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# Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 8

CHAPTER

Circular Measure

180

(b) 90 = 90
=

3. s = rq

1
= 10
4
= 7.854 cm

180

1
2

180
2
3

(d) 50 = 50
180
5
=
18

180
61
=
360

180
109
=
432

## (g) 120.3 = 120.3

180
401
=
600
2. (a) 2 rad. = 2

= 360

4. s = rq

= 8 35

= 4.887 cm

180

5. (a) s = rq
22
1

= r
7
3
22
3

r =

7
22
7
3
=
7
22
= 3

1 2

(b) s = rq

2.2 = 3q
2.2

q =
3

180

180
1
1
4
4

= 45

## Therefore, BOC = 0.7333 rad.

6. (a) s = rq

180

= 63
180
5
5
6
6

= 150

= 10 60

= 10.47 cm

180

Arc length AB = 10.47 cm
(b)
B

C
A
30

10 cm

In BOC,
BC
sin 30 =
10
BC = 10 sin 30

= 5 cm

OP : PB = 3 : 1

OB : OP = 4 : 3
4
OB
=

3
OP
4
OB = OP
3
4
= 5
3
20
=
3

AB = 2 5

= 10 cm

## Perimeter of segment AB = 10.47 + 10

= 20.47 cm

7.

12 cm

In POR,
180

= 14.32

PR
12
PR = 12 sin 14.32
= 2.968 cm

120
Arc length BC = (r)
180
120

= (12)
180

= 25.13 cm

PQ = 2 2.968
= 5.936 cm

= 6 + 5.936
= 11.94 cm

1
8. (a) OB = OD
2
1
= 20
2

= 10 cm

cm

cm

## The perimeter of sector AOC = 2 12 + 12.57

= 36.57 cm

1 r2q
Area of minor sector AOB =
2
1

= 82 1.2
2

= 38.4 cm2
(b) BOC = ( 1.2) rad.
1

Area of minor sector BOC = r2q
2
1

= 82 ( 1.2)
2

= 62.13 cm2

## (b) Arc length CD = rq

= 20 1

= 20 cm

.2

= 12 60
180
= 12.57 cm

1 16
2

= 8 cm

Arc length AB = rq

= 10 1

= 10 cm

14

## 10. (a) AOC : BOC = 1 : 2

2

BOC = 180
3
= 120

sin 14.32 =

9. (a)

3
q = 14.2
20

3 Arc length AB
(b) Arc length PQ =
4
3

= 14.2
4

= 10.65 cm

s = rq
Arc length PQ = 12 0.5

= 6 cm

In AOB, s = rq
20

14.2 = q
3

## Given area of sector BOC = 120 cm2

1 2

r q = 120
2

1 r2q
12.
Area of the sector =
2
1 2

58 = r (0.57)
2
2
58
2

r =
0.57

ABBBBB

(b) AOB = 30

6

Area of segment AB

= Area of sector AOB Area of AOB
1
1
= r2q r2 sin q
2
2
1
2
= r (q sin q)
2

1
= (15.14)2 sin 30
6
2

= 2.705 cm2

14. 30 = 30
180

6

## The area of segment PQR

= Area of sector POR Area of POR
1
1
= r2q r2 sin q
2
2
1
2
= r (q sin q)
2

1
= (14)2 sin 30
6
2
= 2.313 cm2

180
3
10
1 2
r
2
1
3
3.142
= 82
2
10
2

= 30.1632 cm

1
AOB = 45
2

= 22.5

180

(b) Area =

30.16 cm2

## Area of sector AOB

1
= r2q
2

1
= 102 22.5
2
180
= 19.63 cm2

1. (a)
POQ = 54

ABBBB

720
r =

= 15.14 cm

1 r2q
13.
Area of the sector =
2
1

140 = 202 q
2
2 140

q =
202

1 2

2 58
r =
0.57
= 14.27 cm

1 r2

= 120
3
2
6 120
r2 =

## Major arc length AB = 84.31 cm

rq = 84.31

r(2 0.412) = 84.31
84.31

r =
2 0.412

= 14.36 cm

1

\ AO = r, CO = r
2

In AOC,
CO

cos AOC =
AO
1r

2

=
r
1

=
2

2

BOC = 90
3
= 60

3

## Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 8

1 AOC
(b) AOB =
2
1 1
4
=
2 2
3
1
3

AOC = 60

p
= 60
180
60 3.142
=
180

Minor arc length AB = rq
1

= 10
3
10

=
3

= 10.47 cm

rq = 1.05
r(1.05) = 1.05

r = 1 cm

## Area of the shaded region

= Area of sector AOB Area of AOC
1
1
= r2q base height
2
2
AB3
1
1
1
= (1)2(1.05)
2
2
2
2

