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ICNRP '07

6-

4-7 2007, ,

6-th International Conference


NUCLEAR AND RADIATION PHYSICS
June 4-7, 2007, Almaty, Kazakhstan
REPORTS

2008

539.12: 539.2
22.383
34

34

: 6-
, 4-7 2007. 3- . - : , 2008, - 255 c.
.1 255 .

ISBN 9965-675-44-9

22.383


.-. ,
..

1604080000
00(05) 07

ISBN 9965-675-44-9
ISBN 9965-675-43-0

, 2008

INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD


Chairman: B.S. Izmukhambetov (Kazakhstan)
Vice-chairman: B.E. Orazbayev (Kazakhstan)
Members:
. K. Abdymomunov (Kazakhstan), N. Z. Abedin (IDB), V.N. Branets (Russia), O.Cakiroglu
(Turkey), M.E. Dzhakishev (Kazakhstan), Y. Fudji-ie (Japan), F.A. Garner (USA),
D. Giebink (USA), P.H. Gray (UK), W.Greiner (Germany), J.-M. Greneche (France),
K.A. Gridnev (Russia), S.S. Hecker (USA), S. Hey (Canada), R.I. Ilkaev (Russia),
. G. Itkis (JINR), N. Jousten (ISTC), M.K. Kerimov (Azerbaijan), G.E. Kodina (Russia),
F.F. Komarov (Byelorussia), A.A. Korsheninnikov (Russia), U. Mirsaidov (Tajikistan),
T. A. Musabayev (Kazakhstan), I.M. Neklyudov (Ukraine), Yu.Ts. Oganessian (JINR),
R.J. Peterson (USA), T.S. Ramazanov (Kazakhstan), V.K Shamardin (Russia),
V.V. Siniavskiy (Russia), A.N. Sisakian (JINR), I.N. Vishnevskiy (Ukraine), V.N. Voevodin
(Ukraine), G. Voigt (IAEA), T. M. Zhantikin (Kazakhstan).
ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
Chairman: K.K. Kadyrzhanov (Kazakhstan)
Members:
S.A. Abdumanapov (Kazakhstan), T. Allen (USA), Z. Alper (Turkey), .S. Askarova
(Kazakhstan), S.N. Dmitriev (JINR), B.O. Duisebayev
(Kazakhstan), .. Garibov
(Azerbaijan), J.D.B. Lambert (USA), M. Miglierini (Slovakia), V.S. Rusakov (Russia),
S.B. Sakuta (Russia), B. Salbu (Norway), U.S. Salikhbaev (Uzbekistan), G. M. Ter-Akopian
(Russia), R. Yarmukhamedov (Uzbekistan), Zh.Sh. Zhantaev (Kazakhstan), Zh.R. Zhotabaev
(Kazakhstan).
ORGANIZERS
Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK)
Kazakhstani Atomic Energy Committee
National Nuclear Center RK
National Atomic Company Kazatomprom
Institute of Nuclear Physics NNC RK
Nuclear Society RK
L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University
CONFERENCE SPONSORS
International Science and Technology Center (ISTC)
Sam Young Unitech Co. Ltd, Korea
Ion Beam Applications, Belgium
LOCAL ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITTEE
Chairman: A.Zh. Tuleushev
Secretary: T.I. Aksenova
P.V. Chakrov, K.A. Kuterbekov, V.S. Zhdanov, N. Burtebaev, A.D. Duysebaev, E.T. Ibraeva,
S.B. Kislitsin, V.N. Glushchenko, O.P. Maksimkin, S.P. Pivovarov, V.P. Solodukhin, A.I. Chekushin


!
,

6- .

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Dear participants and guests of the International Conference


Nuclear and Radiation Physics!
On behalf of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan, International
Consultative Board and the Organizing Committee let me welcome you at the Sixth International Conference
Nuclear and Radiation Physics.
This year the Conference takes place in the atmosphere of the 50th anniversary of the Institute f Nuclear
Physics which for the last 50 years reminds a flagship in development of nuclear physics and radiation solid state
physics not only in Kazakhstan but among post-Soviet republics. These 50 years has brought to the Institute the
solid reputation; the Institute occupied an appropriate niche and is now well known for both basic and applied
research performed here. The Institute of Nuclear Physics is actively involved in development of nuclear physics
not only in Almaty, but in other cities establishing its branches in Astana, Aktau and other cities of the country; it
became a very attractive place for juniors to do science. Being a site of the Conference, the Institute of Nuclear
Physics regularly provides opportunities for scientists to share their scientific results and develop joint projects.
It is my sincere pleasure to note that interest to the Conference is continuously growing up from year to
year and our Sixth Conference gathered today representatives of more than 25 countries and international
organizations. Each time the Conference expands over wider geography of the participants and over wider range
of issues covered within the sections. The Conference will consider this time, along with traditional basic problems
of nuclear physics and radiation material science, those exciting scientific projects to be realized in the Institute
proving that INP has not only the memorable past but also the bright future.
,
.
I do believe that with your contribution this jubilee Conference will became a fruitful and productive
scientific forum for peer scientists and friends with great stimulus to the development of international cooperation
and establishing of international contacts and will be an impetus to advanced studies in the most challenging fields
of modern basic and applied physics.
I wish all the Conference participants fruitful work, interesting scientific discussions and pleasant stay in
the beautiful southern capital of Kazakhstan.
B.S. IZMUKHAMBETOV
Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources RK


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NUCLEAR PHYSICS

Nuclear Physics

27

ALTERNATIVE THEORETICAL MODEL FOR THE DESCRIPTION OF MAGNETOTRANSPORT


PROCESSES AT VERY LOW TEMPERATURES
1,2

AbdurakhmanovB., 1,3Adamian G.G.

Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia


National University, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
3
Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
2

Physical nature of magnetotransport processes at very low temperatures attracts many scientists in last two
decades. Its theoretical model was practically immediately offered by many authors in the early 1980s once after
the discovery of both Quantum Hall Effects. However there is still no general theory which may consider all type
of galvanomagnetic phenomena in one approach. So, the theory of electronic transport properties still need to be
improved.
In given work the Quantum Generalized Langevin Equation Formalism has been introduced to the study of
the quantum electronic transport. The center of mass of the charge carriers is assumed as a quantum particle, while
the bond electrons act as a heat bath, which is coupled to the center of mass through electron-impurity and electronphonon interactions. In the center-of-mass the total Hamiltonian of such system is
x2 + y2
H=
+ eE x x + h b+ b + ( x + y )(b+ + b ) .
2m

eB
The influence of external magnetic field B is introduced into x = p x +
y , y = p y eB x . The last
2c
2c
two terms describe the heat bath and coupling between the heat bath and the collective subsystem respectively. In
the procedure of solving the second order Heisenberg equations of the fluctuating density of the bond electrons, the
Generalized Langevin Equation of the center of mass of electrons is obtained directly.
y (t )
x (t )
x& (t ) =

, y& (t ) =

& x (t ) = y (t )c eE x d x& ( ) K xx (t , ) + Fx (t ),

(1)

& y (t ) = x (t )c d y& ( ) K yy (t , ) + Fy (t ),
0

The following dissipative kernels describing Drude dissipation including the influence of magnetic field
were taken:
t
K = K xx = K yy = m ( c )e ,
Here we neglect the possible anisotropy. The solution of (1) averaged throughout the whole system is

The coefficients linear to the electric field, C3(t) and D3(t) are to be of interest:

m( K + ms)
m 2c2
1

,
3 (t ) = L1
=
(
)
D
t
L
3
2
2
2 2
2
2
s m + (K + ms ) ,
c

s m c + (K + ms )
They depend on the form of dissipative kernels or kind of interaction between the collective subsystem and heatbath.
From electrodynamics conductivity and resistance tensors are defined as:
r xx xy r
E , xy = yx ,
j =

yx yy
r xx xy r
j , xy = yx ,
E =

yx
yy

28

Nuclear Physics

On the other hand, the current density can be connected with the mean momentum of the collective system
in our approach as:
r ne r
j=
p
m
Thus, longitudinal and cross conductivities in our approach are
ne
ne
xx (t ) = C3 (t ) , xy (t ) = D3 (t ) ,
m
m
and corresponding resistances
D3 (t )
m
C3 (t )
m
, xy (t ) =
,
xx (t ) =
2
2
ne C3 (t ) 2 + D3 (t ) 2
ne C3 (t ) + D3 (t )
Now we turn to the system of microscopically observable values
m
m
1
m
m
= = , c c = B , = , t t =
e
e
e

e
where and B are mobility and magnetic field, respectively.

For estimation we expand time-dependent coefficients 3 (t ) and D3 (t ) about the infinitesimal / to


the first order and deduce the approximate formula for elements of resistance tensor:


1
1

1 1
1
+ B 2 cos sin[B ] ,
+ B 2 exp sin[B ] xy = B +
xx =
2
2
ne

ne

where is the mobility of charge carriers and is the parameter related to the relaxation time. It is obvious from
these expressions that at low temperatures when is sufficiently large, the oscillatory term mainly contributes to
the resistance, whereas at the region around the room temperature, where the carrier mobility is small the first term
plays a key role.
Comparison with experimental data:
According to the experiment on the Shubnikov-de Haas (ShD) magnetoresistance oscillations in
n- InSb [1], being equal to = 9.5m 2 (V sec) 1 at T =4:2K, the mobility of charge carriers in the absence of the
magnetic field varies of about 5 % at different temperatures from 4.2 to 15 K. However this value doesn't show a
variation with the increasing magnetic field. It remains constant at the whole range of considered magnetic field at
the fixed temperature. This fact can be deduced from the analysis of the experimental plot. The points of
intersection between the zero axis and curves of the resistance at the fixed temperature are coincident with those at
all other temperatures. It implies that the period of oscillations is the same at different temperatures.

Fig.1: Dependence of the oscillatory part of the longitudinal magnetoresistance on the magnetic field for various
temperatures; n = 5.9 1015 cm 3 . Experimental and theoretical curves
Moreover the equal increase in period of oscillations with the magnetic field is observed for all
temperatures in the experiment. So, we can conclude contrary to cases of integer and fractional Hall effects the
mobility and relaxation time of charge carriers of the studied sample don't change with the field at the fixed
temperature while their mean free time decreases at the same manner with the increasing magnetic field

Nuclear Physics

29

independently of the temperature. Thus, the ratio of the mean free time per the relaxation time which remains
constant at the Quantum Hall regimes, now, decreases with the field (see the table).

1. K.F. Komatsubara, Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1044-7 (1966).

Nuclear Physics

30

HYPERCENTRAL CONSTITUENT QUARK MODEL FOR DETERMAIN NUCLEON CHARGE


RADIUS

Shojaei M.R., Hassanabadi H., Rajabi A.A.


Department of physics, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Islamic Republic of Iran
e-mail: m.r.shojaei@shahroodut.ac.ir
Here we have considered the nucleons according the constituent quark model partied. In this model the
nucleons account three body force effects and standard two-body potential contribution. The quark potential
contains a hypercentral interaction. In this model there are 3 hypercentral interacting potentials The confining
potential due to color charge, the oscillatory potential and a hyper linear term gives rise to quark confinement we
determain Hypercentral relativistic wave function by solve Dirac equation analytically for this system.
Key words: Quark model hypercentral Jacobin coordinate -baryon
1. Introduction
The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) has been extensively applied to the description of baryon properties.
There are many approaches where the three-quark problem is solved numerically [1]. The main ingredient of this
model is the interquark potential, which contains a spin-independent and spin dependent terms characterized by the
presence of a long range part giving rise to confinement.
The internal three quark motion is described by the Jacobi coordinates and [2,3]. In order to describe
the three-quark dynamics it is convenient to introduce the hyperspherical coordinates, which are obtained by
substituting the absolute value of and in

x = 2 + 2 ,
where x is the hyperradius.and the jacobain coordinate define as follow:
r
r
r
r
r
r
r + r 2 2 r3
r r1
= 1
= 2
6
2
,
(1)
In this model there are 3 hypercentral interacting potentials.
First for small separations, potential which has an attractive hyper columbic potential originating from the
color charge[5,6]:
k s
c
(2)
= ,
Vhyc ( x) =
x
x
While at large separations a hyper linear term gives rise to quark confinement [4]
Vcon ( x) = bx ,
(3)
In this article we have added the six-dimension harmonic oscillator (h.o) potential, which has a two-body
character, and turns out to be exactly hypercentral since
i =3
1
3
(4)
Vh.0 = k (ri rj ) 2 = kx 2 = ax 2 ,
2
i< j 2
Here the interaction potential is assumed (from eq(1,2and3)) as below
c
A( x) = ax 2 + bx ,
(5)
x
In section (2) we have calculated the relativistic wave function for valence quarks. The results indicate that
this potential is useful for quarks having masses in the range used in the phenomenological analysis of quark model
and determain the nucleon charge radios.
2. Relativistic wave function
r
If we denote the quark wave function satisfying the Dirac equation by (r ) , then
rr
r
[ + i . ( m + U (r ))] (r ) = 0 ,

(6)

The hypercentral potential U ( x) , which lead to analytical solution in our model[7]., would be
U ( x) =

1
(1 + e 0 ) A( x) ,
2

(7)

Nuclear Physics

31

with the potentials A( x) given by (5) .The parameter e is arbitrary we take the quark potential, U (x) is assumed to
depend on the hyperradius x only. The eigenspinor of (6) denoted by 0jj3 is rewritten as

0jj3 ( x) = ,

Now combining eqs (5,6 and 7) we get

(8)

( .P) + (m + U 0 ( x) + V0 ( x)) =
( .P) (m + U 0 ( x) V0 ( x)) =

(9)

Where = g k ( x) y jjl3 ( x) and = if k ( x) y jjl3 ( x) .

Here U 0 ( x) and V0 ( x) are the scalar hypercentral and the vector hypercentral potentials respectively. For Dirac
upper component we combine two equations in (9) and use eqs (4,6)to obtain
P 2 g ( x)
+ (m + A( x)) g ( x) = 0 ,
(10)
m+
The internal quark motion is usually described by means of the Jacobi relative coordinates. By separating the
common motion, the P2 operator of a quark in the 3q system becomes ( h = c = 1) [8,9]
P 2 = ( 2 + 2 ) = (

d2
dx 2

L2 ()
5 d
+
) ,
x dx
x2

(11)

Hence
2
5
L2 g ( x)
+ ( m2 ( + m) A( x)) g ( x) = 0 ,
g ( x) +
(12)
2
x
x
with A(x) given by (4), and L2 () = ( + 4) is the grand orbital operator and is the grand angular quantum
number given by = 2n + l + l we make an ansatz [10, 11].

g ( x) +

g ( x) = exp(h( x)) ,

(13)

with h(x) as
1
h( x) = x 2 + x + ln x ,
2

(14)

This implies
5
5h

g ( x) = h( x) + h 2 ( x) +
g ( x) ,
(15)
x
x

Equations(14) and (11) yield , , and the constraints between the potential parameters a, b and c . These read
g ( x) +

(16-a)
2
= (a( + m))

1
(16-b)
= 2 (3 + ) ( 2 m2 ) 2

b( + m)
(5 + 2 ) = ( + m)c =
(16-c)
2

= , 4
Taking = ,results a wavefunction which is well behaved at the origin.Therefor the upper component of Dirac
spinor of the nucleon is as below:
1
1


(17)
g ( x) = x exp x 2 2 (3 + ) ( 2 m 2 ) 2 x ,
2


The lower component f (x) of the Dirac hyper-central spinor can be found from (9). Therefor the wave function as

the following form.

g ( x )

3
2
2
,
0 ( x ) = r
J
L

2
i x (3 1 ) ( g ( x)
4 g ( x))

M (1 + )
x

(18)

Nuclear Physics

32

By using this wavefunction we determaion the Baryon charge radius


3. Nucleon charge radius
1

2
Lets take proton and charge-radius. The charge-radius < rem
> p 2 is defined as [12, 13].

r 2 q = x 2 ( x) ( x)d 3 x ,
0

(19)

Here ( ) (r ) is the quark wave function given by (18). Using the potential parameters and wave function the result
fall in the expected ranges for the charge radius of proton. That is
1

0.782 fm (< rem2 >p 2 ) 0.894 fm for P ,

(20)

The charge radius proton surprisingly agrees with experiment


4. Conclusion
An exact analytical solution for potential in the form of the confinent is presented. The hypercenteral
potential is a good stating point for investigation of nucleon structure
A considerable improvement in the description of the static properties of nucleon is obtained with an
isospin-dependent potential.. By use this model we can investigation the other baryons .above this potentials we
can consider the hyperfine potentials and calculate the shift energy. Finaly one can use this model and determine
the mass of baryons.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Giannini, M.M., Santopinto,E., and Vassallo.A., Progress in Particle and Nuclear physics 50 (2003).
Rajabi, A.A., Iranian Journal of physics Research, Vol.5, No.2, (2005)
Giannini, M.M.,Santopinto,E., and Vassallo, A.,Eur phys J.A.12.447-452 (2001).
Fabre dela lareplle, M, phys Lett B 205 (1988) 97.
Capstick,S. and keister, B.D., phys. Rev. D51,3598 (1995).
Tegen, R., Schedl,M.,Weise, W. phys Lett, vol125(1983).
Aiello, M., Giannini M.M., Santopinto,E., J.phys G: Nuc part phys(1998).
Strobel, G.L., Intl.J.O. Theoretical phys, 937 (1998).
Aiello, M., Giannini M.M., Frerris,M., Pizoo, M., Santopinto,E., phys Lett B387,215(1996).
Giannini, M.M., Santopinto,E., and Vassallo.A., Eur phys. J.A.12, 447-452 (2001).
Santopinto, E., Iachello, F., Giannini, M.M., Eur phys. J.A1, 307-315(1998).
13.Rajab i,A.A. Few-Body systems 37,197-213(2005).

Nuclear Physics

33

MOLECULAR-NUCLEAR TRANSITIONS
*

Belyaev V.B., **Miller M.B.

*Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia


**Institute in Physical-Technical Problems, Dubna, Russia
Abstract
The idea and first estimates is presented for molecular-nuclear transitions stimulated by radiation.

Recently, the attention was paid to a possibility of molecular-nuclear transitions in few-atomic molecules
due to the presence of nuclear resonances in final nuclei (V. Belyaev and co-workers [1,2]). If the energies
(and quantum numbers) of a molecular state and the nuclear resonance coincide, then the above molecule and
nucleus can be considered as two degenerate states of the same physical system. Long tails of the nuclear resonance
wavefunctions is expected to lead to a noticeable overlap of molecular and nuclear wavefunctions, and thus, to a
measurable admixture of nuclear state in the corresponding molecules. The effect can be observable as transitions
between molecular and nuclear states: so-called molecular-nuclear transitions (MNT). Following the work [2] the
probability of spontaneous MNT in two-atomic molecule can be presented in a form:

W ( s -1 ) = ( E1 ) exp 0.6 ( E2 ) Q

where ( E1 ) is a frequency, with which the nuclei in two-atomic molecule approach the barrier, E1 is the binding
energy, and Q is defined by the overlap integral between the wavefunctions of electronic configurations of the
molecule
and
final
atom,
1>
Q
>0.01;

is
the
Zommerfeld
parameter
2
( E2 ) = Z1Z 2 e / hv , v the relative velocity of the outgoing particles defined by the energy of the transition
between molecular and nuclear states of the system. This energy is approximately equal to the width of nuclear
resonance.
Fig.1 shows these situations for H2O*(1) 18Ne* and 6LiD 8Be* systems.
This situation for the pairs H2O18Ne and 6LiD8Be is shown in Fig.1.

Fig.1. Fragments of nuclear level diagrams for 8Be and 18Ne.


Thresholds for few-body decay channels 6Li+d and 16O+2p in 8Be and 18Ne nuclei are indicated

Nuclear Physics

34

Earlier, experiments on search for the MNT effect were carried out for these two molecular- nuclear
combinations, and lower limit of the life-time for the cases of MNT H2O*(1) 18Ne* and 6LiD 8Be* was
obtained at a level T1/2 (37)1019 y [3,4].
A necessary condition for the MNT is the exact energy coincidence of the resonant state of final atomic
nucleus and the initial molecular state. Obviously, this is a matter of chance, and it is impossible to control the
situation in any way. In view of the experimental limitations, the number of objects of the search is limited to a few
molecular-nuclear combinations only.
In this connection, a stimulation of the molecular-nuclear transitions by any external influence looks rather
attractive.
Due to the uncertainty in the experimental nuclear data it is not known whether the energies of the
thresholds located lower or higher of the energies of corresponding nuclear resonances. Suppose that the molecular
level is several keV over the energy of the nuclear resonance. Then, the molecular-nuclear complex constitutes a
two level system, which in some sense is like a two-level atomic system considered in quantum optics. The crucial
difference between MNT and the two-level atomic system is a fact that in the molecular-nuclear case no special
procedure is necessary for creating the inverse population, or the active medium. The role of the active medium in
this case belongs to the initial molecular system in its ground state (which is stable contrary to the case of the active
medium in the quantum optics).
Thus, try to consider the MNT under the external radiation (stimulated MNT) in terms of the quantum
coherent amplification.
gL
For a quantum amplifier, one can write a gain factor as = e , where L is a linear size of the device, and
g is defined by a following expression:

g=

4 W + Wi

N.

Here, is a wavelength of the incident and induced radiation, is the induced transition probability
W (molecular-nuclear transition in our case), Wi is a sum of all possible channels of the decay different from

i
the radiation.
At the energy of several ten keV, which is typical for available cases of molecular-nuclear transitions, a
main contribution to the sum will be the value Wbreak -up
i.e., the probability of the break-up of the excited
molecule due to the photo-dissociation.

The ratio

R=

W + Wi

can be estimated by comparing matrix elements defining the probabilities

W and Wbreak -up .


The matrix element defining probability W of -transition with multipolarity l can be presented as

M ~

( r ) r ( r ) r dr , (I)
l

res

mol

When the energy of the molecular state exceeds slightly the value of the energy of the nuclear resonance
state, still remaining within the limit of the width of the resonance, it is possible to expect a large overlap of wave
functions in the integrand (I).
This situation is illustrated in Fig.2 for 6LiD8Be transition. Energy of the 6LiD molecular level lies
~80 keV over the (2+,0) resonance state of 8Be and is located still in the limit of the width of this resonance. The
wave function of (2+,0) resonance of 8Be behaves as an outgoing wave at large distances between 6Li and
d clusters, and thus, its wavefunction has a long tail at these distances.

Nuclear Physics

35

Amplification factor K versus partial width R of transition


3,5

3
2,5

lg(lgK)

1,5

1
0,5

0
-3,5

-3

-2,5

-2

-1,5

-1

-0,5

lg R

Fig.2. Gain factor versus the ratio R.


In the insert, an idea for stimulated MNT 6LiD8Be is illustrated
Due to this property of the wave function, the matrix element (I) will be of the same order of magnitude
as M break up

, the matrix element of the break-up process, for which case in the equation (I) one should use, in

place of the resonance wave function res ( r ) , another wave function, however at large distances with the Born
approximation asymptotic as the outgoing wave too.
In that case M break up ~ M , and R 1/2.
Now, we can estimate for the gain-factor g =

4 W + Wi

E = hc / = 1

keV.

Inasmuch as hc = 197 MeV fm, we have: =

. Suppose the difference between two levels is

hc 197 103
fm= 2 108 cm
=
E
1

4 10 16
RN =
R 3 1019 = 3R 10 cm 1 .
Then, g =
4
4
19
3
Here, N 3 10 cm is a number of molecules in 1 cm3 of the ideal gas.
The dependence of on R for the case L = 1 cm is displayed in Fig.2.
It is seen that the value remains large in the wide range of R<<1. This fact gives us the hope, that the final
3

conclusion on the possibility to observe the stimulated MNT is not very sensitive to the uncertainty of our
estimate of R.

36

Nuclear Physics

Thus, if we irradiate the system of these molecules by electromagnetic radiation with the energy in keV
range, the coherent molecular-nuclear transitions can be induced. Hence, this phenomenon can be observable in
coincidence experiments: one should look for the coincidences between keV-range molecular-nuclear radiation
and nuclear radiation from final nuclei in MeV-energy range. For example, in the process H2O 18Ne -quanta
with the energy E=4.522 Mev will be emitted, and for the case of 6LiD 8Be two -particles with the energy
E~11.2 Mev each are expected. Then one will observe an effect like the molecular-nuclear laser, in which the
low energy electromagnetic radiation (x-rays or hard UV radiation) is transformed into the high energy radiation:
-quanta or -particles, depending on the decay mode of final nuclei. Later it can in principle be considered as a
new way of obtaining the nuclear energy.
1. V.B. Belyaev, et al., Phys. Dokl. 41 (1996) 514.
2. V.B. Belyaev, et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 22 (1996) 1111.
3. V.B. Belyaev, A.K. Motovilov, M.B. Miller, A.V. Sermyagin, I.V. Kuznetzov, Yu.G. Sobolev,
A.A. Smolnikov, A.A. Klimenko, S.B. Osetrov, and S.I. Vasiliev. Physics Letters B, Vol. 522 (3-4) (2001)
pp. 222-226.
4. V.B. Belyaev, M.B. Miller, Yu.G. Sobolev, A.V. Sermyagin, I.V. Kuznetzov, A.A. Klimenko,
A.K. Motovilov. Few-Body Systems 38, 103 (2006).

