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GRUNDFOS

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, GRUNDFOS Management A/S.
GRUNDFOS Management A/S ,
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Grundfos. 2
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(Christian Brix Jacobsen),


1.
.............................................................................................. 8
1.1 ..............8
1.2 ........................... 9

1.2.1 ............................. 10

1.2.2 ..............................................11

1.2.3 ............ 13

1.2.4 ................... 14

1.2.5 ................. 15

1.2.6 ,

....................................... 17

1.2.7

.................................................. 19
1.3 .................................................. 20

1.3.1 UP...................................................... 21

1.3.2 TP....................................................... 21

1.3.3 NB...................................................... 21

1.3.4 MQ..................................................... 21

1.3.5 SP.......................................................22

1.3.6 CR.......................................................22

1.3.7 MTA....................................................22

1.3.8 SE.......................................................23

1.3.9 SEG....................................................23
1.4 ...........................................................................................23
2. ....................................................... 26
2.1 .................................... 26
2.2 ...................................................................................... 28
2.3 .............. 29
2.4 ............................................................................................. 30
2.5
.............................................................................................. 31

2.5.1
.................................................. 31
2.5.2
........................................ 31
2.5.3
................................. 31

2.5.4
......................................................................32
2.6
........................................................................................33
2.7 .................................................................................... 34

2.7.1 ................................................ 34
2.8 ............................................................ 34
2.9 ..............................................................................................35
2.10 ..................... 36
2.11 ......................................................................40
2.12 ..........................................................40
2.13 ........................................................................................... 41
3. ..................................44
3.1 ..........................................................45
3.2 ................... 46
3.3 .........47
3.4 .....................................................47
3.4.1
....................... 48
3.4.2

..................................................................... 48
3.4.3
- .................... 49
3.4.4
......... 49
3.5 .................52
3.6 (EEI).................53
3.7 ...........................................................................................54
4. ............................................................. 56
4.1


4.2

................................................... 56
4.1.1 ................................................................................. 58
4.1.2 ............................................................................. 59
....................................60

4.4

4.5

4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9


.................................................................................... 63
.................................................................. 64
4.5.1 ....................66
.................................................... 68
..................................................................69
..................................................... 70
........................................................................................... 71

5. ...................................................... 74
5.1 ...............................................................................74
5.2 .........................................................76

5.2.1

....................................................76
5.3 .....................................................76

5.3.1 ..........................77

5.3.2

...... 82

5.3.3

.................. 83

5.3.4 ...................................................85

5.3.5
............................................................................. 86

5.3.6 ....................................................87

5.3.7 ............................................................................. 88
5.4

.....................................................91
5.5 ...........................................................................................91
6. .......................................94
6.1 ..................................................................... 94
6.2
............................................................................................. 95

6.2.1 ...........................................................................96

6.2.2 ....................................................... 96

6.2.3 .............................................................. 97


6.2.4 ..........................................................98

6.2.5 ............................... 99

6.2.6 ............................. 100

6.2.7 .............................................. 100
6.3 NPSH ................................................. 101

6.3.1 NPSH3%

................ 102

6.3.2 NPSH3%

...........................................103

6.3.3 ...................................103

6.3.4 ....................................................... 104

6.3.5 ..................... 104

6.3.6 .............................................. 104

6.3.7 ........................105

6.3.8 NPSHA
NPSH3%...........................................................................105
6.4 ........................................................................105

6.4.1 ................................ 106

6.4.2 ......................107
6.5

...............................................107

6.5.1
..........................................107

6.5.2 ........................... 108

6.5.3

.................................. 108
6.6 ........................................................................................ 108
.............................................................................. 109
A. ............................................................................................... 110
B. ....................................113
............................................................................ 118
................................................................................................. 119
...................................................................................................120
........................................................................ 125
........................................................126

1.



1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

1.
1.

, Grundfos.

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Grundfos .

1.1
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1.1.

1.1:

1.2

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- 1.2.
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1.2:

1.
1.2.1

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1.2.5.

- (
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1.3.

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1.3: -, ,

10

10


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1.4
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1.2.2

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1.4:
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1.5: , .

11

11

1.

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1.6: , .

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1.7:

1.7.
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1.8. ,
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12

1.8: .

12

1.2.3

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1.9:
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1.10. ,
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1.10:
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1.11:
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13

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1.

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1.11.
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1.12: .

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1.2.4

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1.13: .

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1.2.5
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1.14:
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1.15. ,
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1.
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1.15: ,
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1.17.
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1.16:
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, . 1.18.
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1.17:

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16

16

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1.19.
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1.18:

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1.2.6 ,
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1.19:
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, 2.2,
2.3 5.3.2.

1.20:
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1.
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. 1.21.

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1.21:

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18

18

1.2.7

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-
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, . 1.22.
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1.22:
-.

19

19

1.
1.3
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Grundfos. :
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20

20

1.3.1. UP
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1.23: UP.

. Grundfos
UP .

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1.3.2 TP

TP

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-, , UP, TP
.

1.24: TP.

1.3.3 NB
NB

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1.25: NB.

1.3.4 MQ
MQ
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21

1.26: MQ.

21

1.
1.3.5 SP

SP

1.27: SP.

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1.3.6 CR
CR ,
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1.3.7 MTA
MTA

- (),
, . MTA

1.28: CR.

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1.29: MTA.

22

22

1.3.8 SE
SE ,
.

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1.3.9 SEG
SEG
. SEG ,

1.30: SE.

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1.4

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Grundfos.

1.31: SEG.

23

23

24

24

2.1

2.8

2.2

2.9

2.3

2.10 NPSH

2.4

2.5

2.11

2.12

2.6

2.13


2.7

2.
2.
,
.
.
2.1

.
(H)
(Q), . 2.1.
.

2.1:
(H),
(P), (h) NPSH
.

26

26

,
(P).

.
() NPSH
.

NPSH

(Net Positive Suction Head). NPSH


, .

.
2.1.

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2.2. ,
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2.2.:

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27

27

2.
2.2
(p) , ,
.
.

p = p + p

[]

(2.1)

:
p 1 ,
;
2

p =

[]

(2.2)

2 , ;
p
p
p = p ,
+ p + .
p

[]

(2.5)

p
= p. p

(2.6),
. []
,

1
2

1
2

p =
V
V [] , . (2.7)

2.3.
2

Q 1
1

[] 2.3. (2.8)

, .
p
= 1
D4 D 4
2

4

.

.

2.3:
p, p p
.

,
(2.1)
p = p + p []
[]
p
= h
g

, (2.9)
(V)
,
()
:
2
2


p V
2
[
]
p+ =21 + g Vh2= Constant
2

:
V

p
p+p
+ p[
p
= =p
] + p

[]

, /;

(2.10)
(2.2)
(2.5)
(2.3)

pp
3 p
(2.6)
= p.

