoa
opce coa ca O-Pe 1984 . (c. pc. 7.8).
p ae UF6 (apep, ec p.c.) ooc aoopaoo UF6 ec eocaoo oo oo, o epee poca eo oeope . Kpoe oo, ee o aepaa,
ooeoc a oepoc oeepa, caoc aeo ac oeo caa, oa oe o peao peec ae
e aoe. acc ce aa-ao a peeoopece copoa peo ooa-

206

. C, .

Pc. 7.7. pop opo ooae UF6 aoo ae a ocoe eeopa NaI(Tl), pecppe aa-a c epe 60
o coa 241Am (p epe poca) 186
aep (p opeee 235U) [18]

Pc. 7.8. Oce cao opo ooae aoopaoo UF6 aoepoo


ooaeoo aoa opce. ooe ocea eeop c
epoo, a opa ooa coep apeae aep UF6 ocae pop [21]

aa 7. epee ooae paa

207

e aoopaoo UF6 a popooe oooo acaa


[22-26]. epac ecoc aa-e pacaa 235U (186 ) oep poo 238U ooe a popooe o aoopaoo UF6
opeee 235U ae. opaa a ee o paa, ooeoc a pee oepoc popooa, o aa-e o pacaa 234Th 231Th [25,26]. Oa acca paa ae epac o
peeoopece, o aa-aa 122 o coa
57
Co. oe poo epe ooae ooee
ecoce aa-e 186 o aoopaoo UF6 peeoco
K1-paa. opa a oo pa opeec [24-26] ee acc epe aa-e oo paa
p pa oaopa (c. pc. 7.9). oo pop
po oecee p pee /e p ,
ooae e o, 20 %,
ecea opeee cooooaeoo
paa ee eoacoc ooaeoo aoa.

Pc. 7.9. eeop/oaop epe ooae UF6 oo ae popooe. opoaoo epae coa oaop eeopa, eco apee a popooe. acoe epepe oe oopa ope oe aa cepee p o ooe a cea. oe peeoopece ae coec co 57Co [24]

7.6

po acco eoo ooae UF6 ec pecpa epoo, opa peae pea 19F(,n) [27]. - , , UF6 234U. , -

208

C, .

234U 235U,
235U. 235U/234U . (<5%)

234U [6, 9, 28]. 15.

7.7
( (7.8)) exp(cctc), .
,
.
.

.

Tx
Tx = exp[( cc t c )x ] ,
(7.17)
Ts
,
E = KR(E A )Ts / Tx ,
(7.18)
K ;
R(EA) - (EA = 186 ), .
Ts/Tx . , UF6
, , .
7.7.1

, , Ts/Tx

Ts / Tx = exp[( cc t c )s ( cc t c )x ] ,
(7.19)
c ooc aepaa oeepa;
c oeeo ep.
Toa ce oeepa tc oe epea paoo ooep (c. c. 7.10). paoo c ocaec ao aepa oeepa pacpocpaec e, oa e o-

aa 7. epee ooae paa

209

Pc. 7.10. Pacooee aa p paoo epe o. a oe


e acec oa c ee oepoc aepaa pooe paooo ca p aepaa e ocooo ocae. Koa
ocaec c oo o (oo ooep),
aoco e opo aa oepoc aepaa

ce aepaa, ceceo oaeoc o ec apaepca o aepaa oeepa, oa opaaec opao a. epoa ac popa ooe oo ep pe, eoooe paoo c a pooee a opao aepae oeepa, , , opee o aepaa. Tae ooep cac
poeoc pea oo o oe c opeoc
o 0,1 . epe [29] apoaoo caoo ca, eeo
o 13,500 , a p epe papoc 0,055 , o
cooece caapo ooe 0,4 %.
7.7.2 Meoa ooe coce -
Ooee poca Ts/Tx ae oe opeeeo o ooe ecoce aa-ao pa ep o ooo
, o aepa opaa ee ecoe o
epeoo aa-e (c.pae 7.3.2). Oo paee epec o peec aa-cepoep c co papeee. ee opao epe ooae 235U eec ecoo ec
peoac aa- a 186 (c. a. 7.1). Paccop ca, oa ooeo oa ocooo a aa-e epc ecoc e e a 186 (p ep EH EL, cooeceo). Ec poca opeee (7.17), oa ee
Ts (E A ) Tx (EH ) / Ts (EH )
=

Tx (E A ) Tx (EL ) / Ts (EL )

A
L H

(7.20)

210

. C, .

e ec p cooec ep, p oop oee . poe pacea oeo poca p EH EL peopae opeeee
poca o epe
T = R / R0 ,
(7.21)
R copoc cea epeoo a, ocaea cee oeepa;
R0 copoc cea epeoo a o opaa c ecoeo o
oeepo (.e., tc 0).
Ha pae R0 e oe epea, o oco paee (7.20) coep ooe poca, oe pa ooe epe ooe oae epe o:
Ts (E A ) R x (EH ) / R s (EH )
=

Tx (E A ) R x (EL ) / R s (EL )

A
L H

(7.22)

R(EH, L) H, L.
Oocea opeoc ooe poca Ts/Tx
oaec cee oaaee A/(L H) o ooceo opeoc
ooe oae epe o, aoeoc coa pao ac
pae (7.22). oo cea oaae a oo e,
o ocaec opo o, e co o ep. a. 7.4 pee oaae cpeac aepao oeepo pa epe o. aee, o o
pa ec 186 .
Taa 7.4 oaae mA / (mL mH) aepao oeepo
EH/EL

205 /144

2,17

8,13

8,88

186 /144

3,20

2,78

11,09

11,83

* oe o ooc, coe oeepa.

o eoa ooe coce - ec oo


opeee opa a ocaee cea oeepo, a o ee
pee p epe ooae occ. aa poc pee eo pee, eooo oe
caceco ooc oac cooae o aa-e.
7.7.3 epe aoo c UF6
O aoee o oeep p epe ooae
ec oo ao, coe epeo pae UF6 o epo ope. ao paoopa o paepa oe ce. a. 7.5 pee eoope ocoe apaep aoee pacpocpae o aoo [30].

aa 7. epee ooae paa

211

Ta 7.5 ece apaepc eoop aoo epeo pae


UF6 [30]


5A

8A

30B

48X

127

203,2

762

1219,2

914,4

1422,4

2057,4

3073,4

6,4

4,8

12,7

15,9

oa oa ceo c coo ooc oaae, o eee o ceo oe a aeoe eee copoc cea o aa-e. Coooee e ooce eee peaa opeee ooae ooce ooee o ce oaec e epepoa pae (7.8):
dE / E = cc (dt c / t c ) = 112
, (dt c / t c ) ,
(7.23)
2
e oe ca (c = 0,144 / p 186
3
c = 7,8 /c ). Ta opao, ooee o ce aoa a 10 % (oo 1,27 aoa a 30) oe cooeceo epe ooae a 12 %. cooae epe o ce
ooepo eae epe o eco ec oe
poea, paec o o ce paccope co epe. pop epe ooae
UF6 aoa o c cooae ooo oee aoo aece caap, oope ae o apae a aa. C
po copo, o cooa caape opa U3O8 UF4 ecoo ooae c cooece opao a pa ap (.e.,
a oe F/Fs o a. 7.3).
Paee p oee epe ooae aoa o 30 5A c oo co eeopo NaI(Tl) [6] oe pea c ooce caap ooee 5 % aoo a 30 <1 %
aoo a 5A. pe epe cocao eco , a epee
o ceo aao ceo ecoo ce. opo acec oa e ao ooepa oepoc aoa oc opoo a oac aa-eeopo; eopeeeoc epe o oea 0,4 %. oee copeee oe epe ooae aoo o 48 30 c UF6 [28] oa pea ae c
cooae aa-eeopo cooo papee.

212

. C, .

7.8 P
7.8.1
opeeeo oac paa epe ooae
caoc epe oepa paa [5]. Oa ca oc aeaec pae, (7.8); acoc peao oepa paa ap coepc oee F
pae (7.9). ap c e Z 30 ooee m/U eee 0,1.
Toa m/U 1 ea oea F oe a ,
a copoc cea o poopoaa ooae:
R = KEF = KE .
(7.24)
oo ac, oopo mm/UU 0,1, aa "oac ooae".
Ha po oe cepa epe pacoaac ca, oop oepa paa oe aa o cpae c ap. Koa mm/UU 10,
F . , , (7.24)
R = KEF = K' E(U / m )
(7.25)
10%. K' . , mm/UU 10, " ". "" .
, " ", , , [5].
7.8.2
, , PuO2, UO2,
U-C Th-C, , , , -,
"" [4, 31]. , -
R = ESA / (1F) ,
(7.26)
F (7.9):
n

F = 1 + [1 / (11 )] ii .
i=2

(7.27)

Te ec i ooaae cooec ooe cec


aepao opae, a ec 1 ooaae ee, e oo ccae -

aa 7. epee ooae paa

213

"" aa-. ca cec PuO2 + UO2


("" 129
"" ) :
R=

ESA
,
Pu K (1 + r)

(7.28)

r = U/Pu. K a ap a ep aepao
. 1/(1 + r) - . K [4],
E /(1 + r); .. , . - ,
, ,
, , .

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.
7.
8.

M.E. Anderson and J.F. Lemming, "Selected Measurement Data for Plutonium
and Uranium," Mound Laboratory report MLM-3009 (1982).
T.R. Canada, An Introduction to Non-Destructive Assay Instrumentation, A Training
Manual for the International Atomic Energy Agency Inspectorate, (International
Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1984).
235
J.T. Russell, "Method and Apparatus for Nondestructive Determination of U in
Uranium," US Patent No. 3 389 254, June 1968.
T.D. Reilly, R.B. Walton, and J.L. Parker, "The Enrichment Meter A Simple
Method for Measuring Isotopic Enrichment," in "Nuclear Safeguards Research
and Development Program Status Report, September-December, 1970," G.Robert Keepin, Comp., Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-4605-MS
(1970), p.19.
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"Nuclear Analysis Research and Development, Program Status Report, September-December 1972," G.Robert Keepin, Comp., Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory
report LA-5197-PR (1972), p.11.
R.B. Walton, T.D. Reilly, J.L. Parker, J.H. Menzel, E.D. Marshall, and L.W. Fields, "Measurement of UF6 Cylinders with Portable Instruments," Nuclear Technology 21, 133 (1974).
L.A. Kull and R.O. Ginaven, "Guidelines for Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy Measure235
ments of U Enrichement," Brookhaven National Laboratory report BNL-50414
(1974).
235
P. Matussek, "Accurate Determination of the U Isotope Abundance by Gamma
Spectrometry: A Users Manual for the Certified Reference Materal
EC-NRM-171/NBS-SRM-969," Institut fur Kernphysik report KfK 3752, Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany (1985).

214

9.
10.

11.
12.
13.

14.

15.

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

21.

22.

. C, .

T.D. Reilly, E.R. Martin, J.L. Parker, L.G. Speir, and R.B. Walton "A Continuous
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Los Alamos National Laboratory document LA-UR-85-3735 (1985).
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Plants," Transaction of the American Nuclear Society 50,176 (1985).
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ofIsotopic Composition Without Use of Standards," Proc. IAEA Symposium, "Safeguarding Nuclear Materials," Vienna, October 20-24, 1975, Vol. II (1975), p.235.
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Proc. IAEA Symposium on Nuclear Materials Safeguards, Vienna, Austria,October
2-6, 1978, IAEA-SM-231, Vol. I (1978), p.739.
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Symposium on Nuclear Materials Safeguards, Vienna, Austria, October 2-6, 1978,
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Enrichment Plants," Nuclear Materials Management VIII, 719 (1979).
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Test and Evaluation of the Gas-Phase UF6 Enrichment Meter," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-8657-MS (1980).
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59, 355 (1982).
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28-December 3, 1983, (Conf. 831106, 1984), p.63.
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"The Measurement of Uranium Enrichment for Gaseous Uranium at Low Pressu-

aa 7. epee ooae paa

23.
24.
25.

26.

27.

28.

29.
30.
31.

215

re," Proc. of the 7th Annual Symposium on Safeguards and Nuclear Material Management, ESARDA, Liege, Belgium, May 21-23, 1985, p.127.
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th
Pipework of a Gas Centrifuge Plant," Proc. of the 6 Annual Symposium on Safeguards and Nuclear Material Management, ESARDA, Venice, Italy, May 14-18, 1984,
p.243.
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th
Pipework of a Gas Centrifuge Plant," Proc. of the 7 Annual Symposium on Safeguards and Nuclear Material Management, ESARDA, Liege, Belgium, May 21-23,
1985, p.299.
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234
J.I. Thoms, "Neutron Measurements of U Isotopic Abundances in UF6 Samples,"
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aa 8
-

. .
( . . )

8.1 EEE
.
-;
[1-5]. -
ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) [6]. .
, ,
,
.
,
.

8.2
8.2.1.
238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu
Pu. 241Pu 241Am 237U.
. 8.1 .

242

8.1 ,

238

Pu
Pu
240
Pu
241
Pu
242
Pu
241
Am
237
U
239

,
87,74 0,04
24119 26
6564 11
14,348 0,022
376300 900
433,6 1,4
(6,75 )

,
/
6,3330 1011
2,2942 109
8,3971 109
3,8244 1012
1,4522 108
1,2655 1011
9,4080 107 *

,
/
567,57 0,026
1,9288 0,0003
7,0824 0,0020
3,412 0,002
0,1159 0,0003
114,20 0,50

* 237U 241Pu-237U (. . 8.1). - 241Pu 2,46 10-5.

218

. 8.1. 241Pu

8.2.2 241Pu
241Pu . 8.1. - 241Am
75 . 241Am, 241Pu
.
237U
241Pu [7]. 47 (7 ), - 237U
241Pu. 237U -, . "
241
Pu-237U" "" , 237U
() 241Pu. ,
241Pu-237U , "".
237U
241
Pu.
241Am 237U 237Np (.
. 8.1).
237Np -. ,
- 237U 241Am, - , . . 8.2 - 237U. 241Pu-237U 241Am.

aa 8. -

8.2.3.

242

219

Pu

242Pu -, 240Pu. 242Pu


- . [8]
242
Pu . 242Pu (
, 0,03 5 %),
, 241Am
.
8.2.4
- - , . , 243Am
239
Np; 237Np 233Pa;
. , ( , ) .
8.2.5


() . , , .
(/ Pu)
, , (. 21
22).

241Am.
(. 16).

220

. 8.2. -241 - -237


. t = 0 -

aa 8. -

221

8.3 ,

, . , [9] [10], . - 241Am.
. 8.3 8.4. . 8.3 241Am; . 8.4 241Am. , .
. 8.2 -,
. , - , .
-
.
8.3.1. 40
40 , , , 241Am 237U.
241Am, - 60 . 40 15 30
.
[11] 8.5; . 8.3 . - 40 238Pu, 239Pu 240Pu, . - 241Pu; 241Pu - 148,6 .
241
Pu 237U 43,5 238Pu, 45,2 240Pu
51,6 239Pu.
: [12] [11] , ; [13] [14]
, .
[15] 241Am.
;
.
. , 8.4.

222
.

. 8.3. - 500 ,
( 1332 : 11,7 %, 1,75 ). (. %): 238Pu 0,012 %; 239Pu 93,82 %; 240Pu 5,90 %; 241Pu 0,240 %; 242Pu 0,02 %; 241Am 630 / Pu. 239Pu

aa 8. -
223

. 8.4. - 530 PuO2, (


1332 : 10,2 %, 1,65 ).
(. %): 238Pu 0,302 %; 239Pu 82,49 %; 240Pu 13,75 %; 241Pu 2,69 %; 242Pu 0,76 %; 241Am 11 800 / Pu. 239Pu

224

8.2 - ,

238

239

Pu

240

Pu

Am

,
/

40-60

43

2,4910

51,63

6,19105

3,80106

59,54

4,541010

90-105

99,86

4,59107

98,78

2,80104

104,24

5,86105

103,68

3,86106

98,95

2,57107

102,97

2,47107

450-800

152,68

766,41

6,05106

1,39105

129,29

1,44105

203,54

160,28

,
/

241

Pu

120-450

, - ,

241

Pu

, - ,
,

,
/
/

148,57

7,15106

125,29

5,16106

1,28104

164,58*

1,73106

335,40

6,28105

345,01

1,28104

208,00*

2,04107

375,04

3,60104

332,35*

1,14106

413,71

3,42104

370,93*

1,04105

645,97

3,42102

662,42

4,61105

717,72

6,29101

721,99

2,48105

642,48

3,38104

1,05103

* 237U 241Pu 241Pu-237U.


.

aa 8. -

225

. 8.5. - 40
, 185 /. (. %):
238
Pu 0,649 %; 239Pu 67,01 %; 240Pu 21,80 %; 241Pu 8,11 %; 242Pu 2,44 % [11].
Ka2- ,

226

8.3 40 [9]

,
/

,
%

,
/

239

Pu

38,664

1,05010-4

1,00

2,4089105

239

Pu

40,410

1,62010-6

10,00

3,7165103

239

Pu

42,060

1,65010-6

3,00

3,7854103

43,430

5,90410-9

7,00

2,2579104 *

238

Pu

43,477

3,93010-4

0,30

2,4889108

241

Pu

44,200

4,18010-8

1,5986105

241

Pu

44,860

8,36010-8

3,197210

240

Pu

45,232

4,530 10-4

0,20

3,8039106

239

Pu

46,210

7,37010-6

10,00

1,6908104

239

Pu

46,690

5,80010-6

6,00

1,3306103

51,005

8,36410-8

2,00

3,1987105 *

Pu

51,629

2,70010-4

0,20

6,1942105

Pu

54,040

2,00010-6

1,40

4,5883103

241

Pu

56,320

2,50010-8

9,5610104

239

Pu

56,760

9,75010-9

3,7288104

239

Pu

56,838

1,13010-5

1,00

2,5924104

59,536

8,48710-6

0,20

3,2458107 *

Am

59,536

3,590 10-1

64,832

3,19810-7

237

237
239

239

237
241

237

4,54321010
0,50

1,2230106 *

* 237U 241Pu-237U. 237U


2,4610-5 - 241Pu 237U.

8.3.2. 100
100 - . . 8.4 14 -
. . 241Am 237U,
, - -. 100 , - .

aa 8. -

227

. 8.6
100 .
[4]. ,
(),
. 8.6. [4, 16].
PuO2 .
[12],
. - - 99,53 103,75 . - 99,86 238Pu
104,24 240Pu. -;
.