Nuclear Physics

37

THE ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS OF PLASMA JET TEMPERATURE

Sarba Ryszard
Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
e-mail: rsarba@ itc.pw.edu.pl
Applications of dynamic measurements of temperature in plasma jet are used in a number of areas of the
aerospace and manufacturing industries. The plasma jet is applied to the destruction of gases detrimental for the
environment. In processing chemical engineering there is a need of temperature measurement of the plasma jet in a
plasma reactor. Destructible gases are streamed inside the plasma jet. Conventional techniques measurement
(thermo couple, thermometer resistive) are not applied due to the fact that the gas temperature is much higher then
the melting temperature of the thermometer. In normal conditions, the temperature of the plasma jet can be taken
by means of the dynamic method.
Introduction
This work presents results of experimental and theoretical research. The experimental part of this paper is
an effect of about six hundred of dynamic and steady temperature measurements. The purpose of this study has
been practice form of designate argon temperature. on the basis of heat flux analysis on surface the thermo junction
in unsteady conditions. This paper include part of a large work of dynamic measurement of heat flow temperature
and plasma jet. Theoretical part of this work is based on the classical thermodynamic CIT (Classical Irreversible
Thermodynamics).
1. The physical model
An open thermodynamic system exchanges energy with the surroundings. On the basis of the changes that
affected the surroundings, temperature can be determined. The model has been developed based on the thermal
inertia of the thermo junction The physical model is defined by thermo junction having been permeated by plasma
jet. The energy flux which gets through to the thermo junction is expressed in the form of the flux whose analysis
allows the gas temperature to be determined.
The thermo junction is modeled as a sphere. The hot gas stream is characterized by high gradients and the
fluctuation of temperature and velocity. The stream is assumed to be axial symmetrical. The medium is
homogeneous and continuous. (Fig.1.)
Belt of stream hot gas

Tko

Surroundings
Jnction of termo couple
Tkn

wk=const.

Axis symmetry

Fig.1. Ddiagram of the investigation process


The temperature of the thermo junction increased and temperature heat flow is lower. On the surface of the
thermo junction gas is hampered heat flow and velocity approaches zero. Hot gas is described by model real gas.
Model contain the effect of thermal radiation and the outflow of heat through the wires.
2. The theoretical analisis
The differential equation (1) has been solved for the boundary condition which occur during traversing of

the plasma jet at 12000 K (Vardelle M, Vardelle A., Faucha 1983) Tk (r ,0 ) = f (r ) and

(Tk )c p (Tk )

Tk 1
T
= 2 (Tk )r 2 k ,
t r r
r

Tk
r

=0
r =0

(1)

Nuclear Physics

38

Physical problem
Identified inportant
variables
Applying
relevant
physical
laws

assumption and
approximations

A differential
equation
Boundary and
initial conditions

Choice of
solution
technique

Solution of the problem

The obtained equation conduction heat inside of the sphere is in the form of temperature distribution along
the radius of the thermo junction as a straight line. The temperature has been assumed to be constant in the whole
sphere. The equation has been solved scheme (Fig.2). (Yunus A. Cengel 1997).
The thermo junction has the shape of a sphere and its diameter is large to obtain adequate capacity of
inertial heat.

E b (T ) = E b (T )d = T 4 ,

(2)

T
T
,
k
+ g = C
x x
t
2 2
_
_
du _
j e

= V VT + e e + ee je V T ,
dt

(3)
(4)

Fig.2. The Scheme of solving equations


The effect of thermal radiation has been taken into account in the differential equation (2) with boundary
conditions described heat exchange between of thermo junction and hot gas. The result shows that the thermal
radiation constitutes only about 1% of the heat fluxes getting in to the thermo junction.
The outflow of heat through the wires has been considered in the differential equation (3) of heat
conduction. The assumption has been made for the cables being perpendicular and parallel to the symmetry axis of
the plasma jet. The equation solution indicates that the heat outflow is negligible because there are small
temperature gradient.
Heat flux is large when cables are place perpendicular to the symmetry axis. The equations 1,2 and 3 have been solved
using scheme shown in (Fig 2). (Yunus A. Cengel 1997).

The equation (4) of energy for the wire with current contains the analysis thermodynamics of effects Joul,
Thomson and Fourier. Those effects are thermodynamically reversible.
3. The experimental part
The measurements were made with the use of the whole set of equipment specially prepared for that
purpose: a measuring device, PC, a measuring card and software. The measurements included the temperature
distribution of the thermo junction traversing a hot gas for: a) various traversing velocities wk b) various diameter
of the thermo junction d c) various distance from nozzle outlet L (Fig.3.) Also, the temperature distribution of the
thermo junction traversing a plasma jet has been measured.
Four distance region are noted. Every measurements was made for only one part of the flux region. Tg ( r ),
Tk ( t ).

Nuclear Physics

39

The measurements of the velocity of the hot gas flux were carried out with the use of luminous pars.
Vg ( r ).
The effect of the thermo junction shape on the temperature of time function.
Experimental measurement of the temperature distribution thermo junction at the time of R 22
destruction Td in a gas burner.
L =200 mm

Hot gas

L = 100 mm

L=

50 mm
Trajectory of thermo
junction

L = 1 mm

Nozzle II
Dd = 11 mm

Fflame

Ld = 400 mm
Nozzle I

Fig.3. Scheme of the experimental set up used for


measurement dynamic and steady flow temperatures
4. The temperature conversion
The temperature distribution of the thermo junction is determined by the energy eguation (5) The heat
transfer coefficient was estimated using the Kimur and Kanzawa equation (Kimur, Kanzawa 1965) The eguation
(6) has a convective flow coefficient of the heat flux exchanged between the thermo junction and the hot gas
stream. The equation (7) defines the velocity distribution of the hot gas stream. The process of determining the
temperature distribution of the hot gas stream is based on the equation (5), (6) and (7) and on the law of energy
conservation.

A (T g T k )dt = mcdT k ,
Nu =

g dk
= 2 + 0.6 Re0.5 Pr 0.3 ,
g

( )

2Vr
2
rVr + (rVrVz ) = r 2 ,
z
z
r

(5)
(6)
(7)

Inflow outflow = accumulation.


On the basis of the thermo junction distribution of temperature is identified boundary condition of
temperature. The relation between the temperature hot gas and the temperature of thermo junction is dampened
and delayed. This causes error.

Vr
= 0 , Vz = 0
z

Vr = 0

4.1 The assumptions of the conversion model


4.1.1 The thermo junction
a) - temperature distribution thermo junction Tg = f(t) or Tg = f(l)
b) - the starting point distribution
c) - traversing velocity

for z = 0
for z =

Nuclear Physics

40

d) - thermo junction diameter or shape parameters


e) - thermodynamics parameters of thermo junction material
f) - wire diameter of thermo junction
g) - thermodynamics parameters of material
h) - structure and characteristics of thermo junction

Tg max

Temperature (K)

860
760

Tk max

660
560
460
360
260
0

12

16

20

Trave rs way l (mm)

Fig.5. Converse of the temperature distribution


of thermo junction in to the hot gas temperature distribution

4.1.2 The hot gas stream


a) - homogeneous medium
b) - axial symmetric
c) - velocity distribution at traversing place
d) - starting point of temperature distribution of hot gas and temperature distribution of thermo junction are at the
same point
e) - temperature distribution of thermo junction is a monotonic function
4.1.3 The thermo junction and hot gas stream
The thermo junction and the hot gas temperature distributions are interrelated by the following: Every point
of the thermo junction temperature distribution is equivalent to the point of the hot gas temperature distribution.
This relation is such that the maximum temperature of the hot gas stream corresponds to the maximum temperature
of the thermo junction (Fig.5.).
5. Summary
The determination of the hot gas stream and plasma temperature distribution is based on the determination
of the heat conversion coefficient. The convective flow constitutes 98% of all the inflow.
The relation between the temperatures of the thermo junction and the hot gas is linear. It has been
determined by numerical simulations and verified by the experiment. This verification shows that the thermo
junction registers the temperature distribution with an average error of 11.67% (Fig.6.). The effect Joul, Sebeck
and Thomson have not been included.
It has been assumed that the best shape of the thermo junction is a sphere which is uniform in size and has
no sharp edges where temperature accumulation might occur.
The change of shape the sphere to the ellipse does not effect the temperature in experimental
measurements.

Nuclear Physics

41

1000
Distribution
of temperature
heat flow

900

Temperature (K)

800
700

Conversion of
dynamic
temperature thermo
junction

600
500
400
300
200
1

R adiu s

10

(m m )

Fig.6. Experimental verification of conversion


of the temperature distribution

Fig.7. Experimental verification of theoretical analysis of dynamic measurements temperature of heat flow and
plasma jet

Nuclear Physics

42

6. Nomenklature
A - surface area (m2)
- heat transfer coefficient (W/m2K)
a - coefficient of conversionr
rk - radius thermo junction (m)
dk - diameter thermo junction (m)
Eb - emisive power (W/m2)
r - radius flux (m)
- density (kg/m3)
- viscosity (m/s2)
Nu - Nuselt number dk/
Re - Reynolds number Vz dk/
- conductivity hot gas (W/mK)
Tk - temperature of thermo
junction (K)
Tka - temperature thermo junction traversing argon (K)
Tg - temperature hot gas (K)
Tgp - temperature measurements hot gas (K)
l - traverse way (mm)
d - diameter thermo junction (m)
Ta - temperature argon (K)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Td - temperature destruction R 22
t - time (s)
wk - velocity of traversing hot gas (m/s)
V - velocity hot gas (m/s)
Vgp - velocitu measurement hot gas (m/s)
Va - velocity of argon (m/s)
Vz - axial velocity hot gas (m/s)
Vr - radial velocity hot gas (m/s)
k - constant of time
X( ) - integrand function
Pr - Prandtl number
L - distance from nozzle II (mm)
Ld - length of diffuser (mm)
Dd - diameter diffuser (mm)
- 5.67 x 10-8 W/m2K4 Stefan Boltzmann constant
u - energy
je - density electric flux
- Thomson cofficient
T - gradient temperature

Borman G, Ragland K.: (1998) Combusion Enginering, WCB/Mc Grow Hill.


Caldenberg N, Tiepoprowodnost Gazow I idkostiej, Moskwa 1963.
Cremers C., Pfender E,: Temperatures in Plasmajet, J. heat Mass Transfer, V. 11, (1968) p.
Frossling N. Uber die Verdunstung Fallender Tropfen, Gerl. Beit. Geophys. V.52, 1938 p 170.
Glasman J.: Combusion Second Edition, Departament of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Princeton
Uniwersity, New Jersey, Akademic Pres, INC. (1987).
Jenson V.: Drag Coefficjents and Transfer Factors for Spheres in Laminar Flow, Trans. Instn. Chem. Engrs. V.
46, (1968) p 178.
Kimura I., Kanzawa A. Eksperiments on Heat Transfer to Wires in a Partialy Ionized Argon Plasma, AIAAJ.,
V.3, N. # 1965, str. 476.
Han B., Goldstein R. (2003) Instantaneous energy separation in a free jet. Part I. Flow measurement and
visualization.
Han B., Goldstein R. Instantaneus energy separation in a free jet - Part II. Total temperature measurement
2003.
Donaldson A.D., Apa R.P., Eddy T.L.,Flinn J.E.,: A reviev of plasma destruction of hazardous mixed waste.
Heat Tran. in Therm. Plasma Process., ASME, 1991, HTD Camacho S.L.,Dembovsky V., Gonzales V. and
oders: Arc plasma processes. A Maturing Technology in Industry. UIE Arc Plasma Reviev, 1988, p. 8.
Williamson R., Fincke R., Crawford D., Snyder S., Swank D., Haggard D. (2003). Entrainment in high
velocity, high temperature plasma jets. Part II: computational results and comparison to experiment Idaho
National Engineering and Environment Laboratory USA.
Fincke R., Crawford D., Snyder S., Swank D., Haggard D., Williamson R. (2003) Entrainment in high
velocity, high temperature plasma jets. Part Iand II: experimental results, Idaho National Engineering and
Environment Laboratory USA 1203.
Yunus A. Cengel: Heat Transfer a Practical Approcah ,University of Nevada, Reno (1997).
Vardelle M,, Vardelle A., Faucha P., Plasma Particle Momentum and Heat Transfer: Modeling and
Measurements, Universite de Limoges, France 1983.

Nuclear Physics

43

THE CONSTITUENT QUARK MODEL AND SPECTRUM OF MESONS

Shojaei M.R., Hassanabadi H., Rajabi A.A.


Physics Department Shahrood University of technology, Shahrood, Iran
e-mail: m.r.shojaei@shahroodut.ac.ir
We calculate exact solution of the Schrdinger equation analytically for a meson consisting of a quark and
antiquark, considering the interaction potential between the particles as a combination of two potentials, a potential
due to color charge and an oscillatory potential as confining potential In addition to the above potentials we
consider the spin - spin, spin - isospin and isospin - isospin interactions as perturbing potentials , and calculate the
mass of the mesons for each potential separately finally using the equivalence of mass-energy we calculate the
mass of the mesons.
Key words: Schrdinger equation, meson, quark, spin, isospin.
1. Introduction
Mesons in the most fundamental levels consist of a quark and an antiquark also mesons have correct spin
interacting with nucleons from powerful force. (Of course addition to electromagnetic and weak force). Mesons can
be created from nucleons-nucleon contact. They can be converted to lighter mesons photos or leptons rapidly from
powerful interaction electromagnetic or week [1,2].
In this paper, first consider potential between quarks as a function of radios x, thus we assume this potential
as a central potential. This potential is derived from that the central potential. This potential is derived from that the
quark see itself under influence of another quark, in this case central potential is considered as:
c
V ( x) = ax 2 ,
(1)
x
c
Potential is obtained from interaction between a quark and an antiquary. The source of it is color charge and
x
ax2 potential plays confining potential. Because this potential shows oscillations of one quark to another quark in
the distance x from it.
In the latter case the creation of quark antiquark pairs could be the microscope origin of an spin and
isospin dependent part of the potential. For this reason we have modified it by introducing a smearing factor given
by Gaussian function of the quark pair relative distance.
3

x
1 2 r r
H S = AS
e s ( S1 . S 2 ) ,

s

Where s i is the spin operator of the i-th quark and x is the relative quark coordinate and

(2)

s = 0.8 fm

As = 38.4( fm) to this end we have added two terms in the two quark Hamiltonian with the hyperfine
interaction the first one depends on the isospin only and has the form:
2

x
1 I2 r r
H I = AI
I1.I 2 ,
e

(3)

Where I i are respectively the isospin operator of the i-th quark and x is the relative quark coordinate and

AI = 51 / 7( fm) 2 , I = 345( fm) the second one is a spin isospin interaction, given by:

1
H sI = AsI
sI

x
sI2 r r r r
e ( S1 .S 2 )( I 1 .I 2 ) ,

(4)

Where s i , I i are respectively the spin and isospin operator of the i-th quark and x is the relative quark. The
complete interaction is then given by:

H int = V ( x) + H s + H i + H SI

,
(5)
We calculate exact solution of the Schrdinger equation analytically considering the interaction between
the particles as a combination of two potentials, a potential due to color charge and an oscillatory potential as

Nuclear Physics

44

confining potential while H s + H i + H SI is interaction that can be treated as a perturbation term leading to
improved description of the spectrum.
2. Solving Schrdinger equation with color charge and oscillatory potentials
We present an exact analytical solution of radial Schrdinger equation with color charge and oscillatory
potential [3, 4, 5]:

h 2 1 2 ( x)
l (l + 1)
+ V ( x) +
x
( x) = 0 ,
2
2 x x
x
2 x 2
In that equation M is reduced mass between quark and anti quark

mq mq
mq + mq

(6)

(7)

For simplifying we consider h =c=1. There are many methods for solving equation (6). But in this paper by
predicting on proper for (x) and finding its coefficient we can obtain the equations answers. First we change of
variable as below

1
x

(8)

c l (l + 1)
2
= 1 + a1 x 2 1 +
( x) ,
2
x
x
x 2

(9)

( x) = ( x) ,
By assuming 1 = m , a1 = ma , c1 = mc and replacement in equation (6) we have

We select the answer of equation (9) as below

( x) = h( x) exp [ y( x)] ,

(10)

We select the h(x), y(x) functions in proper case as below:

h( x ) = 1 + 1 x

1
y ( x) = x 2 + ln( x) ,
2

(11)

We place these answers in equation (9) :

2
h + 2 yh
= y + y2 +
( x) ,
2
h
x

(12)

We can obtain potential coefficient with considering relation (9) and (12):

4
c=
5m

m 2
=
25

and

and

= l +1 ,

(13)

We write (x) function with this coefficient and placing relation 6 in equation (7):

m 2
( x) = N 1
5

m 2
x x l +1 exp
x ,

(14)

m
m 12 l
) x x exp
5

(15)

We obtain wave function as

1
x

( x) = ( x) = N 1 (

2
x ,

With considering consistent conditions, calculate the consistent coefficient

d 3 x = 1 ,
(16)

Thus we have:

N=

1 64 3 2
,
4 7 2 16

(17)

Nuclear Physics

45

m .we can calculate energy transition for basic case l = 0 .in the exact case we must also notice two potential
5
from spin-spin and spin-isospin and isospin-isospin effect. We consider this potential as perturbing potential and
we calculate the energy transition, in this case we can calculate the mass of the mesons.

3. The effect of spin-spin interaction:


1
Because quarks have spin of
for exact survey of interaction we must recognized quark spin. If S 1 , S2 are quark
2
spin and anti quark spin respectively we consider spin-spin potential as below [6,7]:

1
H S = AS

s

x
2 r r
e s ( S1 . S 2 ) ,

(18)

s = 0.8 fm As = 38.4( fm) 2 Total spin for mesons in the case of one (s=0) and three fold (s=1) must be
determined. In this case potential 13 behave as perturbing.
(1)
In the basic case l = 0 and energy shift case: S

(1)
S

= | H S | =

r r
4 As N 2 S1S 2

x2

e s x 2 1 2 x e 2 x dx ,
2

(19)

And = m .Analytically solution of this integral is:


5

1 + 2
r r
)
(2 + 7 8 a

64 AS ( S1 S 2 )
,
=
3

(7 2 16)( s )
1 + 2
8
1 + 4 + 4 2 2 )
(

(1)
S

(20)

r r
3
1
And = s2 for S1 S2 if s=0 then in equals and if S = 1 it equals .
4
4

4.
The effect of isospin-isospin interaction:
We consider quark and anti quark isospin as I1, I2 .when a quark and anti quark located in the distance x,
interacting potential id\s as below [8,9]
3

x
1 I2 r r
H I = AI
I1.I 2 ,
e

(21)

AI = 51 / 7( fm) 2 and I = 345( fm) If we call the change of energy resulted from isospin-isospin in the basic
level of l = 0 , and energy shift case: I , then:
1

= | H j | =
1
I

r r

x2
2

e S x 2 1 2 x e 2 x dx ,
1

1 + 2
r r
)
(2 + 7 8

64 AI ( I1.I 2 )
1
,
I =
3

(7 2 16)( I )
1 + 2
8
(1 + 3 + 4 2 2 )

= I2 And I1.I 2 value of

r r
4 AI H 2 I1.I 2

3
1
as I=0 and value of
as I=1.
4
4

(22)

(23)

Nuclear Physics

46

5.
The effect of spin-isospin interaction :
This potential is considered as: [10.11]
x2

SI

1 sI2 r r r r
e ( S1.S 2 )( I1.I 2 ) ,
(24)
H sI = AsI

sI
= 2 / 31( fm) and ASI = 106 / 2( fm) 2 the effect change of energy in the basic level of L=0 is shown as: 1SI .

(1)
sI

= | H SI | =

r r r r
4 ASI N 2 ( S1 S 2 )( I1.I 2 )

SI

x2
2
SI

x 2 (1 2 x) 2 e 2 x dx ,
1

(25)

With solving that integral:

(1)
SI

1 + 2
r r r r (2 + 7 8
)

64 ASI ( S1.S 2 )( I1.I 2 )


,
=

1 + 2
7 2 16 SI3
8
(1 + 4 + 4 2 2 )

3
2

)(

(26)

= SI2 .
In relation to equivalence of mass and energy and assuming value of (S1) , (I1) , (SI1) we write The mesons mass as:
(1)
(1)
M qq = M q + M q + + (1)
S + I + SI ,

(27)

M qq Is mesons mass, and M q , M q mass of quark and antiquark, is the energy of meson. With relations (20),
(23), (26), (27) corrected mass of different meson has written in table 1.
Table 1. Determain mass of meson
Mesons

Composition l

Masses of Mesons (Mev)

SS

1020

Theoretical masses of mesons


(Mev)
1017

Do
F
K

CC
UU
CU
CS
SU
dS
Ud

3100
780
2010
2140
890
498
779

3058
773
2018
2131
875
488
763

K0

Conclusion
By recognizing the calculated value we see that the sentences related to spin and iso spin the measurement
of mesons mass became more exact The spin-spin sentences effects is better from all sentences. In addition the
potential proportion with X and higher power we can reach to more exactly results.
Also its observed during calculations for heavy mesons that consist of identical quarks these method
results more exactly answers.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Flecks Bentz W, Shimizu K& Vozaki k, Nucl phys A, 510(1990) 731.


Znojil M.J Math phys, 31(1990).
Hushal R.S.Ann phys.206 (1991) 90.
Oezelik S& Simek M. phys M. phys Lett A. 152 (1991) 145.
Giannini, M.M., Santopinto, E., Vassalo, A. progress in particle and nuclear phys 50, (2003).
Rajabi.A.A, Iranian Journa of Science & Technology, Transaction A, Vol, 28. No.A2 (2004).
Rajabi, A.A., Indian Journal of pure and applied phys vo 141, pp 89-94 Feb (2003).
Fabredelarepelle, M phys Lett B 205 (1988) 97.
Giannini, M.M., Santopinto, E., Vassalo, A.: Eur Physics J.A.12.447-452(2001)
Santopinto, E., Iachello, F., Giannini, M.M., Eur phys. J.A1, 307-315(1998).
Giannini, M.M., Santopinto,E., and Vassallo,A., Nucl phys A 623,(2002).

Nuclear Physics

47

THE ROLE OF DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS IN THE DYNAMICS OF NUCLEAR PROCESSES


1,2,3

Abdurakhmanov I.B.

Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia


2
National University, Tashkent, Uzbbekistan
3
Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

The dissipation process in open quantum systems at initial time before the setting of the equilibrium state
plays a key role in such physical processes, as quantum-optical processes, nuclear fission and fussion and deep
inelastic collisions of heavy ions. The goal of a given work is to demonstrate the adwanced method for the
calculation of non-stationary diffusion coefficients of the collective system, in case when the collective subsystem
and thermostat are linearly coupled in the coordinate and momentum. As a result of the interaction between the
degrees of freedom of collective and intrinsic subsystems, the transport and diffusion coefficients on coordinate,
momentum and coordinate-momentum appear in the system. The Langevin formalism which is effective in
description of fluctuation and dissipative processes in macroscopic systems has been introduced in derivation of
equations of motion. In the kinetic theory the Langevens method significiently simplifies a procedure of
calculation of non-stationary quantum and thermal fluctuations and provides a clear picture of the dynamics of the
process.
In order to derive the quantum non-Markovian Langevin equations and the time-dependent transport
coefficients for a collective subsystem, a suitable microscopic Hamiltonian of the whole system sthe heat bath plus
collective subsystemd has first to be formulated. The following Hamiltonian is suggested:

H=

p 2 q 2
+
+ h b+ b + q q + p p,
2
2

where b+ and b are the phonon creation and anhigilation operators which describe the intrinsic excitation of the
system. Last two terms describe the interaction of collective motion with intrinsic excitations and induce an
appearance of dissipative terms in equations for the collective system. For example, while describing the
interaction of nuclei at low energies, the coupling in the coordinate (4th term) responses for the influence of the
mean field of each nucleus on the single-particle motion in other nucleus whereas the last term describes the
relation between the currents of intrinsic and collective motion. In the procedure of solving the second order
Heisenberg equations, the integro-differential quantum stochastic Langevin Equations are obtained directly:
t
p (t ) t
q& (t ) = ~ + d p& ( ) K GG (t , ) d q& ( ) K GV (t , ) + Fq (t ),

~
p& (t ) = q (t ) d q& ( ) K VV (t , ) d p& ( ) K GV (t , ) + F p (t ),

(1)

2
where ~ 1 = 1 2 m , ~ = 2 , K GV = h sin( (t )),
2

K GG = 2 m cos( (t )), K VV =

2
cos( (t ))
m 2

Since these kernels do not contain the phonon occupation numbers, they are independent of the temperature
T of the heat bath. The temperature and fluctuations enter in the analysis through the specification of the
distribution of the initial conditions. In Eqs. 1 the operators of random forces in the coordinate and momentum,
m h
h
Fq (t ) = i
( f+ (t ) f (t )) , F p (t ) = i
( f+ (t ) + f (t )) ,
2
2m

play the role of random forces in the coordinate and momentum and depend on q(t) and p(t) and on the initial
conditions for the operators. Following the usual procedure of statistical mechanics, we identify the operators Fq(t)
Fp(t) as fluctuations because of the uncertainty in the initial conditions for the bath operators. To specify the
statistical properties of the fluctuations, we consider an ensemble of initial states in which the operators of the
collective subsystem are fixed at values q(0) and p(0) and the initial bath operators are drawn from an ensemble
which is canonical with respect to the collective subsystem [3]. In this ensemble the fluctuations Fq(t) and Fp(t)
are distributed as Gaussians and have zero average values

Nuclear Physics

48

<< Fq (t ) >>=<< Fp (t ) >>= 0,


and nonzero second moments. Here, the symbol <<>> denotes the average over the bath. The Gaussian nature of
the random forces is endorsed in the case when the bath is treated as a set of harmonic oscillators or when the
interaction is the cumulative effect of a large number of weak interactions where a central-limit theorem can be
applied [1,2,4]. In order to calculate the correlation functions of the fluctuations, we use the Bose-Einstein statistics
of the bath:
<< f+ (t ) f+ (t ) >>=<< f (t ) f (t ) >>= 0, << f+ (t ) f (t ) >>= , n e i ( t t ) ,

<< f (t ) f+ (t ) >>= , (n + 1)e i ( t t ) ,


with occupation numbers for phonons depending on temperature T: n = [exp(h /(T )) 1] 1 .
The presence of the integral parts in Eqs. 1 indicates the non-Markovian character of the system. As one
can see, the dissipative kernels have the form of a memory functions, since they make the equations of motion at
time t dependent on the values of q& and p& for previous times. For simplicity of calculations, kernels K GG and

KVV are substituted by delta functions (instantaneous dissipation). Here, we assume that there are no correlations
between Fq and Fp, so that K GV = K VG = 0. Consequently, equations of motion can be read as
~
p (t )
p& (t ) = q (t ) p p (t ) + F p (t )
q& (t ) = ~ q q(t ) + Fq (t )

where q and p are friction coefficients on coordinate and momentum, respectively. These equations are solved by
means of Laplace transformation.
t

q (t ) = At q (0) + Bt p (0) + d [ A Fq (t )] + d [ B F p (t )]
t

p(t ) = M t q(0) + N t p(0) + d [ M Fq (t )] + d [ N F p (t )],

p q
t )[cos(~t ) +
sin(~t )],
2
2~
p + q sin(~t )
Bt = exp(
t ) ~ ~ ],

2
~
~
p + q sin(t )
p + q
p q
M t = exp(
t)
],
N t = exp(
t )[cos(~t )
sin(~t )].
~
2

2
2~

where At = exp(

p + q

In order to define friction and diffusion coefficients we write equations for the first and second moments
(variances):
< p (t ) >
~
< q& (t ) >=
q < q (t ) > , < p& (t ) >= < q(t ) > p < p(t ) >
~

& qq (t ) = 2 q qq (t ) + ~ qp (t ) + 2 Dqq (t ),

& pp (t ) = 2 p pp (t ) 2 qp (t ) + 2 D pp (t ),

& qp (t ) = qq (t ) + ~ pp (t ) ( p + q ) qp + 2 Dqp (t ) .