/
. . []

(2.4)
[]
H=
g
2
2
1
1
[]
(2.7) .
p =
V

V

,
(2.11)
P = 2H g Q 2= p Q []
r


2
,
2.4. ,
P .

[100
Q % ]

1
D

1
D

(2.12)

,
,
.
[] (2.8)
p =
P
4
4
22

[ 100 % ]

(2.13)

P
P
1p>P2= >h
[g][]

(2.14)
(2.9)

=
28

P1

2.4:

.

28

2.3

(2.1)
p
= p
+ p [] .

0 , ,
.

(2.2)
p
= V [.
]


2
2

, ,
[
]
p =
p +
p + p ,
(2.5)

[]

p = p. p.

(2.6)


1

2
2
1

p =

[]

(2.7)

2
,
2
(K), (C).
2


1 0.
1 Q 1
[]

=
(2.8)

4
D
,


2
D 4
4

( 273,15 K), .


p = h
g [] . (2.9)


p V 2

+ g h = Constant 2

p = p + p

[]

(2.10)

(2.3)

p
g

(2.4)
[]
H =

(2.11)
P
Q = p
Q [] , ,
,
= H g

0.

[ 100 % ] (2.12)

=
P2

. .

[ 100 % ]

(2.13)

P
.
1

29

P1 > P2 > P []

(2.14)

= [ 100 % ]

(2.15)

29

p = p + p

[]

(2.1)

2.
p = 1 V 2
2

[]

(2.2)

2.4

p = p + p + p []
(2.5)

.
p = p. p. []
(2.6)
QH (H) (Q). (Q)
2
2
,p

[].
(2.7)
= 1 V
1
V

(3/),
(3/). QH 2.5.
2

Q 1
1

[]

p = 1
(2.8)
4
4
D

2 QH

,
D

4
2.6.

2.5: QH
:
,
.

Q , H .


(2.9)
p
= h
g [] Q , H . H
. QH

Q H, . 2.5.
p V

+ g h = Constant 2
2

(2.10)

Dp, H

p = p + p

[]

H=

p
[]
g

(2.3)

(2.4)

(2.11)
[]
P
=
H g
Q,
=
p
Q
QH

,

2.6,

, . ,

(2.12)
[ 100 % ] .
=
QH

P2

, 4, , Q H

P

, .
=

P1

[ 100 % ]

(2.13)

( . .).
(2.14)
P1 > P2 > P []

, ,

2.6: QH

. H

,
.


(2.15) ,
= .
[ 100 % ]

. ,

( p ..
p.. )

.
NPSHA =

[]

NPSHA > NPSHR = NPSH3% + 0.5


NPSHA > NPSHR = NPSH3% . SA
30

[]
[]

(p + g H p ) p ..

(2.16)
(2.17)
(2.17a)

30

p
p []
= p
+
2.5
2.5.1

(2.1)

(2.2)
[]
p =
V

:
2
2

[]

p = p + p + p
:

=p

(2.5)

[]

(2.6)

.
.
p

,
;

p , ;

= 1 V

1 V

[]

(2.7)

;
p

2
2 ,

p
2
,
, .

1 +p Q [
]
p
p ==p


2
2.5.2
4

1
1
4

4
D
D

[]

(2.1)
(2.8)



,

(2.2)
]
p = 1 V 2 [

2 .

[]
p
p =
=p
ph+ p
g

:
p
=
+ p[
]+ p

[]

(2.9)
(2.5)
(2.1)

ppV=2 p. p. [] 2
+
+ g h = Constant 2

2

p = 1 1 V 2 2[]1
2
2
p = V V []
p = p2 +
p []2
2.5.3
p = p
+ p + p []

(2.6)
(2.10)
(2.2)
(2.7)
(2.3)
(2.5)

(

2

p = g
D4 D 4
2

2
2
1
1
]
Pp
V
V
[
]
Q =
p

== H g
Q [
2
2

Hp)
[
p
1]
1 :
[] pQ.
= =
1.

31

P
[ 1002% ]
=
P
1
2
= 1h gQ [] 1
=

pp

D4 D 4
2

P
4

[ 100 % ]
=2
p V
2
+
P+ g h = Constant 2

2 1

P1 > P2 > P []
p = p + p []
p
= h g []
= [ 100 % ]
p
2
pH = V 2 []
+
+ g h = Constant

[]

(2.6)
(2.4)
(2.8)
(2.7)
(2.11)

[]

(2.12)
(2.9)
(2.8)
(2.13)
(2.10)
(2.14)
(2.3)
(2.9)
(2.15)
(2.4)
(2.10)

31

p = 1 V 2
2

[]
2.

p
p
[+] p
pp
==p
+ p+

(2.2)

[]

(2.5)
(2.1)


=
(2.6)

p
p. p
. []
1
2 .

[]

(2.2)

2
2
1 V
21 V

[]
(2.7)
p
=

2
2
:

p = p + p + p

[]

(2.5)

[
p = p1 . Q
p.
1 ] 1
p =

D4 D 4
2

4
p = 1 V2 1 V2 []
2
2

[]

(2.6)
(2.8)
(2.7)

, ,
.
2

1
(2.9)

= 1 h gQ [
]

p
p
(2.8)
=
D 4 D 4 []

2.5.4

4 2
V2

p

+
+ g h = Constant 2
(2.10)

2

:

[]
p p = =p
+p

h g []

(2.3)
(2.9)

p
2
p = V 2 []
(2.4)
H
+ g+ g h = Constant 2
(2.10)
:

(2.11)
P =
H g
Q =
p
Q [] ,
[
]
p
=
p
+
p

(2.3)

,
.
,

P
(2.12)
[ 100 % ]
p=

H

P2 [] , z(2.4)
=
g
. ,

P

.
[ 100
%]
(2.13)

(2.11)
P
== H g Q = p Q []
P1


P

P1 > P2= > P


] % ]
[[100

(2.14)
(2.12)

,

P .
2

= [ 100 % ]
P
[ 100 % ]
=
P(1 p .. p.. )
[]
NPSHA =
g
P1 > P2 > P []

32

NPSH
NPSH
=A >NPSH
R =
[ 3%100+%0.5] []
[]
NPSHA > NPSHR = NPSH3% . SA
( p .. p.. )
[]
NPSHA =
+ g g H p ) p ..
(p

(2.15)

(2.13)
(2.16)
(2.14)
(2.17)
(2.15)
(2.17a)
(2.16)

32

p = 1 V2 1 V2
2
2

[]

(2.7)

Q 1
1

[]

p = 1
4
4


2
D D
2.6

(2.8)


,
.

[] .
p = h
g

(2.9)

2
p V2
+
+ g h = Constant 2

2

p = p + p

(2.10)

[]

(2.3)

p .
1. H
[]
=

(2.4)

g .
2.
3. P
. (2.11)
= H g Q = p Q []
4. .

[ 100 % ]

(2.12)

(2.10)
P2

. ,

P(2.10), ,

[ 100 % ]
(2.13)
=
P1 .