. 8.6. - 100 , 490 122 . : 530 PuO2. (. %): 238Pu 0,302 %; 239Pu 82,49 %;
240
Pu 13,75 %; 241Pu 2,69 %; 242Pu 0,76 %; 241Am 11 800 / Pu. : 10 20 / 1M HNO3. (. %): 238Pu 0,027 %; 239Pu 91,65 %; 240Pu 7,68 %; 241Pu
0,532 %; 242Pu 0,12 %; 241Am 315 / Pu

228

8.4 100 [9]

,
, ,
/
%

238

Pu

94,658

1,05010-6

1,40

6,6497105

U K2

239

Pu

94,658

4,22010

-5

0,25

9,681310

U K2

240

Pu

94,658

6,36010-7

5,00

5,3406103

U K2

241

Pu

94,658

3,03010

-6

0,50

1,158810

U K2

239

Pu

96,130

2,23010

-7

20,00

5,116010

97,071

3,88710

0,40

1,4865107

Np K2 *

Am

97,072

-5

1,18010

2,00

1,493310

Np K2

-6

1,00

1,070310

U K1

237
241

-6

238

Pu

98,441

1,69010

239

Pu

98,441

6,76010-5

0,30

1,5508105

U K1

240

Pu

98,441

1,02010

-6

5,00

8,565110

U K1

241

Pu

98,441

4,85010

-6

0,50

1,854810

U K1

239

Pu

98,780

1,22010-5

3,00

2,7989104

Am

98,951

2,03010-4

0,50

2,5690107

Pu **

99,530
99,864

7,24010

0,20

4,585110

101,066

6,19910

0,30

2,3708107

Np K1 *

241

Am

101,066

1,90010

1,40

2,404510

Np K1

241

Am

102,966

1,95010

0,50

2,467710

-6

241

238

Pu

237

Pu K2
-5

-6

-5

-4

239

Pu

103,020

2,17010

1,60

4,9783103

241

Pu

103,680

1,01010-6

0,50

3,8627106

Pu **

103,748
6,98010

0,40

5,861210

240

Pu

104,244

Pu K1
-5

* 237U 241Pu-237U. 237U


2,4610-5 - 241Pu 237U.
** - -.

8.3.3 125
125 241Am 239Pu - 125,29 129,29 . - 125,29 241Am 125,21 125,51 239Pu. 241Am 241Am
. -

aa 8. -

229

500 239Pu 50 % 125,3 ; 5000 90 % 241Am.


239Pu
[17] [18]. (. 8.5.3) -.
125 . 0,15 35 %
125,3 .
. 8.5 -
125 , . 8.7. K -
116,3, 117,3 120,6 ( . 8.5)
, .. 124,5 , . ( . 8.7) 241Am, 239Pu,
.
129,29 239Pu , .. 239Pu ,

. 8.7. - PuO2 125 ,


490 122 .
(. %): ( ) 238Pu 0,378 %; 239Pu 78,89 %; 240Pu
15,28 %; 241Pu 4,42 %; 242Pu 1,04 %; 241Am 14 300 / Pu; ( ) 238Pu 0,016 %; 239Pu 93,51 %; 240Pu 6,15 %; 241Pu 0,28 %; 242Pu
0,039 %; 241Am 480 / Pu

230

- 241Pu
237
U .
8.5 125 [9]

,
/

, %

,
/

239

Pu

119,708

3,00010-7

2,00

6,8825102

241

Pu

121,200

6,85010-9

Am

122,994

1,00010-5

0,80

1,2655106

241

2,6197104

239

Pu

123,620

1,97010-7

6,00

4,5195102

239

Pu

124,510

6,13010-7

3,00

1,4063103

239

Pu

125,210

7,11010-7

2,00

1,6311103

Am

125,292

4,08010-5

0,50

5,1633106

129,294

6,26010-5

0,20

1,4063105

241

239

Pu

8.3.4 148
148 148,57
Pu 152,68 238Pu. 148,57
- 100 ,
241Pu. 152,68 , , 238Pu 100 ( 238Pu 766,4 ).
- 239Pu
144,21 143,35 ;
143,76 235U. 146,56 150,11
241
Am , . , 109Cd, [11, 12]. - 88,04
109
Cd - 59,54 241Am,
147,6 .
152,68 238Pu (94,66 K2-
59,54 241Am 154,2 ).
153 238Pu
(0,01 . % 238Pu).
10 %. ,
- 153 2,5 % ,
, . 8.6.
[19]. . 8.8
.
241

aa 8. -

231

. 8.8. - PuO2 148 ,


490 122 .
(. %): ( ) 238Pu 0,378 %; 239Pu 78,89 %; 240Pu
15,28 %; 241Pu 4,42 %; 242Pu 1,04 %; 241Am 14 300 / Pu; ( ) 238Pu - 0,016%; 239Pu 93,51 %; 240Pu 6,15 %; 241Pu 0,28 %; 242Pu
0,039 %; 241Am 480 / Pu

8.6 148 [9]

,
/

, % ,
/

239

Pu

141,657

3,20010-7

2,00

7,3413102

239

Pu

143,350

1,73010-7

4,00

3,9689102

239

Pu

144,211

2,83010-6

0,60

6,4925103

239

Pu

146,077

1,19010-6

0,60

2,7300103

Am

146,557

4,61010-6

1,00

5,8340105

Pu

148,567

1,87010-6

0,30

7,1516106

Am

150,110

7,40010-7

2,00

9,3648104

152,680

9,56010-6

0,50

6,0544106

241

241
241

238

Pu

232

8.3.5 160
,
40 100 , 240Pu
160 . . 8.7 -
160 . - 240Pu 160,28 159,95 241Pu 160,19 239Pu. (. . 8.9) 239Pu
161,45 . 240Pu , . 240Pu
, ~2 %.

. 8.9. - PuO2 160 ,


490 122 .
(. %): ( ) 238Pu 0,378 %; 239Pu 78,89 %; 240Pu
15,28 %; 241Pu 4,42 %; 242Pu 1,04 %; 241Am 14 300 / Pu; ( ) 238Pu 0,016 %; 239Pu 93,51 %; 240Pu 6,15 %; 241Pu 0,28 %; 242Pu
0,039 %; 241Am 480 / Pu

,
240Pu . . 8.8 , 240Pu 160 70 % 6 %
240
Pu 25 % 20 % 240Pu. - ,
241Pu , 240Pu.

aa 8. -

233

8.7 160 [9]


, , /

, %

,
/

10,00

2,2942101

239

Pu

158,100

1,00010-8

241

Pu

159,955

6,74010-8

239

Pu

160,190

6,20010-8

20,00

1,4224102

240

Pu

160,280

4,02010-6

0,70

3,3756104

239

Pu

161,450

1,20010-6

0,40

2,7530103

164,580

4,52610-7

0,50

1,7311106 *

241

Am

164,580

6,67010-7

3,00

8,4410104

241

Am

165,930

2,32010-7

4,00

2,9360104

237

2,5776105

* 237U
2,4610-5 - 241Pu 237U.

241

Pu-237U.

237

164,58 237U, 241Pu,


241Pu . 241Am 164,58 . - 100 - 59,5 241Am
160 .
- 60 100
[20]. 163,35 235U 164,58 , 235U 241Pu , 1,5.
8.8 - 160

Pu

, . %

160
, %

239

93,5

4,5

240

6,0

69,1

241

0,3

26,4

239

86,0

1,5

240

12,0

50,4

241

1,5

48,1

239

67,0

0,3

240

20,0

24,6

241

8,0

75,1

234

8.3.6 208
208 241Pu-237U
208,00 . .
241Am, 4 1% ().
- 237U, 7 .
,
. 202,1
205,3 235U 203,54 239Pu.
239
Pu/241Pu 203,54/208,00 . 203,54 239Pu -
208,00 237U. 241Am (~1 %)
203,5 ;
. . 8.9 , . 8.10 208 .

. 8.10. - PuO2 208 ,


490 122 .
(. %): ( ) 238Pu 0,378 %; 239Pu 78,89 %;
240
Pu 15,28 %; 241Pu 4,42 %; 242Pu 1,04 %; 241Am 14 300 / Pu; ( ) 238Pu 0,016 %; 239Pu 93,51 %; 240Pu 6,15 %; 241Pu 0,28 %;
242
Pu 0,039 %; 241Am 480 / Pu

aa 8. -

235

8.9 208 [9]

,
/

,
%

,
/

Pu

203,537

5,60010-6

0,20

1,2847104

Am

203,870

2,90010-8

6,00

3,6700103

208,000

-6

5,33810

0,20

2,0415107 *

Am

208,000

7,91010-6

0,50

1,0010106

239
241

237
241

* 237U
2,4610-5 - 241Pu 237U.

241

Pu-237U.

237

8.3.7 332
332 241Pu- 237U, 241Am 239Pu, . 8.10 . 8.11. cap aepao epe ooe 239Pu/241Pu coec ooee a
345,01 239Pu 332,35 o 241Pu- 237U. Oa a 332,35 335,40 o
241
Pu-237U c a 239Pu. . 8.11 opaa oe (98 % 239Pu) cppe, a eco
pacooe a epepp a. . 8.11 a oocee
e epep 239Pu pa oo .
241Pu/241Am ae epepp
239
Pu oeca o c o ooea
241
Pu-237U 241Am [3]. aae oac ep coc
, .
8.10 332 [9]

,
/

,
%

237

332,354

2,97710-7

0,30

1,1384106 *

241

Am

332,354

1,49010-6

0,30

1,8856105

239

Pu

332,838

5,06010-6

0,20

1,1608104

237

,
/

335,405

2,38610-8

1,00

9,1258104 *

241

Am

335,405

4,96010-6

0,30

6,2769105

239

Pu

336,107

-6

1,13410

0,30

2,6016103

241

Am

337,720

4,29010-8

5,00

5,4290103

237

337,720

2,18910-9

5,00

8,3732103 *

237

340,450

4,05910-10

20,00

1,5523103 *

239

Pu

341,510

6,62010-7

0,40

1,5187103

239

Pu

345,014

5,59210-6

0,20

1,2829104

* 237U
2,4610-5 - 241Pu 237U.

241

Pu-237U.

237

236

. 8.11. - PuO2 332 ,


490 122 .
(. %): ( ) 238Pu 0,0024 %; 239Pu 97,96 %; 240Pu
2,01 %; 241Pu 0,020 %; 242Pu 0,0030 %; 241Am 11 / Pu; ( )
238Pu 0,378 %; 239Pu 78,89 %; 240Pu 15,28 %; 241Pu 4,42 %; 242Pu 1,04 %;
241
Am 14 300 / Pu

8.11 - 332 336 ( 241Am


)

Pu

, . %


332


336

239

93,5

76,1

89,9

241

0,3

23,9

10,1

239

86,0

36,9

62

241

1,5

63,1

38

239

67,0

7,9

19,3

241

8,0

92,1

80,7

aa 8. -

237

8.3.8 375
375 , . 8.12 pc. 8.12, coco
o e e ooo, o oac 332 : 241Pu-237U, 241Am 239Pu. ce
ooo, poe 239Pu, o aa-ao e, e oac 332 , oo opa o coepa ooo oo. C
375,04 o 239Pu aco coec opeee ooceo eoc eeopa. epepe 376,59 ooa 241Am p e eco c popa a
pa o.
8.12 375 [9]

,
/

239

Pu

367,050

8,65010-7

0,30

1,9844103

239

Pu

368,550

9,03010-7

0,30

2,0716103

338,605

1,05510-8

2,00

4,0360104 *

Am

338,605

2,17010-6

0,30

2,7462105

370,934

2,71310-8

1,40

1,0377105 *

Am

370,934

5,23010-7

0,80

6,6186104

Pu

375,042

1,57010-5

0,10

3,6018104

Am

376,595

1,38310-6

0,70

1,7502105

237

241

237

241

239

241

, , /
%

239

Pu

380,166

3,05110-6

0,20

6,9995103

239

Pu

382,751

2,58710-6

0,20

5,9350103

Am

383,740

2,82010-7

1,50

3,5687104

241

* 237U
2,4610-5 - 241Pu 237U.

241

Pu-237U.

237

8.3.9 640
c. 8.13 a. 8.13 apaepc o 640 . o ecea oac e 160 , oopa oe
cooaa epe 240Pu. a oac oo o opao -a o ecoc aa- 642,48
240
Pu. 239Pu 241Am co oac. epe 239Pu 241Am coc 645,97 662,42 . Ocaoe aa-ee o oac oo e coec, o
p aae eoa oo cooec.

238

. 8.12. - PuO2 375 ,


490 122 .
(. %): ( ) 238Pu 0,0024 %; 239Pu 97,96 %; 240Pu
2,01 %; 241Pu 0,020 %; 242Pu 0,0030 %; 241Am 11 / Pu; ( )
238Pu 0,378 %; 239Pu 78,89 %; 240Pu 15,28 %; 241Pu 4,42 %; 242Pu 1,04 %;
241
Am 14 300 / Pu

oac 640 oe cooac oaca eeop ooo


oea (c ooceo eoc 10 % oee). aece ce, oope ae aap ae oace o 100 o 400 ,
o cooa a eeopa [20].
Ec opae pcc po ee, ae a 95Zr-95Nb 137Cs,
aa-ee oe co aa oac 640 . Koepa
poo ee, aa a, a 10 K/ o, oe cea
aa o oac eoo.

aa 8. -

239

8.13 640 [9]

241

Am

,
/

, %

,
/

633,000

1,26010-8

15,00

1,5945103

239

Pu

633,150

2,53010-8

1,20

5,8042101

239

Pu

637,837

2,56010-8

1,20

5,8730101

239

Pu

640,075

8,20010-8

0,60

1,8812102

Am

641,420

7,10010-8

4,00

8,9851103

241

240

Pu

642,480

1,24510-7

1,00

1,0454103

239

Pu

645,969

1,48910-7

0,40

3,4160102

239

Pu

649,321

7,12010-9

7,00

1,6334101

239

Pu

650,529

2,70010-9

15,00

6,1942100

239

Pu

652,074

6,55010-8

0,60

1,5027102

Am

652,960

3,77010-7

2,00

4,7710104

241

239

Pu

654,880

2,25010-8

1,20

5,1618101

239

Pu

658,929

9,69010-8

0,70

2,2230102

Am

662,420

3,64010-6

0,30

4,6065105

241

239

Pu

664,587

1,65710-8

1,60

3,8014101

239

Pu

668,200

3,93010-10

30,00

9,016010-1

8.4
8.4.1
-
C(E ij ) = i N iBR ij(E j ) ,
i

(8.1)

C(E j ) j- - Ej , i- ;
i
i
i i- (i = ln 2/ T1/ 2 , T1/ 2 i- ;
Ni i- ;
BR ij - ( /) j- - i- ;
(E j ) -
Ej; ,
, .

240

. 8.13. - 640 . : 530 PuO2, (


1332 : 10,2 %, 1,65 ). (. %): 238Pu 0,302 %; 239Pu 82,49 %; 240Pu
13,75 %; 241Pu 2,69%; 242Pu 0,76 %; 241Am 11 800 / Pu. :
500 , ( 1332 : 11,7 %, 1,75 ). (. %): 238Pu 0,012 %; 239Pu 93,82 %; 240Pu
5,90 %; 241Pu 0,240 %; 242Pu 0,02 %; 241Am 630 / Pu

:
C(E ij ) = ij Mi (E j ) ,

(8.2)

i
j ao j- - i-o , a/c;
Mi acca i-o , .

a pae o peopaoa a , o pae ooe acc oec aoo ooo. Aoapoe ooee aec
i
i
N i C(E j ) T1/ 2 BR km RE(E m )
(8.3)
=

.
N k C(E km ) T1k/ 2 BR ij RE(E j )

aa 8. -

241


i
Mi C(E j ) km RE(E m )
=

.
Mk C(E km ) ij RE(E j )

(8.4)

(8.3) (8.4) C(E) , T1/2, - BR , . RE. ,


. c , .
ooceo eoc p epe cepa aoo opaa. pae (8.1) (8.2) a ce poopoa acoc aa- i-o ooa:
(E j ) RE(E j )

C(E ij )
BR ij

C(E ij )
ij

(8.5)

(8.3) (8.4) , . , (8.5).



C(E) , - .

[17] .

[17,18]. 130 450 -
239
Pu 241Pu-237U. . 8.14 .
- ,
. 120 200
.
152,7 /148,6 (238Pu/241Pu) 10 %.
,
.
. , ,
242Pu, :
1 = f238 + f239 + f240 + f241,
fi i- .

(8.6)

242

. 8.14.
200 2, 10 . 239Pu ,
241
Pu-237U . 1,00
414 . PuO2 870

(8.6) f241
f
f
f
1
= 238 + 239 + 240 + 1 .
f241 f241 f241 f241

(8.7)

(8.7) 241Pu (f241) f238/f241, f239/f241 f240/f241.


f
fi = f241 i ,
f241

(8.8)

i = 238, 239, 240.


242Pu 8.5.3. 241Am (8.9),
241Am ( 239Pu):
f
fAm = fi Am .
(8.9)
fi
, 241Am , .
, . ,
Am/Pu .
, . -

aa 8. -

243

, Am/Pu [21].
8.4.2
, 8.4.1,
, .
[4, 12, 16] .
C(E ij ) = Kij mi ,

(8.10)

C(E ij ) j- - Ej, i-
;
Kij j- - i- ;
mi i- .

, , .
, ,
.
( )
. ,
fi =

mi
241

(8.11)

i = 238

8.4.3

242

Pu

-242 , -.
242Pu [8]. , , .
, , ,
, . [8] ,

K f 240 f 241
(8.12)
f 242 =
2
f 239
. , K 52.
241
, Pu, 5 % . ,
241
Pu

244

. , 241
Pu
241
241
Am. Pu
.
[8, 22] , 241Pu:
f 242 =

2
K f 240
3
f 239

(8.13)

, K .
, 242Pu , ,
,
fic = fi (1 f242 ) ,
(8.14)
fic , Pu.
,
.
242

8.5
8.5.1
,
-, 4.
NIM (Nuclear Instrumentation Modules). , , .
4096 . , ,
- 8192 .
, . 16- 32 . . .
8.5.2
, . , .
(). 200 2 10
13 . -

aa 8. -

245

( ) ,
500 122 . ( ), 2,55 122 . 2,5 .