Thus, diffusion coefficients are defined as:


1
1
Dqq (t ) = < q (t ) Fq (t ) + Fq (t )q (t ) > , D pp (t ) = < p (t ) F p (t ) + F p (t ) p (t ) >
2
2
1
Dqp (t ) = < p(t ) Fq (t ) + q (t ) F p (t ) >
2
The main results:
Diffusion coefficients Dpp, Dqq , Dqp depend on the parameters , p, q . The value of should be taken
to hold the condition >> . We set h = 12 . We consider the case of a large mass m =448m0 (m0 is the
nucleon mass) and a small value h = 1 .

Nuclear Physics

49

In the figure the time dependencies of diffusion coefficients at the temperature T=0.1 MeV are given. In
our calculations we consider the case of a large mass =448m0 (m0 is a nucleon mass) and small value of
=1MeV. Solid, dashed, dotted, dash-dotted and short-dashed curves correspond to the friction coefficients q=0,
0.5, , 2 an 3, respectively.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

N.G. van Kampen, Stochastic Proccesses in Physics and Chemistry (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981).
C.W. Gardiner, Quantum Noise (Springer, Berlin, 1991).
K. Lindenberg and B. J. West, Phys. Rev. A 30, 568 (1984).
U. Weiss, Quantum Dissipative Systems (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999).
Yu.V. Palchikov, G.G. Adamian, N.V. Antonenko, W. Scheid, J. Phys. A 33 (2000) 4265; Physica A 316
(2002) 297.

50

16


O + O 16 O +12C .

16

K.A., E.E., ..
,

16 O + 12C 16 O + 16O
.
.
.
.
205 15%. .
,
16 O + 12C 16 O + 16O . [, 1 3].
. [41
.
16 O + 12C : E lab =132, 170, 181, 200, 230, 260, 281

[5], 16 O + 16O E lab =124, 145, 250, 350, 480


[6, 7].

.
.
[ 3, 6].
:
r Rv 1
r Rw 1
V (r ) = Vcoul (r ) + V0 (1 + exp
) + iW0 (1 + exp
) + Vcore (r ) ,
av
aw

(1)

Z a e
Z A e R c .

Vcoul (r ) =

Z A *Z a *e 2
, rR
r
Z A * Z a * e2
r2
* (3 2 ) , r R
2 * Rc
Rc

(1)
.
, . V0 W0 -
. a v a w , Rv Rw -
.
:

1 (1) l
Vcore (r ) = V k (r), r < rk + r *
2
1 (1) l
0,
r > rk + r *
2
2
r
Vk (r ) = C * (1 2 )
R 0

51

, rk , r - . [8].
. .
. -
.
1. 1 2
16 O + 12C 16 O + 16O .
. , ,
.

. 3.
.
, [, 9]
.
( 16 O 12 C ) ,
.
, ,
/ [10]
4,
A + ( A + x) A + ( A + x) A = A .
, ,
. , ,
. :

d 1
d
d
( , ) =
( , ) + 1 ( , ) .
d
d
d

.
. ().
,
, , , .
,
. 16 O 12 C - (4 3 ).
- .
A(a, b)B.
:

f ( ) = S b1 / 2 S 1A/ 2 d ra d rb b( ) (rb ) b* (rax )Va (rBx ) A(rBx ) ( +a) (ra ) ,


8

S b1 / 2 = S 1A/ 2 = S 1 / 2 16 O 12 O 4 He - .
2 . ( ra , rb )
( rax , rBx ) :

rBx = s1 ra + t1 rb , rax = s 2 ra + t 2 rb ,
s1 =

aA
ba
bA
bB
, s2 =
, t1 =
, t2 =
, T=a + A= b + B.
xT
xT
xT
xT

5 .
P. Kunz DWUCK4 16 O + 12 C 16 O + 16 O .
:
, 1.
. .
. 1.
16 O + 16 O ,
90 0 ,
. 16 O + 12 C

52

100 0 - 120 0 . 6 7.
.
2 . ,
:
, , .
J
.
:

J V ,W =

4 *
VV ,W (r )dr ,
A p * At 0

(2)

A At - - - , VV ,W (r )
. ,
, , 1. 2
(2). 8
.
[, 9].

. , U(r),
b [11].
11

U (r ) b 2
( ) = 2 [1
2]
E
r
0

rdr ,

(3)

, :

l = 2 Re

d l
dl

[12]:

mU (r )dr

l =
r0

(l + 1 ) 2
2
2
k
2
r

h2

(3.1)

(3.1) :

l ~

mU (r0 )r0
.
kh 2

r0 - . r0
(3).
r0 ~ l .

k
k h2
2 E =
(3.1) :
m
Vl
l ~
2

2 E (1 + exp(

r l
a

k ))

V
E (1 + exp(

r+ l
a

k ))

exp(l +

r+ l

2a (1 + exp(

k )lV

a
r+ l
a

k )2 k

53

l - , , E- , V, a, r -
: , , .
l
. . ,
,
l .
.
. 9 10
: 16 O + 12 C 16 O + 16 O .
[13] 3

. ,
,
. ,

:

= 1

U (r )
,
E

[14]
.
, ,
.
[15] .
16 O + 16 O .
. 16 O
12
C - , . .
K=9*C.
K=9*C.
.
[, 8, 16, 17, 18]
, K 100-300 .

30 %.
C=K/9, C (1).
K 205 . . [16, 17, 18].

.. , .
. ,
1.
K=205 15 %.
, 16 O + 12C
16
O + 16O .
.
.
.
.
205 15%.
.

54

O+12C

132
170
181
200
230
260
281

O+16O

87.2
94.8
103.1124
145
250
350
480

16

16

Elab, M

-V0,
M
100
80
100
100
90
140
100
190
150
190
150
150
120
170
150

-W0,

15
17
13
15
14
20
15
15
15
20
15
16
15
25
30

av,

aw,

1.0
1.2
1.2
0.9
0.9
1.5
0.8
1.4
1.4
1.4
0.9
1.45
0.8
1.3
1.3

0.15
0.2
0.2
0.5
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.22
0.25
0.25
0.7
0.7
0.75
0.7
0.5

rv,

0.9
0.95
0.95
0.97
0.9
0.93
0.93
1.7
1.7
1.7
0.7
0.85
0.7
0.7
0..8

rw,

1.21
1.27
1.4
1.36
1.28
1.27
1.35
5.8
5.7
5.9
1.07
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.35

C
26.2
24.5
23
22.7
22.5
21
20
30
28
27
26.5
25.5
22
20.5
20

rk,

1.6
1.6
1.6
1.55
1.5
1.6
1.8
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.8

r,

0.05
0.01
0.01
0.04
0.3
0.4
0.2
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.05
0.01
0.06
0.01

.1 (). 16 O + 12C .
. - ,
,

X2
6.15
11.51
18.39
9.9
9.86
7.22
20.1

28.43
5.04
7.6
3.99
11.91

55

56

.2 (). 16 O + 16 O .
. - ,
,

57

58

.3 (.)
16
O + 16O 16 O + 12C

59

60

.4.

.5.
.6 (). 16 O + 12 C
. [2], ,

61

62

.7 (). 16 O + 12 C
. [2], ,
. 2.
(2)

63

2.

16

O + 12C

16

O +16O

E . . , M *

J V , 3

J W , 3

56.57
72.86
77..57
85.71
98.57
111.43
120.43
62
72,5
125
175
240

372,46
358,87
339,3
320,87
291,8
279,72
256,63
350,08
369,46
372,89
316,46
314,67

81,43
85,35
87,28
94,89
95,29
100,42
90,35
92,72
96,8
95,67
102,04
111,08

-Jv,w,

*- .

400

350

300

Jv
Jw
Jv
Jw

250

200

16

16

O +O
16
16
O +O
16
12
O +C
16
12
O +C

150

100
40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

240

260

E . .,
.8.

64

.9.

16

O +12C

.10.

16

O +16O

3.

16

O + 12C 16 O + 16O

16

O +12C

16

O + 16O

Elab ,

R ,0

132
170
181
200
230
260
281
124
145
250
350
480

100
91
85
74
62
56
54
58
56
54
50
46

65

4.

16

O + 12C

16

O + 16O

Elab ,
132
170
181
200
230
260
281
124
145
250
350
480

,
235.8
220.5
207
204.3
202.5
189
180
238.5
229.5
198
184.5
180

1. .., ., .. .. // . . 1978. . 42, 1,


.-127-130.
2. .., .., . . // . . . . 2003. . 67,
1, . 80-84.
3. .., .., .C. . // . . C. , 2003. . 67,
1, . 72-79.
4. Khoa. Dao T. et al. // Nucl. Phys. A. 2000. Vol. 672. P.-387.
5. Khoa. Dao T. et al. // Phys. Rev. Lett. 1995. Vol. 74. 1, P.-34.
6. Ogloblin A.A., Trzaska, W.H. Goncharov S.A. et al // Phys. Rev. C 2000. Vol. 62, 0446011-0446019.
7. Nicoli M.P. THESE pour obtenir le grade de Docteur de lUniversite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, 1998.
8. .., .. // . 1975. . 6, .- 393.
9. M.E. Brandan, G.R. Satchler. Phys. Rep., 285, p. 143-243, (1997).
10. .. . , ., 1973.
11. . . , ., 1969, . 607.
12. .. , E.. , . 3,
., , ., 1989, c. 590.
13. W. von Oertzen et al. Refractive Scattering and Reactions in the 16 O + 16O System, 4
.
14. D.A. Goldberg, S.M. Smith //Phys. Rev. Lett., V. 29, P. 500-503.
15. W. Scheid, R. Ligensa and W. Greiner //Phys. Rev. Lett. V. 21, 21, P. 1479, 1968.
16. M.M. Sharma. Research Reports in Physics, Nuclear Astrophysics. 1989.
17. V.N. Bragin and R. Donangelo //Nucl. Phys. A, V. 433, P. 495, 1985.
18. G.P. Blaizot, D. Gogny, B. Grammaticos //Nucl.Phys A, V. 265, P. 315, 1976.

66

.., .., ..

, ,
e-mail: koblik@inp.uz

,
, ,
.
..

,
, .
,
, , [1, 2].

[3].

.
,
B = 0**H, H ( )
. , ,
. [1],
, , , .
,
0,01 ,
[4].
, ,
. ,
,
,
.

.
,
, , .
400 200 10
. ,
.
.
, (. 1).

.1.

67

1, ,
, , 2, LC
. 3 ,
.
4 1,
, 1-70
1-53.
.
.
- 5
.
,
.
2.

.2.


, .
, .
-, ,
.
, .
,
,
. - (),
[5]. . 3,
, .
, , 10 .
[3],
, , , .
,
. , ,
[1,2].

.3.

68

140
200 8 10 400 700.
.
,
,
.


. ,
45 /
10 .
25 /, 1
, - .
, , ,
.
, .
,
.
F= n*F0.5, F0.5 ,
.
, ,

.
,
. .
,
,
, -
. ,
.
. , ,
, ,
, .
,
,
. (
) , , ,
. 30%
,
.
() , , ,
.

4.
, ,
, , .
180.
1, 2 3.
.
,

. ,
, .
,
,
,
.

69

.4.

, ,
,
.
, , ,

.
- 13-112 .
1. .., ., . . . .:
. . -, 1979.
2. .. . ., , 1969.
3. Kazantsev S.I., Koblik Yu.N. et.al. A High-Sensitivity Acoustically Pumped Sensor for Measuring
Constant and Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields. Instruments and Experimental Techniques, Vol. 48, 3,
2005, pp. 406-410.
4. Appl. Phys. Lett., 2006, 88, 062510. http://perst.isssph.kiae.ru.
5. .. : . , ,
2003.

70

()
() 11B10B+n 11C10B+p

1

.., 1 .., 1 A.., 1 A.A., 1 A.A., 1Ka M.A.,


1
.K., 1 E.A., 1 .A., 1 .., 1 O., 2 .K., 2 .,
2
.T., 2 .., 2 A..
1

Institute of Nuclear Physics, AS of Uzbekistan


e-mail: artemov@inp.uz;
2
Institute of Nuclear Physics, NNC of Kazakhstan
e-mail: burteb@inp.kz
:
- (, ) 11
S;
- 10 .

:
- 10B(3He,d)11C 11B(d,t)10B
~ 10 / ;
-
;
- ()
(p,) 11 (*=0.0; 4.32 6.48 );
- -

() , 1110+
11
10+n, ;
- S- 11
10
11
(,) 0 R- ,
{1110+}
.


()
() A(a,b)B
,
(, ).
, :

, .
, .

, , ,
. ,
, .. ,
.
,
,

. ,
,
, .
, ,
, ,
.

71

10B(3He,d)11C.
, 3Hed+p
11C10B+p .
-
3
Hed+p. , ,
.

.
r0 a

, b11 Cl

p jp

b32Hel

p jp

d
= C112 Cl j C 32Hel j R11C 3He ,
p p
p p
d 11Cl p j p

C 11 Cl

p jp

, Clj ,

b11Cl

p jp

(1)

blj ,

() |Glj|2

2c 2 2
C = Sb =
Glj ,
h
2
lj

2
lj

(2)

d 2
R(blj ) =
/ blj ,
d

(3)

r0, a
, ..

R11C 3He , (3) R(blj ) ,

( R (blj ) =const) r0 a;

d / d

,
.
,
11C10B+p 3Hed+p,
.
: i) -

R(bij ) =

const; ii) -

, .
,
()
, .
, N=Z, (2), :
2
2
Cn C p = bn2 b p2 (4) .

,
.
,
, ,
( ).
.
,
. V, r0
b,
.

72

[. . , . . . 69, 95 (2005)] 1p

bn p


, ( - )
.
<rp2>1/2, , .
, ,

bn p ,

3%. ,

bn2 b p2

Epn [.. , . . , .
, . . ].

bn2 b p2


1p .
10(3,d)11C
11 (= 8.693 ), ,
(3,d) .

.1. 10B(3He,d)11
11.

73

.2. R(b) (rcut) 10B(3He,d)11


d = 21 ( ) 34
1.

11
11

B10B+n(0.00,3/2-,1/2)
C10B+p(0.00,3/2-,1/2)

2
l, j

1, 3/2

11.455
8.691

4
V0
r0 , a
-55.457
1.217, 0.65

b1j

5
-1/2

4.27
4.77

6
<r2>1/2n/p
2.72
2.79

2.

AB+n (E*,J,T)
11
B10B+n(0.00,3/2,1/2)
11
C10B+p(0.00,3/2-,1/2)

l, j
1, 3/2

c2S
1.094

C2
19.9
24.9

C2
24.8 5.0
29.8 5.3

c2S
1.36 0.16
1.31 0.13

11(d,t)11C

2. ,
11 10B+n

,
E.c.,
(d,t), 11.8
(d,t), 18.0
(d,t), 25.0

G2,

C2, () 1

c2S

6.11
4.13
3.51 0.54

36.46
24.64
20.94 3.25

1.88
1.27
1.08 0.17

74


11 , 1110+ n 1p3/2 - ,
(C1p3/2)2 = 19.5 3.5 1,
.
. ,
( ), d = 25 ,
, ,
. ,
.
25 .

.3. 11( d,t )10 B *=0.0 d=25

.4. 11B(d,t)10B Ed =25

75

S
10B(p,)11C 11C 10B(p,)11C
R [F.C. Barker and T. Kajino. Aust.J.Phys., 44 (1991)369].
: ( 8.699 ,5/2+;
9.20 ,5/2+; 9.64 ,3/2-; 9.78 , 5/2- 11C)
11C. (12.4 ; J=5/2-)
.

11.

.

76

., ..

. ..,
2
, ,


.
.
: ,
, .. ,
,
().
, .
. ,
,
.
,
.
,
.
, .
.
(), ,
.
- ,
.
.
, 2.
, ,
.

ex ( xi ) ,
. ,
, ,
. .
, ,
(., , [1]).
,
:
b

S = l ( ) + 2 ( ex ) 2 dx ,
a

(1)

, ,
. (roughness penalty),
(., , [2]). l ( )
, roughness penalty.


.

. .

77

. ,
[3].
() [4] (1)

d
l ( ) 2 2 ( ex ) = 0 ,
dx

(2)

,
. .

l ( ) = 2 .
.
, :

l ( ) = 1 + 2 1 + 2 / 2 .
(2)
:

= A exp( x) + B exp( x) +

exp( | y x |)

ex

( y )dy .

A B ,
, .
, . a = , b = A B
. ,
,
. ,
, (kernel
smoothing, . [5]).

.1. " ", "" .


" , ""

78

100
50, 25
10 .
. . 1
, .
, 0.25, 0.45 0.95.
0%, 35.45% 99.83% 2 [6]. ,
=0.25 . =0.45
, = 0.95
.
,
,
. , , 2.
:

R( ) =

1
M

( ( xi ) ex ( xi )) 2
ex ( xi ) ;
i =1
M

x1 = a, x M = b .

p. 2 R( )
. , .. 1, 0.5
0.8.

.2. R( ) .

- PIXE,
-2-1. ,
p. 3. : 23
142, 143 244 245 1000. ,
85%, 0.45, 2.45 0.6, . R( ) 0.95 1000
, .

-
,
.
. , ,
- .
, .
,
.

79

.3. () (). ,
Y.

1. Silverman, B.W. (1984) Spline Smoothing: The Equivalent Variable Kernel Method, The Annals of
Statistics, 12, 898-916.
2. Good, I.J., and R.A. Gaskins (1971) Nonparametric roughness penalties for probability densities, Biometrika,
58, 255-277.
3. Boneva, L.I., D.G. Kendall, and I. Stefanov (1971) Spline Transformation: Three New Diagnostic Aids for the
Statistical Data-analyst (with Discussion), Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B: Methodological,
33, 1-70.
4. .. . . 2-.-.: , 1969.
5. Wand M.P., Jones M.C. Kernel Smoothing, Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability, Chapman &
Hall, 1995.
6. .. : .: , 1984.

80

- 9Be
1

.., 2 .., 2 ..

. -, ,
, ,

-
9 . ,
9:
. , - pN-
p- ,
.

- ,
,
. , ,
-
- ,
N-.
-
, .

, .
9 :
,
?

. ,
- .
, , , ,
.
d/d
= 0,22 (TRIUMF) [1] = 1,0 [2].

, .
, .
1. -

-.
,
.
,
, . ,
- . -
:

r
M ifs ( q ) =

Ms Ms

MJ MJ

ik
2

2
3

=1

Ms

nr 1
2

Ms

r
r
rr
dr exp( iq ) ( R9 ) fJM J s iJM J .

(1)

81

z
p

/2

k'

q
y

r r

r r r

.1. n , p, q - k , k


r r r
n , p, q . .1

- k k :

r r r
r r r r r
n = k k = p q , p = k + k ,
r r r
q = k k .

(2)

r r r
r r qk
n = 2
,
k sin

sin q k , - ,

r r r
r r
r
k nq = nq k .

(1) :
s = s 1 + s 2 + s n s 1 s 2 s 1 s n s 2 s n + s 1 s 2 s n ,
r r r r
r r 2
sn = G sj n( j ) exp ( j ) js ,

G sj =

xj Ds ( i + )

( )

s
xj

, js =

1
2xjs

(5)

(6)

4
r
r
r r 2
sj = G sV s exp xjs ( j ) ,
xjs =

s
xj

(3)
(4)

rs
2 F1s r r , s k xj
1 1
1 ,
( i + xjs ) , F2s = , F3s =
n F1 =
, G =
4
t3 t4
t 3t 4
2
k ( xjs ) 2
1

s
xj

(7)

6 F3s
F2s
F3s
1 2 F2s 12 F3s
s
,
s s 2 , F5s =
+
=

,
F
6
2 xj
2( xjs ) 2 ( xjs ) 3
2( xjs ) 4
( xj )
r
r r
r r 3
r r 5
(8)
V s = F4s ( j ) + F5s j + F6s j ,

j=1,2 1, 2. (8) (
- ,
), ,
s :
F4s =

82

=
s

m =1

~
~
~
~
g ms ( m 2 + m R 2 + m ~
r 2 + m R + m ~
r + m R ~
r + m + m R + m~
r)

~
~
~
r 2 + d ms R + l ms ~
r + f ms R ~
r ),
exp( a b R 2 c ms ~
s
m

, (9)

s
m

m = ( 0,0,0,1,11
, ), m = 0,0,0, 1 ,0,0 , m = 0,0,0,0, 4 , 4 , m = 0,0,0, 2 , 1 , 1 ,

9 9
9 9 9
1
1
8
1
1

8
8

, , ,0,0,0), m = , , ,0,0,0 , m = , ,0,0,0,0 ,


m = 0,0,0,0, , , m = (111

9 9 9
2 2
81 81

81

g ms , ams ,... , ,
s. (9) m :
m= 1-3 , m=4-6 . (9)
1 2 n . , ,
- , , s,
.
,
. , - ,
, :

1M L

ML MS M J

ML MS M J

r
r
RY1 M L RY

1ML

1
3
1
3

M S M J 1M L
MS
MJ
2
2
2
2
=

3
4

1
2

MS

nr 1
2

MS

(10)

P( R 2 ) cos + 3 R R sin ,
x, y,z
n
x y
n

4 2

2
24
2 4
P ( R x2, y ,z ) = R x2
+ Ry +
+ Rz .
3
3
3
3
3
(10) ,
r
RY1 M L .

r
n :

1
2

r r

Ms

n 1
2

M s

= (1)1 3 1

r
1
1
M s M s n ,
2
2

(11)

4
r
Y1 ( n ),
3

1 3
exp(i n )
Y11 ( n n ) =
2
2

r
Y1 (n ) =
Y10 ( n n ) = 0
(12)

1 3
exp( i n )
Y11 ( n n ) =
2 2

r
- , n
(12) n =
2
r r
k k , .1 (2).
n =

, :

1
2

MS

nr 1
2

M S

0, M S = M S

1
1
= (cos n i sin n ), M S = , M S =
2
2

1
1
(cos + i sin ), M = , M =
n
n
S
S

2
2

(13)

83

.
- ,
(1) , i = f = 011 ,
:
1S= 3 { cos {c1 [ m ( I x ( Rx2 , x ) I y + I x ( Rx2 ) I y ( y )) + m ( I x ( Rx3 ) I y + I x ( Rx2 ) I y ( R y )) +

m ( I x ( Rx2 rx ) I y + I x ( Rx2 ) I y ( ry ))]I z +

m =1

c2 [ I x ( x ) I y ( R y ) + I x I y ( R y2 y ) +
m ( I x ( Rx ) I y ( R y2 ) + I x I y ( R 3y )) + m ( I x ( rx ) I y ( R y2 ) + I x I y ( R y2 ry )]I z +

(14)

c 3 [ I x ( x ) I y + I x I y ( y ) + m ( I x ( R x ) I y + I x I y ( R y )) + m ( I x ( rx ) I y +
I x I y ( ry ))]I z ( R )} + Sin n {c3 [ m ( I x ( Rx x ) I y ( R y ) + I x ( Rx ) I y ( R y y )) +
2
z

m ( I x ( Rx2 ) I y ( R y ) + I x ( Rx ) I y ( R y2 )) + m ( I x ( Rx rx ) I y ( R y ) + I x ( Rx ) I y ( R y ry ))]I z } },

Ix =

3 2
3 2
2
, c2 =
+ , c3 = ,
3
3
3
3
3

c1 =

drx dR x

~
exp( a m x2 bm Rx2 c~m rx2 + d m x Rx + l m x rx + f m Rx rx + iq x x )


exp x ,

(15)

am
dm

lm

2
2

dm
~
bm
fm

lm

fm
c~m

2
2

am
dm

lm

qx

dm

~
bm
fm

2
2
2

lm

fm

qx

c~m

bm = bm + b j + b j , c~m = c m + i + i .