[]

P >P >P

(2.14)

1
2

,

,
(2.15)
=
[ 100 % ]
.

NPSHA =

( p .. p.. )
g

[]

NPSHA > NPSHR = NPSH3% + 0.5


NPSHA > NPSHR = NPSH3% . SA

33

(2.16)

[]
[]

(2.17)

(2.17a)

NPSHA =

(p + g H p ) p ..
g

NPSHA =

3500
7375
101300
3

992.2 3 9.81 2
992.2 3 9.81 2 992.2 3 9.81 2

NPSHA = 6.3

[]

(2.18)

33

2.
2.7
,
. 2.7. ().
, . 2.8.

[]

p = p + p

(2.1)

,
(P1).
,
(P2).
(2.2)
p = 1 V 2 []
2
,
(P ).

p = p + p + p

[]

2.7: P1 P2.

(2.5)

[]

p = p. p.

(2.6)

, 1000 /3,

4C.
2
2 , ,
1
1

p =

[]

2
2 .

,

P1

(2.7)

P2

2

P1 ,

Q


p

= P1 2

2
.
4

1 ,

[]

(2.8)
D 4

D 4

2.7.1
,

P.

] (2.9)
p,

g [

.
3.4.4.

= h

p
V


,
2

+ g h = Constant 2

2 3.4.4.

p =
p + p
2.8

[]

(2.10)

2.8:
.

(2.3)

(P ) , .

(2.4)
[] ,
H =
g.
,

P = H g Q = p Q

[]

(2.11)

[ 100 % ]

.
P2

34

P
P1

[ 100 % ]

(2.12)

(2.13)

34

p
2 ]
= h g [
Q 1
1

2 4
p =2 1
4

2
2
2

D D
p V
4 2
+
+ g h = Constant

2
2

(2.9)
(2.9)

[]

(2.8)
(2.10)
(2.10)

(2.3)
[]
(2.3)
p
= h (g [)

] (2.9)

p
[]
(2.4)
H
=
(2.4)
. 2.9
(
)
2 g
2

2.9

p
= p
+ p


p ,
V

().
+
+ g h
= Constant
(2.10)

2 P p

(2.11)
[] P1: (2.11)

P
Q
2
= H g Q =
2

p = p
+ p []
P

[ 100 % ]
=

P22
p
[]
H=
Pg

=

[ 100 % ]

P11
P = H g Q = p Q

P11 > P22 > P


[]
P
[ 100 % [] 100 % ]
=

P2
=

(2.3)
(2.12)
(2.12)
2.9: . ()
,
().

(2.4)
(2.13)
(2.13)

[]

(2.11)
(2.14)
(2.14)
(2.12)
(2.15)

100 %, ,

P
NPSHAA =P
1

( p ..

p..
[ 100
% )]

,

(2.13)
..
..
=,
(2.16)

[]

(2.16)

.
(, )
g

[:
]
P > P
>P

1
2
NPSH
A
3% + 0.5
A > NPSH R
R = NPSH3%
=A >NPSH
RR =
[ 3%100. %SA]
NPSH
NPSH

3%

[]
[]

+ g H p
) p ..
(p
.. p.. )
..
NPSH =
[]
g

AA =
A
h = NPSH

(100

g %);

(2.14)
(2.17)
(2.17)

(2.17a)
(2.17a)
(2.15)

[]

(2.18)
(2.16)
(2.18)

h = (100 %).

NPSHA > NPSH101300


7375
3% + 0.5 [] 3500 (2.17)
R = NPSH
NPSHAA =
3

33
2
33
2
2
2
992.2

9.81

992.2

992.2
33 9.81 22

9.81
(2.17a)
, NPSH


. S
[] ,
A > NPSH R = NPSH3%
A
(QBEP).
NPSHAA = 6.3
(p + g H p ) p ..
[]
NPSHA =
(2.18)
g
2
p ..
p. + p
..
+ 0.5 . . V112
(2.19)
(2.19)
[]
+ H00 H
NPSHAA = .

3500
7375
101300

g
g

NPSHA =
3

3
2
3
2
992.2 9.81
992.2 9.81 992.2 3 9.81 2
47400
-27900 + 101000 + 500
= 6.3
NPSHAA =
+ 3 1
NPSH
2
3
2
33
2
973 3 9.81 2
973 9.81

35

NPSHAA = 4.7
p ..
p
+ p+ 0.5 . . V12
+ H0 H
NPSHA = .
g
g

[]

(2.19)
35

1
1


D D 4

Q
2.
p = 1

[]

(2.8)

2.10 NPSH
NPSH , ,

[]
p =
h g .

(2.9)


2 ,
p
V2

+
+ g
h = Constant
(2.10)



.

, .

[] .
p
= p + p
(2.3)


p ,

[]

H=

(2.4)


g , . 2.10.
(2.11)
P
= H g Q = p Q []

NPSH
. NPSH

2.10: .

, ,
P . 2.11. NPSH ,

[ 100
% ] .
=

(2.12)

P2


NPSH: NPSHR NPSHA.
P

P1

[ 100 % ]

(2.13)

NPSHA NPSH ,
(2.14) NPSH
P1 > P2 > P

[] .
A

= [ 100 % ]
NPSHA =

:
p..

( p .. p.. )
g

(2.15)

[]

2.11: NPSH.

(2.16)

(2.17)
NPSHA > NPSHR = NPSH3% + 0.5 []
,
(2.17a)
[]
NPSH > NPSH = NPSH . S

R
A
A
.
3%

, ;
p..

(p + g H p ) p ..
NPSH

, . []
A =
g
NPSHA =

(2.18)

3500
7375
101300
3

992.2 3 9.81 2
992.2 3 9.81 2 992.2 3 9.81 2

NPSHA = 6.3
36

NPSH =

p. + p+ 0.5 . . V12

+ H H

p ..

[]

(2.19)

36


p V
+
+ g h = Constant 2

2

p = p + p

(2.10)

[]

(2.3)

p
g

(2.4) NPSH,
[]
H=
NPSHR

NPSH

.

(2.11)
[R]
P =
H
g Q =
p QNPSH
(2.16) NPSHR NPSHA.

[ 100 % ]

(2.12)

,P
,
2

NPSHA NPSHR

[ 100 % ]

.
=

(2.13)

P1

0,5 .
(2.14)
[]
P > P
>P
1

. ,

(2.15)
=
[ 100
% ] ,
,
,

( p ..
p.. ) NPSH3%

NPSHA =

SA=1,2 - 2,0.