400 . 100 400 , .
600
10 % . . 600 [17]. 1,7 1332
.
8.5.3
59,54 241Am, ,
. , - 100 , 150 165
.
0,15 0,30 0,025 - 59,54 . , ,
60 100 .

120 200 (. 8.3.3).

153 160 [20]. 2.
( 241Am 237U) 100
40 . , 0,25 72 87 ,
.
8.5.4 /

. 20000 ./c.
[23, 24] . , 60000 ./ [25].

246


.
.
, - , , -,
, [19]. 129 203 239Pu;
332 241Pu-237U. 332 1,6 % 3 4 . , .
,
1 (1-2)105 ./. ,
. ,

.
8.5.5
,
. 40 100
1000 1 . -
120 ,
1 2 ,
10 30 1 %. ( 1 2 )
. 239Pu/241Pu
. 8.7.

8.6
, . , , 5.3.
8.6.1
, . , .

aa 8. -

247

-, , , 125, 160,
332 375 . ,
,
. .
, , .
,
-241. ,
.
8.6.2
5.3. ,
[26], ,
-. GRPANL [27, 28];

GRPAUT [17], .
, GRPANL GRPAUT,
. :
(8.15)
Yi = Y0 exp (X i X 0 ) 2 + T(X i ) ,

{ [

Y Xi ;
Y0 ;
= 4 ln 2/(FWHM)2 = 1/2 2,
;
X0 , ();
T(Xi) Xi.

T(X i ) = {A exp[ (X i X 0 )] + C exp[ (X i X 0 )] T(X i )}

1 exp 0,4 (X i X 0 ) 2

]}

(8.16)

A C , ;
B D , ;
= 1 Xi < X0,
= 0 Xi X0.

X0, . 8.15. (C = 0); .

248

. 8.15. -, Ge(Li),
[28]: , ,

(8.15) (8.16)
, ,
. ,
(. 5.3). 0
, 148 208
241
Pu 237U. - , .
[26],
, .

ln A = k1 + k2 E.

(8.17)

aa 8. -

249

,
,
.
Ec ,
Y0, . GRPANL
, . .
GRPANL
[26, 27] . , , . ,
50 15 120 450 10 PDP-11/23 " "
(Digital Equipment Corporation) 3-4 PDP-11/73. .
GRPANL , ( ), - [29].
100 .
8.6.3
, 8.6.2, .
(8.15)
.
,
Y0 .
, .

, .
. , , . , ,
5.3 8.6.2. -,
. 100 [4, 12, 16], 120 370 [30, 31]. [29]
100 .

250

8.7
, .
8.7.1 -
"-" (Rockwell-Hanford Company)
, , , ( )
[32]. 1984 ;
GRPAUT, . , . 8.16,
300 2 7 . , -

. 8.16. , -. ( , -)

aa 8. -

251

3000 ./; 10000 ,


. ,
, . 120 400 , [3]. .
242Pu .
. 8.14 , 14 , 240Pu 2 24 %.
. 8.14 .
21. 0,5 1 %, . -. .
8.14 , "-"

1
2
() ()

3
()

4
()

5
()

6
()

7
()

, . %
238

Pu

0,0003

0,0008

0,028

0,14

0,064

0,069

0,089

239

97,56

93,73

91,64

87,87

86,50

80,77

73,81

240

2,40

6,03

7,65

10,23

11,78

17,10

22,83

241

Pu

0,038

0,21

0,569

1,49

1,42

1,66

2,26

241

Am

0,059

0,138

0,447

1,26

0,088

1,12

2,13

98

103

Pu
Pu


102

103

102

109

101

, , , %
1,02 %

0,72 %

0,65 %

0,55%

0,84 %

0,62 %

0,53 %

: , -
0,9914

0,9921

1,003

1,008

1,016

1,0002

1,028

252

8.7.2 -
- , [3, 18, 33].
200 2 10 . ,
20000 ./.
.
120 400 . 241Pu. -,
. 8.15. 242Pu (8.12).
90. 239Pu 241Pu-237U,
. .
240Pu 2 18 %
241
Am 2 %. . 8.17.
.
.
8.15 , -

- ,

238/241

152,7/148,6

152,7/148,6

239/241*

345,0/332,4

129,3/148,6

203,5/208,0
240/241

160,3/164,6

160,3/148,6

Am/239*

125,3/129,3

125,3/129,3**

169,6/171,3
*
** 241Am


, . . 8.16 -, . 241Pu/241Am 332 241Am 164,6, 208,0, 267,5 332,4 241Pu-237U.

aa 8. -

253

. 8.17. -

8.16 -,
,

,
,

125

239

129,3

160

239

161,5

160

241

164,6 *

332

239

345,0

Pu
Pu
Pu
Pu

.
, 125, 160 332 , .

0,5 1 .

254

. 8.18. -

aa 8. -

255

. 8.18 -
. 239Pu, 240Pu 241Pu 0,2 %,
238Pu 241Am . . . 8.19
. . 8.20 , .
1 % 30- 0,5 % 2- .

. 8.19. - , 30 PuO2 1 (240Pu 12 %).

256

. 8.20. -
, . 30 .
500 (240Pu 6 %); PuO2 1 (240Pu 12 %)

8.7.3

,
. GRPANL GRPAUT,
8.6.2. .
. Y0 . . 50 120 450 ; ,
640 . . 8.17 ,
GRPAUT. 239Pu,
241
Pu-237U 241Am. (. (8.18)). 242Pu (8.13):
2

j=1

j=1

ln i = A 0 + A j / E ij + A j+ 2 (ln E i ) j + A 6 6 + A 7 7 ,

i ;
Ei -;
A6, A7 241Pu-237U 241Am 239Pu;
6, 7 = 1 241Pu 241Am, = 0 .

(8.18)

aa 8. -

257

8.17 -, GRPAUT

241/239

208/203 *

241/239

148/144

241/239

165/161

241/239

148/129 *

238/239

153/144

238/241

153/148 *

240/239

160/161

240/241

160/165

240/241

160/148 *

Am/239

125/129

Am/239

335/345 *

Am/239

369/375 *

Am/239

662/646

Am/239

772/718

* .
.

GRPAUT . [20] , - 120 300 300 700 . - 642,48 240Pu 662,42 241Am. - 100 . 50 000 ~2 % 160/148
240
Pu/241Pu, 642/646 240Pu/239Pu. 662/646 241Am/239Pu , 125/129
.
. 8.21 - [34, 35]. ,
. . 8.18 , . 2 . 240Pu 6 %. 10 000 50 000 .
1 %
1 3 %.

258

. 8.21. / . ( , )

8.18 - [35]

, %

18

0,997

1,7

20

1,007

0,7

13

1,00

3,0

aa 8. -

259

8.7.4 .
. .
1970- -
. 10
. - (1 ).
, 40 . 40 ,
100 ; ,
120 . 10 2
-. . 8.19 , .
8.19 - ( ) [4]
Pu

, %

, %

, %

1. , 10 , 3 /
238

0,008

5,6

4,7

239

93,46

0,048

0,049

240

5,88

0,75

0,72

241

0,65

0,96

1,9

2. , 60 , 4 /
238

0,018

7,6

5,7

239

90,92

0,14

0,09

240

8,40

1,6

0,94

241

0,661

0,64

0,61

Am

---

0,08

0,26

5,4 /

0,46

0,35

Pu

( 20 % 240Pu)
( 250 Pu/) [12].
-. ,
40 . , 241Pu -
148 94 K2- ,
. 239Pu -

260

129 . .
.
100 .
- 208
59 . 100 . . 242Pu (8.12).
. 8.22 ( 1 ) 0,25 .
, . 8.23, . 15 30 ,
30 1 . . 8.20 ,
-.

. 8.22. ,
, -, [12].
.
. ( ,
)

aa 8. -

261

. 8.23.
,
-, [12]. ( , )

8.20 - (94 , 130 270 /) [12]


Pu

, %

, %

, %

238

0,5 1,0

0,1 0,8

0,4 0,7

239

60 75

0,01 0,3

0,08 0,4

240

17 23

0.02 0,4

0,2 1,3

241

5 11

0,02 0,8

0,2 0,8


[30, 31] - 120 450 .
.
[36]; , , ( ) , . , -

262

,
100 .
8.7.5.
. , -,
-. . 8.21
, -. .
8.21 , %

238

40

10 30

0,3-5

0,05-0,5 0,2-1,0 0,2-1,0

100

30 60

0,3-5

0,05-0,5 0,2-1,0 0,2-0,8 0,1-1,0

>1-10

0,1-0,5

>120

14*

239

240

1-5

241

0,3-0,8

Am

---

---

0,2-10

0,1-1,0
0,3-2

* 30 .

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

Francis X. Haas and Walter Strohm, "Gamma-Ray Spectrometry for Calorimetric


Assay of Plutonium Fuels," IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science NS-22, 734
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239
240
240
of Pu/ Pu and Pu/ Pu Ratios," International Journal of Applied Radiation and
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aa 8. -

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

12.

13.
14.
15.

16.

17.
18.
19.
20.

263

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237
238, 239, 240, 241
241
Pu, and Am," LawEnergies and Absolute Branching Intensities of U,
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264

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24. F. J. G. Rogers, "The Use of a Microcomputer with In-Held Nondestructive Assay
Instruments," International Symposium on Recent Advances in Nuclear Materials
Safeguards, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, November
8-12,1982.
25. J. G. Fleissner, "A High Count Rate Gamma-Ray Spectrometer for Pu Isotopic
Measurements," Proceedings of Institute of Nuclear Materials Management 26th
Annual Meeting, Albuquerque, New Mexico (1985).
26. R. Gunnink and J. B. Niday, "Computerized Quantitative Analysis by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry. Vol. I. Description of the GAMANAL Program," Lawrence
Livermore Laboratory report UCRL-51061, Vol. I (March 1972).
27. R. Gunnink and W. D. Ruhter, "GRPANL:,A Program for Fitting Complex Peak
Groupings for Gamma and X-Ray Energies and Intensities," Lawrence Livermore
Laboratory report UCRL-52917 (January 1980).
28. J. G. Fleissner and R. Gunnink, "GRPNL2: An Automated Program for Fitting
Gamma and X-Ray Peak Multiplets," Monsanto Research Corporation Mound
Facility report MLM-2807 (March 1981).
29. R. Gunnink, "An Algorithm for Fitting Lorentzian-Broadened K-Series X-Ray
Peaks of the Heavy Elements," Nuclear Instruments and Methods 143, 145 (1977).
30. W. D. Ruhter and D. C. Camp, "A Portable Computer to Reduce Gamma-Ray
Spectra for Plutonium Isotopic Ratios," Lawrence Livermore Laboratory report
UCRL-53145 (May 1981).
31. W. D. Ruhter, "A Portable Microcomputer for the Analysis of Plutonium Gamma-Ray Spectra," Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report UCRL-53506,
Vols. I and II (May 1984).
32. R. A. Hamilton, Rockwell-Hanford letter R83-0763, to T. E. Sampson (February
24,1983).
33. S. -T. Hsue, T. E. Sampson, J. L. Parker, S. S. Johnson, and D. F. Bowersox, "Plutonium Isotopic Composition by Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy," Los Alamos Scientific
Laboratory report LA-8603-MS (November 1980).
34. D. A. Rakel, "Gamma-Ray Measurements for Simultaneous Calorimetric Assay,"
Nuclear Material Management X, 467 (1981).
35. D. A. Rakel, J. F. Lemming, W. W. Rodenburg, M. F. Duff, and J. Y. Jarvis, "Results of Field Tests of a Transportable Calorimeter Assay System," 3rd Annual

aa 8. -

265

ESARDA Symposium on Safeguards and Nuclear Materials Management, Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany, May 6-8, 1981, p. 73.
36. R. Gunnink, "Plutonium Isotopic Analysis of Nondescript Samples by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry," Conf. on Analytical Chemistry in Energy Technology,
Gatlinburg, Tennessee, October 6-8, 1981.

. , . .
( . . )

9.1

. 2 ( , -) .
, ,
. :
,
. ,
,
(. 10 ()). - , .
( )
Z , ,
.
, . , , , .
, , . I0
E, , I ,
:
I = I0 exp(x) ,

(9.1)

;
,
E.

268

. , . .

. I/I0 T
. ,
. , , , , , , .
, , -, - . (.
. 9.1). (I), (I0) .

. 9.1.

9.2
9.2.1
,
, , - ( ) .
- . , ,
0 0 -.

9.

269


ln T = ( + 0 0 )x .
(9.2)
( )
1

= ln T 0 0 .

(9.3)

(9.3) , 0.
( ) , 0 ,
(0) . ,
0 0.

.
. .
9.2.2
, .
.
(9.3):
() 1 (T)
=

.
ln T T

(9.4)

, ,
,
( : |ln T|>1 T<0,37). , ,
, , . ,
1, -
1/(ln T). , .

c = 1/x. ln T>1, >c ,

270

. , . .

; <c .
, , (), , .
x (9.1) (9.3), (9.4) .
.
,
. T = I/I0, , (9.4)
()
1 T + 1
=

ln T I0 T

1/ 2

(9.5)

. 9.2 . c T , lnT = 1.
T, ()/ , ( ,
).
, 9.3 9.4.
, , . , -

. 9.2.

( (9.5)). , . , , r, lnT = 1. ( , )

9.

271

() . , ()
, .

9.3

; . . , . Z Z .
9.3.1
1
2. i- ,
j- ,
ij = i (E j ) ,
(9.6)
j-
Tj = exp[(1j1 + 2j 2 )x] .

(9.7)


:
( ln T1 ) / x = M1 = 111 + 12 2 ,
( ln T2 ) / x = M2 = 12 1 + 22 2 .

(9.8)

, , , .
:
1 = (M1 22 M2 12 ) / D,
2 = (M2 11 M1 12 ) / D,

D = 11 22 12 12 .

(9.9)

(9.8) , D (9.9)
. ,
. ,
,
.

272

. , . .

. , , E Z Z ,
. , ( Z)
, , , Z
Z,
.
.
9.3.2

.

:
1/ 2

(1 )
1
= 1
1
2 ln T2 22 ln T1

(T ) 2 (T ) 2
2
1
1
2
2
+ 2

T
T
1
2

( 2 )
1
= 2
2
1 ln T1 11 ln T2

(T ) 2 (T ) 2
2
1
1
2
1
+ 1 T
T
1
2

,
1/ 2

(9.10)

, (. (9.8)), x
.
9.3.3
, . ,
-, .
.

9.4
.

9.

273


[1].
K-, LIII- (. 9.7 ).
. 9.3 ,
Z, K- L- .
.
,
, . ,
, .
, [2-4].

. 9.3.
, Z. ( )
17 20 (L-) 115 122 (K-)

274

. , . .

9.4.1

Z () Z. . 9.4
(U) (L) . ( K-, ,
L-). s , M m Z,
. . 9.1.

. 9.4.
. (S),
, (M),
, (m),

9.

275

9.1

E(K)

115,6

121,8

E(LIII)

17,2

18,0

3,4 2/

52,0 2/

(K)

3,7 /

(LIII)

55,0 /

(9.11)
EU EL:
ln TL = ( Ls s + Lm m )x,
U
.
ln TU = ( U
s s + m m )x

(9.11)

:
s =

T

1
ln L + m m ,
x TU

(9.12)

L
= U
s s > 0,

m = Lm U
m >0.

(9.13)

(9.12) .
,
(9.12). (9.12) ( (9.3)), .
(9.12)
,
, . , EL = EU = EK, m = 0,
- . , , ,
. ,
, , , ,
. . 9.4.4.

R = TL/TU , x ,
.
, -

276

. , . .

,
.
9.4.2
(9.12) :
(s ) 1 (R) 1 (R)
=
=
.

s
s x R ln R R

(9.14)

R . (9.4), c = 1/x. >c, ,


()/<(R)/R.
c, -
- .
EU
.
. 9.2
1 (x = 1 ). , ,
1 , K- , 300 /,
. 30 / 0,5 LIII- 9
K-.
9.2

, /

, /

c(K)

270

294

c(LIII)

18

19

. . 9.5
( (9.14)) x . ,
, , 30 /,
7 10 .

. . 9.6
K-, ,

9.

277

. 9.5. , K-, ( ). 121,1 K- (I0L)


6
2 10

7 [5]. . 9.6 , . 9.5.


. . 9.7
K-, LIII- [6]. ,
1%, x.
9.4.3

, ,
, [7, 8]. ,
, , ( 99 %) [9]. , , .

, .

278

. , . .

. 9.6. , K-, , 7 . 100 /. [5]

. 9.7. x, , 1 % . K- LIII- ,

9.

279

, .

, ,
.
(9.14).
R - ( ) , .
, ( , )
TU TL = T = exp( mmx) .

(9.15)

, R = 1,
T :
1 1
1
1
1
() =
+
+
+

x I0U I0L TI0U TI0L

1/ 2

(9.16)

(9.16) .
( s) :
3 1
1 T + 1
s=
+

x I0U I0L T

1/ 2

, /,

(9.17)

x /.
(9.17) ,
:
l ;
l I0 ;
l L- ( ) , K-,
;
l , T
.
3

9.4.4

,
. , -, (9.12).

280

. , . .

s EL
EU ; mm<s.



( 130 ) (
500 ). .

,
[2, 5]. . , , ,
:
log (E) = k log E + B .
(9.18)
k Z>50,
-2,55 K- [2]. . 9.3
, [10].

Z c (Z>50). (9.12)



1 TL
s =
+ M M + m m .
ln


x TU

(9.19)

M Z,
m Z (); (9.13) M = LM U
M (. . 9.4). K- (E) .
k Z>50 , Z k (, -2,55). M
, :
1 TLa c Kmm
s =
+
,
ln
x TUb

(9.20)

( +s s , . . 9.4) ( K-), EL EU. a, b


c :

9.

281

a = (E K / E L )k ,
b = (E K / E U )k ,

(9.21)

c = (E K / E L )k k' (E K / E U )k k' ,

k = -2,55, k = -0,33 ( k
10).
,
. , , k k. ,
. ( I0) , ,
.
.
m M [11]:
m = 1 + 0,33M .