. , ,
I x R , x , I x Rx4 I x ,
, ,
(15).
(14) ,
( , ),
,
. , 9 2N-
, ,
, .. ,
. (14)
.

2
x

) ( )

2. 9- -

,
9- -
0,22 1.0 .
()
:
r
r
r
M if ( q ) = M ifc ( q ) + M ifs ( q ) ,
(16)

d
1
M c (qr ) 2 + M s (qr ) 2 ,
=

if

d 2 J + 1 M J M J if

(17)

,
(17) .
,
n- p- . [3,5],

84

. , [5] ,
, .
103

=0,22

102

d/d, /

101

100

10-1

10-2

10-3
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

, .

.2. . -
. [4,5]
.2 , ( )
() ( (17)) = 0,22 () 1,04 () .
, -
. [4,6]
16
, 12,13.

85

3. 9-
,
, (16) :

Ay =

],

r
r
2 Re M ifc ( q ) M ifs ( q )
d

(18)

.3 , =
0,22 () 1,04 () , [1,2].
.3 1 2 - 1 2, . 3 4
() () [1]. ,
, . ,
, 1 ( 1 -
-). < 300 , > 300
, .
, ,
3 500 , =600-800
.
= 400 - 600,
600.

.3. 9; - = 0,22,
- 1,04 () . . [1,7]

86

.3 1 2 2 3. ,
, ,
12, 16 [6]. , 120 [7],

.
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
( )
. ,
-, ,
, 2N-.

-
,
9:
=0,22 1,0 .
, N,-
- 9 , ,
. ,
,
, ,
.
- pN- p-
,
,
.

1. Roy G., Sherif H.S., Cooper E.D. et al. Deformation and target spin-dependent effects in Be9+p at 220 Mev //
Nucl.Phys. - 1985. - V. A442. - P. 686-701.
2. .., .., A.A. . 1
1- // . - 1985. - .42, .1. - .8-15.
3. .., .., ..
. - .: , 1991. - 224; .., .. -
// . - 2007. - .70, .1. - .98-113.
4. Tan Zhen-Qiang and Ruan Wein - Ying. Proton - oxygen elastic scattering and spin effects at Tp=200 Mev in
the four - particle model // Journ.Phys. - 1989. - V.G15. - P. 1599-1603; Proton - nucleus optical potential in
the alpha - particle model //Nucl.Phys. - 1990. - V.A514. - P. 295-308.
5. Faldt G. and Ingemarsson A. Elastic proton - nucleus scattering at 800 Mev: a comparison between the optical
model and the Glauber model // Journ.Phys. - 1983. - V.G9. - P. 261-274; Faldt G. and Hulthage I. Spin
effects in elastic proton - nucleus scattering at 1 Gev // Journ.Phys. - 1978. - V.G4, 3. - P. 363-373.
6. Berezhnoy Yu.A., Pilipenko V.V. and Khonenko G.A. Polarisation in proton-carbon elastic scattering and the
-particle model with dispersion // Journ.Phys. - 1984. - V.G10. - P.63-74; .., ..,
.. 16
- // . . C. . - 1988.- .52, 11. - . 2185-2188.
7. .., .., .. . , , ,
Al, Pb =1000 // . - 1972. - .16, .2. - .1145-1149.

87

,
,
a

.., b ..

, , .
, , .

1939 [1].
[2], .
.
- () [3]
1 [4]. , 1, 6 :
, , -, -, .
, , .
.
, , , L ,
. 1
. [5],
Ln = L p = L = 1 , - L = Ld = 2 -

. .
. 1 ,
.

E *

L . , ,
( = n, p, , d ), L = L LRN ,
- [6]:

L
E*

( LRN )

( E , L)
*

2 LRN + 1
2 ( E * , L )

E * B

RN ( E * B , LRN )

LRN + I

L + S

S = LRN I l = L S

(1)

Tl d .

E L , B

, I , LRN , l

, S , Tl . , (1)
[7]. , L , :
1

( L ) = ( L L ) LE* ( Li ) .
i

.

190
78 Pt , . 1.
, .. .
, ( L = 0, 20, 40,
*
60, 80) E = 120 ,
L
E*

( E = 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 ) L = 30.


*

, L E . . 1 , L
, .

88

( ) Ln .
, 0 L < 20
, . L = 0
.
. 1 , 0 7.
208
224
[8] 16
,
8 O + 82 Pb 90 Th
- 20
50.
Ln , , ..

, % , % , % , %

, %

. < Ln > 1 L < 50.


30
25 L=0

<Ln>=-2.97

20

E =120

E =50

<Ln>=0.44

L=30

15
10
5
0
30
25
20

L=20

<Ln>=0.02

E =120

E =100

<Ln>=0.32

L=30

15
10
5
0
30
25
20

L=40

<Ln>=0.52

E =120

E =150

<Ln>=0.26

L=30

15
10
5
0
30
25

L=60

<Ln>=0.93

E =200

<Ln>=0.21

L=30

20 E =120
15
10
5
0
30
25

L=80

<Ln>=1.34

20 E =120

E =250

<Ln>=0.17

L=30

15
10
5
0

-7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
,

-7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
,

.1. ,

( L

89

< L > ,
, (. 2). . 2 ,
1 < L > .

3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4

<L>

E =120

20

40
L

60

80

.2. ,

90

100

Pf , %

L0=0

1
2

80

60

190

Pt

40

E tot0=150

20
0
190

Pt
*
E tot0=150

<npre>

6
5

L0=0

1
2

10

c
4

<tf>,

10

10

190

10

Pt

E tot0=150

10

1
2

10

20

L0=0

30
L0

40

50

60

.3. a) , b) c)

, ,
. , 1,
( )
-, ,
.


. 3 L ,
.
, , ,

. ,
L0 . Bn < B f ;

L0 ( Bn B f );

91

Bn > B f .
. , L0
, .

L0 = 45. . 3 , ,

< L > (. . 2)
.


, .

19
9

200
F +181
73 Ta 82 Pb . . 4 5.

70
60

Pf , %

50
40
30
[9]
[10]
CDSM1

20
10
0
50

55

60

65
70
E tot0,
*

75

80

.4.

. 4 ,
, .
, ,
*
. . 5 , Etot 0
,
: .
.

92

8
7

<npre>

6
5
4
3
[11]
[12]
CDSM1

2
1
0
40

60

80 100 120 140 160 180 200


*
E tot0,

.5.

, ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Hahn O., Strassmann F. // Naturwissenshaften, 27 (1939) 11.


Bohr N., Wheeler J.A. // Phys. Rev., 56 (1939) 426.
Gontchar I., Litnevsky L.A., Frbrich P. // Comp. Phys. Com., 107 (1997) 223.
.. . // , 67 (2004) 1.
Delagrange H. et al. // Z. Phys., A323 (1986) 437.
Frbrich P. and Lipperheide R., Lectures on the Theory of Nuclear Reactions // Oxford University Press,
(1995).
Blann M. and Komoto T.T. // LLNL Report, 94550 (1984).
.. // , 26 (1995) 922.
Charity R.J. et al. // Nucl. Phys., A457 (1986) 441.
Andersen J.U. et al. // Mat. Fys. Medd. Dan. Vid. Selsk. 40 (1980).
Newton J.O. et al. // Nucl. Phys. A483 (1988) 126.
Hinde D.J., et al. // Phys. Rev. C39 (1989) 2268.

93


52Ti 52V 52Cr

.., .., .., .., .., ..


, ,
1.
, ,
, , ,
, : , .
51V(n,n) ,
- [1] .
- - -100.
,
-1024 ()
IBM PC/AT, - () 007,
(). .
,
,
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- ( 300 303).
,
ISA.
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(.. 4096 8192 ), .
:

;
100 ;

, - ,
:
;

;
;

, .

, 51V 99, 750%.


(
), 52Ti52V52Cr c T1/2=49 [2]. 1
-, .

.1.

94

.2. -

In t

T i-5 2

60

E =422 keV

40
20
0

50

100

150

2 0 0 m in

Int

V-52

20

E =124.5 keV

15
10
5
0

50

100

200 min

150

In t
8

C r -5 2

E = 1 .4 3 M e V

4
2
0

50

100

150

2 0 0 m in

.3. -
.
t1/2=49

95

50Ti(t, p) Li(n, )
T1/2=49 (3) [3]. T1/2=1,7 ,
52Ti.

.4.
,
51V (n, p) (n, ).

-,
.
- () (n,n)
( ).
- ,
: W()=1+a2P2(cos ) + a4P4(cos ).

. , W(),
. 2 4
.

, 52Ti c
Ti1/2=49 .

=422 (52Ti), =124,5 (52V) =1,43 (52Cr)
. ,
. , T1/2=1,7
T1/2=49 .

.
2.


, , .

96


. -,
- (n,n).
, , ..
. ,
.

.

. ,
(n,n) (, )
, .
[4] ,
< 310-14 ( 152Eu)
,
, .. > 10-14.
, ..
( ).
(n,n) - .
.
- 1 2,
0.

, - (..
) 1-
, ..
[5].
..
. , ,
[6],
.
( -) (n,n).
, , ..
, 10-13 10-15,
, .
1. .. . // .-. 1977. 4..1.
2. .. , .. , .. , .. , .. .
"-2004". 2004. . . . 69.
3. Radiochim. Acta. 1966. 5. P143.
4. .. , .. , .. // . . . 1990. .54. 9. .1798.
5. .. . // . 2005. .175. 5. .555.
6. .. , .. , .. . // . . . 1990. .54. 1. .169.

97

-
1)

.., 1) .., 1) A.A., 1) .., 1) A..,


1)
.A., 1) .., 2) .
1)

Institute of Nuclear Physics, AS of Uzbekistan


e-mail: artemov@inp.uz
2)
Institute of Nuclear Physics, NNC of Kazakhstan
e-mail: burteb@inp.kz
( - )


() :
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.
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E dE MATRIX [E,dE] ++,

98

.
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MATRIX [E+dE, dE];
MATRIX [(E+dE/2), dE/2],
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.3. Win_EdE
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100

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101



1
1

.. 2 .. 1 .. 3 ..

, .
2
, .
3
. . ,
.

, ,
,
. , ,
,
- . ,
, -, , , ,
, , - .
, ,
, , , .
- (3He, p) (, d).

(6Li, ), (6Li, d), (7Li, t), (7Li, ) .
6Li, 7Li
- , - . ,
6Li , ..
, ,
. (6Li, )
. ,
(, d), , -, -
, - .

.. [1].
, .
. 1 (6Li, d) (6Li, ) - 12.

. - ,
. , ,
, ,
(6Li, ) (7Li, ) ,
, .
12

12

Li

(6Li, d) =

16

12

16

Li

12

i
14

d
16

12

Li

+ 13i

d
6

Li

14

14

12

Li

+ 13i

(6Li, ) =

13

Li

14

.1. 12 (6Li, d) 16O, 12 (6Li, ) 14N


102


.
t0=2m (m - ,
- ( (d, p) t0=4,5)).
t0 (, ...) :

(6Li, )
(3, p)
(, d)
(11B, 9Be)

(7Li, )
(, p)
(9Be, 6Li)
(15N, 12C)

t0
5,9
20,4
94,4
63,2

-
(6Li, d)
(7Li, t)
(14N, 10B)
(16O, 12C)

t0
14,8
108
126
89

t0
11,8
19,7
92,7
57

t0
( t0=0), .
(d, p) - (d,n) - .

. ,
.
, ,
(d, p)-, .
,
.
,
, , [2]

ik
i
d e I ( ),
2

= 2k sin ,
2

f y ( ) =

(1)

r
2
I ( ) = dr 0 (r ) {1 + 2 1 2 },

- ;
- -

(2)

(r r )/(1 +
1

m 2

k ;
- ;

r = r1 r2 - - ;
0 (r ) - ;

1 2

- ,
.
, [3-8],

= e 2 p [I 0 (2 p 2 ) + I1 (2 p 2 )],
2

2 R . m1
2
1/ 2
m +m

m1
m1 + m2
1
2
E
E ,
1 ( E1 ) =

exp
2
m1 + m2
4 Eh 2
4 Eh

- , 1 - m1.

(3)

(4)

103

m1

d (1 ) 2 z / p
= 2e
d
p

J 1 ( ) z1 p

+
1
4

d
I
e

0
2

p
2

1
+ d d ' J 1 ( ) J 1 ( ' )e

(5)

2 p2

d
0

2 + ' 2

J 1 ( )

I 0 12 + ,
p

m = ( 2 + ' 2 m 2 ' cos ) ,


1/ 2

8m 2 R 2 E
z1 = 2 1

h (m1 + m2 )

1/ 2

sin

J 1 ( ) - .

1
2

m2,

2 ( E2 ),

d (2 )
d

z2.

- .

,
,
, , - .
, ,
. , , , 3, 6Li, 7Li, 7Be, 9Be, 13C

. ,
. , ,
, , , ,
-, .
,
[2]. , , ,
, .

, , -,

d (k1 ) =

2
d k1
d 2 1 1 ( 2 ) / d r 1 e l k r
3
(2 )
1 1

(6)

1 ( 2 ) (r1 r2 ) 2 ;
(r1 r2 ) .
[3,9,10].
, .

h k1

. k1
. ,
- r1 r2 -

r = r1 r2

104

R=

m1
m2
r1 +
r,
m1 + m2
m2 + m1 2

m1 m2 - .

h k 1z

m1
m1 + m2
E . ,
E1

2E
m1 + m2

hk1z =

(7)

1
h 1
1/ 2

m1
z
8m 2 E
k sin = 2 1
sin 1 1 ,
1 = 2

m1 + m2
2 h (m1 + m2 )
2 R

hk

(8)

- , R - -, .
.
( ) = 1 ( ) = ( R ) = 0,5[( R ) / | R | +1]

( ) =

hk :

R
1
d q J 1 (qR)e i q r .

q
2

(9)

2 ( ) = ( ); 2 ( ) = ( ).

(r ) =

e r ,

(10)

.
2

R0 = d r (r ) ,

(11)

R0 R0 =

2 / .

p = 2 R / R0 = R 2 .

h k 1 , [3,9,10]
(12)
1 R st = R e 2 p [I 0 (2 p 2 )+ I1 (2 p 2 )].
, 2 . p1

= = RR .

2

1 [3, 9,10]

1 = 1 ( E1 ) =
m1 + m2

2
4
h E

= st

1 d 1 ( E1 )
=
R 2 dE1

(13)
2
m + m

m1
E .
exp 1 2 2 E1
m
m
+
E

4
1
2


2 ( E2 )

1/ 2

2
1 2 2 1.
1


z12

1 d 1 ( z1 ) 2 p
= 2e
1 (1 ) 2
p
R z1dz1

105

J 12 ( )
1
4
d

z 2 1
J 0 1 e p + d dJ 1 ( ) J 1 ( )e
0 0
p2
2

d
0

J 1 2 2 2 cos

2 + 2 2 cos

)I z
0

1
2

2 + 2
2 p2

(14)

2 + 2 2 cos

2
1 (1 ) 2 ( 2 ) , 1 2 z1

8m22 R 2 E

sin .
2
2
h (m1 + m2 )

(15)

t = 2R 2 {1 + e 2 p [I 0 (2 p 2 ) + I1 (2 p 2 )]},

(16)

z2 =

6Li,
( 1) - ( 2) 1,47 .
6Li (
, p 2 R).
:
- t 6Li
:
2

a = t ( 1 + 2 ) = R 2 {1 e 2 p [I 0 (2 p 2 ) + I1 (2 p 2 )]},

1
2

(17)

. ,

2 t

.

.
.
, .
1. .. . . 1963 ., 155 .
2. .. , 1974 .
3. .. .. ,
1988 ., 283 .
4. .. , 1978 ., 176 .
5. .. .. ..// 2003 ., 4 25-32 .
6. Ismatov E.I. Kuterbekov K.A. Djuraev Sh.Kh.//Proccedings of II Eurasian Conference on Nuclear Science and
its Application, Almaty - 2003 P. 216-234 s.
7. .. .. ..
, , , 2002 ., 311 .
8. .. -- , 1960 ., . 9, 489 .
9. .. .. ..//
- ,
2007 ., 104-107 .
10. .. .. .. .. // - ,
2007 ., 7-10 .

106

..
, ,
,
. .
.

. ,
r0 a0 ,
, ,
. ,
(
) ,
.
-
(), 1956 . [1].
.
.
- .
, nd-
[2].
. ,
.
[4, 5].
.

( ) ,
[6, 7] (. .1).

Z , m , ,
s-
:

( ki , k 0 ) = V0eff

(ki , k 0 ) +

2 V0eff ( ki , k )k 2

k 2 k02 i0

f ( k , k 0 ) dk ,

(1)

r r
16
V eff (ki , k j ) =
r
r
3 2 + k j + ki / 2

( + ) 2 S (ki )

) )(mZ +
2

ki2

k 2j

)(

r r
r r
+ k j ki 2 + ki + k j / 2

))

2
+ ak
, aki = mZ + ki 3 / 4 , = m .
2 + + ak
. :
r0 3 / , (1) - [1]:

S (k ) = ( + ak )2

f (ki , k j ; k 0 ) =

8
8
2 L(k , k )k 2
a ki + L(ki , k j ) + aki + 2 i 2
f (k , k j ; k 0 ) dk ,
0 k k0 i0
3
3

k i2 + k 2j + k i k j + 2
1
.
L(k i , k j ) =
ln 2
2
2
2k i k j
ki + k j ki k j +

(2)

107

k,
ki=kj=k0
Z = 3 k02 4m + . 2 = mZ
. nd-
1/2. 1961 . ..
[2]. , ,
. ,
( k , Z )
:
(3)
sin( 0 ln(k / ))
cos( 0 ln(k / ))
1
(k , Z ) = A( Z )
+ B(Z )
+ o 2 ,
k
k2
k2
A(Z) B(Z), , ,
. 0=1.00623..., ,
.
(3)
A(Z) B(Z) , [2,3]:
(4)
A( Z ) = B( Z ), = const ( Z ).
. ,
, .
(2) .
-- [4, 5].
.

[4, 5]
. :
d2
2 0
1
F ( x) + 02 F0 ( x) +
F ( x) = U ( x),
(5)
2 0
D( 0 ) cosh( x) 1
dx

d2
2Xi
1
F ( x) = 0 ;
F ( x) X i2 Fi ( x) +
2 i
D
(
X
)
cosh(
x) 1
dx
i

U ( x) =

2
L(i )
( 2 02 ) sin( x)d ,

3 0 1 L(i )

Fi (0) = 0,

F = F0 + i =1 Fi ,


sin s
8
6 , 1 L(i ) = 0; 1 L( X ) = 0;
L( s ) =
0
i
3

s cos s
2
D( X i ) = (1-L( s ))' s = X , iD( 0 ) = (1-L( s ))' s =i .
0
i
, a :

a=

d
F ( x)
.
dx
x =0

(6)

x (5) (2):
k=


(3)
(4) :

2
sinh( x) .
3

F ( x) (sin( 0 x) + tg ( ) cos( 0 x) ) .

108

+ 0 ln 3 = const ( Z ) .

(7)

, ,
, ,
. p.1
.
(1) , , . ,

[6,7].
.

.1. : 1
,
; 2 [6, 7]; 3 4
,
, ; 5 (5).

p.1 ,
,
. (5),
--,
, .

(5)
. (5)
,
,
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.., - .. // , 1956. . 31. . 775.


.. // , 1961. . 40, . 498.
.., .. // , 1961. . 41. . 1850.
Penkov F.M. and Sandhas W. // Phys. Rev. A, 2005. V. 72. P. 060702(R).
.., .// , , 2007. .71. . 6.

109

6. Roudnev V.A. // Chem. Phys. Lett., 2003. V. 367, P. 95; Roudnev V.A., Yakovlev S.L., and Sofianos S.A. //
Few-Body Systems, 2005. V. 37. P. 179.
7. Motovilov A.K., Sandhas W., Sofianos S.A., and Kolganova E.A. // Eur. Phys.J. D, 2001. V. 13. P. 33.
8. Slavaynov S.Yu., Lay W. Special Function: A Unified Theory Based on Singularities New York, Oxford
University Press, 2000.

110

, -, - -

.., .., ., .., .., ., ..


- , ,

(- (~
pp) - 22,4 32 /, - ( p, n) -
- ( C) - 40 /, - (CC) - -
(CTa ) - 4,2 /).
,
.
K
, ,

K = E E 0 ,

(1)

E 0 .

~
pp -
[1] [2], p - C -

[3]. - -
[4].
-
,
, ,
, - ,
.
pp -
~
[5].
K

~
pp - 1.
1. K

~
pp 22,4 /
.
N
< K >

.
N
< K >

.
N
< K >

.
N
< K >

2072
2956
3511
2859
877

12275

12894
21078
9642
1974
291

45879

4078
9140
14134
10266
5251
1468
44636

29851
56417
40942
15820
3403
432
146901

2
4
6
8
10
12

~
pp 32 /

0,376
0,561
0,659
0,717
0,789

0,639

0,116
0,267
0,397
0,485
0,582

0,282

0,412
0,633
0,757
0,790
0,792
0,797
0,716

0,124
0,330
0,462
0,540
0,581
0,600
0,358

. 1 a, b K ,
(1), 22,4 / ( ) 32 / (
). (. 1 ) (. 1 )

111

, K
. K K
.
K (00,05), (0,650,70) 22,4 (0,800,85)
32 /c.

.1. K

pp , { - ~
pp
< n > K : z - ~

. 1 c, d

< n > K 22,4 32 /c. , < n >


~
pp - , , K .
~
pp - K 0,7.

-

-
. K p ( ), n

(), C () ,
0,3P0 , .2. K (1)
, .

112

.2. K ()

< n > K (b)


. 2 b K p
( ), n ( ), C ( ) .
,
K (. 2 ), < n > (. 2 b)
.
,
K >0,1; K : < n >
10 C - < n > 6.5 p - .

K < n >
. : [6]
, ( )
, [7] .
2 , -
C - , p - . , ,
() .
2. ,

-C
-C
-C
-p
-p
-p
-n


7260
5523
1737
13966
9314
4652
5039


%
100
76
24
100
67
33

< K >
0.427 0.005
0.485 0.006
0.239 0.006
0.384 0.003
0.465 0.005
0.215 0.003
0.371 0.005

. - >0.3 0
. - >0.3 0
. - >0.3 0
. - >0.3 0


- -
, .

113

. 3 K

( ) ( ) C - (. 3 )
p - (.3 b) .
< n > C (.
3 ) p (. 3 b), , - ,
.

.3. < n >


K
-

(, N6000)
(CTa, N2000)
, (C,Ta).
K

- . 4a ,
. 4b. K

CTa ( < K > =0,7770,048)


( < K > =0,3670,015). - E 0 ,
. .4a,b
[8]. ,
-
K . . 4c

K . K 0,5
- (C, Ta),
(12,180). , K 0,5 .
K

n max = 21 K =2,7,
- n max = 8 K = 1,8.

K 1,0 ,

114

< K > n

- -

.4. K (a,b) n K (): F CTa [8],


M CTa , G [8], O
n K [8]
K 0,6 CC - K 1,0

CTa - . K
,
.

,
- , .
, 22,4 32 /
~
pp - n

K
.
n K p - C - ,
, ,
.
-
K <0,6, K 0,6,
(C,Ta), , ,
.
1.
2.
3.

.., .. . // 1 - 81 -739, 1981.


Hanumaiah B., Sarycheva L.I. et al. // Il Nuovo Cimento 1982, v.68A, p.161.
.. .// 1-9785, , 1976.

4.
5.
6.

115

.., .. . // 1 - 8718, 1975.


.., . . // .-., 2000, N 2, .35.
.., .. .// ,
, -, 1983, .43.
7. ..//, 1983, .134, .369.
8. .., .. . // , . 27, 1978, . 658;Nucl. Phys., v. A400, 1983, p. 173.

116

.., 1 .., 2 ., 1 ..
1

, ,
.. ,

(),
i

F ( 1 , 2 ,..., k ;1 ,..., m ) , m j .

i , ,
= = F(,,...,; ,..., )dd...d .

i
1 2
k
1
m
1
2
k
i
i

(
R=
N

iexp

i =1

(1)

i2

2 [1, 2].
i = iexp i , i iexp
,

i . [3].

( i iexp )2
2 i2

F ( i ) e

m

(2)
,

1 m :

F (1, 2 ,..., m ) = F( i ) e

( i iexp )2

i =1

2 i2

(3)
.

i =1

(3), (1),
i .
,

i = imod ( 1 , 2 ,..., k ) : k < m,


(4)

,

i

(3) (1), R = R( ) .
, , (1)
(), (3). ,
(4):
2

imod ( 1 , 2 ,..., k ) = j =1 j f i j ,
k

fi j

(5)

i (1) ,
, . ,
.