[]

NPSHA > NPSHR = NPSH3% + 0.5


NPSHA > NPSHR = NPSH3% . SA

(2.16)

[]
[]

(2.17)

(2.17a)

(p + g
) p ..
p
H

[]
NPSHA =
(2.18)
g
:

101300

3500

7375

;
NPSHA =
3

992.2
3 9.81;
2
992.2 3 9.81 2 992.2 3 9.81 2


NPSHA =
6.3 ;

, ,

p ..
p
+ p+ 0.5 . . V12
; NPSHA = .
(2.19)
[]
+ H0 H
g
g

,
;

-27900 + 101000 + 500


973 9.81

47400
973 3 9.81 2


3 1.
NPSH
+

A =
3
2

NPSH
4.7 , NPSH.
A

37

37

p = h g
2 =
H

[]

(2.9)

[]

(2.4)
2
(2.10)

2

(2.11)
P = H g Q = p Q []
p = p + p []
(2.3)
2.1
P
(2.12)
[ 100 % ]
=
p
P2

, (2.4)

]
H = [
g
3

NPSH

P
A
[
]

100
%
(2.13)
=

,
(2.11)
P
=
H g P
Q =
p
Q []
1

V
2.p
+
+ g hg = Constant

, . 2.12.

(2.14)
P1 P>
P2 [> 100
P
(2.12)
%[]]
=

P2 40C
(2.15)
=
101,3
100 % ]
[

.
P 3,5

[ 100 % ]
(2.13)
=
( p .. p.. )
P1
.
(2.16)
[]
NPSHA =
g 7,37 , 992,2 /3.

40C
(2.14)
P1 > P2 > P []

NPSHA > NPSH


+ 0.5 []
R = NPSH
3% (2.16)

NPSH

(2.15)

=
[ 100 % ] A
(2.17)

[]

. S
NPSH

:
A > NPSH R = NPSH3%
A

2.12:
.

(2.17a)

( p .. p.. )
] p ) p ..
NPSHA =
H
(p + g[
NPSHA = g
g

(2.16)

[]

(2.18)

(2.17)
NPSHA > NPSHR = NPSH3% + 0.5 []

7375
101300. . H 3500
HNPSH
NPSH
=


(2.17a)

[2 ] 3
SA
A
R = NPSH3% 3
3
2
A > NPSH
992.2

9.81

992.2

992.2
3 9.81 2

9.81
.

.
H
,
NPSH
g H
+= 6.3
(p ,
) pH = 3 .
p
A

NPSHA =NPSH :

A
g

[]

..

(2.18)

p
p. + p+ 0.5 . . V12
.. []
7375

(2.19)
+ H0 3500
H
NPSHA = 101300
3

NPSHA =

g
g

3
2
3
2
992.2 9.81
992.2 9.81 992.2 3 9.81 2

NPSHA = 6.3 -27900 + 101000 + 500


47400
NPSHA =
+ 3 1
3
2
973
3 9.81 2
973

9.81
,


,

NPSH
,
0,5 .
p.
+ pR
+ 0.5 .
. V126,3 p
NPSH
..
4.7
A =

+ H H

NPSH =

[]

(2.19)

A
0

,

NPSHR
g
g

+ 101000 + 500
6,3 0,5 = 5,8-27900
.
NPSHA =

973 9.81

+ 3 1

47400
973 3 9.81 2

NPSHA = 4.7
38

38

(2.4)
[]
g
(2.11)
P = H g Q = p Q []
(2.11)
P = H g Q = p Q []
P
(2.12)
[ 100 % ]
=
P P2
(2.12)
[ 100 % ]
=
P2
2.2

P
[ 100 % ]
(2.13)
=
P P1
[
]

100
%
(2.13)
=

P1
[] , (2.14)
P1 >
P2 > P

.
,
(2.14)
[
]
P
>
P
>
P

,
1
2
(2.15)

=
[ 100 % ]
, . 2.13.
(2.15)
= [ 100 % ]
( p .. p.. )

(2.16)
[]
NPSH
A =
( p ..

p..
) g ,
p.
=
-27.9
.
(2.16)
[]
NPSHA =
g
.
. ,
2.13:
(2.17)
NPSHA > NPSHR = NPSH3% + 0.5 []


(2.17) (2.17a)
NPSHANPSH
> NPSH>RNPSH
= NPSH=3%NPSH
+ 0.5 . [S]
[,
]
A R H

= +3 .
,
3%
A

(2.17a)
. S
[
]
NPSHA
> NPSHR = NPSH

500 .
3%
A
H.
(p + g101
p ) p ..

[]
NPSHA =
(2.18)
+ g
(p
g) p ..

p
H

(p..)
[]
NPSHA =
(2.18)

g
H . = 1.
3500
7375
101300

80C.
NPSH
3

A =
3500 3 3 9.81 2 992.2
7375 3 9.81 2
101300
992.2 3 9.81 2
992.2

,
NPSHA = p.. =3 47.4 , 2
3 = 973 /

992.2

992.2 3 9.81 2 992.2 3 9.81 2


9.81 .
= 6.3
NPSH

H=

A
NPSH
= 6.3 2.16 NPSHA :

p ..
p
+ p+ 0.5 . . V12
(2.19)
[]
+ H0 H
NPSHA = .
p ..
p. + p+ 0.5 ..gV12
[] g (2.19)
+ H0 H
NPSHA =
g
g
:
47400
-27900 + 101000 + 500
NPSHA =
+ 3 1
3
2
500
47400
-27900 973
+ 101000
9.81
973

3 9.81 2
+

NPSHA =
+ 3 1
3
2
3
973 9.81 2
973 9.81
NPSHA = 4.7
NPSHA = 4.7
, NPSHA

4 .

39

39

2.
2.11
,
, . 2.14.

2.14:

.

, .
1.2.5.

.
, ,
. ,
.
2.15.

, . 3.4.4 4.5.

2.12
,

2.15:
TP65-410.

2.16:
.

, . 2.16.
.
.
, . 2.17.
.

2.17:
TP65-410.

40

40

2.13
2 ,
, , , , NPSH
. , NPSH
.

41

41


3.1
3.2

3.3

3.4
3.5
3.6 (EEI)
3.7

3.
3.
,
. ,
.
,
. , ,

.
.
,

.

.
,
, ,
.

44

44

3.1

, . 3.1, ,

(Q,H) = (0,0),

3.2.

, .

, . 3.3, -

,
. ,

.
(0,Hz), (0,0), .
3.4.

45

3.1.

3.3.

3.2.

,
(0,0).

3.4.

,
(0,Hz).

45

3.
3.2
, ,
,
.
, ,
.
,
.

.
,
.
,
,
.


, . 3.5.
, ,

3.5.
.

,
.

.
.
.

, ,


.

46

46

3.3

.
.
,
. ,
, . 3.6.

,
3.6.

3.4
,
.
.
:
1. .

3.6.
.

2. .
3. - .
4. .
, ,
, ,
, .

47

47

3.
3.4.1

3.4.2

, .

, . 3.9.

3.7.

, , ,

, , .

, .

, , ,

( nq), . 3.10.

(
nq 4.6), . 3.8.

, ,

, .

3.7.

48

3.8.
.
nq,
nq.
a b

3.9.