(9.22)

9.3 k B log m(E) log E 100 150 [10]


( K-)

-2,48

5,83

( K-)

-2,56

5,42

( K-)

-2,49

5,82

( K-)

-2,71

5,65

-2,50

5,65

-2,45

5,12

-1,57

2,70

-0,500

0,227

-0,306

-0,153

-0,314

-0,171

K- , K-
- 57Co 75Se (. 9.4.6), Z ,
. , (9.20)
3 M 0,87 Pu/ [5].
(9.22) ,

282

. , . .

, 3 %; .
K- 169Yb (EL = 109,8 ,
EU = 130,5 ) . [2], ,
.
[12].
9.4.5
- K- LIII-, ( (9.17)) LIII-
K- (. . 9.1). , K-, K- , .

Z (, ), K-
,
LIII- [12]. , LIII- LIII- ( ; ). K-
. , ,
K-,
Z ,
. , K- -.
9.4.6

, .
, .
( ) ,
. ,

. K-, LIII-, , .

9.

283

-, ,
. K-. - LIII-. , - . ,
K- (K = 121,8 ) - 121,1 75Se ( 120 ) - 122,1 57Co ( 270 ).
[1]. - I0. 169Yb ( 32 ) K- [2, 3] , , - .
(EL = 109,8 , EK = 115,6 ,
EU = 130,5 ) ( m)
( ). , ,
169Yb. , 9.4.4, .
[1].
[12].

9.5
.
-
0/ (. (9.3)) , , Z.

241
Am, , [13, 14]. 4-. - 60

. (>200 /),
1 % 95 %.

[15]. - 171Tm 67 76 -
170
Tm 84 NaI(Tl) 2,5 .

284

. , . .

,
.
0,2 /3 95 %.

9.6
( ) . -
,
Z, Z.

Z ( ) Z ( ) [16
17]. - (122 57Co 1173 1332 60Co), Z. (9.9). , 92 95 % 5
8 % 238U Z , 1,6 2,4, 2 . 3 % 95 %.

- [18, 19]. , L-
Z ( 2) (9.8) :
11 > 12 12 = 22 . , (9.8) , 1 2:
1 T1
1 =
ln ,
1x T2

(9.23)

1 = 11 12 . 2 1 2:
lnT 2
2 = 2 2 1 21 .
2 2

(9.24)


K- ( 16,6 28,5 , ), 241Am 100 .
L- . 16,6 LIII- (16,3 ). - [18] [19]. ,

9.

285

35 70 /.
0,25 Th/U 4,0
1 % 4000 .

9.7

, K-
LIII-. . -
( () K-
Si(Li) LIII-) . , ,
, 0,5 %
( 30 ).
, K-,
- ( ). K- - 169Yb 109,8
130,5 , K- - 75Se
57
Co 121,1 122,1 . LIII- .
(9.12).
( (9.14)) , , x, , .
c = (1/x) . ,
, , [()/] (. . 9.5 9.6).
. 9.4 9.5 K- LIII-,
.
c
., ( c).
, , . ,
. 9.4 9.5, 9.7.1 9.7.2.

286

. , . .

9.7.1 K-
K-,
. . 9.4 .
9.4 K-

c
(.),
/

1,%

1. -

135
(300)


*, .

0,5

1000

[12, 20,
21]

2. -,
Y-12

55
(100)


*, .

0,5

600

[22, 23]

3. ,
AGNS

80
(200)

Pu

(,
)

0,2

1200

[12, 24,
25]

4.
(), PNC

150
(300)

Pu


**
(,
)

0,2

2000

[12, 26,
27, 28]

5. -,
SRP

40
(60)

Pu


**
()

0,2

2000

[5, 12,
29]

6.
(),

()

150
(300)

Pu

0,3

500

[30]

7.
(), KfK
(
)

150
(300)

Pu

**
U(+Pu)

**

Pu(+U) U:Pu = 3:1

0,2

1000

0,2

1000

[12, 31,
32]

0,2

1000

1,0

1000

* .
** .

33

9.

287

9.5 LIII-

1. , SNL

c
(.),
/
16
(50)


1,
%
U Pu
U(+Pu)
Pu(+U)

2. ,
NBL

16
(50)

U Pu
U(+Pu)
Pu(+U)

0,3

1000

0,2

2000

[12, 21,
34]

1,0

2000

0,3

1000

0,2

2000

0,9

2000

*
U:Pu = 2:1

U:Pu = 2:1

[35]

3. ,
AGNS

19
(55)

()

0,7

250

[36]

4. -
()

16
(60)

0,2

1000

[37]

1. - [12, 20, 25]. - USAS (Uranium Solution Assay System)


, - (). USAS . 9.8
9.9.
USAS
20 30 ( )
-. 0,001 0,5 /
2000 .
1 50 / 169Yb. 50 400 /, , K-
169Yb. 400
2000 , 0,7 1,5 %.

. 1976 . 1984 ., .

288

. , . .

. 9.8. USAS

2. - Y-12 [22, 23]. () - Y-12


SAS (Solution Assay System), USAS.
50 50
200 / K-. , . SAS 169Yb
. Y-12 1981 .
.
3. AGNS (Allied General Nuclear Services)
[12, 24, 25]. K-
AGNS , ,
1977-1978 . - K- 10 . 75Se
57
Co. ( ).
4.
PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) [12, 26-28].
K- - " -

9.

289

. 9.9. USAS. 2

" .
, , K- (
75Se, 57Co). . 9.10 -.
. 9.11 ,
, . . , . - .
, 10 .
1979 . 1980 . . 1981 . . . 9.12 K-
( ), 1981 .
[28]. 1982 . .

290

. , . .

. 9.10. K- -

. 9.11. K- -. 2

9.

291

. 9.12. K-
,
. , 0,36 %. ( 1979 .)
[27]

5. - SRP (Savannah River Plant) [5, 12, 29]. K- -.


.

- , . . 9.13
. . 9.14 .
100 ( ).
K- , ,
.
.
2:1, , 9.4.4 [5].
1980 . 1981 . . 9.6 (. 9.4.2) ( 5
200 /), [5].
1982 . 1983 .
6.
() [30]. K- -

292

. , . .

. 9.13. SRP . ( )
,
( ) ,
. 7


. ,
,
, .
,
K-. . 9.15 9.16
K-,
.
() 1983 . .

9.

293

. 9.14. SRP . - .
,

7. KfK (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe) [12, 31-33]. K-


, () 1978 . , . -
.

,
1% .
K-,
. ,
K- ,
,
.

294

. , . .

. 9.15.
K-, . 2

. 9.17 . . 9.18 K- .
9.7.2 LIII-
LIII-,
. LIII-
, .
AGNS (. 9.19) . . 9.20
.
. 9.5.

9.

295

. 9.16. K-,

. 9.17. KfK K- . - .
2

296

. , . .

. 9.18. KfK K-,

. 9.19. AGNS LIII-. ,

9.

297

. 9.20. LIII-
SRL, NBL AGNS.
.
( 1 ). , , , (Lexan), , ,
( Kel-F) ,

1. - SRL (Savannah River Laboratory) [12,


21, 34]. LIII- -
.
( ) , , , LIII- , , . 15
; .
,
, . 9.21. - 1978 . 1980 .
2. - NBL (New Brunswick Laboratory) [35].
LIII- -
- .

, . . 9.22 NBL
. ,
Z 10 % .
1980 . 1981 .

298

. , . .

. 9.21. (1s), SRL


LIII-, 1000 , . , (9.14)

. 9.22. LIII- 1000 , NBL, .


, , .
NBL

3. AGNS (Allied General Nuclear Services)


[36]. LIII-, , 1981 . AGNS. ,
. , 5 -

9.

299


( ) 40 /.

,

.
4. - [37]. LIII- 1984 . - Q-1
. , . . 9.23 -

. 9.23.
LIII-: () ; () . 1

300

. , . .

. , ,
- L-
,
K- (. 9.7.1).
LIII- .
LIII-, .

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K.J. Hofstetter and G.A. Huff, "On-Line Isotopic Concentration Monitor," Allied
General Nuclear Services report AGNS-1040-2.3-52 (1978).
L.R. Cowder, S.-T. Hsue, S.S. Johnson, J.L. Parker, P.A. Russo, J.K. Sprinkle, Jr.,
Y. Asakura, T. Fukuda, and I. Kondo, "An Instrument for the Measurement of Pu
Concentration and Isotopics of Product Solutions at Tokai-Mura," in Proc. Second
Annual Symposium on Safeguards and Nuclear Materials Management, Edinburgh,
Scotland, March 26-28, 1980 (European Safeguards Research and Development
Association, Brussels, Belgium, 1980), p. 119.
P.A. Russo, S.-T. Hsue, J.K. Sprinkle, Jr., S.S. Johnson, Y. Asakura, I. Kondo,
J. Masui, and K. Shoji, "In-Plant Measurements of Gamma-Ray Transmissions for
Precise K-Edge and Passive Assay of Plutonium Concentration and Isotopic Fractions in Product Solutions," Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-9440-MS
(1982).
Y. Asakura, I. Kondo, J. Masui, K. Shoji, P.A. Russo, S.-T. Hsue, J.K. Sprinkle, Jr.,
and S. S. Johnson, "In-Plant Measurements of Gamma-Ray Transmissions for Precise K-Edge and Passive Assay of Plutonium Concentration and Isotopic Abundances in Product Solutions at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant," Nuclear Materials
Management II, 221 (1982).
H.A. Smith, Jr., T. Marks, L.R. Cowder, C.O. Shonrock, S.S. Johnson, R.W. Slice,
J.K. Sprinkle, Jr., K.W. MacMurdo, R.L. Pollard, and L.B. Baker, "Development of
In-Line Plutonium Solution NDA Instrumentation at the Savannah River Plant,"
in Proc. Second Annual Symposium on Safeguards and Nuclear Materials Management, Edinburgh, Scotland, March 26-28, 1980 (European Safeguards Research
and Development Association, Brussels, Belgium, 1980), p. 123.
L.R. Cowder, S.F. Klosterbuer, R.H. Augustson, A. Esmailpour, R. Hawkins, and
E. Kuhn, "A Compact K-Edge Densitometer," in Proc. Sixth Annual Symposium on
Safeguards and Nuclear Materials Management, Venice, Italy, May 14-18, 1984
(European Safeguards Research and Development Association, Brussels, Belgium, 1984), p. 261.
H. Eberle, P. Matussek, H. Ottmar, I. Michel-Piper, M.R. Iyer, and P.P. Chakraborty, "Nondestructive Elemental and Isotopic Assay of Plutonium and Uranium
in Nuclear Materials," Nuclear Safeguards Technology 1978 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 1979), Vol. II, p. 27.
H. Eberle, P. Matussek, I. Michel-Piper, and H. Ottmar. "Assay of Uranium and
Plutonium in Solution by K-Edge Photon Absorptiometry Using a Continuous
X-Ray Beam," in Proc. Second Annual Symposium on Safeguards and Nuclear Materials Management, Edinburgh, Scotland, March 26-28, 1980 (European Safeguards Research and Development Association, Brussels, Belgium, 1980), p. 372.
H. Eberle, P. Matussek, I. Michel-Piper, and H. Ottmar, "Operational Experience
with K-Edge Photon Absorptiometry for Reprocessing Feed and Product Solution Analysis," in Proc. Third Annual Symposium on Safeguards and Nuclear Materials Management, Karlsruhe. Fed. Rep. Germany, May 6-8, 1981 (European Safeguards Research and Development Association, Brussels, Belgium, 1981), p. 109.

9.

303

34. P.A. Russo, T.R. Canada, D.G. Langner, J.W. Tape, S.-T. Hsue, L.R. Cowder,
W.C. Moseley, L.W. Reynolds, and M.C. Thompson, "An X-Ray LIII-Edge Densitometer for Assay of Mixed SNM Solutions," in Proc. First Annual Symposium on
Safeguards and Nuclear Materials Management, Brussels, Belgium, April 25-27,
1979 (European Safeguards Research and Development Association, Brussels,
Belgium, 1979), p. 235.
35. W.J. McGonnagle, M.K. Holland, C.S. Reynolds, N.M. Trahey, and A.C. Zook,
"Evaluation and Calibration of a Los Alamos National Laboratory LIII-Edge Densitometer," US Department of Energy New Brunswick Laboratory report NBL-307
(1983).
36. P.A. Russo, T. Marks, M.M. Stephens, A.L. Baker, and D.D. Cobb, "Automated
On-Line L-Edge Measurement of SNM Concentration for Near-Real-Time Accounting," Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-9480-MS (1982).
37. M.L. Brooks, P.A. Russo, and J.K. Sprinkle, Jr., "A Compact L-Edge Densitometer
for Uranium Concentration Assay", Los Alamos National Laboratory report
LA-10306-MS (1985).

10

. .
( .. )

10.1

.
- .
- () .
, ,
, , . , . , . -
.
( 9). ,
, , , .
. 10.1, , .
[1-4], , - - .

306

. 10.1. ( ) ( )

10.2
10.2.1
1.3 1.

.
, (
) K, L1, L2, L3, M1, ..., M5, N1, ..., N7 . ,
. .
, . ,
K-, L3,
98,428 (111,591 17,163 ).
, , K1.
K-
K-. . L3- K
,
K1. . 10.2 ,
K- L-. . 10.1 K-

10.

307

. 10.2. ,
K- L-

L- .
. 10.3 10.4 K- L- .
10.2.2
. .

. i, i
, . 95 %
K- Z>78 (. . 10.5). K- L- M-. [1]:
i = Z 4 / (A i + Z 4 ) ,

(10.1)
6

Ai 10 K- 10 L-.

308

10.2.3
, . ,
K- ,
121,82 .
10.1 K- L-
, *

( )

(%)**

(%)

K1

K L3

98,44 (100)

103,76 (100)

K2

K L2

94,66 (61,9)

99,55 (62,5)

K1

K M3

111,31(22,0)

117,26 (22,2)

K3

K M2

110,43 (11,6)

116,27 (11,7)

K2

K N2,3

114,34; 114,57 (12,3)

120,44; 120,70 (12,5)

L1

L3 M5

13,62 (100)***

14,28 (100)

L2

L3 M4

13,44 (10)

14,08 (10)

L2

L3 N5

16,43 (20)

17,26 (20)

Ll

L3 M1

11,62 (1-3)

12,12 (1-3)

L1

L2 M4

17,22 (50)

18,29 (50)

L1

L2 N4

20,17 (1-10)

21,42 (1-10)

L3

L1 M3

17,45 (1-6)

18,54 (1-6)

L4

L1 M2

16,58 (3-5)

17,56 (3-5)

* , III (L-) (C.M. Lederer, and V.S. Shirley, Eds., Table of isotopes, 7th ed. [John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1978]).
** K1, L1 .
*** ( [4]).

F, ,
F = 1 exp(x) ,

(10.2)

;
;
.

, , , . . 10.6 -

10.

309

. 10.3. K-. 57Co

. 10.4. L-. 109Cd

310

. 10.5. K-, L- M-


.
. , .
, . . 10.7
400, 100 20
50 /. , 4 5
.
(10.2) K- L-.
L- , . K- , , , ( L-). , L- (
), K-. , K-
.

10.

311

. 10.6.

. 10.7. 400, 100 20


3
(r = 1 / ) 50 /

312

10.2.4
.
, , , . -, , (. 2.3.2 2 [5])
E' =

511
,
(1 cos + 511 / E)

(10.3)

', , , ;
.
' = 180, ,
,
. 122 57Co ( K- ) 82,6 . 90, E' 98,5
K- . 57Co, , 180 -, .
, (.
. 10.3).
, . L-
, '(180) 20,3
22 109Cd ( L- ),
. . [6] , ,
.
(
) .

. .
,
; . . 10.8 .

10.

313

. 10.8.

10.3
: , . . , . , , , , .
. 10.6,
.
-57 - 122 ,
K- . K- ,
, .
L- 109Cd,
K- ( K1 = 22 ). , 25 , .
,
, . ,
.

314

57Co 109Cd,
272 453 , .
, ,
. 1 , . . 10.2 , . , . 10.9,
.
10.2 ,

57

Co

270

122

136

109

Cd

453

K- Ag

75

Se

120

121

136

144

Ce

285

K- Pr
-

125

147

Pm-Al

60

2,6

22

36
134

K- Te

27

35

12-45*

* .

( ) ,
. -
, , . ,
70 , 50 ,
. -

10.

315

. 10.9.

.


. I(E) I [4]:
I(E) iZ(V E)E,
I iZV 2 ,

(10.4)

i ;
V ;
Z .
. 10.10 . . , .
,
.
, .
, (1012 / ).
. , . . 0,1 %
0,2 0,3 % -

316

. 10.10. .
, 20,4

. . 10.11 .
.
,
, , . . , .
. ,
.

. 10.11.

10.

317

, , .
, -, (, 147Pm-Al, ).

10.4
10.4.1
-, .
, , -
. ,
- . , -
122 0,013 .
,
.
L-, 22 . , .. 6,4 122 1,7
22 . ,

. 10.12. 122 ( 4- )

318

,

, . . 10.12
-
122 ( 4-
).
.
K-
100 , , K-
. L-
,
.
10.4.2

.
, 5.4.1 5, :
=

RR CF(RL) CF(AT)
,
K

(10.5)

;
RR ;
CF(RL) ;
CF(AT) ;
.
CF(RL) (. 5.4 5).
, ,
.
, , (.
. 10.13). F x
F = I exp( x / cos ) .

(10.6)

(10.6) (10.10) . 10.3. , dx K1-,


Fx dx = F B

dx
.
cos

(10.7)

10.

319

. 10.13.


Fx () = Fx exp( x x / cos ) .
(10.8)
(10.6) (10.8)
:
Ix =


x .
+
L
1 exp
4 [(cos / cos ) + ]
cos cos
I B

(10.9)

(/4) cos /cos .


,
(10.9)
.
, (10.9)
Ix =

I B
4 [(cos / cos ) + x ]

(10.10)

(.
7). , .. ,
.

- .
/ - .
,

320

(, , 57Co 109Cd), . .
10.3 (10.6) (10.10)
I0

K-
-

K-

K1

= i i

- i-

x = xi i


i-

10.4.3
. ,
. , , . .
, ,
[7-9], . , . 10.13 (, = 0). CF(AT)
, 6:
CF(AT) =

ln
,
1

(10.11)

10.

321



= exp
+ x L .

cos


.

. (. . 10.14) ( ),
=

IT IS
,
I0

(10.12)

IT
;
IS ;
I0
.
.
, , ,
-

. 10.14. ,

322

. ,
.
K (10.5)
. (10.11) (10.12) ,
. ,
, .