117


, ,
. , ,
, ,

,

i

(1), i .
, ,
, , . ,



i
, .

i ,

i = i F ( | exp )d1 ...d k ,


F ( |

exp

)=e

r
R( )

r
R( )

(6)

d1d 2 ...d k ,

(7)

i , :
m k

R ( 1 , 2 ,..., k )
= 2 j f i j iexp f i n = 0 .

n
i =1 j =1

(8)

, i = i2 i ,

r
F ( | exp ) , .

-
.
: .
, .

, F ( | exp )
(3) k (5). - i
, (7),
.
(3)
[2,4]. ,
i . (.,
, [2]) .

(7) , F ( | exp ) ,
. .
.
(1). , ,
,
. , ,
.
,
.
:
,
,

118

i . (7),
.
.
, ,
. ,
,
.
, ,
( , ). j

( min , max ) .

,
.
(a,b),
( 95%):

2.5% = d1...dk

max

min

r exp
F(

| ) d j , 97.5% = d1...dk

r exp
F(

| ) d j .

(9)


.
.
.
, :

0, i = 0 e

(i i 0 ) 2
2 2

, 1, i = 1e

(i i1 ) 2
2 2

(10)

0, i , 1, i , 0 , 1 , i

i0 , i1

, . ,

iexp .

. 1 : i0 = 40 , i1 = 55 , 0 = 100 , 1 = 47 ,
20.
, . ,
. , (. [2])
0 = 0 = 99.33 , 1 = 1 = 44.13 .
0 = 1.8 , 1 = 1.6 ,
( 95%) .

.1. 1: (+); ,
; ,

119

1
. : i1 = 60 , 0 = 800 , 1 = 5 . . 2
. , .
0 = 796.6 5.15 1 = 1.131676 2.77
68%.
, 68%
= 795.7 3.4, = 2.05 1.44 .
. :
0
1
95% :

.2. 2: (+) ( )
2
. ,
0 = 795 .7 6.6 1 = 2.05 +13..95

, ,
.
,
.


, .
,
, ,
, .

i .
1. .. : .: , 1984.
2. .. .: . . ., 1960.
3. .., ..
.: - , 1949.
4. Fisher R.A. On the Mathematical Foundations of Theoretical Statistics // Philosophical Transactions of the
Royal Society of London, 1922, Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical or Physical Character, Vol. 222,
pp. 309-368.

120


-07
1

.., 2 .., 1 .., 1 .., 1 .., 1 ..,


2
.., 2 ..
1

- , ,
2
. ..

-06 6 2 ,
1700
.
.
, ,
(), ,
,
, . ,
,

. , -
,
[1].
- ,
,
64 [1]. 1995-99
, . ,
N106
300500 [2].

(.. , )
h R(M) = 1-1000
F(h).
, , 1000,
Ne>106.
510% Ne106, (4050)% Ne=107 100% Ne~108. ,
Ne>106, .. 0 1016
, 500 ,
[3].
,
.


, ,
. , , [5],
,
,
,
.

[6], ,

, .
ATHLET [7] -
,
: 1700 - , 850
.
- (3340 ...),
.

121


. ,
50 - 80 3,4 - 4
.
( - -
).

. -, - , ,
,
, , -
. -,
. . 1
, 7 2
:

.1. , 7 2

1. -06 , .1.
-06 16 200 2,
10(n,a)Li7.
2 , .
2. 9 ,
10 .
3. 9 ,

.

122

- 5,
.
6 2.
,
,
.
, ,
,
, .. . (
3.4 ). , M
[4], , ,
. , ,
, M,
.
, : ,
,
M .
, ,
- ,
; , M > 1000
, .
, -
,
. -06 -
3340 . ,
, 1700 .
- .2.

.2. 1 -64 3340 .


2 -06
3340 . 3 06
3340 1700
, -06 , 64,
:
-06 , 64. M = 1000 64-

123

M 06 ,
1750~ M = 100-150.

. ,
, 2006 . .
.3 ,
,
1700 .

.3. ,

, 2- , 14
1,6
.
,

, ,
1016 .
.

124

1. Antonova V.P., Chubenko A.P., Kokobaev M.M. et al. Phenomen of the anomalous delay of hadronic and
electronic components of EAS // Nuclear Physics B (Proc.Suppl.) 1999, 75A, p.333-335.
2. Chubenko A.P., Kalinin Yu.G., Martyanov I.S., Sadykov T.Kh., et al. Creation of the NUR mountain-level
installation aimed at registration of super-high-energy 1 shower in cjsmic rays // Nuclear Instr. and Met. 2002.
Sec A. 491, p.518-521.
3. Antonova V.P., Chubenko A.P., Sadykov T.Kh. New observations of anomalously delayed neutron events at
Tian-Shan shower installation. //18-th European Cosmic Ray symposium. HE16P, Moscow, 2002.
4. .., .., .. . -64
. // .
.. 2002. .66, 11, .1578-1580.
5. Stenkin. Yu. V., Bakatanov V.N., Smirnov D.V. et al. Stady of Neutron Burts with Baksan Array // Proc. of 27
th ICRC, Hamburg, 2001, v.6, p. 1449-1452.
6. Gawin J., Jedrzejczak K., Karczmarczyk J. et al. Registration of signals coming 500-1000 microseconds after
the main EAS front // Proc. of 27th ICRC, Hamburg, 2001, v.6, p. 205-208.
7. Chubtnko A.P., Mukhamedshin R.A., Sadykov T.Kh. et al. Perspectives of the ATLET installation at the TienShan. // Proc. of 28th ICRC, Tsukuba, Japan, 2003, v.6, p. 977-980.

125

.., ..
, .
,
, ,
,
,
- ()

, -
, [1]. ,
,
. ,
.
[2].
.
1 ,
,
.
( ) ( )
.
,
,
.


, , ,
, ,
, [3, . 196]. , ,
, :

r
r r
v& = v + X (t )
(1)
r
, m X (t ) ,
r
v , , ,

r
X (t ) = 0

r r
m

W (v , t ; v (0 )) =
2kT (1 exp( 2t ))

3/ 2

(2)

r r
m(v v0 exp( t ))2
exp

2kT (1 exp( 2t ))

,
, [4].

( 3)

,
[5, 6] , Mller

,
.
. [Kramers H.A. // Physica., V.7., (1940) 289

126

[7] (. 1), l -, r , zr , zs
, k {zr; r}.

.1. , .
, (6- ), .
[8].

:
1.
= (z ) ;
, , ,
2.
, ;
3.
, ..
;
4.
, .
Mllr,

2 ( z ) = (l 2 z 2 ) (a 4 z 4 + a3 z 3 + a2 z 2 + a1 z + a0 )

z [ l ,+l ]

(4)

U.Brosa [9] , k
(r,zr ) k k = 0
. , k
, .
{l , r , z r , k , z S } {a4 , a3 , a2 , a1 , a0 } :
1. z = z r

2 ( zr ) = r 2

(5)

d 2
dz

=0

(6)

= 2kr

(7)

2. :

z = zr

3. A( z r , r ) :

d 2 2
dz 2

z = zr

, k , : k > 0 , ,
k < 0 , , .. k > 0 , , k < 0 ,
.

127

4. , :
l

dz z

( z)
= zs

z = l
l

dz

(8)

( z)

z =l

5. :

dz

z = l

4
( z ) = R03
3

(9)


z4
z n3
z n2
n
4 z 3 3 z 2 2 z
n
n
n
6 z n2 3 z n
1

0 73 l 2
0

3 l4
0 15 l 2
35

z n 1

1 0

0 0

1 0

0 1

a4
a
3
a2

a1
a0

2
Yrn
2(Yr )2 z
n
n

= Yrn k + Yrn + 4rn (Yrn )

R03

5
z
s

l5

3
R0

(10)

Y=

1
l z n2

(11)

, Z D

9 6 9 4 2 3 2 4
ZD =
l l z n l z n z n6
35
35

245

(12)

R 3
zn 2

2
l 2
0

a 4 = Z D
z n z s 5
+ 3 + 3 z n +
7

l
l

6
(lz n )2 z n4 3 l 4
+ kr n Y
35
35

(13)

66 4 2 18 2 4 18 6

+ rn2 Y 3 10 z n6 +
znl
znl
l
7
7
35

a3 =

5 z s R 03 l 5 + 2 z n r n Y k + 4 r n ( z n Y
3 z n2 + 73 l 2

a 2 = rn Y k + rn Y + 4 rn (z n Y

a 1 = 5 z S R 03

)2 )

8 a 4 z n3

)2 ) 3 z n (2 z n a 4

1
3 2
l a3

5
l
7

+ a3 )

(14)
(15)
(16)

3 4
1
R
a0 = 0
l a1 l 2 a 2
35
5
l

(17)

,
.

128


, ,
. .2 , (I), 2
2 > 0 , (II) 2 < 0 (.2).

2 = 0 , . (II) ,
. : 1) , 2 < 0 ,
(.2 KL), 2) .
,
, (I) .

.2.
{c,h,} {=0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,6; 0,8}. (II)

.3. 2 , , {c,h,}. ,
(AB KL) 2 < 0 . ,
- ,
2

129

x , 2 ( x ) < 0
. (I) , .

[6]

q&i = ij p j

(18)

~
F
1 jk
&
(
)
p
=

p
p

p
+
A
t

j
k
ij jk k
i
i
qi
qi
2

r
r
: q , p , F
1
~
, mij - , ij = mij , ij - , A(t ) - ,
, 2:

~
A(t ) = ij j (t )
j (t ) = 0

(19)

j (t )i (t ) = 2 (t t ) ij
()

Dij = ij T

ij

(20)
3

Dij = in nj

(21)

T , -
E
T = ~int
a
Eint
a~ ,
A
195 Pt 78

10
a~ =
A 195 Pt 78
8
A

(22)

(23)

, [18] ,

dS
0 , S .
dt

Eint = E * (ELDM + Ek )

(24)

Thomas Fermi [i]:

T=

E * (ELDM + Ek )
A + A2 / 3 BS

ij ,

Dij . . , ,
.

(25)

130

E * = Elab

At
+ Qvalue
At + Ap

(26)

At
At + Ap

(27)

E( ) = Elab
Qvalue . Blann M. [11]

BS , (
):

1 d 2
1
2

BS = dz +
2
2 az

(28)

, , :
Ek =

p2
2m

(29)

a~ = A + A2 / 3 Bs

(30)
.
, .

Toke and Swiateski
Ignatyuk

0,0685
0,073

0,274
0,095

[12]
[13]

, [14]

a(T ) = a T =0 1 xT 2

(31)

, ,
, .
.

[15] Fdis , Edis

Fdis =

Edis (x )
x&

(32)

x& , Edis x

1
(33)
m v dS e&n2
2
, v
Edis =

en , m

1/ 4

v=

8k Eav

m a

Eav , a
:

(34)

ijw =

m v
2

Z max

131

s2 s2 z cm

z q j
q j
dz
2 2

s2 +
4 z

s2 s2 z cm

z
qi
qi

Z min

, , zcm
, .

(35)


[16] (Rayleigh):

1 dE 1
= ij (q )q&i q& j
2 dt 2 i , j

(36)

r
dE
= (r )d 3 r
dt

(37)

F=

r
1
(r )d 3 r
2

r
r r
(r ) = 2 v 2 + 2 2 (v )

= v

= 9 3 1024

MeV s
= 0.015 0.005 TP
Fm3

ij =

Z max

Z min

2 3 Ai' A ij +

1 2 '' ''
Ai A j dz
8

(38)

Ai' =

r
Ai ( z , q ) =

Ai
z

(39)

1
r
2
( z , q ) qi

Z max

r
(z , q )dz
2

(40)

r
Ai ( z , q ) =

r
2
( z , q ) qi

r
(z , q )dz
2

(41)

Z min


[17, 18]

r
r
F ( A, Z , q , T , L ) = aV 1 kV I 2 A + aS 1 k S I 2 BS (q )A2 / 3

r
5 3
Z2
+ c0 A + aC 1/ 3 BC (q ) aC

4 2
A
0

2/3

Z 4 / 3 h 2 L(L + 1)
+
r
2 J (q )
A1/ 3

A = Z + N
N Z
I=

A
r
q
aV LDM

(42)

132

aS
aC
kV
kS

LDM
LDM


aV , aS , kV , k S , r0 , a , ad

ai (T ) = ai 0 (T = 0 ) 1 xiT 2
T 4 MeV

r0 ( fm )
ai 0 (T = 0)

10 3 xi (MeV )

a ( fm )

ad

(43)

aV (MeV ) kV

( fm )

aS (MeV )

kS

1.16

0.68

0.7

16.0

1.911

21.13

2.3

0.736

7.37

7.37

3.22

5.61

4.81

14.79

r r
dr dr

(44)

B S (q ) =

r
BC (q ) =

1
8 a r02 A 2 / 3
2

1
32 r A5 / 3
2 5
0

r r
r r
r r exp
a

r r

V V 2 a rr rr
a

r r
r r
r r

r r

exp
r r 2

a
a r r

r r

dr dr
r r
V V 2 a
r r
a

(45)



A > 20 [19]:

Nucl ( 0)

Nucl =

1+ e

r R
a

(46)

R = R A , Nucl ( 0 ) = 1.68 10 , a = 0.57 fm , R = 1.10 fm

*
0

1/ 3

38

*
0

L
,
, l , .
L .
[20, 21, 22]
[23, 24, 25] .
L , [26, 27, 28, 29, 30]

L =

2L + 1

1+ e

L Lc
L

(47)

F = L

(48)

L =0

LC [31, 32, 33, 34] [35].

L ,

133

, , ,
, .
L .
.

, ,
( ),
, . ,
()

dx
= a ( x) + B s ( x) n(t ),
dt
x(t 0 ) = x 0 ,

(49)

t0 t T

a (x) s (x) .
, - 2 [36]:

x nP+1 = x n + ha +
x nc +1

h 2 a
B 2 h s
Bh 3 / 2 a
s
a + B h s n +
s n2 +
s + a n
2 x
2 x
2 x
x

h
B h
= x n + a ( x n ) + a ( x np+1 ) +
s ( x n ) + s ( x np+1 ) n
2
2

(50)

xn t n ,
h ,

n .

:

nc+1 =

1 p
x n +1 x nc +1
3

(51)

,
> 0 ,
:
t n t n +1 ,

nc+1 < 1

(52)


h = 1.1k h, k > 0 , k ,

1.2 k nc+1 D < 2



D = max 1, n +1
n

(53)

(4) ,

h = 1.1 k h,

(54)

k ,

nc+1
1.1k

< 3

(55)

134

t n +1 .
.4 - .

.4.

- ()
() [37].
, , ,
, , .
:

<

t full

(56)

.. (0;1) ,

t full =

part

(57)

- . , , ,
.


, , .
, , , .
.

B f > 2T
(58)
.
SP SC.


() , ,
, .
.
,
.
, ,
( )
.

135

..
, . ,

,
, , ,
.
, .
. , ,
- ,
.., ,
[1], [2], [3].

.
.
.
, ,
.
.
,
, . ,
,
.
,
. .
.
( ) .
.
, ..
, . ,
,
, , ,
.
.

, [4], [5],
.
, .
. ,

- . ,
, . -, [6]
,
. (1,0).
.
In[D(II)] = 1.
,
.
: (P),
(T) (PT). (d, f, b, c),
. ( ,
) l0 = 1/2. (P)- (T)-
(PT)- ( ), ..
b, c, f, .

136

, , (d) -
()
[7] . ,
()
, .

-, [8],

[i(p) + m] = 0,

= 1, 2, 3, 4,

(1)

(2)
+ = 2, ,= 1, 2, 3, 4. 2 = 1,
- ( ).

b1 ~ 1, b2 ~ 2, b3 ~ 3
(3)

a2 ~ 13
a3 a1a2 ~ 21
(4)
a1 ~ 32,
1, 2, 3 16- . d.
, :
[a1, a2] = 2a3,
[a2, a3] = 2a1,
[a3, a1] = 2a2,
[b1, b2] = 2a3, [b2, b3] = 2a1,
[b3, b1] = 2a2,
[a2, b2] = 0,
[a3, b3] = 0,
[a1, b1] = 0,
[a1, b2] = 2b3
[a1, b3] = 2b2,
(5)
[a2, b3] = 2b1,
[a2, b1] = 2b3,
[a3, b1] = 2b2,
[a3, b2] = 2b1.
2
[7]. , a1, a2, a3
3- , b1, b2, b3 (.. 1, 2, 3)
.
, 16- - b
:
[a 1 , a 2 ] = 2a3,
[a2, a3] = 2a1,
[a3, a1] = 2a2
[b 1' , b '2 ] = 2a3,

[b '2 , b 3' ] = 2a1,

[b 3' , b 1' ] = 2a2,

[a1, b 1' ] = 0,

[a2, b '2 ] = 0

[a3, b 3' ] = 0

[a1, b '2

[a1, b 3' ]

]=

2b 3' ,

(6)

-2b '2

[a2, b 3' ] = 2b 1' ,

[a2, b 1' ] = - 2b 3' ,

[a3, b 1' ] = 2b '2 ,

[a3, b '2 [ = -2b 1'

, (5) (6)
(k = 1, 2, 3),
(7)
bk b 'k = ibk,
(6) T- () .. (5).
d b.
, f:
[a '2 , a 3' ] = -2a1,
[a 3' , a1] = 2a '2 ,
[a1, a '2 ] = 2a 3' ,
[b 1' , b '2 ] = - 2a 3' ,

[b '2 , b 3' ] = 2a1,

[b 3' , b 1' ] = -2a '2 ,

[a1, b 1' ] = 0,

[a 2 , b '2 ] = 0,

[a 3' , b 3' ] = 0,

[a1, b '2 ] = 2b 3'

[a1, b 3' ] = - 2b '2 ,

[a '2

[a '2

, b 3' ] = -

2b 1' ,

b 1' ]

(8)

= - 2b 3' ,

[a 3' , b 1' ] = 2b '2 ,


[a 3' , b '2 ] = 2b 1'
P- (5), ..
. (5) (8)

137

a2 ia '2 ,

(9)

a3 ia 3' . (8) (5)


(9).
c . [4]:
[a '2 , a 3' ] = - 2a1,
[a 3' , a1] = 2a '2
[a1, a '2 ] = 2a 3' ,
[b 1'' , b '2' ] = 2a 3' ,

[b '2' , b 3'' ] = - 2a1,

[b 3'' , b 1'' ] = 2a '2

[a1, b 1'' ] = 0,

[a '2 , b '2' ] = 0,

[a 3' , b 3'' ] = 0,

[a1, b '2'

[a1, b 3'' ]

[a '2

]=

b 3'' ]

2b 3'' ,

=-

2b 1'' ,

[a 3' , b 1'' ] = 2b '2' ,

[a '2

b 1'' ]

-2b '2'

-2b 3'' ,

(10)

[a 3' , b '2' ] = 2b 1''

T, P, (TP) = (PT)
(d, b, c, f).
, , .
.
-. -
. . ,
.
. , ( )
-, ..
, ,
d, b, c, f.
:
1. D[II]: d, b, f.
2. D[I]: d, c, f.
3. D[III]: d, b, c, f.
4. T- D[IV ]: b.
5. P- D[V ]: c.
,
.

, ,
? , .
()
-. , .
. ,
. ,
.
- (D(II))
5 , 52 = I 1 In[1] = 1.

, 5'

= 1 3 In[3] = 0.

, - (D(I)) 5'' 2 = 1
2 In[2] = 1.
. ,
32 ,
. , .
1
+ = 2,
(, = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5),
(11)

6 = 12345,
6 = 6,
( = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5),
(12)

138

6 , , 62 = I. ,
6 = 1.
, 1,2,3,4, .
(11), 1 2 2 32 .

(13)
1{D(II), D(III), D(IV )}
(13) In[1] = 1 1, ..
.
[8]
-
4

[i

( pa) + 6 m] = 0,

6 = 1

(14)

a =1

pa(a = 1, 2, 3, 4) m 4- . (14)
,
1 D(II).
6 = 1, ,
.
3
. 5.
st + ts = 2st,
(s,t = 1,2,3,4),
(s = 1,2,3,4),
(15)
s5 + 5s = 0,
2
5 = -1
,
6 = 1 2 34 5,
6 = 6, ( = 1,2,3,4,5),
(16)
- 6 62 = I.
6 = i1.

3 {D (II), D (I), D (III),
(17)
In[3] = 0. - ,
.
, ,

4

(a pa) m] = 0,

6 = i

a =1

pa m , .
2
st + ts = 2st,
(s,t = 1,2,3),
(s = 1,2,3),
s4 + 4s = 0,
2
5 = -1
,
6 = 1 2 34 5,
6 = 6, ( = 1,2,3,4,5),

(18)

(19)

.. 6 , .. 62 = I.
6 = 1.

2{D(I), D(III), D(V )}
(20)
In[2] = 1. 2
, (20)
.
-
(14).
4

[i

a =1

( pa) + 6 m] = 0,

6 = 1

139

(11) (18).
.
1 3 ,
.

, (
) ,
.
, .

1. .., // . 2007. 177, 1, 113.


2. ., ., . . . . .: , 2005.
3. .., EPN- //
. ( ).
4. .., :
, 2-2006-6 (, 2006).
5. .., .., : ,
4-2006-188 (, 2006).
6. Lomont J.S. Applications of finite groups. Academic Press, New York, London: 1959, p.51.
7. .., . (, 1958), 88 .
8. Dirac P.A.M., The quantum theory of the electron// Proc.Roy. Soc. (1928) A vol.117, 610-624.

140

,
1

.., 1 .., 1 .., 2 .


1

, ,
2
, ,

1.

( )
, , .
,
-.
. , , ,
10B(n, )7Li, 6Li(n, )3H, 3He(n, p)3H, (n, ) ,
. , , , -
.
, ,
, 10-9 ( 1 /N 1 ).
,
, .

, , ,
.
,
, .
2.

.
.
,
.
, 1 .
,
, -. - ,
, - .
,
, .
E(xn),

( EB@D =

A+ x
F&), (xnxn). ,
A

,
,
Ep= Encos2,
.
(En < 10 ) [1],
En , xn
Ep = xEn.
(. .1, [2]),

.

141

.1. (S) . 1 ,
2 , 3 , 4 -
, , ,
, ,
. E p = E ( x n)

4x
x > 6
(1 + x) 2

2-3 , , -
(. 1).
-
.
(t) . M
(E-t),
, (L) () (. 2).
t = 71.92 L (/)-1/2

L[], M [], E [] t [].

.2. - E-t .
4n, 6n 8n.

142

[3].
, .3, 12 (72 ) 3He (39 ),
48Ca. ,
4n 6n 52 31 ,
. 3He , 4n 22 .
. ,
4n 6n, , ,
1 /.

.3.

14Be 35 / [4].
.
(4n) 14Be10Be+4n 14
. .4.

.4. 14Be10Be+4n 14Be



14Be -
() ,
. 14Be -
Si-CsI , 0. 10Be.
.
, 14Be,
, 90 , 3.5-6.5

143

. , En=E(xn)/x,
. , .
Ep/En , ,
Ep/En. Ep/En . 5.
,
Ep/En.

.5. , Ep (), ,
, En( ), (14Be, 13Be+n)
1,3,4n , , .

6 ,
. ,
,
.
3.

[5].
,
1
H(xn, t) (x-2)n 2H (xn, t) (x-1)n.
.
. 6.
252Cf. -
(CH2 CD2). , - 252Cf,
, (44 )
(500) .
.

E1 (30), E2 (65 ) E (400).
.
252Cf, Y=2 10-8.

144

.6. 252Cf.
1 -.
2 (44 ).
3 (500 ).
4 .
5 .
4.
-
- . k (NA)
N x
A( n, (x-k)n)N+kA ( N+kA ),
(x-k) .
()
() -. (N)
(t)
N=n[1- exp(-t0)] exp(-t) [1- exp(-t)]/,
, n , ,
t0, t .
, ,
, ,
. .
6n c - [6]
ALISE [7]. , 6n 1
. . 1.

1. (6n,xn) [], ALICE


[6]
19

F
Mg
25
Mg
26
Mg
103
Ro
24

(6n,n)
4 10-2
1.2 10-4
6.4 10-2
6.8 10-1
3.6 10-4

(6n,2n)
6.0 101
2.9 100
8.6 100
4.2 102
1.7 100

(6n,3n)
5.7 102
2.4 102
8.4 102
1.5 102
1.8 102

(6n,4n)
1.8 103
1.7 103
1.2 103
1.2 102
1.4 103

(6n,5n)
4.5 100
9.6 100
2.1 101
2.8 102

,
, ,
, .
-
-, .

145

.
, .
- , -
, Ge-,
(1-100 ).
-
238U 32 ,
[8]. ,
, . , (k),
(T1/2) -
. 2.
8 1 .
-, . 7.
- Ge- ( 4).
- Ge (10 ), ( NaJ)
. , . 2, .
xn 238U.
2. (
- )
N
1
2

19
F( CF2)
25
Mg (96.4%)

k
5
3

24
Na
28
Mg
28

3
4

32

S,
[34S(97% )]

6[4]
7[5]
9[7]

Al
S
38
Cl
39
Cl
41
Ar
38

T1/2
14.96 h
20.91 h
2.24 m
170.3 m
37.2 m
55.6 m
109.6 m

-
(keV)
1368.6, 2754.0 (100%)
400.7 (36.6%), 941.5 (38.3%)
1342.3 (52.6)
1778.9 (100%)
1941.9 (83%)
1642.7 (31.9%), 2167.4 (42.4%)
1267.2 (53.6%), 1517.5 (39.2%)
1293.6 (99.2%)

.7. -
- ,
. ,
~ Q / E
( 1/v), Q , E .