,

3.10.
.
nq,
nq.
a b

48

3.4.3 -

,
.
,
.
3.4.4
QH,
NPSH .
.
4.5:

n
Q B = Q A n BB
Q B = Q A n BA
QB = Q A n A
nA

(3.1)
(3.1)
(3.1)
2

n 2
HA nBB 2
HA nBA
HA nA
nA 3
n 3
PB = PA n BB 3
PB = PA n BA
PB = PA n A
nA

HB
HB
HB

=
=
=

(3.2)
(3.2)
(3.2)

3.11.
QH

(3.3)
(3.3)
(3.3)
2

n 2
NPSH = NPSH n B 2
NPSH BB = NPSH AA n BBA
NPSH B = NPSH A n A
n A

(3.4)
(3.4)
(3.4)

= 0.06 P100% +
0.15 P75% +
0.35 P50% +,
0.44 P25%
(3.5)
AP


P
(3.5)
= 0.06 P100% + 0.15 P75% + 0.35 P50% + 0.44 P25%
P = 0.06 P100% + 0.15 P75% + 0.35 P50% + 0.44 P25%
(3.5)
.
P
EEI = P []
(3.6)
(3.6)
=
EEI
P []
P
[
]

EEI = P
(3.6)

P 3.11.
QH.

.


.

49

49

3.


.
.
,
.
, 3.1,

.

, . , ,
, ,
.
.
3.12
.


.
QH
, .
3.13.
,

.

50

50

3.12.

51

3.13.

51

3.
3.5.
.

,
.
, .
,
.
,
.
, (Q100%)
n
.
B

QB = Q A

nA

(3.1)

,
2
Q
nB H .
HB = HA
(3.2)

P100%, . 3.14. 3.15


nA
.
3
n
(3.3)
PB = PA B
nA

3.14.



2
n B

(3.4)
NPSH
=

NPSH

,

.
B
A

n A

P = 0.06 P100% + 0.15 P75% + 0.35 P50% + 0.44 P25%

EEI =

P
P

[]

(3.5)

(3.6)

3.15.

52

52

n
3.6
(EEI)
Q = Q
B
B

(3.1)

A
2003 n

.
2

n
.
B

HB = HA
(3.2)
n

A , 3.16.


3
nB
(3.3)
PB =
PA


nA
P. max .
2

n
(3.4)
NPSH B = NPSH A B


n A
(P) .
,
P = 0.06 P100% + 0.15 P75% + 0.35 P50% + 0.44 P25%
(3.5)
2003 .

EEI =

P
P

[]

3.16.
P. max.

(3.6)


No 641/2009 ( EuP) 1 2013
,

3.17.
01.01.2013
(EEI)

.
(
) .
(EEI)

(,

ALPHA2)

.


.

, . 3.18.

,
.

3.18.
.

, ,
53

53

3.
3.7
3 ,

.

.

54

54


4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9

4.
4.

. ,
,

.
.
(
) () .
, .



.

, , ,
.
4.1
, ,
(C) (W)
(U).
,

.
.

Cr
1

Cm
Ca

, .

. ,
,

4.1.

, . 4.1. 1 , 2
. ,
. ,
4.1, , Cm,
, , Ca,
56

, Cr.

56

4.2a.

4.2b.


.
4.2. U
, C
. W
.

.

, 4.2a b.
, . 4.2
, 4.2b ,
.
,
, 4.2.

57

57

4.
4.1.1
, .
, 1=90. , 4.2, . 1,
C1m
.

(
b2

- ), . 4.3.
:

r2

:
r1 = , ;

b1

b1 = , ;

r1

- :
b2

r2,

r2,

. C1m :

r1,

b1
r1,

U1 :

4.3.
, -

:
= , -1
n = , -1

58

(.

4.4),

1, C1m U1,
1 .

(C1

C1m)

4.4.

58

4.1.2
4.2, . 2 .
:

- :

C2m , :

U :

, 2 ,
. :

C2U as:

, .
4.5.
4.5.
.

59

59

4.
4.2
,
.
. ,
, ,
, .
,
1

.
,

.
,
. 1 2,

4.6. .
. (T)
, ,

m= rQ:

,
(P2). , ,

4.6.

, r2w = U1. :

, , ,
p ,
Q:

60

60

, ,
.



.
,
:
;

;

,
, (4.17), C2U
= U2:

61

61

4.
, ,
, C1U .

4.3

4.7.

, (C1U =0),
(4.17) (4.6), (4.8), (4.11) ,
,
2:

4.7 4.8
, 2.
-
, ,
. 5.

62

4.8.
, (4.21).

62

4.4
,
,
.

, . 4.9.

4.9.

63

63

4.
b2
. , (4.6) (4.8) , C2m
b2. , C2m , b2 .
U2 (4.9) b2 . b2
b2.
,
4.10. , C2U C2 ,

4.10.
b2

W2 . (4.21).
, ,
. , . (4.20),
U22 . 4.11
.
,
, . 4.3, ,
, , . 4.5.
4.5

.

4.11.
b2

,
. ,
4.5.1, A ,
B .

64

64

4.12
,
, ,
.
(4.26).

4.12.

65

65

4.
4.5.1


(3D ).

(2D-).
,
,
. 4.13. , , :

n
D2.
:

4.13.

66

66

, ,
.

67

67

4.
4.6
,
. :
, , ,
.
,
.
.
,
.
,
.
,
, . 4.14 ,
.
,
C1U, , . 4.14.

4.14.

C1U,
.
,
.
, .

68

68

4.7
,

. , ,
. .

.
, ,
, .
, , . 4.15.
,
, .

4.15. ,
: .


.

.
, . 4.16.
.
,
, , .

4.16. ,

69

69

4.
4.8
1, ,
,
.
,
.
(nq).
.
:

:
nd = , -1;
Qd = , 3/;
Hd = , .
nq (4.22) (4.23)
, 1 1 3/.

. . 4.17.
, nq,

. ,
.
, ,
nq, , .

. .

70

70

4.17. ,
,

nq

4.9
,
. ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
, .

71


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

5.5

5. 5.
5.
4,
. ,
, ,
. ,
, . 5.1 5.2.
.
.
, .
.

5.1

Q
5.1.
,
,
Q

:
, . 5.1 ,
(Q), (H)

(P2).

P2



P

5.1. .

5.2.


.
,
.

74

74

5.3 ,
. ,
, , ,
.

, .

5.3. ,

75

75

5.
5.2
, ,
, , .
- .
.

5.2.1

. ,
.
.
,
:

:
P .

= ,

, ;

P .

= , ;

P .

= , .

5.3
.
- ,
.

.
.

76

76

5.3.1

, .
, ,

,
.
, , ,
:

= ;

H.

= ,

= , /.

H .

,
, . 5.4
.
, , ,

5.4.

,
. , ,
, ,
.
(5.2) .

77

77

5.