= 0.308 cm2

## (c) Area of the shaded region

= Area of sector BOC Area of BOC
1
1
= r2q r2 sin q
2
2
1
= r2(q sin q)
2
1
1

=
102 sin 60
3
2
1

= 50 sin 60
3

= 9.059 cm2

4. (a) OR = OQ RQ
= 13 1

= 12 cm

In OPR,
OR

cos q =
PO
12
=
13

OQ
=
In POQ, cos
3
OP
4
=
OP
4

OP =

cos
3

= 8 cm

\ AP = AO OP

= 12 8

= 4 cm

O
A

3
OB
6. (a) =
1
OQ
OB
= 3

4

OB = 12 cm

AO = 12 cm

## (b) The area of the shaded region

= Area of sector POQ Area of POR
1
1
PR2 = PO2 RO2
= r2q (RO) (PR)
2
2
= 132 122
PR = 5 cm
1
1
= (13)2(0.3948) (12)(5)
2
2

= 3.361 cm2

(b) In POQ,
PQ2 = PO2 OQ2
= 82 42
= 48

PQ = 6.928 cm

1
ABC = q
2
1

Minor angle of AOC = q
2
1

q + q = 2
2
3

q = 2
2
2

q = 2
3
4
3

## Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

5. (a)

QB = OB OQ
= 12 4

= 8 cm

Arc length AB = rq

= 12
3
= 4
= 12.57 cm

1 2

## The perimeter of the shaded region

= 6.928 + 8 + 4 + 12.57
= 31.5 cm

1 PO
7. (a) PR =
2
1

= (12)
2

= 6 cm

Arc length RS =
6 RPS =
RPS =

## The perimeter of the shaded region

= 2.618 + 2 5
= 12.62 cm

(c) AOP =
6
5
6
5
Arc length AP = 10
6

= 26.18 cm

1 2

4
4
2

3

## (b) Area of sector OPQ = 82 cm2

1 2

r q = 82
2
1
122 q = 82
2
164

q =
144
41
36

19 4
2
15
=
2

= 7.5 cm
s
(b) q =
r
4
=
7.5

41
Arc length PQ = 12
36
41

= cm
3

2.

## The perimeter of the shaded region

= Arc length PQ + PS + Arc length RS + RO + OQ
41
= + 6 + 4 + 6 + 12
3

= 41.67 cm

6.5 cm O

D
C

BOC = 60

3

6
1
CO = AO
2
1
= (10)
2

= 5 cm

## Let D be the midpoint of chord AC, AOD = rad.

3
In AOD,

sin =
3
AO

=
6.5

3

= 5.629 cm

1 PO
RO =
2
1
= (10)
2

= 5 cm

Chord AC = 2 5.629

= 11.26 cm

2
Arc length AC = 6.5
3

= 13.61 cm

## Therefore, COR is a sector with O as the centre

1

The area of the shaded region = 52
2
6

= 6.545 cm2

6

= 2.618 cm

= 11.26 + 13.61
= 24.87 cm

## Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 8

6. Given OB = 10 cm
1
\ OA = (10)
2

= 5 cm
AOD =
OA

28
3. Arc length PQ =
11
28
2

r =
7
11
28
7

r =
2
11
98
=
11

1 2

## The area of the shaded region

= Area of sector BOC Area of sector AOD
1
1
= 102 1 52 1
2
2
= 37.5 cm2

22 98

= 2
7
11

= 56 cm

1 21 2

## 4. Arc length AB : Arc length BC = 1 : 2

2
Arc length BC : Arc length AC = : 1
3

=2:3

180

= 9.425 cm

=1:2:3
2 2
BOC =
6
2
3

= (2 12) + 9.425
= 33.43 cm

## (b) The area of sector PQR

1

= 122 cm2
2
4

1 2

r 60
Area of the minor sector
2
180
8. (a) =
Area of the major sector
1 2

r 300
2
180
1

=
5

r = 3
3
3

r = 3

= 9 cm

1 2

(b)

9 cm

## Let C be the midpoint of AB.

1

2 3

6
BC

In BOC, sin =
6
9

BC = 9 sin
6

= 4.5 cm

1
DC
Given =
5
1

5
1
= 10
5

= 2 cm

\ Chord AB = 2 4.5

= 9 cm

## The perimeter = 73.30 + (2 14)

= 101.3 cm

= 10 cm

Area of minor sector AOB : Area of major sector AOB

=1:5

## (b) Major arc length AB = 14 300

180

= 73.30 cm

The volume of the slice of the cake
1

= 122 3
2
4

= 169.6 cm3

1 r2 q
The area of sector BOC =
2
1
2
= 72
2
3

= 51.31 cm2

12. (a)