146

103 .
2- (xn, (x-k)n),
Q~8k. xn ,
- [6].
6n 1 4 25Mg
7
Li 1. 28Mg
.8. , , ,
15-40 2-4 .

.8. - 28Mg 104 6n


. 1 , 2 7Li 1
2.5 , 3 7Li 1 0.5
- -
- .
(, 208Pb, 209Bi). k
- - . -
, k
208
Pb 209Bi 3. -
238U [9]. -
- . -
6-9 , .
3. - , k
208Pb 209Bi

Pb
208
Pb
209
Bi
208
Pb
209
Bi
208
Pb
209
Bi
208

3
4
3
5
4
6
5

B
Pb
212
Pb
212
Bi
213
Pb
213
Bi
214
Pb
214
Bi
211

T1/2
36.1
10.64
60.55
45.59
26.8
19.9

E,
6.623 (211Bi)
8.785 (212Po)
8.376 (213Po)
7.687 (214Po)

147

1. .. . . . - . . 1955.
2. .. . . . . 1962.
3. O.D. Brill, N.I. Venikov, A.A. Kurashov, A.A. Ogloblin, V.M. Pankratov, V.P. Rudakov. Phys. Lett. V.12
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(57
). . 2007.
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148

.., ..
. ..
1.
,
,
.
[1,2]

.
[3] [1,2]
, , [1,2].
2. .

U ( , t ) .
[1], [2].
:

U ( , t )
U ( , t )
=
( 2 ( ) J ( )
(
)) ,
( )

(1)

J R
:

J ( ) =

E*

d d
''

'

( ' ' ' ) R ( ' , ' ' ).

(2)

( ) , - , E * -
. (1)
, J =const.
(1) -
. [2]:

U ( , t ) =

exp(

E*

), - , .

,
. :
exp( 4( E 0 ) 2 / 2 ,
0 = 4 0 exp( E 0 / ) Jt 0 / 2 -
U ( , t = t 0 ) =
0
, E 0 - , t 0 -
, .
, ,
:

U ( = 0, t) = (1 exp(t)) / + exp(t)U ( = 0, t = 0),

U ( = E* , t ) = (1 exp(t )) exp(E* / ) / + exp(t )U ( = E* , t = 0).


,
:
E*

E p (t ) =

U ( , t ) d
0

149

.1 .
, , - ,

. E p (t ) [2].
: J
,
.

.1.
J .
, -

3.
,
J . , J , ,
J = const.
[1] J (2), R
:

R( j , j' ) =

d
2
| *j ( )u*j (x, ) Hs , u j ' ( x, ) j ' ' ( )d 3A xd |2
,
h
dE

(3)

u j ( x, ) - ,
x , j ,
; j ( ) - ,
;

d
- , [4].
dE

150

h2 2

2 BE

H s = Ts =
2 , j ( ) = exp i

2 B
h2


M
A
r
r
u j ( x, ) = u kp j (rk , , ) , u kp j (rk , , ) = C pk ji ( ) Nl ik
k =1

i =1

M - .

[1]: R ( j , j ' ) = R ( j ' j ) . . 2 3 R ( j ' j )
.
,
.
. : N
Nl , , , (3).
,
, , ,
R ( j ' j ) . . 2 3 [1,2]
R ( j ' j ) . ,
R ( j ' j ) .

.2. j j ' j j '


N = 7 , = 0.5

151

.3. j j ' j j '


N = 4,6,7 = 0.5,2.5 E = E * / 2
4.
, ,
:

P ( n , t )
=
t

N max

i=

( R ( i , n ) P ( i , t ) R ( n , i ) P ( n , t ))

(4)

N min

P ( n , t ) - .
M

E p (t ) = P ( i , t ) i .
i =1


, . ,
.
, [2] ,
, - .

152

.4. ( )
( )
5.


, [1,2].

.
:
1)
(1) (4) t j .

2)

n n N .
- .
3)
, ( )
( )
.
,
, .
1.
2.
3.
4.

L. Willets, Phys. Rev. 116, 372(1959).


.. , 30, 44 (1979).
S.Nilsson, Kgl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk., Mat-Fys.Medd. 29 (16), 1(1955).
. . // . .: , 1983.

153

..
- , . ,
:
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.
.
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Network) ,
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.
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), , IP-
(SIP H.323), ..

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:

154

.1.

;
;
;
.


, :

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(" "), ,
.
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.

(Softswitch).
Softswitch :

, ;

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;


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.
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,
, ,
SDH PDH.

. ,
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.

155

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:

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, IETF
(MEGACO), ETSI (TIPHON), 3GPP2 ..
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IP/MPLS
.
,
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: ,
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2002 .
Global Terabit Research Network
( GTRN Tera-Grid). GTRN ,
.

156

: , ,
;
1000, 100, 10 1 / .

-, (
Grid)
. , 13,6 TFLOPS,
.
Grid-. Linux,
Linux- TeraGrid. 2001
Sun Project JXTA,
, Grid-. ,
Grid .
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(SOAP, XML, WSDL ), Grid
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- , ,
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> > .

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, MONARC
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157

(, EU - Data Grid).

, LHC , HERA DESY,
, -2, .

,
.
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WWW-, - -
.
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,
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1. www.intuit.ru.
2. .. . . . Print-S,
, 2004, . 284.
3. www.jinr.ru.

158



1
1

.,2 ..

. ..,
2
, ,

()
r
yi = y ( xi ) . f ( xi , )

= ( 1 , 2 ,...) , Q:
N
r
Q = [ yi f ( xi , )]2 .
i =1

r
yi = f ( xi , ) + i ,

i - (, ).

.
. ,
.
,
i . ,
.

. , , 3
,
,
i .

. 1 .
() xi , xi 1 < xi > xi +1 .
, 3, 7, 10, 12,
17 19.
1,2
1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0

9
7
3
2

10

12
11

19
13

16
15

17

20
18

14
7

11

13

15

17

19

.1. 20
, 1/3.
, ,
, .. .
, ,
[1,2].
.

159

f m (d ) d

[3]:

f m (d ) = 3 2 l

(l 1)(l + 2)
.
(l + 3)!

1.08.

,
i .

i f m (d ) ,
. ,
.
,
,
2 [4]. :
2
n
2 = d =1 (Od E d ) E , Od - , E d -
d

.
.
, ,
.
2 , ,
[5]. , ,
3 N =
1.08.

, -

N. ,
d
3 N : t =

d 3

. t

. .
1.

2 1, .
Matlab, 200 :
y ( xi ) = f ( xi ) + randn () * 2 : xi = 1,2,.., 200. ;

f ( x) = sin( x) + x / 20 .
f (x) , y (x) , randn()

() 0
1. , () 2
.

160

.2. ( ), ( )
()
: (A)
(B):

y A,i = A,0 + A,1 xi + i ;


y B ,i = B , 0 + B ,1 sin( xi ) + B , 2 xi + i .

, , .
regress Matlab 95% 1.
1.

0
0.1376
-0.3741
0.6493
A, 0

A,1

0.05

0.0472

0.0428

0.0516

B ,0

0.1117

-0.3655

0.5890

B ,1

0.9423

0.6070

1.2777

B,2

0.05

0.0475

0.0433

0.0516

. ,
2, . , R2
[6], ,
. F-test (F- [6])
.
2.

A B
R2
0.69
0.73
F-
444
270
p-value F-
~0%
~0%
d- -
1.64
1.76
d- - [7],
i . - ,
. d-
, 1.5 2.5
. , -
95%
.

161

2 , ,
. A 2 - 16.14
2 99%, B 0.59 10%.
, 2 , 95%, .
1 .
A 3.28, .. 2
3. B 2.98, ..
0.11 3. B,
1 95%.
, 2
1, ,
.
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.., .., ..
, ,
e-mail: Koblik@inp.uz

.
, [1-5].
, , ,
. ,
, ,
, .
, , .

, .
,
, .

, ,
.

,
, .
,
r
, .. u
r
r r r
r
: u = r r , u , r ,
. [6]:
u

ik

1 ui u k ul ul .
+
+

2 x
xi
xi x
k
k

,
u = u

ik

ki


. ,
:

d xi d xi
(1)
i=
= 1 + 2 u ( i ) 1 , i = 1, 2, 3 ,
d xi
u (1) = u11 , u ( 2 ) = u 22 , u ( 3) = u 33 - .
i << 1 , (1) :
u

ik

1 ui u k
+
2 x
x
i
k

, :

u (i ), i, k = 1, 2, 3
i

1 + u ii = inv .
V
.
, ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
r
r
u 6- .
, , ,

163

,
. , [7].
, , ,
. , ,
, ,
. , .
, .. ,
,
. , , ,
, .

,
, .
,
. ,
, .
, .
,
(. .1).
, ,
. ,
. , , ,
, .
,
. , ,
[8,9] .
L / R << 1, (. . 1), L
:
Br2 L = 2 D( B B ) 2 ,
2 2
Br L = 2 D1 D2 12 ( B(1) B (1) )( B( 2) B ( 2) ) ,

Br - , B , B -
, L, I - , D, D1, D2 -
, 12 - . , :

.1.
,
.

( B(1) B(1) )( B( 2) B( 2) )
D1 D2

L
=

12

( B B ) 2
D

2
D( B B ) 2
B =
r
(1)
(1)
( 2)
( 2)

D
D
( B B )( B B )
1 2 12

164

.

.
, P ( x, y )
.
z - .
[10]:
2
P
2z
2 z ,
2 z
,
(2)
c2 =

c
=
+
2
2
2

x
y
t

:
2
2

1


E kin = z& 2 dx dy E pot = 1 P z + z dx dy .
2
2
x y

: x = 0, x = a y = 0, y = b , (2)
:
mx my ,
(3)
z ( x, y, t ) = (Am,n cos( pt ) + Bm,n sin( pt ) )sin
cos

a b
m =1 n =1
(3) , :
m2 n2
p 2 = c 2 2 2 + 2 .
b
a
, ,
z& = 0 :
mx my ,
(4)
z ( x, y, t ) = Am,n cos( pt ) sin
cos

a b
m =1 n =1

z = f ( x, y ) , A m,n :

4
n
m
(5)
f ( , ) sin
cos
d d ,
a b 0 0
a

b
, .
,
,
P P ( x, y ) ,
. ,
P ( x, y )
:
. , c 2 c 2 ( x, y ) =
( x, y )
(2) .
:
2
2 z
2 z
2 z
(6)

c
x
y
=
[
(
,
)]
+
x 2 y 2 ,
t2

,
a b

A m,n =

jeff , , ,
r
dz ( x, y, t )
| jeff |= eff
,
dt

dz ( x, y, t )
mx my ,
(7)
= Am , n p sin( pt ) sin
cos

dt
a b
m =1 n =1
, ,
:
h y h x 4
h x h z
dz
hz hy
(8)
eff ,

=0;

= 0;
z
x
c
x
y
y
z
dt

165


.
, .
,
, ,
, .
,
.

. , ,
,
, .
,
,
, ,
.
, .
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.
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3.
4.
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8.
9.
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166

..
- , ,
e-mail: nurgozh@satsun.sci.kz; nurgozh@mail.ru
(Orbital experiment ORBEX)
c
Z = 1-30 1012 1015 . ORBEX

, ,
- 5 .
1.
98 % 2 % .
87% ,12 % - 1% - .
()
[1]. .
, .
, , 1021 ,
(. 1) [2].

.1. .
, ,

dN ~ E- dE.
1015 2,7. 3 ( ").
1017-10-18 , .
"". ,
. ,
1019 ,
( - ), , , ,
.
- . , ,
.
(SN), ,
. , , ,
, . .
?
,

167

? - ()
~31015 , 1958 ( ).
,
,
.
(10151016 ) ,
- . 50
.
-, ,
. , ,
1013 -1015 .
. (,
)
.
(
), ,
(~ - 2,7).
, ,
40 .[3]. 80- [4].
.
: JACEE (- )
[5] RUNJOB (- ) [6],
. ,
.
: ATIC (- ) [7] CREAM (- ) [8]. ,
5 1010
10 14 (ATIC) 10111015 (CREAM). ATIC
: 28.12.2000 13.01.2001 ( ATIC-1) 29.12.2002 18.01.2003 (
ATIC-2). , ATIC-2,
, p e = 0.104 0.0085[9]. CREAM
16.12.2004 27.01.2005.
60 (~ 40 106 ).
6 /2, ,
1 .

.
, -
. ,
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> 1012 .
,
() [10].
-
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,
, .
, 1014
. ,
, ,

. ~1015
( ATIC CREAM)
2-3 ,
. [11] Kinematic Lightweight Energy Meter (KLEM)
.

168

,
.
( -
- ) [12]. CERN ,
70-80 % [13].
- 1012-1015
, Z=1-30.
5 (2008-2012 .). (Orbital
experiment ORBEX), ,
.
2. ORBEX
ORBEX
( 200 )
( 1.0 3),
1011 -1015 . ,
.
, (),
(), .

( 5 ). ,
KLEM .

.
, /2.
3. ORBEX
,
? -, , -,
, -,
, -,
1 , . ,
,
. , , ,
, ( ),
.
, -
, .
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, ( ORBEX
6.26.20.3 3)
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,
, .. .
ORBEX
, ,
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,
.
,
. ,
,
[12,13], .
ORBEX
~500500250 3 (.2).

169

.2. ORBEX.
( ), ,
16
: - 4 ( ~ 2,5 2 ),
; - 6
( ~ 450 ), :
, ,
; - 6 (
~ 500300,5 3), .
(~ 20 /2)
, ( )
- ( 0 - ). 2
0.7 . - .
- , ,
,
.
.
,
. ORBEX . ,
, ( > 1 ),
,

[14].
ORBEX 5 ,
:
1)
1012 -1015 .
2) Li, Be, B NO
- Fe Fe.
3) .
. ,
- .
ORBEX . , ,
,

170

. ,

1-1000 . -
,
(< 250 .) .
.
, .
( 5 ) .
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

Muller D, Astrophys. J. 374, 356, (1991).


Gaurang B. Yordh. 29th ICRC, Pune, 10, 13, (2005).
.., .., .. , 5, 38, (1967).
.. , 51, 157, (1990).
Asakimori K., et al. Astrophys. J. 502, 278, (1998).
Hareyama M. et al., 29th ICRC, Pune, 3, 17, (2005).
Guzik T.G. et al. Adv. Sp. Res. 33, 1763,(2004); Wefel J.P.et al.29th ICRC,Pune,3,105,(2005).
Seo E.S. et al. Adv.in Spase Res. 33/10, 1777, (2004); 29 th ICRC, Pune, 10, 185, (2005).
.. . . , 68, 11,1593, (2004).
.., .., .. , 34, 506, (1958).
.. . , 65, 5, 884, (2002).
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.., .., .. , 65, 5, 893, (2002).

171

.., 1 .., 1 .., 1 .., 1 .., 1 .., 1


.., 2 ..
1



2

. ,

[1-4]
.
, , .

235
U . 122Te.
122Te(xn, (x-k)n)122+kTe (-) 122+kI,
122Te 10- , .. x=k10.
:
1.
Q-
103 .
,
,
, .
2.
, 122Te, 130Te
<0.01%, 131I, - .
- ,
. . TeO2, 0.5

, . 1.

8 -

.1.
1. -122
120
122
123
124
Te
Te
Te
Te

% 0.001 99.60.1 0.10.03 0.20.01

125

128
130
Te,126Te
Te
Te
0.01
0.010.01 0.01

172

2.

(PPM)

(PPM)

As
<200
Mg
<1

Si
<28
Cu
<2

Fe
<2
B
<1

Al
<25
Mn
<0.9

Na
<3
Ge
<5

Co
<8

Ni
<10

Cr
<5

Ti
<3

Ca
<10

Be
<0.1

Sc
<1

Zn
<2

Jn 1.0 1014 /2,


5 . 2.0 . ,
, 16 . , ,

-, 123I. 86%,
60 . 1
200 30
.
18 .
- ,
Ge(Li) 100 3, . ,-
40 10 ,
-85.
- Ge(Li)
0.5 ,
Ge(Li) .
10 . 0.3-1.5
E= 6 4 /. 60Co
(1173.24, 1332.5 ) 3%.
Eu-152 - 300-1500 2.5-0.5 %.
-, - -
.
- 46 ,
0.5 . 42
, 0.5 . ,
, 2
.
- , -
- .
. 2. - 160-1600 . . 3
- . ,
- : 123mTe, 131I, 82Br 126I.
: 1- 123mTe, T1/2=117 (E=159 , I=84%,); 2, 3, 5, 8, 11- 131I, T1/2=8.02
(E=284 , I=6.14%; E=364 , I=81.7%; E=503 , I=0.36%; E=636.9 , I=7.17%; E=722.9 ,
I=1.77%); 4, 9, 12- 126I, T1/2=13 (E=388 , I=34%; E=666 , I=33%; E=753 , I=4.2%);
6, 7, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17- 82Br, T1/2=35.3 (E=554 , I=70.8%; E=619 , I=43.4%; E=698.4 ,
I=28.5%; E=776.5 , I=83.5%; E=827.8 , I=24.0%; E=1044.0 , I=27.2.14%; E=1317.5 ,
I=26.5%; E=1474.9 , I=16.3%)
. 123mTe
122Te(n,) 123mTe 1 [5]
750, , .
131
I 130Te(n,) 131Te(-)131I =0.29 [5].
126I ,
.
2 , 126I
.

3
2

1E5

1E4

173

13
10
9 11

14

15
16

17

12

1000

100

133

J(E=530)
132

10

J(E=667)
132

J(E=773)
135

J(E=1131)

135

1
200

400

600

800

1000

1200

J(E=1260)
1400

1600

E, .
.2. - 160-1600 .
,
E=364, T(1/2)=202+-10%

1000
=555, T(1/2)=36+-3%

620, T(1/2)=34+-4%
699, T(1/2)=35+-4%
779, T(1/2)=34.6+-4%
828, T(1/2)=34.6+-5%

100

1045, T(1/2)=33.3+-5%
1315, T(1/2)=35.7+-6%
1431, T(1/2)=37+-8%

=531, T(1/2)=22+-13%

10
0

10

20

30

40

50

T,
.3. -

174

82Br .
E=554 , (I=70.8%) i= 6.2102 /, 82Br
N(Br-82)=1.2108.
1. 82Br 85Rb(n,)82Br
235U n,= 5.310-3 [6]. ,
0.204 85Rb, .
2. (
2006 ) 80Se(n,)81Se(-)81Br() = 0.6 ,
81Br(n,) 82Br = 3.26 [5]. , 2-
0.017 80Se,
3.4% - .
3. 81Br.
, 81Br M(Br-81)=1.110-8 ,
. - .
235U
- :
132
I, T1/2 = 2.29 (E=667.7 , I =98.7%; E=772.6 , I =75.6%;); 133I, T1/2 = 20.8 (E=529.87 ,
I =87%;); 135I, T1/2 = 6.57 (E=1131.5 , I=22. 7%; E=1260.4 , I=28.9%).
- .
( -2 , - 18 )
, 132I, 133I, 135I :
132I 1.2 ; 133I 1.8 ; 135I 7 .
132I , --
132
Te T1/2= 77.7 .
- 132I 135I
, - . 133I
- E=531 , . 4 T1/2 = 222.8 , . 3.

131

J(E=503)

4500

4000

3500
126

126

J(E=511)

J(E=491)

3000

133

J(E=530)

2500

2000
450

460

470

480

490

500

510

520

, .
.4. -

530

540

550

175

, E=5301.5 , T1/2 = 1825 ,


194Ir (E=530.17 , T1/2 = 19.28 , I=0.016%), 189Re((E=530.3 , T1/2 = 24.3 , I=0.058%),

- , .
E=530 , (I=87%) i= 596 /,
133I N(Br-82)=(6.20.6)106 .
133I
11?.
1.
E=531 -
. , - - E=159
(123mTe, T1/2=117 ) E=364 (131I, T1/2=8.02 ) ,
T1/2 = 222.8 .
2.
:
) 134Xe(n,np)133I, , E= 12.5 , =10-5 [7]
) 136Xe(n,)133Te(-)133I, , E= 8, =10-5 [7]
,
, ) ,
6.2106 133I, 0.14 136Xe
( En> 8
Jn= 1.51011 /2)! .
, .
1 235U- Pnc?.
, . , :
1. 235U
, , ,
, .
2.
Jnc=JnPnc, Jn- .
:
N(Te-133)= JnPncN(Te-122)(122Te133Te)T,
: N(I-133)= 6.2106- 133Te; Jn= 1.01014 /2-
; N(Te-122)= 1.951021- 122Te ;
T= 7200 c- ; (122Te133Te)- 122Te(xn, (x-k)n)133Te.
Pnc ,
(122Te133Te). , 0.1
10 .
Pnc= 4.310-8- 4.310-10 /.
:
..,
; .. ,
;
.. Ge(Li)
; .., .
1. Marqus F.M., Labiche M., Orr N.A. et al. Phys. Rev C. 2002. V. 65. P. 1.
2. Bouchat V., Marqus F.M., Hanappe F. et al.. Int. Symp. On Exoic Nuclei (EXON-2004). Petrhof. Lake
Ladoga. Russia. Yuly 5-12. 2004. P. 52.
3. Beaumel D., Becheva E., Blumenfeld Y. et al. Int. Symp. On Exoic Nuclei (EXON-2004). Petrhof. Lake
Ladoga. Russia. Yuly 5-12. 2004. P.53.
4. .., .., .. . . 2005. . 81. . 49.
5. Atlas of Neutron Captures Cross Section. Rep. INDC (NDS)-362, Vienna: IAEA, 1997.
6. .., .., .., .. ,
. . ., , 1982.
7. ENDF, IAEA, Nuclear Data Services.

176

.., .., .., .., .., ..


-
, . , ( )

ENDF/B-VI, 10-3 103



22,1 20,3 .
. [1], 50- ,
, .
,
En<1 . ,
.

(., , [2]).
[1], .
, , ,
n ,
4 . .
n , S-,
. ,
d=Cd. C.
.
, ,
. a2, a .
d.=4a2cosd.
,
. =0, C=4a2
d=4a2d, 16a2 ,
0=4a2.

. ""
[1]:
4
=
4 a 2 ,
2

(1)
m
1 + n
m.
mn m. , .
, ,
. , , ,
. ,
. ,
, 1 .
, ,
, ,
, , -
.
,

, ,
.
, .
, , .

177


.
, , .
.

.
.
TiH2.
1,5%.
, .
40 , 6 .

. 2,4
0,15 . 40 .

-18,
.
. 300 , 32 .
3
He 4 . 80%.
1,2 . ,
, :
, , - ,
/. -
-.
CRW-DAQ, [3].
252Cf 1,38107 -1,
.
270 , 320 . ,
2020 , 1
. ,
100 . 1.

. 1. , . 1
252Cf; 2 ; 3 ; 4, 6, 8 ; 5
; 7 ; 9 ; 10 ;
11 ; 12

178


. 6 300 , 200 , 4 8
400 . 25 . 9
200 , ,
.

. , 26 ,
50
1 . / 1,5%.

, , , ,
( ). , -18
, ""
, .
, 1 .
1 .
.
-,
3He(n,p)T.
.

N N0, ,
:

N = N 0 e ns tot t s

(2)

ns, tot ts ,
. Nb:
ln (( N 0 N b ) (N N b ))
(3)
tot =
ns t s
, ,
9,110,53 ( . ).
ENDF-B/VI, (4,250,81)10-8 .
MCNP [4] ,
.

, , (4,420,31)10-8 .
.
, .
,
, (. (2))
, ,
.
:
44,34 , 45,75 . ,
4,2510-8 , ENDF-B/VI,
20,75 .
2 ,
. (
, , 1935 [5]
.) 4,2510-8
. ,
. ,
. ,
[6-13] 13%.

179

70
60

tot,

50
40
30
20
10
0 -8
10

-7

-6

10

TiH2, ;
CH4O ( [6]);

TiH2,

NH4Cl,

C10H8O4, [7];

C9H12, [8];

NH4I,

10
En,
NH4Br,

C2H5OH, [9]

70
60

tot,

50
40
30
20
10
0 -8
10

-7

-6

10

H2O, ;

H2O [10];

H2O [11];

H2O [13]

H2O [12];

10
En,

.
.2.

, ,
, 2 ,
4,2510-8
.

: , , HDO
.
, , ,

180

, .
, ,
.
N./(N.-NCd), N.
, NCd "" .
"" ,
10 .
ENDF/B-VI, 0,43 . ,
-18, 29,63,
.

(., , [14]).
4,1%, 1,2%
1,1% . 6,2%.

. : , -
, , , ENDF/B-VI.
: 4,2%; :
5,7%, 5,1%. 1,5%.


. ,
, ,
:
1. ,
, ;
2. ,
, ,
.
, , -,
. , ,

. , , -,

.

1. ., . " ", .:, , 1954.


2. .. . // , 2002,
9, .9-19.
3. .., ..
. "
. IHISM-04" (., 2004 .), , , 2005, .411-419.
4. Briesmeister J.F., Ed. MCNP A General Purpose Monte Carlo Code for Neutron and Photon Transport.
Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-12635-M, Ver. 4A, 1993.
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12, P.74.
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13. Melkonian E. Physical Review, 1949, Vol. 76, P.1750.
14. . . .: , 1970.