,
. ,
.
, . 5.5,

. ,
.

, .

5.5.

. ,
.
,
, .
:

:
H .= , ;
f

= ;

= , ;

= , /;

Dh

= , .


.
.

:
A = , 2
O = , .

78

78

(5.4)
. ,
.

,
.
, ,
.
Re:

:
n = , 2/.
,
,
. :

Re < 2300

: ;

2300 < Re < 500

: ;

Re > 5000 : .

,
, .

.
:

79

79

5.
.

.

.
5.6 ,
f
.

80

5.6. :

(
)
( ).
,
5.1.

80

5.2 .
-
.
5.2.
(Pumpestabi, 2000).

5.1:
2 , d = 32 Q = 10
3/. , 0,15
, 20.

, Re = 110500
k/Dh = 0,0047 (f) 0,031.
(5.3), .

81

81

5.
5.3.2


(2.10).
.
A2

,
, 5.7.

A1

V2

V1

, ,
. ,
,
5.7, ,
.
:

A2
A1

A2

A1

,
, .
,
.

5.7.
,

:
V1 = , /.

, ,

82

82

, 5.7,
:

:
A1= , 2;
A2= , 2.

(A1/A2 ).
(5.9) = 1. ,
, .
,

.
5.3.3


, ,
, .

A1
A0

. , ,
5.8. ,

V1

A2
V0

V2

, . ,
. .
0 5.8.

, ,

5.8.

.
. ,
, .

.
, . ,
, ,
.
83

83

5.

, , V1 V0
,
A0 A2, :

:
V0

= , /c;

A0/A2

= .

, A0,
.

A1

A2

A1

A2

:
AR = A2 /A1

1,0

AR = A1 /A2

0,8
0,6

:
H,2 = , ;
V2 = , /.
.

5.9

A1/A2 . , ,
, ,
, .

0,4
0,2
0
0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1,0

H . = . H,2
.

5.9.

. = H
,1

.
,
.

84

84

5.3.4
, ,
, , .
5.10 .
, .

, .

.
, ,
.
.
.

5.10.

,
.

. , ,
, ,
()
.
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
,
.

85

85

5.
5.3.5
,


. ,
.

, . 5.11.
.
,
, .
, ,

5.11.

.
,
.

.



(Pfleiderer og Petermann, 1990, . 224):
W1
l

na
,ka

= , 0,5-0,7
;
ws= ,

5.12.

. 5.12.

86

86


,
.

, . 5.13.

:
Q = , 3/;
k1

= Constant, 2/5;

k2

= Constant, .

5.13.

5.3.6

.

, -

,
.
, . 1.2.5.

.

.
-
, , .
5.14. ,
.
, , ,
, ,
. ,

5.14.


.
, ,
.
87

87

5.

Pfleiderer and Petermann (1990, . 322)


, , :

:
D2 = , ;
e = , ,
. 5.14;
U2 = , /;
.

= , 2/, =10-6, 2/ 20 C;
k ;
m = , 1/6 1/7

1/9 .


P .,A
P .,B :



.
.

5.3.7


. ,

:

88

88

5.15.

Q. . = , 3/;
Q = , 3/;
Q = , 3/.
,
. 5.15 , .
, ,

5.16.

, , .

, ,
.
,

.
.

,
: ,
(5.17),
(5.18). .


. ,
.

:

89

89

5.
:
fl

D

=
, /;
= , ;

H. = , .

5.16. ,

, . 5.17.
: ,
, ,
,
.

:
f = ;
L = , ;
s = , ;
V = , /;
A = , 2.
5.17. ,

0,025
, . 5.6.

V.

(5.18) H. (5.17),


:
s

D1
D2

90

90

5.4

nq,
, . 4.6. 5.18
(Ludwig et al., 2002).

,
( - ).
nq ( )
, ,
.
.
[%]

100
95
90

85

80
75
70
65
60
55

10

15

20

30

40

50

60 70 80 90
nq [min -1]

5.18.

nq (Ludwig et al.,
2002)

5.5
,
, ,

, ,





. ,
,

.
, .

91

91


6.1
6.2
6.3 NPSH
6.4
6.5

6.6

6.
6.

, Grundfos. ,
.
6.1

, , ,
, NPSH . ,
,
.
, .

,
.
, , , NPSH
.


.
(LDA)
(PIV), . 6.1,
,
.

, , NSPH .
(

6.1.
,
PIV

, R&T).
, , (Albrecht, 2002).

94

94

6.2

,
, . 6.2. .

, .


.
,
, ,
.

, ,
,
.
. ,
,
.
, .

6.2.

,
, ,
.
1015 .


,
.
25
.
, , ,
.
, .
95

95

6.
Grundfos
.
GS241A0540.
ISO 9906.
6.2.1

Grundfos

.
. ,

.
6.2.2
, ,
Grundfos , , .

6.3.
.
D

2.4.
, .
.

,
.

,
.

. ,
.
,
, , . 6.3.


, . 6.3.

, .

96

96

Dz

, . 6.4.

.
,

, . 6.5.

.

.

6.4.


.
,

, . 6.4.
, .

6.5.


,
, . 6.2.4.
6.2.3

.
,
.

97

97

6.
6.6.

6.2.4
,

H . 1 H . 2

. ,

H = H2 H1

(6.1)

.
5.3.1.

(6.2)
H = ( H2' + H .,2 ) ( H'1 H .,1 )
6.6 .

0,5% ,



p2 p1 U22 U12
(6.3)
H
=
z

z
+
+
2
1

().



g
2g

S1 S2
, ,
H
= H2 H1
(6.1)

H = ( H2' + H .,2 ) ( H'1 H .,1 )


.
8.2.4 ISO 9906.

(6.2)

p'

U2'2 22 U12
H = zz2'2+z1 M+2 +p2z

+H
'M 2p1+ + U
g g 2 g2 g ., 2 (6.3)

p'M1 U
1'
z1' + g + z'M1 + 2 g H .,1 (6.4)

98

98
2

6.7.
.

6.8.

6.2.5

, .
6.7.

z1 z2, ,
z1 z2.
, ,
.

.
,
,

.

99

6.8.
= H2
H1
(6.1) U
H

P P
1

H = H2
H1
(6.1)
U2
S1 S2

(6.2)
H = ( H2' + H .,2 ) ( H'1 H .,1 )
:
(6.2)
H = ( H2' + H .,2 ) ( H'1 H .,1 )
p p1 U22 U12
H = z2 z1 + 2
+
p gp1 U222 gU12

H=
z2 z1 + 2
+

g
2g

(6.3)
(6.3)

S1 S2

:
p'

U'2
H = z 2' + M2 + z 'M 2 + 22 + H ., 2
' g
g

2
p

U
'
H = z 2' + M2 + z 'M 2 + 2 + H ., 2
g
g

p'M1
U1'2
z1' + g + z'M1 + 2 2g H .,1 (6.4)

p'M1
U1'
z1' + g + z'M1 + 2 g H .,1 (6.4)

99

6.
6.2.6
P2,
P1.