10.5
, , -: , ,
.
4.

.
, .
, . , . , , . [1] (<1000 ). .
, ,
. . [10] 57Co
- 235U 185,7 . , - 185,7 8 20 / 235U
0,4 4,5 %. 1 %.
[11]
, .

(17,4 ), 241Am
50 , LIII-. L- .
K- L-. [12] ,
K- L-
.
[13]
L- , .

10.

323

.
, L-

L-. ( 1 % 2 %
) 200 . 0,1 200 / 50 / .
- .
[14] ,
-, -
K- . - 57Co, , -, 90Sr-90Y.
-
, ,
. 0,5 88 %
0,1 %.

.
U/Pu, . ,
, . [15]
. U/Pu 400
2 / 1 % 2 % 1 58
10 . ,
. . 10.15 . . . -
.
. [16 17] 57Co K- . 1
200 /
.
- 122 57Co [16] -
122 [17]. ()
(, -, -, . .) ,
, , .
. [18] 10 540 /. ,
, , U/Th
0,4 %. 0,5 %
1 % . -

324

. 10.15. - , [15]

- [19 20]. 1 10 / 100 / K- . , , K-


K- .
. [21 22] K-
K- .
. 100 /
U/Pu100. , (200 /),

10.

325

,
U/Pu . 1000
, 0,25 %,
U/Pu, 1 %. : (
2 )
1 .

. 10.16. - K- K- ([21]) ( . )

326

/ 157. . 10.16.
. [23] U/Pu
L-. 25 % PuO2 75 % UO2 0,5 % 3 . (). , .. ( 30 ).

1.

.P. Bertin, Principles and Practice of X-Ray Spectrometric Analysis (Plenum


Press, New York, 1975).
2. R. Jenkins, R. W. Gould, and D. Gedcke, Quantitative X-Ray Spectrometry (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1981).
3. R. Tertian and F. Claisse, Principles of Quantitative X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis
(Heyden & Son, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1982).
4. R. Woldseth, All You Ever Wanted to Know About XES (Kevex Corp., Burlingame,
California, 1973).
5. G.F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New
York, 1979), p. 310.
6. P. Martinelli, "Possibilities of Plutonium Analysis by Means of X-Ray Fluorescence with an Iridium-192 Radioactive Source," Analysis 8 (10), 499-504 (1980).
7. R. Strittmatter, M. Baker, and P. Russo, "Uranium Solution Assay by Transmission-Corrected X-Ray Fluorescence," in "Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development Program Status Report, May-August 1978," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-7616-PR (1979), pp. 23-24.
8. T. R. Canada, D. C. Camp, and W. D. Ruhter, "Single-Energy Transmission-Corrected Energy-Dispersive XRF for SNM-Bearing Solutions," Los Alamos National Laboratory document LA-UR-82-557.
9. P. Russo, M. P. Baker, and T. R. Canada, "Uranium-Plutonium Solution Assay by
Transmission-Corrected X-Ray Fluorescence," in "Nuclear Safeguards Research
and Development Program Status Report, September-December, 1977," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-7211-PR (1978), pp. 22-28.
10. J. John, F. Sebesta, and J. Sedlacek, "Determination of Uranium Isotopic Composition in Aqueous Solutions by Combined Gamma Spectrometry and X-Ray Fluorescence," Journal of Radioanalytical Chemistry 78 (2), 367-374 (1983).
11. J.W. Rowson and S. A. Hontzeas, "Radioisotopic X-Ray Analysis of Uranium Ores
Using Compton Scattering for Matrix Correction," Canadian Journal of Spectroscopy 22 (1), 24-30 (1977).
12. T.R. Canada and S. T. Hsue, "A Note on the Assay of Special Nuclear Materials in
Solution by X-Ray Fluorescence," Nuclear Materials Management XI (2), 91
(1982).

10.

327

13. Y. Baba and H. Muto, "Determination of Uranium and Plutonium in Solution by


Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis," Bunseki Kagaku 32, T99-T104
(1983).
14. J. Karamanova, "Development of an Express NDA Technique (using radioisotopic
sources) for the Concentration Measurements of Nuclear Materials, 1 November
1974-30 June 1977," International Atomic Energy Agency report IAEA-R-1557R
(1977).
15. W.L. Pickles and J. L. Cafe, Jr., "Quantitative Nondispersive X-Ray Fluorescence
Analysis of Highly Radioactive Samples for Uranium and Plutonium Concentrations," Lawrence Livermore Laboratory report UCRL-7417 (1973).
16. D.. Camp and W. D. Ruhter, "Nondestructive, Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Product Stream Concentrations from Reprocessed Nuclear
Fuels," in Proc. American Nuclear Society Topical Conference on Measurement Technology for Safeguards and Materials Control, Kiawah Island, South Carolina, November 26-28, 1979 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC, 1980), p.
584.
17. D.C. Camp, W. D. Ruhter, and K. W. MacMurdo, "Determination of Actinide
Process- and Product-Stream Concentrations Off-line or At-line by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis," in Proc. Third Annual Symposium on Safeguards and Nuclear Materials Management, Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany, May 6-8, 1981 (European Safeguards Research and Development Association, Brussels, Belgium, 1981), p. 155.
18. G. Andrew, B. L. Taylor, and B. Metcalfe, "Estimation of Special Nuclear Materials in Solution by K X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Edge Densitometry,"
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority report AERE-R9707 (1980).
19. G. Andrew and B. L. Taylor, "The Measurement of Pu and U in Reprocessing
Plant Solutions by Tube-Excited K X-Ray Fluorescence," United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority report AERE-R9864 (1980).
20. G. Andrew and B. L. Taylor, "The Feasibility of Using K-XRF for the On-line Measurement of Pu/U Ratios of Highly Active Dissolver Solutions," United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority report AERE-M3134 (1980).
21. H. Ottmar, H. Eberle, P. Matussek, and 1. Michel-Piper, "Qualification of K-Absorption Edge Densitometry for Applications in International Safeguards," International Atomic Energy report IAEA-SM-260/34 (1982).
22. H. Ottmar, H. Eberle, P. Matussek, and 1. Michel-Piper, "How to Simplify the
Analytics for Input-Output Accountabilty Measurements in a Reprocessing
Plant," Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe report KfK 4012 (1986).
23. M.C. Lambert, M. W. Goheen, M. W. Urie, and N. Wynhoff, "An Automated
X-Ray Spectrometer for Mixed-Oxide Pellets," Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory report HEDL-SA1492 (1978).

11

.
( . . )

11.1
, ,
, -.
-. , . - ,
, , .
.

(. 12). (. 13) .
, .
-, - . , ?
,
, - .
,
.
, .

, .
14 15 , . 16 17 , .

11.2
,
.
(. 11.1). -

330


, . ,
. , ,
,
( ). (),
. 10-13 , ,
-. , 100 140 (. . 18.2 18). ,
( 170 ) . ,
, , - ,
-.
- ,
. , , Z A.
. 11.1 [1-6]. ,

. 11.1. ,

11.

331

-, .
-. 240Pu, 1020 ./ [4, 5],
,
240
Pu - .
11.1

232

Th

N
Z


[1]

[2]*,


[2]*,

./
[2*, 6]

[6]

90

142

1,41 1010

>1 1021

>6 10-8

2,14

1,9

8 10

1,3

1,71

3,13

1,76

2,4

232

92

140

71,7

233

92

141

1,59 10

1,2 10

8,6 10

234

92

142

2,45 105

2,1 1016

5,02 10-3

1,81

2,4

235

92

143

7,04 10

3,5 10

2,99 10

1,86

2,41

236

92

144

2,34 10

1,95 10

5,49 10

-3

1,91

2,2

238

92

146

4,47 109

8,20 1015

1,36 10-2

2,01

2,3

Np

93

144

2,14 10

1,0 10

1,14 10

237

13

17

17
16

2,05

2,70

2,21

2,9

5,48 1015

2,18 10-2

2,16

2,88

6,56 10

1,16 10

1,02 10

2,16

2,8

147

14,35

(2,5 10 )

(5 10 )

2,25

2,8

1,72 10

2,15

2,81

18

Pu

94

144

87,74

4,77 10

239

Pu

94

145

2,41 104

240

Pu

94

146

241

Pu

94

242

10

11

15

Pu

94

148

3,76 10

6,84 10

241

Am

95

146

433,6

1,05 10

242

Cm

96

146

163

6,56 10

244

Cm

96

148

18,1

97

152

98

154

Bk

252

Cf

-4

238

249

-4

10

-4

2,59 10

-2

3,22

3,09

2,10 10

2,54

3,44

1,35 10

1,08 10

2,72

3,46

320

1,90 10

1,0 10

3,40

3,7

2,646

85,5

3,757

4,06

14
6
7
9

1,18

2,34 10

12

* [3] . 240Pu [4 5].

332

. - 3 , - 5
- .
- [7]. ,
.
. . - ,
,
.
, ,
[8, 9].
- - - .
-
238U, 238Pu, 240Pu, 242Pu, 242Cm, 244Cm 252Cf.
,
.
, ; , , . - , ,
, 233U, 235U 239Pu.
"". - , 238U
240
Pu, , "". , , .
12.

11.3 -

-, . , , , . -. , -.
. 11.2 ,
252Cf [10, 11]. 2,14 . , ,
. -

11.

333

. 11.2. 252Cf, T = 1,43

N(E), N(E) ,
E exp(E / 143
, ). E . 240Pu 233U, 235U 239Pu, ,
1,32; 1,31; 1,29 1,33 ,
[12, 13].
, ,
.
. 11.1.
[14]. , . 11.1,
.
0
6
. . 11.2 [15-17]
P()
. 1-5 % 30-50 % . [18] , , ,
P() =

1
2

e ( )

/ 22

(11.1)

334

, 1,08, , 252Cf, , 1,21.


11.2

235
U [15]

P(0)

0,033

0,054

0,011

0,066

0,068

0,002

P(1)

0,174

0,205

0,101

0,232

0,230

0,026

P(2)

0,335

0,380

0,275

0,329

0,334

0,127

P(3)

0,303

0,225

0,324

0,251

0,247

0,273

P(4)

0,123

0,108

0,199

0,102

0,099

0,304

P(5)

0,028

0,028

0,083

0,018

0,018

0,185

P(6)

0,003

0,008

0,002

0,003

0,066

- - - - -

238
Pu
239
Pu [15] 240Pu [15] 242Pu [15] 252Cf [15]
[16, 17]

P(7)

0,015

P(8)

0,002

2,406

2,21

2,879

2,156

2,145

3,757

( 1)

4,626

3,957

6,773

3,825

3,794

11,962

( 1)(2)

6,862

5,596

12,630

5,336

5,317

31,812

(. 16). , . , , , ,
? , ,
[19]. , .

, . , - .
7 10 - 7 9 [7].
. 11.3 -
252
Cf, NaI [20]. , , , , . -

11.

335

. 11.3. - 252Cf, NaI [20]

- , -,
- (. 1).
, .
-
, .
-, . -
. ,
. [21].
, - . . ,
,
-. ,
200 55 [22].
. ,
[21],
.
. ,
300-600 , 2 , .
, , , 1 % . , -

336

, .
- , .

-: 6-8 -,
, 1 . - . [21] , 10-9 . -, , . - .

11.4 , (a,n)
- -, . - , - .
, 150 -. - - , . , - ,
. . 11.3 [1, 2, 23-25] - . , , , -, 241Pu 249Bk, -, 252Cf,
3 % -.
- -
(. 1). , -
, (,n) .

-, , , 233U, 234U, 238Pu 241Am. (,n) .
(,n), :
+18 O 21 Ne + n ,
+19 F 22 Na + n .

11.

337

11.3 (a,n)-


[1]


- [1]

-- (,n)
,
,
./ [2]
[1]

,
/ [1]

232

Th 1,41 1010 1.41 1010 4,1 103


(,n)
UF6/PuF4,,
./
[23, 24 / 25]

4,00

2,2 10-5

8,0 1011

5,30

1,49 104

2,6 106

232

71,7

233

1,59 105 1,59 105

3,5 108

4,82

4,8

7,0 102

234

2,45 105 2,45 105

2,3 108

4,76

3,0

5,8 102

235

7,04 108 7,04 108

7,9 104

4,40

7,1 10-4

0,08

236

2,34 10 2,34 10

2,3 10

4,48

2,4 10

-2

2,9

238

4,47 10 4,47 10

1,2 10

4,19

8,3 10

-5

0,028

Np 2,14 106 2,14 106

2,6 107

4,77

3,4 10-1

6,4 1011

5,49

1,34 104

2,2 106

237

71,7

238

Pu 87,74

239

Pu 2,41 104 2,41 104

2,3 109

5,15

3,81 101

5,6 103

240

Pu 6,56 103 6,56 103

8,4 109

5,15

1,41 102

2,1 104

241

Pu 14,35

5,90 105

9,4 107

4,89

1,3

1,7 102

242

Pu 3,76 105 3,76 105

1,4 108

4,90

2,0

2,7 102

Am 433,6

433,6

1,3 1011

5,48

2,69 103

242

Cm 163

163

1,2 1014

6,10

3,76 106

244

Cm 18,1

18,1

3,0 1012

5,80

7,73 104

320

6,1 104

8,8 108

5,40

1,8 101

2,646

2,731

1,9 1013

6,11

6,0 105

241

249

Bk

252

Cf

87,74

-, , 4 6 . 234U -
, -, , 4,7 (. . 11.3). - 5,2 . - 3,2 , 3,7 .
- [26]:

338

= 0,00032

A
, / 3

(11.2)

A .
0,006
0,007 , . , , -
. , - ,
(,n). , ,
, - , (,n)
, - ,
.
- ,
Q, .
Q . Q , . Q , - , , , . ,
:
= Q(1 + 4/A),

Q ,

= 0,

Q .

(11.3)

,
- , - .
() =

Z1Z 2 e 2
1/ 3

r0 (A1

+ A2

1/ 3

(11.4)

Z1 = 2, A1 = 4, e = 1,44 , r0 = 1,2 , Z2 A2 [27]. , (,n)


, - , , -,
, , -, . ( , ). . 11.4 [26, 28] .
2

11.

339

11.4 Q,
(a,n)

He

,
,
, Q, [28]
%
[28]
100

18,99

38,0


-
5,2 ,
[26]

1,5

7,5

3,70

6,32

2,1

92,5

2,79

4,38

2,1

1,2

+5,70

2,6

10,8

Li
Li

Be

100

10

19,8

+1,06

3,2

5,9

11

80,2

+0,16

3,2

5,0

12

98,9

8,51

13

14

15
16
17

18

19

20

Ne

21
22
23

Na

24

Mg

25
26
27

Al

29

Si

30
37

1,11

11,34

3,7

+2,22

3,7

99,6

4,73

6,09

4,1

0,4

6,42

8,13

4,1

99,8

12,14

15,2

4,7

0,04

+0,59

4,6

5,5

0,2

0,70

0,85

4,6

4,2

1,95

2,36

5,1

2,9

90,9

7,22

8,66

5,6

Ne

0,3

+2,55

5,5

7,6

Ne

8,8

0,48

0,57

5,5

4,5

2,96

3,49

6,0

1,8

79,0

7,19

8,39

6,4

Mg

10,0

+2,65

6,4

7,7

Mg

11,0

+0,03

6,3

5,0

2,64

3,03

6,8

2,2

4,7

1,53

1,74

7,2

3,4

Si

3,1

3,49

3,96

7,2

1,4

Cl

24,2

3,87

4,29

8,3

1,0

100

100

100

7,2

340

. 11.4 , (,n) -,
5,2 , 11 .
, , . . 11.5 (,n) [29-33] . , - - -. (11.2), -
0,01 .
(,n) ,
, , , , , .

. 11.3. - , -,
Q, (- -).
(11.5)(11.7) (,n) (, ). :
Y = Mi Yi ,
i

(11.5)

Mi i- ;
Yi - , . 11.3.
i 241Am, -. , . 11.5 K [34, 35]:
K=

St N t
,
St N t + S N

(11.6)

St S , -
- , ;
Nt N - , .
S/St [34].
, ,
(,n)- (,n)- .
(11.7) - , :

11.

Y Y
j

PjA OI jS j
POA jIOSO

341

(11.7)

Pj (,n)- . 11.5;
PO (,n)- : 0,059
106 - 0,040 106 -
;
Aj ;
AO = 16 ;
Ij , .1 ( ) ;
IO , , ,
118 000 .1 PuO2 154 000 .1
U3O8.
(,n)- (11.5) (11.7).
11.5 (a,n) ( )



6
6
(
10 -
10 5,2
234
4,7 ( U)
(. Pu)
)


5,2 ,
[29]

Li

0,16 0,04

1,13 0,25

30

0,3

Be

44 4

65 5

31

4,2

12,4 0,6

17,5 0,4

29, 30, 33

2,9

0,051 0,002

0,078 0,004

29, 30, 31

4,4

0,040 0,001

0,059 0,002

29, 30, 31

1,9

3,1 0,3

5,9 0,6

29, 30, 33

1,2

Na

0,5 0,5

1,1 0,5

32

Mg

0,42 0,03

0,89 0,02

29, 30, 31

2,7

Al

0,13 0,01

0,41 0,01

29, 30, 31

1,0

Si

0,028 0,002

0,076 0,003

29, 30, 31

1,2

Cl

0,01 0,01

0,07 0,04

32

342

. 11.4. AmBe

. 11.5. AmLi

11.

343

(,n)-
. 11.5 5 10 %. (,n)-
. 11.3 , 10 %. , , , 10 %. , .
, (,n), , - , Q.
. 11.5. . 11.4.
. 11.4 11.5.
(,n) ,
. , , 1.
( 16,
17)
(,n)-.
, (,n), (,p),
; ,
-. :
19

(1275 )

F(, n)22 Na *
22 Na
22 Ne*
22 Ne ,
2,6

19

(1275 ) 22
F(, p)22 Ne*
22 Ne*
Ne .

.
- , , ,
-.

11.5
, (,n) , . , , (,n), (n,n) (n,2n),
.
.
. 11.6.
; [21].