181

.., .., ..
. .. , ,
, -
(3340 ...) 20 ...,
() M.
( ) : dN dM = 0.3 M 3.7 2 1 .
350-450 , 64.
+ 1 = 3.7 0.1 $
- ( 1 ),
. ,
.
.
= 400-430 .

.
1.
ATHLET [1]
- (, 3340 )
1012-21018 HADRON-M.
- -44
[2],
. :
, .
, 3-
2005 . 20 ...
:
.

M ( ),
.
.
2.
,
9, 9 7 15 (. 1 2).
.

64 [3], [4]
.
.
, .

15 10B(n,)7Li: 10B BF3
. 2 , 15 .
, 64,
.
2.5 ,
.
.
.

182

, ,
, ,
(
, ).

.1. .

.2.
,
. 13
,
,
- .

10 .

1 ; - 64
, 15 ( ,
, 80-100 -1) [5].

( 15- ),
. ,
(60 ); .

183

85- 25- ,
. ,
67 ,
. ,
67 4020 18
(1080 ) .

, ( )
.
,
:
600 ,
(1, 2, 4, 8, ...),
;
. 8.
M 1 1, ..
25 .
3.

.
, M.

64 [6].

M 3.
4.5 /; , 14,
,
4000 .

.3. .
U 430 , T
64

184

,
=400430 , .
,
64 :
1=240 2=650 [6]. , , ,
(, )
.

, ,
64 ( 5% [3]).
,
M 64 20% 30%.
4.
, ,
:
M ~ 500
, , 4.
(
, . 2).

.4.

,
.
5.
5.1
,
, 5.
, 64.
;
.
.
,
, 2200 50000 64.
5,
: dN dM = 0.3M 3.7 2 1 .

185

.5. 64

64
M>5 ( 0.3), , ,
, .
, 64 ,
, 120130 /2 [7],
2000 /2 106 .
M>5 350450 , , ,
, .
, , M5,
. ,
1.5 , 64,

. , ,
, , .
5.2
,
- ,
(E>1 ) . ,

-, - [8], ,
, .
: -
.

100 26 , GEANT 3.21
: =3Ee,/ [9].
[10] (<12).
3.5%,
M=M0 Ee, /,
M0=10.

186

.6.
- [8,11].
1 ,
0.5-0.6 (=3.13 [11] =3.65-3.7 [8]).
3.7, [8], .

- . 6 ,
5. M
- [8],
, 6.
- :
1/cos ( ), 150 /2, =2 ,
< 85, < cos > = 0.4.
6, ,
. M=M0E
M0 . 6 ,
.
M0=55, 5
. ,
.
.
5% ,
5%
-. ,
, :
= CE ( = 0.7-0.8 [10],
= 0.5 [4]). , ,
[9,10],
5.0-5.4 :
,
.
6
1. ,
(3340 ...) 2000 /2 :

187

dN dM = 0.3M 3.7 2 1 4.
2.
,
.
3.
400-430 .
4.
64 , ,
380420 /2, 33.5
.
5.
, ,
.
05-02-08070, 05-02-16655 06-02-16969.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Chubenko A P et al. Proc. 28th ICRC, Tsukuba (2003) p.977.


.. ., . , .., .69, 3, 2005, .356-358.
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.. ., . , .., .66, 11, 2002, .1578-1580.
.. ... - , ., , 2000.
Antonova V P et al, Journal of Physics G, 28, 2, 2002, p.251-266.
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Amineva T.P. et al, Proc. 13th ICRC, 1973, 3, p.1788-1796.
.. ., , .363, 5, 1998, .610-614.
.., .. ., , .46, .5, 1987, .1492-1501.
.. ., , .109, 1979, .62-76.

188

.., .., ..
, ,
,
,
- 700<Z2/A1/3<1700.
,
:
0.3R0. .


,
- .
,
, . ()
, ,
.

- .

(z ) , .

{c, h, } [2]:

(c 2 z 2 )( A + B z 2 / c 2 + z / c), B 0;

2
S
( z) =
S
2
2
2
(c z )( AS + z / c ) exp( B cz ), B < 0,
S - , z .
:

/( AS + B ), B 0;
h + 3/ 2
, q =
q = c, q =
3 / A , B < 0,
1
2 h + 3/ 2
S

sc

sc

5
1 c
.
+
3
4
2c

{q = c, q , q } :

1
2 3
q [0.5,4.5], q 2 [0,1] q [1,1] .
1
3
, {c, h, } .

189

.2.
.1 , ,
[3] [4] q 3 = 0

233

Pa . q = 1, q = 0.375 ,
1
2

q = 1.6, q = 0.75 - .
1
2

. . -
.
,
N :
( n)

(q)
(n + 1)
(n) 1 (n) ( n) jk
( n)
( n)
( n)
( n)
( n) ( n)

,
(q) (q) p +
+ K (q ) +
=p
p p
p

k
ij
j
i
ij
jk
k q
i
i
2 j

( n)
(n + 1)
( n + 1)
( n) 1 ( n )
=q
+ (q)( p
+p
) ,
q
i
i
j
j
2 ij

1 N, q = {q , q , q } - ,

1 2 3

p = {p , p , p };
1 2 3

m = m
ij ij
ij

ij

K - ; - ; - ; -
ij j
ij
j
i
. (n) ,
t = n , - .
n
.
:

, 0.3R0;

.

.
, - , ,

. , .
W = e E / T , E -
.

190

.2.
.2:
. : - ,
, 0.3R0; - , ; . - [5], , [6].

.3.

191

.3: . :
- , - , , -
, -
, -
. ) , ) ,
) 0.3R0.

.4.

.5.
.4 .5
. , .
) , ) , )
0.3R0.

-[2,3].


-
.
.
,
Z2/A1/3.
, ,
, .
,
, ,

192

Z2/A1/3 > 1400.


. ,
. ,
,
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

M. Brack et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 320 (1972).


H.J. Krappe, J.R. Nix, and A.J. Sierk, Phys. Rev. C 20, 992 (1979).
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.. , . . , 29, 389 (1998).
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1961).
7. S.I. Mulgin, V.N. Okolovich, S.V. Zhdanov, Phys. Lett. B462 (1999) 29.

193

.., 2 .., 3 ..
1



3

2

,
, .
.
, ,
,
.

,
.

,
. , ,
,
[1 5]. ,
, [1 3]
(1)
= 1 + 2,
1, 2 1 2. 1, 2 1 2.

r -
.

r
1
1
r1 = r + r, r2 = r r,
2 r
2
; r

(2)

k ;
(
k' '.
(1) ,

4 f 0
=i
d ( - ' - f + 0) n qr
M

< f |e

i rr
qr
2

+e

i rr
qr
2

| i > , (3)


=i

4 f 0
M

< f |e

i rr
qr
2

+e

i rr
qr
2

| i > nq,

(4)

nq - , q = k - k ,
= ' + f 0, 0 , f
, | i > | f > -
.
| i > | f >
0( r ). | f >

f ( r ), f .

:
0 ( r ) =

r
2 r

f ( r ) =

rr
i fr

1
e i fr ,
~
i f

(5)

194

(0 =

, = 1)

' (' ' =

' 2

[5 - 6].
(4),

,
<nq n*q' > = 2V( - ') <n2>q,
(6)
V <n2>q -
.
1.
(4) ( )
, :
d

rr
2
q
+
2
q
k.
=

= 16 f 0 2 4 arctg q <n2>qd k ,

k
4
q

4M

(7)



d
.
,
:
<n2>q = 2 n0(),
(8)

(8) (7) d k d q d (d k

2
q dq d),
k
2
(9)
= 512 f 0 n0(),

() = -2

k
2

dx (arctg x )

(10)

( 2 ,

).
() . 1.
,
.
()
0,5

.1.

195


, , ,
.
2.
- , ,
, 6Li - .
:

r
i rr
i rr
r df
2
qr
qr
4
2
2
d d =
,
f 0 <n >q f e 2 + e 2 i dk
3
k
(
2 )
rr
r r r
q 2 + 2 qk 2 f 2
.
+
q = k k , =
4
M
M
M
r
d q d ,

(8)
, :
256 2
d = 2 f 0 n0 dqq d ( ) dff 2
k

(11)

1
1
2
2
2

+ f + q
2 + f 2 + q2
2
+1

4
4
+

1 d z
2
1

q
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 + f 2 + 1 q 2 f 2 q 2 z 2
+ f + q f q z

4

4

1
1
f + q + i
f + q + i
1
1
2
2
+ 2
Re
ln
ln
2
2
1
1

i f
q ( + f )
f q + i
f q + i
2
2
0 f

1
1
kq - q2 2,
2
4

q2 2kq +42 0

k2 > 42,

, ,

+ +1

(, ) = -2 dxx
2 1

(12)

z =cos 0.

= 256

2 x x 2 1

f0

n0(, ),

(13)

1
dyy 2
+
2
2
2 2
(1 + x + y ) 4 x y

2
1 + ( x + y )2
1
1 + (x+ y)
1
ln

+
ln

~
4 xy (1 + x 2 + y 2 ) 1 + ( x y )2 8 x 2 ( 2 + y 2 ) 1 + ( x y )2
2

~
2

1 + (x+ y)
(arctg( x + y ) + arctg( x y )) ln

+
~
2
2 x2 y ( 2 + y2 )
1 + (x y)

1
2
(
(
)
(
)
)
arctg
x
y
arctg
x
y
+
+

,
~
2 x2 ( 2 + y2 )

~
~
(

~
= 0,227).
=

k
2

= 1,

(13) .

( d 6Li, t 7Li), (, ) :

196

+ 2 1

0( , ) = -2

2 x x 2 1

2
dyy

dxx

2 1

1
1
1 + (x+ y ) ,
ln

2
2
2
2 2
2 2
1 + (x y)
4 xy (1 + x 2 + y 2 )
(1 + x + y ) 4 x y

( , ) =

3
4

1
4

(, 1) +

(14)

(, 0,227) . 2.

. 0( , )
.
= 1 ( ) (13) .
(2 1 << 1) :

d =128 f 0

(
1

n0 1 2 1 +

)(

~
~
2 + 2 1 2 1 , (15)

()
()

0,1

0()
0,05

11

13

15

.2.
3.
W
:
W=
:

= Q e ,

2M

Q=1+

(16)

d ,
e

(17)

e d - . ,
Q
.
. 3 Q :
. Q0 . 3
.
, . 3, ,
, ,
. .
Q

. ,
[7 - 9]
.

197

Q
4

Q0

2
1

10

.3.
. 4 ( ) / (1) ,
(17) . ,
.
.

( )
(1)

0,5

10

.4.
.. , 43, 319, 1962.
Sitenko A.G. Nucl.phys.39, 506, 1962.
Sitenko A.G., Ismatov Y.E. Nucl.phys.55, 443, (1964).
.. . , , 1974, 128 .
.., . , , 1978, 176 .
.. . , , 1983, 351 .
.., .., .. .
. 1. , 2003, . 216 236.
8. .., .., .. .
6- , 4 7
2007. . 140 141.
9. .., .., .. . ,
Nobel, 2004.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

198

.., .., .., .., .., ..


,
,
. . ,
, ,
.

() - [1-5].
.
, , . , -
.
-
A A2
el

rr
(q ) = ik dreiq A1 r1 , r2 ...rA1
2

A1
A2
r r
2
r
3
~
~
r1 , r2 ...rA2 ( ; {1}; { 2 }) d ri d 3rk , (1)
i =1

k =1


A1

A2

( ; { 1}; { 2 }) = 1 [1 ik ( + 1i + 2 k )] ,

(2)

i =1 k =1

r
r
r
r
ri rk - A1 A2 , i k -
.
6
1.
Li ,
, .

p-
s- p-. 6 Li
( = 15 ),
.
+=0 - - d -.
+ (3,5 )
. , ,
- , .
6
Li , ().
- [1-6],
. 6 Li ,
.
, - .
6 Li (1) (2)

( )

rr
r iqrr
ik
Fel k q =
d

e ( ) ,
2

(3)

j - j

f i (q ) :

j ( j ) =
r

r r
1
r
2 r iq ( j )
d
q
e
f (q ) ,

2ik

(4)

199

- 0 > f >

A
1 A
if (0) (r j )2 / 4 a

( ) =< f rj 1 1 +
e
| 0 > ,
2ak

A j =1 j =1

(5)

-, ,
.
6 Li ( L = 1 L = 2 )

(1234;56 )

LM

= N L ( ) (d ) LM

()
r
R

,
(6)
( ), (d ) LM [6,8]. (6) ,

( ) =

6
r r

N 02
( j ) / 4 a

+
dx
...
dx
1
1
Ze

1
5
4
j =1

) exp 2 (x
1

2
1

+ x22 + 2 x42

2
2

x32

4 2 2
x5 0 (x5 ) , (7)
3

Z = i f (0) = ( 1 + ia ) - . x6
2ak

8a

(5) -. (7) ,
[8,9-12],

F (kq ) =

6
aq 2
ika 2
1

N 0 dx1...dx502 ( x5 )exp{ f11 ( z1...z5 ) f (b1...b5 )} exp
2
=1
x

A exp + cqC ,
a

(8)

A, , C [2,3,6].

2
d

= F0 0 (k , q ) ,
d

(9)

1 [7] 6 Li
12. ,
,
. 1
. 2
6 Li 63
R.
mb
e( )

st

10

104
103
102
101
100
10-1
10-2
0

10

20

30

40 50 60 70 80 90

.1.

..

200

2. , 7 Li
, ,
.
-
7

=1

(4,63 )

Li .

, - t - . ,
7 - - t -.
2
mb

st

e( )

104

104
4

103
102

104

10

104

103
102
101
100

10-2

.2.
7
Li .
-,
, [2,3,6,12]
A

r r
r r A
r r
r r

(10)
( ) = dr1...drA i / A f (r1...rA )1 1 + (if (0 ) / 2ak )exp ( i )2 / 4a 0 (r1...rA )
j =1

i =1

(10) - ,
.
7 Li ( L = 1, L = 3 ) - (6)

))

LM (1234;567 ) = N L (1 ) ( 2 ) LM (R ) ,

(1 ), ( 2 ) LM (R ) [6].

{[

(11)

2
1
2
2
2
d
= 1 F1M 1M / (kq ) = 2 F11 (k , q ) + F11 (k , q ) + F00 (k , q ) ,

3
d
MM / = 1

(12)

201

7 Li
(11) (12). 3
185 7 Li .

102

3
0

10

2
-2

10

25

45

.3.
. [7].
3. 12
. 12
, jm (r , , ) ,
t 2 Z,
t 2 , Z.
- [6].

r iqrr
ik
3 1

F0 f (q ) =
d

f
N

i ( ) =

r 1 (1 j ( i )) 0 ,

j =1
i =1

2
j

) ( )

1
r/ r r
r 2
exp

i
q
(

)
f
q
d q,
i
j
2ik

(13)

(14)

- ,
12 exp q 2 < r 2 > / 104 .
12, [ ], 12

F0 0 (q ) =

1
r r r
r
ik
exp q 2 < r 2 > / 104 deiq 1 N 02 dr1...dr12 exp 2 rj2
2

d j

12
M
2
2
(1 j ) ,
(
)
1
Q
Q
...
s2 1 +

M M
4

20a M
j =1

(1 i )

j
2

r r
j

)2

2 2

(15)

(16)

j - - ; j -
. - . i ,

202

s . s
, .
(15)
12 (. 4 5) [13].

.4.

.5.

1. . . // , , 1983, 352 .
2. Sitenko A. G., Polozov A. D., Ewlanov M. B. Preprint ITF-72-111 Kiev. 1973. p. 25.
3. Sitenko A. G., Fursa A. D., Dotzenko I. S. Ukr. Phys. Juorn. 1972-v. 17. p.110. Ismatov E. I., Kuterbekov K.
A., Djuraev Sh. Kh., Esanniyazov Sh. F, Strigina S. B., Fazylov M.
4. . ., . ., . . , 1967, . 5. . 573-581.
5. . ., . . // ,
, 1988, 283 .
6. . . // , , 1978, 176 .
7. Ollerhead R. W., Chasman C., Bromley D. A. Phys. Rev. 134, B74 (1964).
8. I. Proceedings of the Second Eurasian Conference Nuclear science and its application Proceedings, Almaty
2003 P. 216-243.
9. . ., . ., . ., . .
, 2007,
. 7 10.
10. . ., . ., . .
- ,
2007, . 104-108.
11. . ., . ., . ., .
, 2005, . 411-417.
12. Ismatov E. I., Tartakovsky V. K. MPNP-2005. Tashkent, Book Abstracts. P. 22.
13. Gogary M. M. H., Shalaby A. C., Hussen M. Y. M. // Phys Rev. C. V. 58. 6. 1998 p. 3513-3522.
14. . Ismatov E. I., Yuldashev B. S., Tskai K. V. et.al. Nuclear science and Its application. Tashkent-2004.
Proceedings. P. 193-197.

203


15

1
1

.., 2 .., 2 .., 2 .

, ,
2
. -, ,

15
=1 / ,
, ..
, .



( ) . 15 ,
.
, ( ),
, .
. 15
. 14, 15
Be C, (=1,22 )
(Rrms = 5,53 ), [1]
[2], [3] .
.

(
) () . 15, , [4]
. 15
16O . 15
16 .
+

1 3
, 98% s-:
J ,T =
2
2

15

iJM J = (1s ) 4 (1 p )10 (2 s )1


i

J M J
f

JM J

(1)

() ,

r
M if (q ) =
r

A
ik
r
rv
2r
dr exp(iq ) fJM J iJM J ,
2 d
=1
MJMJ

(2)

, r ( ),

iJ M J = fJM J ),

iJM J , fJ M J

( =15), q

r r
r r r
q = k k , k = k :

q = 2k sin ,
2

k = 2 m2 ,

(3)

,
:

204

A
A
r r
= 1 (1 ( )) = +

=1

=1

+...(1)

A 1

12 ... A ,

(4)

v N- f pN (q ) :

( ) =

r
r r r
1
dqi exp( iqi ( ) ) f pN (qi ) ,

(2ik )

(5)

f pN (q) =

k pN

(i + )exp
pN

2
pN

q2

(6)

pN , pN
, pN .
(4) ,
, , .. , -
r
r
r
. d dq , dq ,
:

4 ~ 14 ~

~
= A i + j + ~15 ,
j =5
i =1

A = (1)

=1

~ =
i =1

i =1

rr
exp(iq i ) ,

14

2
q

f pN ,

ik

14

rr
~ j = exp(iq j ) ,

J =5

(7)
(8)

rr

~15 = exp(iq15 )

(9)

j =5

~ , ~ , ~ ,

i
15
j
1s-, 1p- 2s-. ,

r
r
r
r
ik
M if (q ) =
A {K 000 (q ) N 20 N11m + N 00 N 20 K11m (q ) + N 00 K 200 (q ) N11m } ,
2 m

(10)

N 00 =
i =1

14
r 2 r
000 (ri ) dri , N11m =
j =5

N 20 =
r
K nlm (q ) =
i

r 2 r
11m (rj ) drj ,

r 2 r
200 (r15 ) dr15 ,

(11)

r 2 4
r
nlm (ri ) ~i dri ,

(12)

i =1

(11)
, K nlm (qr ) , ..

~ ,

i
. , K 000 (qr ) 1s-,
r
r
K11m (q ) 1- K 200 ( q ) 2s-.
(10):
, .
(10), :
1
r 2
d
(13)
=
M if (q ) ,
d

2J + 1

.
, .
(13) (10):
2

d
1
k2
r
r
r
2
=
A K 000 (q ) N 20 N11m + N 00 N 20 K11m (q ) + N 00 K 200 (q ) N11m .
2
d 2 J + 1 4
m
m
m

(14)

205

, .
1s-,
1-, 2s-.

r
r
r
r
(15)
I m ( q ) = K 000 ( q ) N 20 N11m + N 00 N 20 K11m ( q ) + N 00 K 200 ( q ) N11m ,
(13) (10) (7)-(9) (15):
d
1 k2
=
d 2 J + 1 4

=1

(1)

2
q

f pN

ik

mm

r
I mm (q ) ,

(16)

:
, , ..

.1.
, , - 1s-, 1p-, 2s- ,
, . (14):
, - .
, 1s-,
2 2
(14) const exp q r0 .

, ,
q 2 r02 , - .

exp

() , .. ,
, .

.1. 15- =1,0 . ,


, - 1s-, 1p-,
2s- ,
.2 . -
(.. (16)) , - (
(16)) ( (16)) .

206

.2. . -, ,
-, -, - ,
(16) . ,
:
~ 14
; , < 10 ,
20> > 12 ; ,
, ~ 20
> 20. , - -
(.. ), , .. (16)
.
, ,
, .
( 1
/), , ..
( )
.
.3 12, 13, 15, 16 =1,0 /.
,
,
. , 15
, 16.

207

.3. 12, 13, 15, 16 =1,0 /.


12, 13 [5], 16 [6]


15 .
r
Qir q ,
, ,
(
) , .
,
,
15. ,
, , .
, 1s- , 1
2s. , , = 0 o ,
~ 10 o , , .
1-, ~ 3o
2s-,
= 26 o . ,
, .
, ,
, < 12 o ,
20> > 12,
> 20.
,
.
15-
12 13 16 1 , .
15- /,
.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Sherr R. // Phys Rev.C 1996. V.54. P.1177.


Fang D.Q. et al. // Phys.Rev. 2000 V.61. 064311.
Chulkov L.V. et al.// Nucl.Phys.A. 2000. V.674. P.330; Ozava A. et al. // RIKEN Rep. AF- NP-294. 1998.
.. . ., .., 2006, .70, .284.
.. // . , .. 1978, .42, 11, .2218.
Palevsky H. et al. // Phys.Rev.Lett. 1967. V.18. N26. P.1200.

208

.., 2 .., 3 ..

, ,
, A&M , ,
3
-
. .. , , ,

,
,
, - .
, ,
, t-.
, .
- ,
() t-
(. [1] ). [2], ,
, - ,
, -
. , , ,

[3]. [4] ,
- , .
R-
, . ,
R-
,
. . ,
,
. ,
.
, , - ,
, , ,
. ,
R-, ,
[5].
,
,
. ,
[6]
() [7]. a + A y + b + B , a = ( xy ) ,
x + A b + B . x
.

,
V=VN+VC.

Z1Z 2 e 2
r2

3 2 ,
RC
RC
VC (r ) =
Z1Z 2 e 2
r ,

r RC ;

(1)

r > RC ,

RC , Z1e, Z2e - . VN
- .

209

, , :

d2
l (l + 1)
2
ul (k0 , r ) = 0,
2 + k0 v ( r )
r 2
dr

(2)

k02 = 2 E , v(r ) = 2 V (r ) , - ( ,
h = c = 1 ).
r = 0 ul (k0 , 0) = 0 . ,
, :

ul (k0 , r ) sin(k0 r ln 2k0 r

Z1Z 2e 2
k0

l
+ l ),
2

(3)

.
(2),
r= 0 ,
:

ul (k0 , r ) = jl (k0 r ) + Gl (k0 , r , r )v(r ) jl (k0 r )dr ,

(4)

Gl (k0 , r , r ) - ,

d2
l (l + 1)
2
2 + k0 v ( r )
Gl (k0 , r , r ) = (r r ),
2
dr
r

jl ( x) =

x
2

l+

1
2

( x) - , J

l+

1
2

(5)

( x) - .


( x , ),
jl ( x) sin( x

l
) x .
2

. ,
,
.
, :

Gl (k0 , r , r ) =

1
k0

l(1) (r ) l(2) (r ),
(1)
(2)
l (r ) l (r ),

r > r
r < r

(6)

l(1) (r ) l(2) (r ) (2)


:
l(1) (r )
exp[i (k0 r ln 2k0 r l / 2 + l )],
(7)
r

(r ) r sin(k0 r ln 2k0 r l / 2 + l ).
(2)
l

(8)

r k0. , l(2) (r )
(3).
ul (k0 , k , r ) (4),

k0 k , E =

k02
k2

,
2 2

, ..
.
ul (k0 , k , r ) r = 0 ,
:

210

ul (k0 , k , r ) r =0 = 0 ,

(9)

ul (k0 , k , r ) = jl (kr ) + Gl (k0 , r , r )v(r ) jl (kr )dr ,

(10)

. t-
:

tl (k , k ; E ) = jl (k r )v(r )ul (k0 , k , r )dr ,

(11)

, (10).

d2
l (l + 1)
ul (k0 , k , r ) Lr = 2 + k02 v(r )
.
dr
r2
:

d2
l (l + 1)
2
2
2
dr 2 + k0 v(r ) r 2 ul (k0 , k , r ) = (k0 k ) jl ( kr ) ,

(12)

(12) ,
. (12) k0 = 2 E k , (12)
(2),
.
(10),

ul (k0 , k , r ) r 0 = (kr )l + C (k0 , k )ul (k0 , r ) ,


(13)
C

1
C (k0 , k ) = l(1) (r )v(r ) jl (kr )dr ,
k0 0

(14)

ul (k0 , r ) r r l . (12),
t-. , t-
:

tl (k , k ; E ) = (k 2 k02 ) 2 (k k ) jl (k r )ul (k0 , k , r )dr ,


2k

(15)

t-, R-,
.. [8].