. . ,
P1.
.
,
,
.
.
, ,
1000 /3,
4C.
.
6.2.7

.

P1. , ,
,
, .
.

4.5 . ,
, ,
20%.

100

100

6.3 NPSH
NPSH
, ,
p.. , . 2.10
(2.16).

.
.
.
.
NPSH3%,

.
.

,
NPSHR (3%) ,
NPSH3%.
NPSH3%
QH ,
. 3%
3%.
NPSH3% Grundfos .

,
.

101

101

6.
6.3.1 NPSH3%
NPSH3% ,
NPSH3% .
NPSH3%
, p. , ,
NPSHA ,
3%. ,
3%, NPSH3%
.
NPSH3%
. 6.9
NPSH3%,
. NPSH
NPSH .

NPSH3% :
1. QH
2. 3%

, 3%

3. 510
4. ,

5.

6. ,

7. 3%
,
8. 47

102

6.9.
NPSHA

3%

102

6.3.2 NPSH3%
NPSH3% ,

NPSH3% . NPSH3%
, , ,
.
NPSH3%
,
, .
, 3%
. 6.10. NPSH3%

.
NPSH3%
1. QH
2. 3%

6.10. NSPHA

Referencekurve
3% kurve

Mlt lftehjde
3%

, 3%

3. 510
4.

5. ,

6. 3% ,


7. 46

6.3.3

.
. ,

, . 6.11.

103

6.11.

NPSH.

103

6.

, . 6.12, :
.

.
6.3.4

, . ,
NPSH ,
.
.
.


, , .
6.11.

6.12.

NPSH

,
.
6.3.5


. ,
NPSH .

6.3.6
NPSH ,
.

, ,
. 6.13.
6.13.
NPSH

104

104

p'

U'2
H = z 2' + M2 + z 'M 2 + 2 + H ., 2
g
g

6.3.7

p'

U'2

z ' +

M1

+ z' +

(6.4)

1
M1
.,1
g
,

2g

.
6.3.8 NPSHA NPSH3%
NPSHA :

NPSHA =

p..
p. + p + 0.5 V12
+ z geo H .
g
g

p.

= ;

= ;

V1

= ;

zgeo

= ;

(6.5)

H . = ;
p..

= ( );

= ( ).

6.14. NPSH3%

NPSH3%
, . 6.14. NPSH3%
NPSHA, ,

3%

NPSH3%
NPSHA

3%.
6.4

. ,
,
.

105

105

6.
6.4.1
, ( ),
.
,

, . 6.15.

.

, .
, , .
,
, . 6.16.

,
, .

. ,
,

, .

6.15.

6.16.

106

106

6.4.2

, QH.
QH.
,
. ,
.
,
,
. , ,
.
6.5
.
,
.
6.5.1

, , ISO 9906.
ISO 9906
.
,
.

,
,
.

107

107


,
. ISO 9906

.
.
6.5.2

.
, , ,
.

.
6.5.3

Grundfos

.
QH .
, ,
.
Grundfos GS 241A0540:
.
6.6
,
.

. , ,
, NPSH.

108

108


A.
B.

A.
A.

Basic units


, ,
.

110

= / 2

= / 2 = /( 2 )

= =

= / = / = 2/3

39.37

3.28

0.0254

0.0833

()

16.6667 . 10-3

0.277778 . 10-3

60

16.6667 . 10-3

3600

60

(), ( )

3/

3/

./ ()

3600

1000

15852

0.277778 . 10

0.277778

4.4

10

3.6

15.852

0.2271

0.063

1
-3

-3

0.000063

/
1
0.277778 . 10

-3

3600

3600

3.28

0.277778 . 10

0.9119

0.3048

1.097

-3

111

A.

/ -1

16.67 . 10-3

0.105

60

6.28

9.55

0.1592

..

0.01

0.102

100

10.197

9.807

98.07 . 10-3

t( C) = T - 273.15K

0.277778 . 10-6

T() = 273.15oC + t

3.6 . 106

112

2/

106

103

10-6

10-3

B.
B.

. ?
? , ,
, ? -
?

.
.

, .

13,

113

B.

1.

,
.

114




0,

.




D2
.

,

.

b2
.
D2 b2
4.5

,


.


.


.

.
,
.


.
.



,

.

.



c 0.



.

2. ,
.

,



. .


0 .




0,

.




D2
.

,

.

b2
.
D2 b2
4.5



0.


.

1
D2/D1: 99/100=0.99 1
D2/D1: 100/99=1.01010101010101 1
H[]
100
83.3333
66.6667
50
33.3333
16.6667
0

20

40

60

80

100

120
Q [/]

1
D2/D1: 99/100=0.99 1
D2/D1: 100/99=1.01010101010101 1
P1 []
34,2857
28,5714
22,8571
17,1429
11,4286
5,71429
0

20

40

60

80

100

120
Q [/]

115

B.
3. ,
.


0 0 .

0,

.

116

QH
.


,

.

.


.
,
.




. ,


.


.
,

. ,



.



,
.

.
.
. 2.10 6.3.

3 ()

QH
.

,

(
),

.

5.3.7.


.
,
.

.


.

.

0

H []
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0

10

15

20

25

30
35
Q [3/]

15

20

25

30
35
Q [3/]

0

H []
2200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
500
0

10

117


European Association of Pump Manufacturers (1999), NPSH for rotordynamic
pumps: a reference guide, 1st edition.
R. Fox and A. McDonald (1998), Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. 5. edition, John
Wiley & Sons.
J. Gulich (2004), Kreiselpumpen. Handbuch fur Entwicklung, Anlagenplanung und
Betrieb.
2nd edition, Springer Verlag.
C. Pfleiderer and H. Petermann (1990), Stromungsmachinen. 6. edition, Springer
Verlag, Berlin.
A. Stepanoff (1957), Centrifugal and axial flow pumps: theory, design and application. 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons.
H. Albrecht and others (2002), Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement
Techniques. Springer Verlag, Berlin.
H. Hansen and others (1997), Danvak. Varme- og klimateknik. Grundbog. 2nd edition.
Pumpestbi (2000). 3rd edition, Ingeniren A/S.
Motor compendium. Department of Motor Engineering, R&T, Grundfos.
G. Ludwig, S. Meschkat and B. Stoffel (2002). Design Factors Affecting Pump Efficiency, 3rd International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Motor Driven Systems,
Treviso, Italy, September 18-20.

118


ISO 9906 Rotodynamic pumps Hydraulic performance acceptance test-Grades 1
and 2.
.
ISO 9906 ISO 2548.
ISO 9906 ISO 3555.
ISO 5198 Pumps Centrifugal-, mixed flow and axial pumps Hydraulic function test Precision class
GS 241A0540 Test benches and test equipment. Grundfos

.