344

11.6 ,

,
[28]

1,665

(,n)

8(E1,665)/9

2,224

(,n)

(E2,224)/2

(n,)

1,880

-7

(p,n)

30

1,019

(p,n)

0,1-1,0

(n,n)

0,1-1,0

(n,n)

0,1-1,0

(n,n)

1,851

(n,2n)

3,338

(n,2n)

5,340

(n,2n)

[28]

2,224

(,n) ,
- .
(~8 ) , -, . (,n)
(1,66 ) (2,22 ) . , , , - , 124Sb 226Ra,
D2O.
. 4.3 [21]. , - - (,n) ,
. , , , - 2,22 .
. 11.6.
(n,n)
0,1 1,0 . ,
, . , . -

11.

345

, .
(n,2n) , 10 . , , . (n,2n)
, ,
,
. .

11.6

, ,
. ,
, . ,
(,n) -
, .
11.7 252Cf

-

2,646
2,731
85,5

12
2,34 10 ./

13
1,3 10 /

1,9 1013 /


-
-

2,14
1
6,11

9
4,4 10 ./

2300 / 1

140 / 1
558 /
38,5 /
3,757

346

-252 ;
. . 11.7
252Cf; - . 11.2 11.3.
, 252Cf , 3,757. .
, , ,
-, 238Pu
241
Am, , , , (,n).
. 11.8 [1, 26, 36] (,n). , -. , . 11.8, ,
210
PoBe.

. , , . , (
"" ) (n,2n).
241AmBe
AmLi,
. 11.4 11.5. -
- . (
, , ). , AmLi 241AmO2
(,n) "".
241

241AmBe ,
-.
(n,2n),
. 241AmLi ,
.

11.

347

11.8 (a,n)

210

-
, -
[1]
,
,
[1] [1] ,
[26]

- ,
6

10

- * /
1
[36]
6
10 /,
/ [36]

PoBe

0,38

5,3

4,2

10,9

0,01

4490

2-3

RaBe

1600

4,8

4,3

10,4

60

0-17

PuBe

87,74

5,49

4,5

11,0

0,006

17

2-4

87,74

5,49

0,7

1,5

17

0,07

238

PuF4

87,74

5,49

1,3

3,2

17

0,4

238

PuO2

87,74

5,49

2,0

5,8

17

0,003

PuBe

24 120

5,15

4,5

10,7

0,06

1-2

PuF4

24 120

5,15

1,4

2,8

0,06

0,2

AmBe

433,6

5,48

5,0

11,0

3,5

2-3

433,6

5,48

0,3

1,5

2,5

3,5

0,06

433,6

5,48

2,8

5,0

3,5

433,6

5,48

1,3

2,5

3,5

226

238

238

PuLi

239

239

241

241

AmLi

241

AmB

241

AmF

*( -/) / (3,7 1010 /)

-
, . , .
(,n) - -, , , -. ( :
106 ./c 1 / 1 ).

348

(,n)
. . 11.8. - - (,n) , . , 241AmLi 0,64-0,95
- 60 ,
- .

11.7
?
.
1. - , 238
238
240
242
, , , U, Pu, Pu Pu (
2 ). ( . .).
, - .
2. ( = 2-3) ,
. ,
.
3. - . - .
.
- ,
, , .
4. .
- , . , - , .
235
239
5. , , U Pu,
, , .

11.

349

6. (,n)
238
234
, PuO2 UF6. , . (, n) , . (,n)- .
14-17.

1.

C.M. Lederer and V.S. Shirley, Eds., Table of Isotopes, 7th ed. (John Wiley & Sons,
Inc., New York, 1978).

2.

R.T. Perry and W.B. Wilson, "Neutron Production from (,n) Reactions and
Spontaneous Fission in ThO2, UO2, and (U,Pu)O2 Fuels," Los Alamos National
Laboratory report LA-8869-MS (June 1981).
D.L. Johnson, "Evaluation of Neutron Yields from Spontaneous Fission of Transuranic Isotopes," Transactions of the American Nuclear Society 22, 673 (1975).
P. Fieldhouse, D.S. Mather, and E.R. Culliford, "The Spontaneous Fission
240
Half-Life of Pu," Journal of Nuclear Energy 21, 749 (1967).
C. Budtz-Jorgensen and H.H. Knitter, "Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Section of
Plutonium-240 in the Energy Range from 10 keV to 10 MeV," Nuclear Science and
Engineering 79, 380 (1981).
Evaluated Nuclear Data File ENDF/B-V (available from and maintained by the
National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory).
E.K. Hyde, The Nuclear Properties of the Heavy Elements, III, Fission Phenomena
(Dover Publications, New York, 1971).
J.0. Newton, "Nuclear Properties of the Very Heavy Elements," Progress in Nuclear
Physics 4, 234 (1955).
J.A. Wheeler, in Niels Bohr and the Development of Physics (Pergamon Press, London, 1955), p.166.
J.W. Boldeman, D. Culley, and R. Cawley, "The Fission Neutron Spectrum from
252
the Spontaneous Fission of Cf," Transactions of the American Nuclear Society 32,
733 (1979).
W.P. Poenitz and T. Tamura, "Investigation of the Prompt Neutron Spectrum for
252
Spontaneously-Fissioning Cf," Proc. Int. Conf. Nucl. Data Sci. Technol., Antwerp, Belgium, Sept. 1982, p.465.
D.G. Madland and J.R. Nix, "New Calculation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra
and Average Prompt Neutron Multiplicities," Nuclear Science and Engineering 81 ,
213 (1982).
J. Terrell, "Neutron Yields from Individual Fission Fragments," Physical Review
127, 880 (1962).
W.G. Davey, "An Evaluation of the Number of Neutrons Per Fission for the Principal Plutonium, Uranium, and Thorium Isotopes," Nuclear Science and Engineering 44, 345 (1971).

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

350

15. J.W. Boldeman and M.G. Hines, "Prompt Neutron Emission Probabilities Following Spontaneous and Thermal Neutron Fission," Nuclear Science and Engineering 91, 114 (1985).
16. D.A. Hicks, J. Ise, and R. Pyle, Physical Review 101, 1016 (1956).
252
17. M.S. Zucker and N. Holden, "Parameters for Several Plutonium Nuclides and Cf
of Safeguards Interest," Proc. Sixth Annual Symp. ESARDA, Venice, 1984, p.341.
18. J. Terrell, "Distribution of Fission Neutron Numbers," Physical Review 108, 783
(1957).
19. A. Gavron and Z. Fraenkel, "Neutron Correlations in Spontaneous Fission of
252
Cf," Physical Review C 9, 623 (1974).
20. H.R. Bowman, S.G. Thompson, and J.O. Rasmussen, "Gamma-Ray Spectra from
252
Spontaneous Fission of Cf," Physical Review Letters 12 (8),195 (1964).
21. T. Gozani, Active Nondestructive Assay of Nuclear Materials, Principles and Applications, NUREG/CR-0602 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington,
DC, 1981).
22. G.R. Keepin, Physics of Nuclear Kinetics (Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc.,
Reading, Massachusetts, 1965).
23. T.E. Sampson, "Neutron Yields from Uranium Isotopes in Uranium Hexafluoride," Nuclear Science and Engineering 54, 470 (1974).
24. W.B. Wilson, J.E. Stewart, and R.T. Perry, "Neutron Production in UF6 from the
Decay of Uranium Nuclides," Transactions of the American Nuclear Society 38, 176
(1981).
25. W.B. Wilson, Los Alamos National Laboratory memorandum T-2-M-1432, to
N.Ensslin (1983).
26. R.D. Evans, The Atomic Nucleus (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1955).
27. J.B. Marion and F.C. Young, Nuclear Reaction Analysis (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
New York, 1968), p.108.
28. R.J. Howerton, "Thresholds and Q-Values of Nuclear Reactions Induced by Neut3
rons, Protons, Deuterons, Tritons, He Ions, Alpha Particles, and Photons," Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report UCRL-50400, V24 (1981).
29. G.J.H. Jacobs and H. Liskien, "Energy Spectra of Neutrons Produced by Alpha
Particles in Thick Targets of Light Elements," Annals of Nuclear Energy 10, 541
(1983).
30. J.K. Bair and J. Gomez del Campo, "Neutron Yields from Alpha-Particle Bombardment," Nuclear Science and Engineering 71, 18 (1979).
31. D. West and A.C. Sherwood, "Measurements of Thick-Target (,n) Yields from
Light Elements," Annals of Nuclear Energy 9, 551 (1982).
32. J. Roberts, "Neutron Yields of Several Light Elements Bombarded with Polonium
Alpha Particles," U.S. AEC report MDDC-731 (1947).
33. W.B. Wilson and R.T. Perry, "Thick-Target Neutron Yields in Boron and Fluorine," Los Alamos National Laboratory memorandum T-2-M-1835 to N.Ensslin
(1987).

11.

351

34. M.E. Anderson and J.F. Lemming, "Selected Measurement Data for Plutonium
and Uranium," Mound Laboratory report MLM-3009 (1982).
35. D. West, "The Calculation of Neutron Yields in Mixtures and Compounds from
the Thick Target (,n) Yields in the Separate Constituents," Annals of Nuclear
Energy 6, 549 (1979).
36. Joint Publication Research Center, Neutron Sources, JPRS-48421 (Washington,
DC, July 1969).

12


.
( . . )

12.1

. , . . , , .
, .
,
. .

12.2
12.2.1
- , , .
,
, , ,
.
. , , (.., ),
, , , . , ,
, (
). , , -

354

, . ,

. ( , , 12.3).

A N ,
s.
Ns.
Ns A. , , ,
Ns/A (N/A)s, ..
s. . s ,
.
, s.
s 210-24 2.
10-27 10-21 2. ,
. , 1 = 10-24 2, 2 .

0,001 1000 .
. .
. ,
.
12.2.2 -
(.
12.2.4). .
, , .
E = mv2/2 , 100
(939,55 ).
, E
(),

12.

E = 5,227 10 15 v 2

v = 1383
,
10 E

1/ 2

355

(12.1)
(12.2)

, . 12.1,
. , , 1
1,383107 / , , 11 15
, . 0,025 (. 12.2.3) 2187 / 70 .

. 12.1.

12.2.3
. . 12.2 . ,
. t ,
- .
,
. n T, R g, T(n,g)R. .
. , (n,p)
10B(n,p)10Be.
:
. ,
, , . -

356

. 12.2. . , ,

, . , .
. . .
E, A,
2EA/(A + 1)2. , (.., ) A. , A = 1, , E/2.
2 ( ) 1 , 0,5 , .
0,025 27 . ( 0,025 " ". E = 0,025 T = 20C, E = kT, k ). n E0 En, En = E0[(A2 + 1)/(A + 1)2]n. , En
E0 n , n = log(En/E0)/log[(A2 + 1)/(A + 1)2].
, ""
2 ,
. 12.1.
, ,
, , , . -

12.

357

.
.
.

.
,
. , ,
. ,
. (, ).
12.1 ,
2 0,025

27

31

48

92

12

119

238

2175

, . . 12.2.
-. , - , -. , .
. , ,
, , , , ,
. , , (
) (. 11).
, , , .
. ,
(, ).
-3, -235 -10,
.

358

, ,
. , ,
(.., ).
. , ,
.
, ,
, :
t (s + a);
s (el + i);
el n,n ;
i n,n' ( );
a c ;
ne
( ), t el ;
n,g ;
f n,f ;
n,p (n,p).
12.2.4
, ,
, .
,
, [1].
. 12.3 239Pu
0,001 10 . , , , . ,
1 , ,
, .. 1/v.
, . , 239Pu
,
1/v. .
. 12.4 12.5
.
.

,
1/v. ,
. , , ""- (
), , , .

12.

359

. 12.3. 239Pu

. 12.4. [1]

,
, .
. , .
,
. (, , , )
1 . -

360

. 12.5. [1]

.
1H 2H, ,
, , ,
.
, .
. 12.2 12.3.
,
, . 12.6. 235U 239Pu ( 1000 )
.
10 10 1-2 . 238U 240Pu ,
1 . 1
(238U 240Pu) (235U 239Pu).

12.

361

. 12.6. (235U 239Pu)


( 238U 240Pu) [1]

12.3
12.3.1
,
, , .
, .

362

,
. ,
, . ,
x , I(x) , x :
I(x) = I0 e N t x ,

(12.3)

I0 ;
N ;
t (
).
. 12.7 ,
x . , I(x)/I0 t.

. 12.7.

12.

363

, (12.3), -. , - , , . . (12.3) , x, , , ,
.
t= Nt.
-1 (. (12.3)) -.
, , .
, -, -
, .
,
:
= 1 + 2 + 3 +.... .
(12.4)
Ni i- :
N i = N a ni / M ,
(12.5)
;
M ;
Na = 6,0221023 / ;
ni i- .
(12.4) (12.5) :
=

N a
(n11 + n 2 2 + n3 3 +...) .
M

(12.6)

. 12.2. 1 (
10 /3, 270)
t =

(10)(0,6022)
[0,007)(6,84) + (0,993)(710
, ) + 2(8,22)] = 0,525 1 .
270

(12.7)

1024 10-24 .
. 12.3 [2],

364

: 0,025 ( )
2 .
12.2

ni

t 1 ,

0,007

6,84

0,993

7,10

2,000

8,22

235
238
16

12.3.2
. , , (12.3), Nt
t. , , :
= 1/ t .
(12.8)
1 UO2
0,525 -1
(12.8) , 1,91 .

:
) , , , , ;
) , , ;
) , . ( , ).
. v,
/v.
, : v/ vt. , 1 7,26108 ( (12.2) (12.7)).
, . , ,
.
, -. . 12.8 1 , -

12.

365

. 12.8. 1 ,
( -)

. ,
.
, , .
. 12.8, , .
, ,
.
, ;

.
, .

12.4
, , . , 1/v (.
. 12.3 12.6).

366

. , , , , , , -, .
12-3 [2]

- - ,
3
/

*
E = 0,0253
t ,

a ,

t,
-1

E = 1
a,
-1

t ,

a,

t,
-1

a,
-1

0,014

2,37

0,000 0,143 0,000

532

2,68

0,189 0,371 0,0262

Al

27

2,7

1,61

0,232 0,097

10

2,3

3845

3843

11

2,3

5,28

0,005 0,665 0,0006

2,13

0,000 0,268 0,000

Be

9,0

6,35

0,010

0,0060

3,25

0,003

12

1,9

4,95

0,003 0,472 0,0003

2,58

0,000 0,246 0,000

40,08

1,55

3,46

0,433 0,081

0,101

1,14

0,004 0,027 0,0001

112

8,7

2470

2462 115,5

115,2

6,50

0,058 0,304 0,0027

. Cl

35,45

50,2

33,4

. Cu

63,55

8,94

12,5

3,80

1,06

0,322

3,40

0,011 0,288 0,0009

19

3,72

0,010

3,15

0,000

Fe

56

7,9

14,07

2,56

1,19

0,217

5,19

0,003 0,441 0,0003

. Gd 157,25

7,95 49153 48981 1496

1491

7,33

0,223 0,223 0,0068

30,62

0,33

4,26

0,000

4,25

0,000

2,87

0,000

He

5337

5336

2,87

0,879

He

0,86

0,000

7,08

0,000

Li

0,534

938

937

50,3

50,2

1,28

0,230 0,069 0,0123

Li

0,534

1,16

0,036 0,053 0,0017

1,57

0,000 0,072 0,0000

24,31

1,74

3,47

0,063 0,150 0,0027

2,66

0,001 0,115 0,0000

Mn

55

7,2

14,5

13,2

1,14

1,04

3,17

0,003 0,250 0,0002

14

12,22

1,9

2,39

0,021

Na

23

0,971

3,92

0,529 0,100 0,0134

3,17

0,000 0,081 0,0000

Ni

59

8,9

23,08

4,58

2,10

0,416

3,66 0,0008 0,322 0,0001

16

3,87

0,000

Pb

204

11,34 11,40

0,18

. Ca
Cd

. Mg

533
3,82

0,381 0,0060

2,30 0,0005

8,22

0,000

1,96 0,0018

4,39 0,0033 0,147 0,0001

12.

367

12.3

- - ,
3
/

*
E = 0,0253
t ,

a ,

t,
-1

E = 1
a,
-1

t ,

a,

t,
-1

a,
-1

Pu

238,05

19,6

599,3 562,0 29,72

27,87

6,66

0,190 0,330 0,0094

Pu

239,05

19,6

1021

270

50,4

13,3

7,01

0,026 0,346 0,0013

Pu

240,05

19,6

294

293

14,5

14,4

7,15

0,108 0,352 0,0053

Pu

241,06

19,6

1390

362

68,1

17,7

7,98

0,117 0,391 0,0057

Pu

242,06

19,6

26,7

18,9

1,30

0,922

7,31

0,098 0,357 0,0048

. Si

28,09

2,42

2,24

0,161 0,116 0,0084

4,43

0,001 0,230 0,0001

Th

232

11,3

20,4

7,50

0,598

0,220

7,00

0,135 0,205 0,0040

233,04

19,1

587

45,8

29,0

2,26

6,78

0,069 0,335 0,0034

234,04

19,1

116

103

5,70

5,07

8,02

0,363 0,394 0,0178

235,04

19,1

703

96,9

34,3

4,74

6,84

0,117 0,335 0,0057

236,05

19,1

13,3

5,16

0,648

0,251

7,73

0,363 0,377 0,0177

237,05

19,1

487,5 476,4

23,6

23,1

6,72

0,135 0,326 0,0066

238,05

19,1

11,63

2,71

0,562

0,131

7,10

0,123 0,343 0,0059

. U

238,03

19,1

16,49

3,39

0,797 0,1637

7,01

0,120 0,343 0,0058

. W

183,85

19,3

23,08 18,05 1,459

1,141

6,95

0,057 0,439 0,0036

CH2

14

0,94

2,68

0,027

0,449 0,0000

H 2O

18

1,0

2,18

0,022

0,560 0,0000

D2O

20

1,1

0,410

0,000

0,420 0,0000

:
235

117

4496

4486

7,43 0,00036

239

Pu

119

2087

2086

7,48 0,00093

* .

, .
, , . ,
,

368

3He-. (, ) , . , , .
,
.

( , . . 12.5), .
. , , . :
( ) .
, , . s, s
, (
). ln(E) ln(E), E,
E , . A ,
=1

(A 1)2 (A + 1)
ln
.
(A 1)
2A

(12.9)

A > 2
2/(A + 0,67) [3].

N s =

N a
(n111 + n 2 2 2 + n3 3 3 +...) ,
M

(12.10)

;
M ;
Na ;
ni i- ;
i i- ;
i i- .
, . , . s/a. , ,

12.