,
.
. ,

, . . .
, -
, , . . ,
.
,
. :
u%l (r ) r > R = sin N [ ctg N Gl (k0 r ) Fl (k0 r ) ] ,
(16)
N

N - , Fl ( x)

Gl ( x) -

RN -
( ).
, ,
, :

211

ul (r ) r > R = cos N [ Fl (k0 r ) + tg N Gl (k0 r ) ] ,


N

(17)

l(1) (r ) ,
,
l(1) (r ) = u%l (r ) + iul (r ) ,
(18)
(6) (10).
, ,
, (10)
,
(12).
. (10)
, (12) (10).
MATHEMATICA.

(7Be, p) (7Be, n).
- - :

r r 1 d

1
,
VN (r ) = V0 Vls (l s ) 2

m r dr 1 + exp[(r RN ) / a]

(19)

V0 Vls - ;

m - , Vls ; a - ,
r r
RN - ; l s - .
(RN) (RC)

RN = rN A1/ 3 ( RC = rC A1/ 3 ) , A - (=7 7Be).


8

,
B (J =2+, T=1, Ex=0 , 1/ 2 =770 J=1+, T=1, Ex= 0,7695 , = 35,6 ) 8Be (J =2+,T=1,

Ex=16,626 , =108,1 J=1+, T=1, Ex=17,640 , = 10,7 ) [9]. 8B 8Be


.
1.
, ,
. 7Be
J=3/2-, () 8B (8Be)
l=1.

1. - (7Be, p) (7Be, n)

V0 ()

(7Be, p)
45,69

(7Be, n)
46,19

Vls ()

3,20

3,36

rN ()

1,25

1,25

rC ()

1,25

1,25

a ()

0,65

0,65


7Be l=0, 1 E=5 .
, .

r=0. N .
,
,

212


r. Fl (kr ) Gl ( kr )
jl (kr ) nl (kr ) 7Be.

r.
r, .
j = 3 / 2 5
1-2. ,
, .

.1. (a) (b) 7Be.


. ,
cos N [ jl (kr ) + tg N nl (kr ) ] sin N [ ctg N nl (kr ) jl (kr ) ] .
- , sin ( kr l / 2 + N )
cos ( kr l / 2 + N )

213

.2. (a) (b) 7Be.


, ,
cos N [ Fl (kr ) + tg N Gl (kr ) ] sin N [ ctg N Gl (kr ) Fl (kr ) ] ,
- , sin ( kr l / 2 ln 2kr + N + C )
cos ( kr l / 2 ln 2kr + N + C )
j = 1/ 2 l = 0, 1 .
(6), (4)
. (10)
k = k0 .
. , , (10),

.
, (12)
s- p- j=1/2 3/2.
k = 3k0 .
r = 0.1 (10)
.
(10).
, ,
(10) 0,1%.
3-8.

214

.3. (a) (b) s -


7Be. E = 5 , k = 3k0
,
.
. , (10)
, k , (10)
k0 , .
.
(10) , ,
, .

.4. (a) (b) p -


7Be j = 3 / 2 . E = 5 , k = 3k0

.5. (a) (b) p -


7Be j = 3 / 2 . E = 5 , k = 3k0

215

.6. (a) (b) s -


7Be. E = 5 , k = 3k0

.7. (a) (b) p -


7Be j = 3 / 2 . E = 5 , k = 3k0

.8. (a) (b) p -


7Be j = 1/ 2 . E = 5 , k = 3k0



( 7Be), ,
( 7Be). ,
,
, ,
. ,
,
. ,

216

,
, .

.
(.. )
2-1.44.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

.. , , .: , 1986.
S.E. Massen, S.A. Sofianos, S.A. Rakityansky, S. Oryu, Nucl.Phys. A 654, 597c (1999).
B. Krippa, M. C. Birse, J.A. McGovern, N.R. Walet, Phys.Rev. C 67, 031301 (2003).
G.F. Bertsch, P. Danielewicz, Phys.Lett. B 367, 55 (1996).
.. , .. , .. , . . . 24, 1729 (1979).
G. Baur, Phys. Lett. B 178, 135 (1986).
C. Spitaleri et al., Phys. Rev. C 69, 055806 (2004).
.. , , .: , 1983.
F. Ajzenberg-Selove and T. Lauritsen, Nucl. Phys. A227, 1 (1974).

217

Se Zr

. ., .., ..
, ,

S0, S1,
'
'
R0 , R1 , S1,1/2, S1,3/2
[1]
~450 .
S0 S1, , ,
5 15 , .
( 2 3 ).
[2] . [3]
S0, S1, R0' 143 .

[4], .
[1], .

~ 450
l = 0 1.

el ( ) =

el
{1 + 1 P1 ( ) + 2 P2 ( )} ,
4

(1)

- = cos, ; el ; Pl ;
1 2 . , t el, [1]:

1 =

6D 2

el

(1 0 Re 1 Re + 0 Re 1 Re + 0 Im 1 Im ) ,

2 =

el

( s1 + D 2T1, 3 2 ) ,

(2)
(3)

l = lRe + ilIm ; el
; s1 - l = 1; 1,3/2
l = 1 j = 3/2.
el
el = c0 + c1 +s0 + s1, l.

, .
( << D)
[5]. l
el, 1, 2 S0, S1, R0' , R1' ,
S1,3/2, . S1,1/2
S1 = 1/3(S1,1/2 + 2S1,3/2).
2. el, 1, 2, 2
.


[6] ( ).
, [2, 3]

R'

[4] [6]. S0, S1, 0


, .

218

.
el, 1, 2 [6].
2.
34Se. . 1 el, 1, 2 [6, 7]
. 2 [2]: S0 = 0,81(19);

R'

'

S1 = 3,03(66); 0 = 7,41(36); R1 = 1,22(91); S1,3/2 = 2,44(43) (


10-4, ; ).
, .

0,3

34

Se

3
1

0,2
2

0,1
0,0
0,4

3
0,2
2
0,0
-[6]
-[7]

el,

15
3
10

1
0

100

200

300

400

500

En,
.1. el, 1, 2 34Se. : -
[6], - [7]. 1 3
(. )
[4]
: S0 = 1,46; S1 = 0,88 R0' = 8,28. :

R1' = 3,01; S1,3/2 = 2,37. 3. ,


-
S0 R0' . , S1 . , , ,
S1,1/2 = 2,1, S1 = 1/3(S1,1/2 + 2S1,3/2),
(- R1' S1,3/2 2).
, ~ 15 [6]
- . 1 2 .
~ 500 t
2 - 3 [8]. 1 2,
.
2
.

219

[6],
. :
S0 = 1,10; S1 = 1,95; R0' = 7,44; R1' = 0,88; S1,3/2 = 2,59.
1.
(2 ).
40Zr. . 2 el, 1, 2 [3, 6, 7, 9]
. 2 - [2]: S0 = 0,69(22); S1 = 5,08(59);
R0' = 7,29(38); R1' = 0,63(57); S1,3/2 = 5,52(25). ,
, 2.
[3] : S0 = 0,58; S1 = 3,80; R0' = 7,1.
[6] : R1' = 3,71; S1,3/2 = 6,33.
3. ,
143 . , [6, 7, 9] -
S1. S1,1/2 = 1,26, S1 = 1/3
(S1,1/2 + 2S1,3/2).
[4]
Zr: S0 = 0,58; S1 = 5,87; R0' = 7,2. : R1' = 1,13;
S1,3/2 = 6,57. el, 1, 2 . 2 4.
.
. 2 ,
. ,
[8],
2 - 4 . [10]
, t

. , ,
, ( ~11 9 ).
.
Se, Zr
[6]: S0 = 0,55; S1 = 6,10; R0' = 6,90; R1' = 0,90; S1,3/2 = 6,78. . 2
1. 2 el 1.
5, 6, 7 el
0, 1 s0. .
2 . s1
, R1' [2]
.

220

Zr

0,4

40

1
4

0,2

0,0
0,6

1
4

3
2

[3]
[6]
[7]
[9]

0,4
0,2

el,

0,0

10

6
4
2
0

1
7
6

5
0

100

200

300

400

500

En,

.2. , . 1, 40Zr
Se Zr .

34Se
40Zr

S0 104

S1 104

R0' ,

R1' ,

S1,1/2 104

S1,3/2 104

1,10(25)
0,55(15)

1,95(26)
6,10(30)

7,44(26)
6,90(22)

0,88(45)
0,90(57)

0,67(1,0)
4,74(1,1)

2,59(32)
6,78(20)

S0, S1, R0' , R1' , S1,1/2, S1,3/2 34Se


. S0, S1 R0'
[4]. ,
34Se S0 R0' , S1 . 40Zr , ,
. [2]
R1' , S1,3/2 S1,1/2 .
[2] .
40Zr

1. . ., . ., . . // Proc. of the Intern. Conf. Curr. Probl. in Nucl. Phys. and At.
Energy (NPAE Kyiv 2006). / Kyiv 2007, Part II, P. 599.
2. . ., . . // . . , N 18 - 86. , 1986. . 30.
3. Koester L., Waschkowski W., Meier J. // Zeit. Phys. A (1987). / Vol. 326, 2. P. 185.
4. Mughabghab S. F., Divadeenam M., Holden N. E. // Neutron Cross Section. BNL - 325. Vol. 1, art A. / N.
Y. - Lndon: Academic Press, 1981. - 823 .
5. . . // . .: , 1978. 191 .
6. , . ., . ., . . // . 3 85 133. ,
1985. 12 .
7. Langsdorf A., Jr., Lane R. O., Monahan J. E. // Phys. Rev. (1957) / Vol. 107, 4.P. 1077.
8. McLane V., Dunford C., Rose P. F. // Neutron Cross Sections. Vol. 2. / N. Y. Lndon: Academic Press,
1988.
9. Reitmann D., Engelbrecht C. A., Smith A. B. // Nucl. Phys. (1963) / Vol. 48, 4. P. 593.
10. . . // . (. 6- . . . , , 1983). ., 1984.
. 3, . 107.

221

.., .., ..
, ,
, , , .,

1.
, () ()

, .
.
[1,2]
, .
K (
I ) .
,
, , c.
,
, . [3] ,
[1,2], ,
{c, h, '} (
[4]).
,
- K. K
,
.
2.
,
N :
( n)

jk (q)
( n + 1)
( n ) 1 ( n) ( n )
( n)
( n)
( n)
( n)
( n) ( n)

+
p
= p
p
p
(q ) +
(q)
(q) p
,
K

i
i
j
k
i
ij
jk
k
ij
j

q
2

( n + 1)
( n) 1 ( n)
( n)
( n + 1)
q
(q )( p
) ,
=q
+
+p
i
i
j
j
2 ij

q = (c, h, ') - ; p -- . Ki

K i = F (q ) ,
q
i T

F(q) = V(q) - a(q)T2. T -


1/ 2
T = (Eint / a(q )) , a(q) - , Eint - :
Eint = E * Ecoll (q, p ) V (q ) E rot (q, I , K ) Eevap (t ),

1
ij (q ) pi p j -
2
, Eevap(t) - , t.
V(q) ()
[5-7].
Erot

E* - , E coll (q, p ) =

E rot (q, I , K ) =

hK 2
h I (I + 1) K 2
+
.
2 J || (q )
2 J (q )


[8]:
( sharp )
2
J (||) (q ) = J (||)
+ 4 Ma M ,

222

aM = 0.704 - , M - ,
( sharp )
J (||)
- , .
q0, p0 I
:
V (q 0 , I , K ) + E coll (q 0 , p0 )
P(q 0 , p0 , I , t = 0) exp
(q 0 q gs ) (I ),
T

qgs - () (c = 1, h = 0, ' = 0),


(I) [9].

(j = n, p, , ) [9]. , , , : lj = 1, 1, 2, 1 h .
3.
K

.
( ) K

[-I,I] .


< /K ( - [0,1] ). ,
K = K'.
K.
K' [11],

wKK' K K'

: w
KK '

E KK '
exp T ,

=
1, E 0
KK '

E KK ' > 0

E KK ' = E rot (q, I , K ') E rot (q, I , K ).



:
N
2
j
1 f j
W ( ) =
(
I + 1 / 2) d I 0 K j ( )

N f j =1
j
j
I , K - j- ,
Nf - , dI0K() , -
.

223

4.

.1.
K 248Cf
c .
K: 0.1 10-21 (a), 1 10-21 (b), 10 10-21 (c) 60 10-21 (d).
I = 60 h . ,
(d). - .

.2.
K (a) (b),
( . (a) . (b))
( . (a) . (b)) Nf.
,
.

224

.3.
16O + 208Pb, 232Th.
- [12,13]. - [14].
, , - ks = 0,25. ,
, - ks = 0,5.

.4.
.
- [10]. - .
, , - ks = 0,25 K = 4 10-21 .
- ks = 0,5 K = 4 10-21 . ,
, - ks = 0,5 K = 2 10-21 .

225

.5.
.
- [10]. -
. - ks = 0,5 K = 2 10-21 (a), K = 4 10-21
(b, c, d)}. - .
5.

, [1,2],
. ,
,
, ( )
- .
,
K I . ,
K = 2 - 4 10-21 , .

( 6 10-21 ),
( ) .
1. V.A. Drozdov, D.O. Eremenko, O.V. Fotina, S.Yu. Platonov and O.A. Yuminov, Tours Symposium on
Nuclear Physics V p. 130 (2003) Ed. by: M. Arnould et al. (Melville, New York, 2004, AIP Conference Proc.
74).
2. D.O. Eremenko, V.A. Drozdov, M.H. Eslamizadex, O.V. Fotina, S.Yu. Platonov and O.A. Yuminov, Phisics of
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5. H.J. Krappe, Phys. Rev. C 59, 2640 (1999).
6. H.J. Krappe, J.R. Nix and A.J. Sierk, Phys. Rev. C 20, 992 (1979).
7. A.J. Sierk, Phys. Rev. C 33, 2039 (1986).
8. K.T.R. Davies and J.R. Nix, Phys. Rev. C 14, 1977 (1976).
9. P. Frbrich and I. Gontchar, Phys. Rep. 292, 131 (1998).
10. B.B. Back, R.R. Betts, J.E. Gindler, B.D. Wilkins, S. Saini, M.B. Tsang, C.K. Gelbke, W.G. Lynch, M.A.
McMahan and P.A. Baisden, Phys. Rev. C 32, 195 (1985).
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13. A. Saxena et al., Phys. Rev. C 49, 932 (1994).
14. .. , .. , 29, 389 (1998).

226

.., 2 .., 3 .., 4 ..


1

,
,
3
,
4
. . ,
2



.
,
- .
[1-5].
.
- ,
[6,7].

.

( ) = 1 exp[2i ( )] ,

(1)

- , ( ) - .

(2)
1 2 / r2 ,

b (V N )
b 0
E , k , - , , ,
r
, b(k ) b(0 ) . (2) VN (r , E ) -
V (E ) + iW (E ) ,
(3)
VN (r , E ) =
r R
1 + exp

( , E ) = k

r
r
2
2
2
dr 1 / r 2VN (r , E ) / k

( d) r

V (E ),W (E ) - , . R = r0 3 A , .
VN (r , E ) << E (2)
( , E ) =

1 r
ds {Re Vn (r , E ) + i ImVN (r , E )} ,
V

(4)

- , s = r 2 2 .

( )
2
(5)
VN (r , E ) =
f (0 ) N (2 ) ,
E+M
f (0 ) = k t (i + ) / 4 - - , t = t (E ) -

- , M - , N (r ) -
. t - .

N (r ) = N 0 1 + exp{(r R ) / } ,
(6)

( )

227

4
(
)
F (q ) = ik 2 exp q 2 / 32 d ( )J 0 (q )
d

1 1
1 d 2 2 ( 2 )
0
0
0

r r 2 q r r
(7)
d21 exp 2 1 2 J 0 1 + 2 } ,
2

0
r r
r r'
q = k k - k k ' - ,
r
r
21 - 1 2 , 1( 1 ) 2( 1 ) .
,
.
(7)
r
r
r
r
k
r
r
k
r
r
F (q ) = F1 (q ) + F2 (q ) + F12 (q ) =
f (q ) 0 ( q / 2 ) +
f 2 (q ) 0 ( q / 2 ) +
k1
k2
ik
r r
r
r
r
r
(8)
+ r r d (2 ) gf1 (q / 2 + g ) f 2 (q / 2 g ) 0 ( g ) ,
2k1k2
r r
r r r
q = k1 k2 , k k ' - () ki
r
f i (q ), q = 1,2 (1- , 2- ) -

r
r
rr
iki
(8)
f i (q ) =
d j exp(iq j ) j ( j ) ,

2
r
j - j -, j j - ,
:
1, R
1, < R
,
,
(8)
2 ( 2 ) = 1
1 (1 ) = 1
1 exp[2i ( 2 )], 2 > R
0, 1 > R

( )

( )

( )

1
R = r0 1 + A 3 - - , ( 2 ) - ,

( 2 ) = n2 ln (k 2 2 ), n2 = z 2 / k 2 , z - ; - ,
2 Mm2 (M + m2 ) - . (9)

r
r r
rr
0 (q ) = d (3 )r 02 (r )exp[qr j ] ,

(8)

r
r
F (q ) = G (q ) + g (1) (q ) + g (2 ) (q ) ,

(9)

0 (r ) - .

r
r
G (q ) F (q ) .
r
r
r
RJ (qR )

G (q ) = ik [ 0 (q / 2 ) + 0 ( q / 2 )] 1
q

r
r
r
r
r J1 ( q / 2 g ) J1 ( q / 2 + g )
R2
(2 ) r
(
)
d
g

g
r
r ,
r
r
0
2
q/2 g
q/2+ g

(10)

r
r
r
g (1) (q ) g (2 ) (q ) (9) F (q ) ,
:

r
r
2k
J (q )
g (1) (q ) = n 2 0 (q / 2 ) J 0 (qR ) + in d 0
exp{2i[ 2 ( ) 2 (R )]} ,
q

r
r r r
g (2 ) (q ) = d (2 ) g H ( g , q ),

r
r
r r
r J1 (q / 2 g / R )
kR
1
r
r
H (g , q ) = n 0 (g )
r
r
r
r 2 J0 ( q / 2 + g / R ) +

q/2 g
q / 2 g

(11)

228

r
r
J0 ( q / 2 + g )

(12)
exp{ 2i 2 ( ) 2 (R )} ] ,

r
r
(12) g = q / 2 .
,
. ,
r
r r r
rr
q = k k ' , k ' - , .. qk = 0 .
,

-
. [4].
, , ,
r
q ,
r
rr
k . qz qk k = 2k sin 2 ( / 2) (k / 2) 2 , - k k ' (
+ 2in d
R

) q = 2k sin 2 ( / 2 ) k ,
, , ,
r
r
r
r
r
f1 (q / 2 g ) f 2 (q / 2 + g ) (8) q q z 0 .

Li,11Be )
r rr
, - , k qk = 0 ,
(, , ,

11

, ,
r
g (7),(10) (12) .

r r
H ( g , q )
r r
r r
r
- ( g ) d (3 ) g (q z )H ( g , q ) , ( g z )
:

(2 )

g z ( g z ~ ) [4].
.
.
/ R ( ) / R ( ) ,
(13)

( ) = F (q ) , R = R ( ) -
2

0,7 40Ca . ( )
- , (1),(4), (5),(6)
= 2 . .1 = Re f (0) / Im f (0 ) = 0 , 1 - = 0,37 . .2
/ R 80
, - g
g (1) (q ) g (2 ) (q ) .

.1.

(1)

68

Zn

208

Pb .

(q ) ,

229

.2.
.
,
, .
[3].
, ,
,
28 Si 12C .
1. . ., . ., . . // , , 2001, . 65, 5, .
792-797.
2. . ., . ., . . // , 2001, . 46, 1, . 28-35, 4, . 409-414.
3. . ., . ., . . // ,
, 2001, 2(4), . 7-13.
4. . ., . ., . . // , 1996, . 59, 4, . 679-690.
5. . . // , , 1967,4, . 37-41.
6. . . // , 1978, 178 .
7. . ., . . //
, 1988, 283 .
8. . ., . ., . ., . . Current Problems in Nuclear Physics and
Atomic Energy, Book Abstrats, May 29-June 03, 2006. Kyiv, Ukraine.
9. Ismatov E. I. Yuldashev B. S. Fazilova Z. F. et.al. Third Euraasian conference Nuclear science and its
application.
10. . ., . ., . . // , 4, 2002, . 23-29.

230

.., ..
. ..
1.
,
,
.
[1,2]

.
[3] [1,2]
, , [1,2].
2.

U ( , t ) .
[1], [2].
:

U ( , t )
U ( , t )
=
( 2 ( ) J ( )
(
)) ,
( )

(1)

J R
:

J ( ) =

E*

d d
''

'

( '' ' ) R ( ' , '' ).

(2)

( ) , - , E * -
. (1)
, J =const.
(1) -
. [2]:

U ( , t ) =

exp(

E*

), - , .

,
. :
exp( 4 ( E 0 ) 2 / 2
, 0 = 4 0 exp( E 0 / ) Jt 0 -
U ( , t = t 0 ) =
0
, E 0 - , t 0 -
, .
, ,
:

U ( = 0, t ) = (1 exp(t)) / + exp(t )U ( = 0, t = 0),

U ( = E* , t) = (1 exp(t ))exp(E* / ) / + exp(t)U ( = E* , t = 0).


,
:
E*

E p (t ) =

U ( , t ) d
0

231

.1 .
, , - ,

. E p (t ) [2].
: J
,
.

.1.

J .
, -
.
3.
,
J . , J , ,
J = const.
[1] J (2), R
:

R( j , j' ) =

d
2
| *j ( )u*j (x, ) Hs , u j ' (x, ) j ' ' ( )d 3A xd |2
,
h
dE

(3)

u j ( x, ) - ,
x , j ,
; j ( ) - ,
;

d
- , [4].
dE

h2 2

H s = Ts =
,
2 B 2

2 BE
j ( ) = exp i

h2

232
A

r
u j ( x, ) = u (rk , , ) ,
k =1

k
pj

M
r
u kp j (rk , , ) = C pk ji ( ) Nl ik
i =1

M - .

[1]: R ( j , j ' ) = R ( j ' j ) . . 2 3 R ( j ' j )
.

.2.
j j ' j j '
N = 7 , = 0.5 .
, .
.
: N
Nl , , , (3).
,
, , ,
R ( j ' j ) . . 2 3 [1,2]
R ( j ' j ) . ,
R ( j ' j ) .
j j ' j j '

N = 4,6,7 = 0.5,2.5 E = E * / 2

233

.3.
4.
, ,

:

P ( n , t )
=
t

N max

i =

( R ( i , n ) P ( i , t ) R ( n , i ) P ( n , t )) ,

(4)

N min

P ( n , t ) - .
E p (t ) =

P( , t )
i =1


, . ,

.
, [2] ,
, - .
( )
( ) .

234

.4.
5.


, [1,2].

.

-.
,
, .

1.
2.
3.
4.

L. Willets, Phys. Rev. 116, 372(1959).


. . , 30, 44 (1979).
S.Nilsson, Kgl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk., Mat-Fys.Medd. 29 (16), 1(1955).
. . // . .: , 1983.

235

.., 1 .., 1 .., 1 .., 2 .., 1 ..


1

- , ,
. , ,

,
() Ne > 106
[1-3]. ,
( 50%) ,
500 .

-
.
-
, (y, xpyn),
- - ()
.
-
=10-20 (
). 0
20-30 .
- t0
(t0) = max (t0) - min(t0) o
I (, o , t0).


, tm m

I ( m ,

, tm). ,

.
I (, , t0) ,
m

Imax ( m ,

,tm).


-
max
(t0) = (t0) 0 max (t)
k

(t) .
,

- .

-
:

I n (t ) I n , =

I ,
(t )

)N

(t )

( )d ,
A

NA 1 2 .
, -
tm:

I nmax ( m ) =

( )N
m

max

max

( )d .
A

236


In(t) / In max (t)
, ,
.

, TSGR,
- 140 ,
.1.
- -:

= I (, ) / = const -
: (t) =0.5 (max (t) + min (t) ),
:
(t )

In

I nmax ( max , max )

( )d

Pb

140

( )d

( )d
Pb

I nmax

Pb

Pb()

-, .2. In(t) / In max (t) = 1
-

- ,
0
m

. d / dt.

.1.
-
; / 1-3,
TSGR

.2.

- ;
,

237

k .

, ,
-
- (H = 3340
).
> 1015 ,
[4]. -
,
. .3 -
(1 - , , 2- -
-).
N(E ) AE-1, - ,
.

.3. - :
1- c - 8;
2- -
, -
, , -

= (10-20) .
,
.
1. .., .. .. . // ., ..,1999, .63, N3,.525 -529.
2. Antonova V.P., Chubenko A.P.,Sadykov T.Kh. 18-th European Cosmic Ray symposium HE 16P, Moscow,
2002.
3. .. . . . .-., 2003, 2, . 57-62.
4. Baigybekov A.S., Eremenko Yu.A., Sadykov T.Kh. 12-th ICRC, Adelaida, 1990, V.8, p. 235-238.

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3. . 51 Cygnal // , 2002,
1, -.86-91.
4. . CYGNAL // , 2002, 8, .
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5. http://www.atos.ru.
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1. Wood C.S. et al. // Science. 1997. V. 275. P. 1759.
2. .. . .: . 1988. . 141.
3. .., .. // - 8- . 2004.
. . . 2005. . 2. . 160.
4. .. // . . . . 1998. . 62. 1. . 6.
5. Ivan I. Naumov et al. // Nature. 2004. V. 432. P. 737.

250

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