119

........................................................... 82

NPSH 31,40,105,109

.........................................................81

NPSHA ()......................................................................40

................................... 56

NPSHR ()..........................................................................41

......................................................................................... 22

.................................................................... 60

........................................................................................... 32

............................................................. 33

......................................................................107

................................................................... 33

........................................................................34,35
........................................... 40,108

.................................................. 33

............................................................................. 105

............................................................................. 33

................................................................ 36, 108

.................................. 33

.......................................................64

.............................................................................. 108

................................................33, 109

............................................................................84

..................................................................................... 78
................................................................................89
............................................................................89
.................................................................................................. 87
.......................................................40
...............................................................50
.............................................................................91
............................................................................ 19
............................................................................................ 14, 62
..............................................................................14
............................................... 70
................................................................................................. 22
..................................................................................................63
..................................................................... 22
...........................................................................14

......................................................... 78,80

120

............................................................................. 70
................................................................................36
............................................................. 32
............................................... 35
.....................................................................................21,86
..................................................51,52
..................................................................... 52

..............................................................30
..............................................................................68
..........................................................................49

...................................................................98
...............................................................................110
.....................................................................98
.........................................................101
................................. 100, 101

..................................... 99

.......................................................................... 104

NPSH3%..................................................................... 105

, ..................................................44

...................................................................................40,105

, ....................................................44

................................................................................................ 23

............................................................................... 31,34,100,102

.......................................................... 24

.............................................................. 23

............................................................................... 108

.............................................................. 23

........................................................57

........................................14

........................................................................62

....................................... 16

................................................................... 22

.............................................................. 17

.....................................................................64

.....................................14

........................................................................................ 85

.................................................................. 17

...........................................81,88

-.............................................................................. 27

............................................... 73

-..............................................................................14

.................................................................... 82

........................................ 16,27

...................................................................................................39

....................................................... 24

........................................... 24

..................................................................................39

.............................................................39

....................................... 74

QH

.......................................... 74

.................................................................................. 34

......................................................................... 38

............................................................................ 51

........................................................................ 83

..................................................................... 104

......................................................... 15,16

.........................................................................19,20
.............................................................................. 60

................................................................. 16

..............................................................110

.............................................................................. 44,110

..................... 56

....................................... 100,102

......................................................... 60

............................................................ 16

........................................................... 60

...........................................................................49

................................................................... 34

.............................................................. 60

................................................................... 78

............................................................. 33

...............................................................................................64

..................................................................86

121

.............................................................. 24

........................................................................80

........................................ 54

.....................................50

.......................................................................... 54

............................................................................91

......................................................................100

........................................................................... 19

.................................................................................40

...................................................................... 83
........................................................................................ 108
..............................................................................14
............................................................................................. 70
.................................................................98
..............................................................111
..................................... 112
(EEI)....................................57
....................................................................... 38
............................................................................ 32
............................................................. 35
............................................................................................... 19
.............................. 51
................................................................37
............................................................................... 79
...................................................................80
........................................................80
..........................................................80
................................................. 19,92
.........................................................86
.......................................................................49,81
........................................................... 102
...................... 90

.............................................................................48,49
................................................................................. 15
.................................................................... 60
- ........................................... 16
....................................................... 16
...............................................................22,44,110
...............................................................20
....................................................................................... 87
..................................................18
................................35,36
..................................................................95
.................................................................................100
.................................................................... 85

.................................................................. 54
................................................................. 51
.......................................51,53
................................ 52
....................................................................... 27
.............................................................................50
................................................................. 117

...........................................................39
.......................................................31,104
....................................................62,72
.......................................................18
................................12

122

............................................................................. 25
............................................................................50

...................................................................................64

............................................................................... 73,90

.........................................................20

........................................61

................................................................... 108

..............................................................................61,73,90

........................................................................21

..........................................................................74,95

.................................................................. 38

................................................................................................. 22

- ................................................51,53

...................... 87

................................................................... 32

........................................................................................18

..................................................... 35

.............................................................................. 17

............................................................................... 34

....................................................................20

............................................................................................... 23

......................................................................37

............................................................................................. 87

.................................................................64
..64

............................................. 64,65

............................................................ 60

.........................................................................37

....................................................................................101

................................................................ 53,104

................................................30

.................................................................................................92

.....................................................37
.................................... 56

..............................................................................98

................................................................................66

........................................................................21

..................................................... 83

..................................................................................... 104

................................................................75

...............................................................39

................................................................75

................................................................................................. 19
................................................................................. 82

.....................................................................................91

..................................................................31

..........................................................60,75

.............................................................49

................................................................ 83,84

...........................................98

........................86

........................................................................12

..................................................................... 64,104

........................................................24,25

...............................................................................62
.............................................61

123

...........................................................................91
.......................................................................... 83

......................................................................81,82,85
.......................................................91

................................................. 99
.......................................................... 104
............................................................................ 17

124




Q
(),

( )
Q.
( )
Q. .

Q.

m

.
[3/]
[3/]
[3/]
[3/]
[/]


.

P
[]
P1
,


[]
P2


[]
P.
,

[]
P ( ) { } []


H
[]
H ( ) { } []
NPSH
[]
NPSHA
NPSH

( ,

) []
NPSHR, NPSH3% NPSH

(

, ) []


w

f

n



A
[2]
b
[]
b
[o]
b
[o]
s
[]
D, d
[]
Dh
[]
k
[]
L
( , ) []
O
[]
r
[]
z
[]
Dz
[]


Re

nq


p
[]
p
[]
p..

[]
p

[]
p.

[]

p




P ( ) { }
[]

h
... [-]
h.
[-]
h..
[-]
h.
[-]

(,

)

[1/]
[]
[1/]


V

U


C

W

[/]
[/]
[/]
[/]
[-]


r

[/3]
n
[2/]

f

[-]
g

[/2]
z

[-]

1, .
,
2, .
,
m

r

U

a

.
.
.

.
.
.
.

A1, C.
A2, C.
Cm
Wr
C1U
Ca
p.
p.,H.
p.
p.
p. ., p. . .
p. .
Q.

125


T
[C]

p.
[105 Pa]

r
[kg/m3]

n
[10-6 m2/s]

0.00611

1000.0

1.792

0.00813

1000.0

1.568

10

0.01227

999.7

1.307

20

0.02337 998.2 1.004

25

0.03166

997.1

0.893

30

0.04241

995.7

0.801

40

0.07375

992.3

0.658

50

0.12335

988.1

0.554

60

0.19920 983.2 0.475

70

0.31162

977.8

0.413

80

0.47360

971.7

0.365

90

0.70109

965.2

0.326

100

1.01325

958.2

0.294

110

1.43266 950.8 0.268

120

1.98543

943.0

0.246

130

2.70132

934.7

0.228

140

3.61379

926.0

0.212

150

4.75997

916.9

0.199

160

6.18065

907.4

0.188

126

127

128

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