369

, .
(12.10), i
s/a i- .
. 12.4 -
1 100 [4].
, , , . () ,
.
. . , , , , . , .
12.4 [4]


( 1 100 )

()

1,28

58

0,18

21 000

(
)

0,00001

0,16

130

0,064

200

(CH2)

3,26

122

45

12.5
,
.
. ,
, , (n,2n).

370

, ,
, .

. , M . 100 , 59 , 1,59. 100 , .
.. ,
,
, , , 59.
. . , .
,
k
. . ,
k
, ,
, .
, , ,
. "". k .
,
, ( ) . k
,
,
.
k M, , . 100
. 37 ,
37 . ,
0,37. k , , . . 12.5,
100
, 7 .
, k,
0,37. -

12.

371

, . , , .
12.5

k = 0,37

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

100
37
14
5
2
1
0
159

M k,
k . ,
, :
M = 1 / (1 k ' ), k < 1 .

(12.11)

1,59 . 12.5, 0,37, ,


.
k , M , . 12.9.

. 12.9. M k. (k < 1)

372

k = 1, , ( ). , ,
, , , . , k = 1,
k , ,
k , .

12.6

. . , , .
0,025 , , . 12.4 12.5.
(B4C) . ( ),
.
- , -. . 12.4 12.5 , , , , (
0,1 10 ).
, . . -, , - 2,224 .
:
A , , Z
-. , , , , .

.
. 12.10,
252Cf. , . ,

12.

373

- -
2,224 .

22 . -, , .
- .
5 12 20 37 ,
. ,
10
10 .
,
, . -, ,
. - -, , . ,
, 22 , , 22 . . 12.11 . ,
30 . , ,
, , .

. 12.10.
252Cf. ( . . , -)

374

. 12.11. 252Cf. ( .. ,
-)

12.7
- . ,
,
. - , . 12.7.1 12.7.2.
12.7.1 -

. ,
, , , , . , , ,
(, ), -.
, , -

12.

375

,
.
- .
. , ,
.

. .
, . , . -, , . . ,
, .
, , , , , .
, ,

- . , -
,
,
. , -,
,
14 17, . 12.10 12.11.
12.7.2

, . . ( ).

-. , . , ,
. , , -

376

, . , , -.
, . , (, ), - .
.

1.
2.
3.
4.

D.I. Garber ,and R.R. Kinsey, "Neutron Cross Sections, Vol. II, Curves," Brookhaven National Laboratory report BNL 325 (1976).
Evaluated Nuclear Data File ENDF/B-V ( ).
J.R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory (Addison-Wesley, Reading,
Massachusetts, 1966).
S. Glasstone and A. Sesonske, Nuclear Reactor Engineering (D. Van Nostrand Co.,
Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1967).

13

. . . .
( . . )

13.1
. , , . , -, .
,
.
, , .
.
-, .
, . . . -,
. , , -,
- , .
( ),
. , , , - ,
.
, ,
, , .
, ,
. , , , 10
. 13.4.1 13.4.4, 13.5, 13.6.
,
, , -
. . , , ; , ,
,
. -

378

. . . .


.
. , , (, , ). , , .

.
,
, 13.7.

13.2
, .
,
. , ,
, . . 13.1 - . . 13.2 .

. 13.1. -

(
). ;
, .
0,5
. , -

13.

379

. 13.2. , BF3 3He

.
3 % , 0,5 %. -
. ,
:
, , .
1 ./,
[1].
, . 13.1, 0,03 .
, . .
. , (BF3) 3He, . , . , , BF3, . . , [2]. [3 4].
13.1, .
,
. 30 . , , /30 , E ( ) . , 765 , 810-15 .
, ,
. () ,
(). -

380

. . . .

. 13.3. , , -

, , -. , , -.
. 13.3.

, .
, . , , .
, , .
, , .
,
. .
,
, .
. -

13.

381

- , .
, ,
103 105 .
,
, .

, .
,
, 12 .
106 20
, , .
.
,
. , .
, ,
.
. -,
(10-8 ); . : ,
, , . ,
,
.
, .

200 . , . , -. ;
: 1,1 (CH4), 2,5 (3He) 17 (4He) [5].

. -.
,
. , -

382

. . . .

, -, , , .
1010. , , - ( ). .
, ,
.
,
, ,
, .

.
, .

3He, 4He, BF3 CH4 1 20 .
. ,

, , , . ,

- [6].
, -. ,
, , ,
. , BF3 CH4,
-. , 3He 4He, CH4 CO2. BF3 CH4 , . , , , , , .

13.3
-
, , , -. - 10 ,
, - .

13.

383

- 1000 / , - .
-
(. 2), ,
. - , , , .
, -, ; , ,
. - .
1. -
. , 1 - 1 5 0,1 %
90 % -.
2.
. . 13.1 . , -.
- .
13.1 -

-
1

He 2,5 4

0,77

0,0001

r c 2,5 2

0,0

0,0005

BF3 5,0 0,66

0,29

0,0006

0,8

0,0

0,014

-
1

He 5,0 18

0,01

0,001

0,8

0,0

0,014

0,78

0,26

384

. . . .

13.2 , -

dE/dx


,
,
-
400 ,
,
/
*
,


3
2,1
1,1
He 2,5 ,
4
3
0,5
6,7
He 2,5 ,
4 + Ar, 2
0,7
3,6
BF3 5,0 ,
0,66

4
0,1
6,7
He 5,0 ,
18

0,001
2000
5

~500

4,0

125

~750

24,0

30

~2300

25,7

90

1000

48

20

1000

400

2,5

* 2 .

3. ,
-. , , - ( , - 1 ,
400 ). , , .
,
,
. . 13.2 , . , - .
4. -
. - .
, - ,
. , -, , . .

13.

385

, , - (. 13.5.3).
-, , . .
. 13.3 -
.

.
. , . 13.3. - .
13.3 -




7
4
He
18
3
He, 4 , Ar, 2

78

0,01

78

0,1

1
1

Li
H
1
H

1
1

50
1
1

1
1
1

He, 4 , 5 % CO2

-
*, %
**,
/

2,5

77

2,5

He
He
He

77

10

10

29

10

10

46

10


10
B

0,2 /c2

10

10

103

2,0 /2

235

0,5

106 107

BF3
0,66
BF3
1,18

B
B
B
U

* ,
** -,

386

. . . .

13.4
13.4.1 3He BF3
- BF3 3He. BF3 10.
3He 10-4 %, 3He
. :
3
He + n 3 H+1 H + 765 .
(13.1)
10

B + n 7 Li *+ 4 He + 2310

Li* 7 Li + 480 .

(13.2)

. . , , , . , , , .
3He 3He
3H 1H. , 765 , . 10B (-) , , 2310 . , , 94 %. - 480 . -
, 2310
. , , 6 %. ,
2790 . , BF3.
3He ( (13.1))
5330 , 10B ( (13.2)) 3840 . E,
1/ E.
. 13.4 [7]. , 2,54 , 3He 4 ,
( = 0,025 ), 77 %. (
; 3He , , ). 100 2 %; 10
0,2 % 1 0,002 %. , , , 3He BF3, 10 - . (
14).

13.

387

. 13.4. 3He(n,p), 10B(n,a) 6Li(n,a)


[7]

. 13.5 , 3He [8].


. , ,
, . , 765 . , , , , . , . ,
-.
,
.
( 0,1 %).
. 2
, . 13.5, 5 15 %. 0,1 0,5 ,
-. -

388

. . . .

. 13.5. , 3He,

0,5 .
, 3He, 1200 1800 . , 1 % 100 [8]. ( , 3He, . 13.6). , , 100 % 100 . , 3He- , ( 5 % ) , .
,
BF3, . 13.7 [1].
5 30 % , .
0,2 2 . ,
5 . 1400 2800 ,

13.

389

. 13.6. , 3He

. 13.7. , 10BF3,

390

. . . .

, .
. BF3 3He,
, BF3, . 3He
-
, 3He, . ,
, BF3 . , , 2
, .
, 3He BF3,
, , -. . 13.1,
,
- . , , -

. 13.8. ,
3
He, 2,54 50,8 -

13.

391

. 13.9. ,
3
He. 0,5 . () 3He, Ar
CH4. ; () 3He, Ar CH4.
- 1 /; () 3He 50 % CO2. ;
() 3He 50 % CO2. -
1 /

- (. . 13.2). , - , , - ,
3
He BF3.
. 13.8
- , 3He
4 2 [9]. - 1 /. . 13.9,
CO2 5 % [10].
, Z,

392

. . . .

. , , .
,
, 35 %
.
, BF3, - , . ,
10B, 3He, , -, (. . 13.2). 3He , 10B.
- 3He, BF3,
(. . 13.1). ,
BF3, - 10 /,
, 3He .
, 3He CO2,
, BF3.
13.4.2 , 4He CH4
, 4He CH4,
. . (), , , . .
[7]
E() =

4AE
.
(A + 1)2

(13.3)

, , 0 E(),
.
(13.3) ,
- .
, , ( ) (. 13.5).
, (CH4), , 4He,
0,64 E . 3He , - , 13.4.1. . 13.10 1H 4He . , . , 3He 10B, . 13.4. -

13.

393

. 13.10. 1H 4He
( )


, . , , 4He CH4, 1 %.

1200 2400 .
, 4He, 10 20 .
4He CH4 H2 , ,
.
- . - 1 / [11].
. 13.11
, 4He,
252
Cf. :
252
Cf (.
1.
. 11.20);
2. 0 E();

394

. . . .

. 13.11. , 4He, 252Cf

3.

, [12] ( . . 8.14);
4. -.

,
. 13.11. , ,
. ,
-
. , ,
.
,
, . ,
, . 20 20 ,
10
100 . ,
- , .
13.4.3
,
. ,
, . ,
. 235U.
( )
( 0,02 2 /2), . .

13.

395

, , ; , ,
[13].
,
160 , .
, , 7 ,
, 13 /2. , , 7 ,
. ,
,
.
, , .
0,5 1 %.
, .
,
, ,
. , , . 13.1. 200 600 . -
(90 %) (10 %).
2 .
. 13.12 235U [14]. , ,
( 70 100 ).
- , , -. - 5 ,
. -.

. 13.12. 235U 0,8 /2

396

. . . .

. - , , ,
- ,
.
, - (
106 /).
.
-.
.
10
13.4.4 B

10B
, 3He 10BF3,
-. 10B ,
, ( 0,2 /2) .
10B , (13.2). -,
( ,
), . -
1 /2, ; ( 10%) , , BF3. , -, . - 0,25
CO2. 600 850 [15].
. 13.13 10B,
. , -, . - , -
. -
. . -
,
,
10 % 100 [15].
10B
.
-.
- 1000 / 50 % -

13.

397

. 13.13.
10B

, - [15].
10B , BF3, - - ,
- .

13.5
13.5.1

. , .

, ( ) . ( 500
1 100 ).
, , , ( ), .
--

398

. . . .

. - ,
. . , , -.
13.5.2 -

( ).
(,n)- (). ,
100 %
, 12 28 % .
. (), , ,
.
, , ( ), ,
. , NE102 NE213, . . 13.4 , . ~400 . 1
5 . , 1 - .

, , .
. , 10-3 /3, 1 /3. ,
, - ,
. . 13.14 , , NE213 . , 1


, %

1
1
1

65
68
55

2,4
1,9
1,6

423
406
370

1,104
1,100
1,103


(Pilot B)
U
(Pilot U)

68

1,8

408

1,100

67

1,4

391

1,100

NE211
NE213

1
1

78
78

2,6
3,7

425
425

1,248
1,213

BC501

78

3,7

425

1,213

NE228

45

385

2,11

NE311
NE323

1
1

65
60

425
425

1,701
1,377



()**

()**

NE102A
NE104
NE111A

3,8
3,8

399

* : 1 " , ." (Nuclear Enterprises, Ltd., 2 " ." (Bicron Corp.)


** .

13.

13.4

400

. . . .

5 78 %, - 1 26 %.

, . .
. ,
500 ,

.
, .
. . 13.15, -

. 13.14.
- NE213

. 13.15.
NE102 [7, 16]

13.

401

, [7 16].
. ( 12
, , .)
60 500
.
13.5.3
,
. . , .
, , . , . , . , , , . . . 13.16 , , ,
. , , .
-
.
,
. ,

. , . , , , . . 13.17 ,
[18]. .

.
- -
(. . 13.18).

402

. . . .

. 13.16.
,

,
[17].

. 13.17. - [18]

, .
, 100 104 ./ [18]. . 13.19 , NE218 - -.

13.

403

. 13.18.

. 13.19.
NE218 - - [18]

404

. . . .

. 13.20.



NE213 [18]

, , , .
[19] , - ().
, ,
, ,
. 13.20.

13.6
, .
, , ,
.
, . , . - , 10B 6Li.
-,
. ,
-. -, - . , -.
, , ZnS(Ag), , , -

13.

405

. (n,)- 6Li, - .
1 . - 25 99 % - 1 /. -
, (4,78 ) [7].
ZnS(Ag) ( )
. . , ZnS(Ag). ZnS(Ag) -, , , . ZnS(Ag), , [20]; ( 1 %),
. [21]. ZnS(Ag) ,
-, - 1 /.

.
, , , . , . () , , .
-, ,
LiF,
6Li [7].
, ,
,
. ,

[22]. 63Cu 64Cu, 64Ni + e+ c
12,7 . 64Cu .
10 / .

406

. . . .

13.7
13.7.1
13.1,
.
, -, ,
, , , -, ,
,
. ,
.
, , , 4He, . . ,
.
( 10 100 ) ( 10
100 ) .
( "" ).
13.7.2

, . , .
, - , 3He. , 3He, .
[23 24] ,
3
He, . ( AmLi, . 11.5,
).
, 3He, .
3
He(n,p) 20 2 . , 10 1 .
; ,
3He 5330 , . ,
-
. , 0,1 %.

13.

407

, , 3He, ,
En + 765 ; 765 ; , 3He(n,n) ,
0,75 En ( (13.3)). En + 765 5 8 .
, (n,p)-, 3He.
. , .

Engineering Data Sheets 1.21 and 1.22 for BF3 Proportional Counters (ReuterStokes, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, 1979).
2. A.E. Evans, H.O. Menlove, R.B. Walton, and D.B. Smith, "Radiation Damage to
3
He Proportional Counter Tubes," Nuclear Instruments and Methods 133, (1976).
3. D.H. Wilkinson, Ionization Chambers and Counters (Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1950).
4. P. Rice-Evans, Spark, Streamer, Proportional, and Drift Chambers (The Richelieu
Press, London, 1974).
4
5. T.L. Atwell and H.O. Menlove, Measurement of the Time Resolution of Several He
and CH4 Proportional Counters in "Nuclear Safeguards Research Program Status
Report, September-December 1973," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report
LA-7784-MS (July 1979), pp. 57-63.
6. T.D. Reily, "The Measurement of Leached Hulls", Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Report LA-7784-MS (July 1979), pp. 57-63.
7. G.F. Knoll, Radiation Detection and Measurement (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New
York, 1979).
3
8. Engineering Data Sheets 1.02 and 1.03 for He Proportional Counters (ReuterStokes, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, 1978).
3
9. T.W. Crane, Shielding for He Detectors in "Nuclear Safeguards Research Program Status Report, May-August 1976," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report
La-6675-PR (January 1977), p. 3.
3
10. T.W. Crane, "Gas Mixture Evaluation for He Neutron Detectors," in "Nuclear Safeguards Research and Development Program Status Report, May-August 1977,"
Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-7030-PR (March 1978), p. 39.
11. M.L. Evans, "NDA Technology for Uranium Resource Evaluation, January 1- June 30,
1978," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-7617-PR (1979), pp. 36-41.
12. T. Gozani, Active Nondestructive Assay of Nuclear Matreials, Principles and Applications, NUREG/CR-0602, SA1-MLM-2585 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, 1981).
1.

408

. . . .

13. R.W. Lamphere, "Fission Detectors," in Fast Neutron Physics, I, J.B. Marion and
J.L. Fowler, Eds. (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 1960).
14. S. Kahn, R. Harman, and V. Forgue, Nuclear Science and Engineering 23, 8 (1965).
10
15. Engineering Data Sheet 1.41 for B-Lined Proportional Counter (Reuter-Stokes
Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, 1979).
16. R.L. Craun and D.L. Smith, "Analysis of Response Data for Several Organic Scintillators," Nuclear Instruments and Methods 80, 239 (1970).
17. L.M. Bollinger and G.E. Thomas, Review of Scientific Instruments 32, 1044 (1961).
18. D.W. Glasgow, D.E. Velkley, J.D. Brandenberger, and M.T. McEllistrem, "Pulse-Shape Discrimination for Wide Dynamic Range Neutron Scattering Experiments," Nuclear Instruments and Methods 114, 535 (1974).
19. C.L. Morris, J.E. Bolger, G.W. Hoffman, C.F. Moore, L.E. Smith, and H.A. Thiessen, "A Digital Technique for Neutron-Gamma Pulse Shape Discrimination," Nuclear Instruments and Methods 137, 397 (1976).
20. W.F. Hornyak, "A Fast Neutron Detector," Review of Scientific Instruments 23
(6), 264 (1952).
21. R.A. Harlan, "Uranium and Plutonium Assay of Crated Waste by Gamma-Ray,
Single Neutron, and Slow Coincidence Counting," in Proc. American Nuclear Society Topical Conference on Measurement Technology for Safeguards and Materials Control, Kiawah Island, South Carolina, November 26-28, 1979 (National
Bureau of Standards Publication 582, 1980), p.622.
22. L.E. Bruns, "Capability of Field Instrumentation to Measure Radionuclide Limits," Rockwell Hanford report RHO-LD-160 (1981), p.45.
23. S. Shalev and J.M. Cuttler, Nuclear Science and Engineering 51, 52 (1973).
24. H. Franz, W. Rudolph, H. Ohm, K.L. Kratz, G. Herrmann, F.M. Nuh, D.R. Slaugh3
ter, and S.G. Prussin, "Delayed-Neutron Spectroscopy with He Spectrometers,"
Nuclear Instruments and Methods 144, 253 (1977).

14

.
( . . )

14.1
,
. , , .

, . 14.1. ,
, ,
.

, -, , ,
, . ,
3 F3
. , .

,
.
3
.

.

. 14.1.

410

14.1.1
:
T = MLS ,
(14.1)
, ./;
, ./;
ML , . .;
S , /.
, , . ML ,
, ,
. S , .
(14.1). , S, ML ,
.
14.1.2
, 16.
, , ,
, .
(,n), (.
11 ). (,n) . "", 0 8 . , ,
(,n).
( 240Pu)
(,n)- . , , , (,n), , .
,
. . 14.1. , (,n)-.

14.

411

14.1

(,n), *, **

C,

(,n), ,

* .
**

, , .
,
. . 14.1.
, ,
. , UF6, , PuF4 , (,n)-. , . , , . ,
(, , 16) , , .
2, .
(, ) , , . , , . , , .

.
.
,
.

.
, -

412

( ).
16.8.4 16.

14.2
, , .
(,n) ; . . 11
(,n),
.
(,n)- .
, ,
. . , . 14.3.
14.2.1

.
. 100 , PuO2
PuF4 , , . . 14.2 ,
. . 11.1 11.3 11. , . (,n) . . 14.2 :
1. , (,n)-, 240Pu (98, 96 65 %
).

14.

413

14.2 , Pu2 PuF4


100
, /

238

,
.%

(
)

PuF4
PuO2
((,n)-) ((,n)-)

Pu
Pu
240
Pu
241
Pu
242
Pu
241
Am

0,024
89,667
9,645
0,556
0,109
0,327*
:

62
2
9838
0
187
0
10089

322
3416
1360
1
0
880
5979

52800
502135
202545
95
29
144417
902021

238

Pu
Pu
240
Pu
241
Pu
242
Pu
241
Am

0,059
82,077
16,297
1,231
0,336
0,162*
:

153
2
16623
0
578
0
17356

791
3127
2298
2
1
436
6655

129800
459631
342237
209
91
71546
1003514

238

1,574
57,342
24,980
10,560
5,545
1,159*
:

4077
1
25480
0
9537
1
39096

21092
2185
3522
14
11
3118
29942

3462800
321115
524580
1795
1497
511863
4823650

239

239

Pu
Pu
240
Pu
241
Pu
242
Pu
241
Am
239

* 241Am .

240Pu (240Pu),
240

Pu = 2,43(238 Pu) +

240

Pu + 1,69(242 Pu) .

(14.2)

2,43 1,69 ( ) 238Pu 242Pu 240Pu. ( (14.2) (16.1)


( 16) - ).
,

414

240

Pu, . , 1,
T = S = k 0 240 Pu = k1Pu ,

(14.3)

k0 k1 ;
240
Pu Pu 240Pu , .
2. PuO2 ,
(,n)-, 0,59; 0,38
0,77 .
238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu 241Am (,n) PuO2. PuO2 :
S = a1 (238 Pu) + a 2 (239 Pu) + a 3 (240 Pu) + a 4 (242 Pu) + a 5 (241 Am) ,

(14.4)

a1a5 PuO2
, (,n)-, .
(,n)- . ,
T = S = k 2Pu ,

(14.5)

k2 ;
Pu .
, (14.5)
(ML = 1).
3. PuF4 (,n)-
98 % . , PuF4 , (14.4):
S = a 6 (238 Pu) + a 7 (239 Pu) + a 8 (240 Pu) + a 9 (241 Am) .

(14.6)

a6a9 PuF4 (,n)-


. PuO2, ,
PuF4, ( ) :
T = S = k 3Pu .

(14.7)

, k3 .
, . 14.2, 241Am
. 241m
241
Pu. 241m , 241Pu. 241Am
t
241
Pu 241Am t = 0 (21.11) 21.

14.

415

14.2.2
,
. ,
, . 14.3 14.4. 10 , UO2, UO2F2 UF6.
. 14.3 () 235U: 0,2; 0,7; 3,0 18,2 % ( , , . ). . 14.4
() 235U: 31,7; 57,4; 69,6 97,6 %.
(,n)-
. . 11.1 11.3
11 [1] (UO2F2). :
1. 238U 235U
70 %. 238U 235U. - .
238U 235U
(. 15.4.1 15).
T = S = k 4 238 U = k 5U ,

(14.8)

k4 k5 .
2. UO2 (
(,n)-)
60 %.
(,n). 60 % (,n) . - 234U (, n) UO2 3 % . UO2
S = b1 (234 U) + b2 (235 U) + b3 (238 U) ,

(14.9)

b1 b3
, (,n) UO2,
. . ,
T = S = k 6U ,
(14.10)
k6 ;
U .

416

UO2, , (, ,
..), ,
, . 235U .
UO2
.
14.3 ,
UO2, UO2F2 UF6 ()

, .%


10 , /
( )

UO2 ((,n))

UO2F2 ((,n))

UF6 ((,n))

234

0,0005

29

235

0,1977

236

0,0036

238

99,8

136

175

279

136

185

311

234

0,0049

90

284

235

0,7108

236

238

99,28

135

174

278

135

267

568

234

0,0244

449

1415

235

3,001

11

24

236

0,0184

238

96,96

132

170

271

132

632

1715

26

1592

5017

65

145

28

67

96,96

111

143

228

112

29

1828

5457

234

235

236

238

0,0865
18,15
0,2313

14.

417

3. UO2F2 ( UF6 ) (,n)-. 235U. ,


, , 234U
235U. , (14.9) (14.10),
UO2F2 .
UO2F2 [2].
14.4 ,
UO2, UO2F2 UF6 ()
,
.%
234

235

236

238

234

235

236

238

234

235

236

238

0,1404


10 , /
(- UO2 ((,n) )
)

UO2F2 ((,n))

UF6 ((,n))

42

2583

8143

114

254

42

102

67,80

92

119

190

93

46

2858

8689

0,2632

79

4842

15265

207

459

60

145

41,86

57

73

117

59

84

5184

15986

0,3338

100

6142

19360

250

557

64

155

29,55

40

52

83

42

106

6508

20155

1,032

310

18989

59856

352

781

31,71
0,3506

57,38
0,5010

69,58
0,5358

234

235

236

0,2523

30

73

238

1,07

318

19373

60713

97,65

418

4. UF6 ( )
19F(,n)22Na
- 234U. UO2F2, - (,n).
UF6 ,
(14.9).
(14.10).

UF6 . , , UF6. 4- ( ).
, SNAP (. 15.2 15).

. 14.2. ,
.
. 14.214.4

14.

419

, (14.9) (14.10),
238U 235U 234U (. 15.2.2 15). . 14.214.4 . 14.2.
(,n) , PuO2, PuF4, , UO2,
UO2F2 UF6. ( ) , PuF4. 235U 239Pu.
.
14.2.3

, . PuO2
. PuO2
1 .%. . 14.2 (,n) PuO2 , .
10 % 240Pu .
16 % 240Pu 25 % 240Pu. . 14.3
S(,n) (,n)- . S(,n) 25 % 240Pu 5 ,
16 10 % 240Pu (- 238Pu),
. . 14.4 S(,n) PuO2
2. , . ,
1 % S(,n)
10, 16 25 % 240Pu , +4,4 %. ,
-
PuO2.
PuO2 , , S(,n). . 14.5
S(,n) PuO2 (16 % 240Pu) 1 9 . % . . 14.6 S(,n) Pu2 (16 % 240Pu)
PuO2
. 1 9 . %.
S(,n) ,
PuO2.
(,n)-,
.
, . 14.314.6
. , - SOURCES [3, 4]. [5]

420

. 14.3.

(a,n)- Pu2
240Pu
10, 16 25 %

. 14.4.
(a,n)-
Pu2
Pu2
.

10, 16 25 % 240Pu

14.

421

. 14.5. (a,n)- Pu2 10 % 240Pu. 1 9 . %

. 14.6.
(a,n)- Pu2
Pu2

16 % 240Pu.
1 9 .%


Z S(,n) . 11.4 11 S(,n)
.

422

14.2.4
(,n)- . 3 .
. ,
238Pu, 240Pu 242Pu. . 14.7 16 % 240Pu. 240Pu [3]:
N(E) e E/ A sh( BE ) ,

(14.11)

;
= 0,795;
= 4,69.
, (,n)- ,
. - (,n)-
. . 14.8 , (,n) PuO2 (16 % 240Pu) -

. 14.7. Pu 240Pu 16 %

14.

423

. 14.8. (a,n) u2 (16 % 240u) (


SOURCES [3])

. 14.9. Pu2, (16 % 240Pu)


( SOURCES [3])

424

. 14.10. (a, n) 234UF6 ( SOURCES [3]) 22Na

. "" , "" . . 14.9


, , . 14.8. . , , ,
, PuO2
, PuO2.
. 14.10
(,n)- 234UF6.
22
Na. (,n)- 234 UF6 , PuO2,
1,2 , PuO2
2,0 .
14.2.5
, (,n) , "" .
, -
.
, , - , (,n)- .
""
UF6 - 234U 19F(,n)22Na. -
19
F(,n). [6] -

14.

425

. 14.11. , -
4,77 234U, UF6.
UF6
(/3)

UF6. . 14.11 [6] UF6


,
. 234UF6 61019 /2. 1,31019 /2 ,
-,
.

14.3
,
, , .
( )
- . 12
.
, .

426

14.3.1
, (, ,
), L. L
, 12.
, ( , , (n,2n) ), . L
. , L
, . ,
, .
:
, ;
p , ;
pc , ;
L , ( ).
1 . ,
p + pc + pL = 1 .
(14.12)
, , ,
, p. p k , 12. .
, , 1.
, , .
(,n)-. p
, (-1).
2 , ()2
2 (-1). . 14.5
. , , :
M=

1
1
=
; k <1 .
1 p 1 k

(14.13)


, , (1-)/(1-p).
.
ML
, ,
:

14.

427

1 p pL
p
1 p pc
= L =
ML =
.

1 p
1 p pL + pc 1 p

(14.14)

, (14.13) (14.14) ML ML = pLM .

(14.15)

,
ML ~ (1 p) M =

1 p
.
1 p

(14.16)

14.5

1()

p(-1)

p(p)

p(p)

(p)

p(p)2(-1)

p(p)

(p)4

p(p)3(-1)

p(p)(-1)

(p)

c , ML . ML. (14.4),
L, : , . , , . ,
. .
p pc . ,
, , , p pc.
p, pc.
. 14.12 ML . (14.16). . = 2,5. = 3,0
, .
0 0,02, .. .
. 14.13
Pu2
8,35 . 240Pu 10 % . Pu2
1,3 /3 1 % .
Pu2. -

428

. 14.12. ML

. 14.13. ML Pu2
8,35 .
10 % 240Pu. Pu2
1,3 /3 1 . %
.

14.

429

MCNP [7]. ML,


M=

M L 1
,
1

(14.17)

= 3,13. (14.13) (14.16). , . 14.13, c . ML. [8] ML


MCNP .
14.3.2
, , ,
(,n). -
. ,
, .
, . ,
, . , 14.4.
, - MCN [9], . 14.14.
UF6 2273 , 235U
2,5 % [10]. 1 ,
19F(,n)22Na (. . 14.10)
. . 14.14 ,
UF6 . 0,44
1,0 .
, 20 % - .
, MCNP [7], . 14.15.
800 PuO2 1,3 /3. 706 (10 % 240Pu)
1 % . 8,35 11,24 .
. 14.15
240Pu (. . 14.7 (14.11)).
1. 1,91
1,93 .
PuO2. 0,6 1,0 -

430

. 14.14.
UF6 2273
(2,5% 235U)

1

. 14.15.

PuO2 800
(10% 240Pu).
240Pu.

. . 1,04.

14.

431

14.4
(14.1)
(), , , . ,
3- . , , . ,
.
14.4.1
3 .
MCNP [7] , 1 .
2,54 3 4 (
77 %).
17,8 38,1 , . 27,9 . ,
1 .
. 14.16 . ,
, -

. 14.16. -

,
14.4.1

432

. , 29 % 28
. , . ,
, , ( ),
. 16 .
.
14.4.2


.
25,4 , 15,3 4,0
(. 14.17). 3- 5,3 . 25,4 , 3 4 2,54 .
f-252 40 ,
.
( )
MCNP [7]. ( (14.11)) = 1,025 = 2,926 Cf-252. ,
.
. 14.6 . 14.18. 1 %.

. 14.17. , -.

14.

433

. 14.18. 252Cf
, . 14.17

, .
c 6
8 . , , , , . .


. , .
.
10,2 . , 4,6 5,6 .
14.4.3
3(n,p)
. ,
,
. ,
, , -

434

. UF6, PuO2.
,
UF6 . 15.3.1 . 15.4 15.
2,54 ,
10,230,561 .
, 1860 2, 1,3 . .
. 14.19 .
14.6
3
-

,
2

2,5

3,5

4,5

5,5

6,5

7,5

0,181

0,271 0,334 0,430 0,489 0,521 0,560 0,608 0,622 0,639 0,659 0,615 0,575

2,5

0,242

0,351 0,419 0,508 0,577 0,625 0,661 0,700 0,706 0,717 0,687 0,690 0,644

0,301

0,426 0,494 0,596 0,645 0,665 0,713 0,757 0,782 0,765 0,747 0,733 0,692

3,5

0,374

0,497 0,565 0,668 0,717 0,762 0,779 0,821 0,825 0,839 0,807 0,771 0,742

0,425

0,547 0,611 0,719 0,769 0,812 0,830 0,872 0,867 0,866 0,826 0,799 0,773

4,5

0,469

0,597 0,650 0,766 0,797 0,847 0,871 0,886 0,908 0,901 0,862 0,839 0,792

0,511

0,628 0,688 0,798 0,844 0,887 0,896 0,919 0,946 0,919 0,889 0,849 0,808

5,5

0,547

0,658 0,723 0,833 0,860 0,911 0,917 0,943 0,963 0,944 0,894 0,848 0,810

0,564

0,682 0,745 0,843 0,874 0,921 0,941 0,952 0,973 0,965 0,898 0,858 0,815

6,5

0,580

0,696 0,759 0,858 0,895 0,936 0,940 0,962 0,986 0,955 0,910 0,875 0,820

0,604

0,703 0,755 0,874 0,909 0,935 0,961 0,975 0,977 0,963 0,921 0,873 0,832

7,5

0,600

0,703 0,773 0,873 0,908 0,945 0,957 0,978 0,989 0,968 0,920 0,873 0,826

0,613

0,722 0,775 0,872 0,913 0,954 0,968 0,983 1,000 0,969 0,929 0,883 0,835

UF6 ,
,
19F(,n)22Na (. . 14.10). .

[11]. . 14.20 : 0; 1,3 2,5 . ,
, .
, 1,3 -

14.

435

. 14.19.

1,0
0,1 . UF6
[12].

. 14.20.
, . , : 0, 1,3 2,5

436

HLNCC , , , PuO2 (. [13] 17.2.2 17).


. 14.21. PuO2
(. . 14.15), , HLNCC
, , , . , HLNCC, ,
.

. 14.21.
HNLCC
,

1.

2.

3.

W.B. Wilson, R.T. Perry, and J.E. Stewart, "Neutron Production in UO2F2 from
the Spontaneous-Fission and Alpha Decay of Uranium Nuclides and Subsequent
17,18
O(,n) and 19F(,n) Reactions," in "Applied Nuclear Data Research and Development, April 1-June 30, 1981," P,G. Young, Comp., Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-9060-PR (December 1981), p.50.
R.H. Augustson, R.B. Walton, W. Harbarger, J. Hicks, G. Timmons, D. Shissler,
R. Tayloe, S. Jones, R. Harris, and L. Fields, "Measurements of Uranium Holdup in
an Operating Gaseous Diffusion Enrichment Plant," in "Proceedings of the
ANS/INMM Conference on Safeguards Technology: The Process-Safeguards Interface," Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, November 28-December 2, 1983,
US DOE New Brunswick Laboratory, Conf. No. 831106 (August 1984), pp.77-88.
W.B. Wilson, R.T. Perry, J.E. Stewart, T.R. England, D.G. Madlund, and E.D. Arthur, "Development of the SOURCES Code and Data Library for the Calculation
of Neutron Sources and Spectra from (,n) Reactions, Spontaneous Fission, and
Delayed Neutrons," in "Applied Nuclear Data Research and Development Semiannual Progress report, October 1, 1982-March 31, 1983," E.D. Arthur, Compiler,
Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-9841-PR (August 1983), p.65.

14.

4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

13.

437

W.B. Wilson, "Calculations of (,n) Neutron Production in PuO2 with Variable


Moisture and Fluorine Contamination," Los Alamos National Laboratory memorandum T-2-M-1581, to J.E. Stewart (March 1985).
W.B. Wilson, R.T. Perry, and J.E. Stewart, "Neutrons from the Spontaneous Fission of Plutonium Nuclides and from the (,n) Reactions of Their Decay Alpha
Particles with Trace Contaminants of Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, and
As in Pu Metal," Los Alamos National Laboratory report (available on request
from Group N-1, MS E540).
J.E. Stewart, "Neutron Production by Alpha Particles in Thin Uranium Hexafluoride," Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-9838-MS (July 1983).
Los Alamos Monte Carlo Group X-6, "MCNP A General Monte Carlo Code for
Neutron and Photon Transport, Version 2B," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory
report LA-7396-M, Rev. (November 1979).
N. Ensslin, J. Stewart, and J. Sapir, "Self-Multiplication Correction Factors for
Neutron Coincidence Counting," Nuclear Materials Management VIII (2), 60
(1979).
E.D. Cashwell, J.R. Neergaard, W.M. Taylor, and G.D. Turner, "MCN: A Neutron
Monte Carlo Code," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-4751 (1972).
R.B. Walton, T.D. Reilly, J.L. Parker, J.H. Menzel, E.D. Marshall, and L.W. Fields, "Measurements of UF6 Cylinders with Portable Instruments," Nuclear Technology 21, 133 (1974).
J.E. Stewart and S.M. Simmonds, "Neutron Energy Response of an Area Neutron
Monitor," in "Safeguards and Security Progress Report, January-December
1984," Los Alamos Laboratory report LA-10529-PR (1986), p.85.
J.E. Stewart and H.O. Menlove, "Design Study of an Optimized In-Cascade Neutron Monitor for Centrifuge Plants," in "Safeguards and Security Status Report:
February-July 1982," Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-9595-PR (February 1983), pp.57-63.
M.S. Krick and H.O. Menlove, "The High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter
(HLNCC): Users Manual," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-7779-M
(ISPO-53) (June 1979).