= 5 cm

= 2 0.5

BC = rq
12
= (1)
2

= 6 cm

## The perimeter of the shaded region

=6+2+5
= 13 cm

8 cm

8 cm
B

2
(b) cos PRB =
18

1
PRB = cos1
9
= 8337
(c) RPA = (90 8337) + 90

= 9623

1 2

## Area of the shaded region

= Area of trapezium ABSRQP
Area of sector APQ Area of sector BRQ
1
1

= (8 + 10)(17.89) 82 9623
2
2
180
1

102 8337
2
180

= 161.01 53.83 72.97

= 34.21 cm2

= 6 0.5708

= 3.425 cm

= 2 6 + 3.425
= 15.43 cm

13. (a)

## 11. (a) In sector AOB,

Arc length AB

q =
OB
8
=
12

= 3812
Arc length CD
=
(b)
Arc length AB
OD

=
OB
OD

=
12

OD =

R
2 cm
S

In PRS,
PS2 = 182 22
PS = 17.89

Therefore, AB = 17.89 cm

## 10. (a) Given the perimeter of sector BOC

= Arc length AB
2r + rq = ( q)r

2 + q = q
2q = 2
2
q =
2

= 0.5708

1 2

18 cm
Q

O
5 cm
R

4 cm

In FOR,
52 42
OR = ABBBBB

= 3 cm

2
3

2
3

2
18 cm

PR = PO OR

=53

= 2 cm
(b) In ROF,
4

sin ROF =
5
ROF = 538
EOF = 2 538
= 10616

y = 18 12
= 6
(c) The area of the shaded region

= Area of sector DOC Area of sector BOA
1
2
1
2
= 182 122
2
3
2
3

= 60 cm2

= 9.275 cm

## Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 8

1 83
(c) Area of EOF =
2

= 12 cm2
1

Area of sector EOF = 52 1.855
2

= 23.19 cm2

BF
sin 20 =
BO
BF
=
7
BF = 7 sin 20

= 2.394 cm

BC = 2 2.394

= 4.788 cm

= 11.19 cm2

14. (a)
6 cm

## (b) Area of the shaded region

= Area of sector OACB Area of AOC
Area of BOC

1
1
= 72 80 72 sin 40
2
2
180
1
72 sin 40

2

= 2.712 cm2

6 cm B
P
R 6 cm

6 cm Q
4 cm

4 cm
C

6
cos PBC =
10

Major angle of ACB = 360 140

= 220

= 220
180

3
PBC = cos1
5

= 538

1 2

7 cm

20 20

O
B

1 (120)
ABC =
2

= 60

AOC = 2 60

= 120

The arc length of minor sector ADC
= rq

= 9 120
180

= 6 cm

1 AOC
(b) DOC =
2
1
= (120)
2

= 60

3

7 cm

A
120

## Perimeter of the shaded region

= Arc length QR + Arc length PQ + Arc length PR
= 4(1.287) + 6(0.9273) + 6(0.9273)
= 16.28 cm

15. (a)

= 18.39 cm

16. (a)

ACB = 2 0.9273

## Area of the shaded region

= Area of ABC Area of sector QCR
Area of sector PBR Area of sector PAQ
1
1
1
= 12 8 42 1.287 62 0.9273
2
2
2
1

62 0.9273
2

= 4.321 cm2
(b)

= 140

In PBC,

102 62
PC = ABBBBBB

= 8 cm

## Area of the shaded region

= Area of sector DOC Area of DOC

1
1
= (9)2 (9)2 sin 60
3
2
2

AE
In ABE, tan ABE =
EB
9

4
=
3
3

=
4

1 2

3
81 AB
27
=
2 2
2
27
81AB
3 cm2
=
2
4

1 2

17. (a)

O
6 cm
C

cm

1 2

1 86
(b) Area of AOC =
2

= 24 cm2

1 62 1.855
Area of sector BOC =
2

= 33.39 cm2

= 14.61 cm2

Arc length AC
19. (a) AOC =
AO
1
r
2
=
r
1
2

BOD = AOC
1
2

## (b) Given arc length BD = 2 Arc length AC

1

\ AO = BO
2
1
= (8)
2

= 4 cm
1

Arc length AC = 4
2

= 2 cm

A(0, 6)

)
B(3, 15
4
C(3, 0)

1 2

1 2

= 11.13 cm

+ 0.6435
ABC =
2

## (c) The area of the shaded region

= Area of sector ABC Area of ABC
15 2
15 2
1
1

=
2.214 sin (12652)
2
2
4
4
2
15
1

=
(2.214 sin 12652)
2
4

= 9.942 cm2

1 2
1 2

18. (a)

1 2

In AOC,
8
tan AOC =
6
8
AOC = tan1
6
8
BOC = 2 tan1
6
= 10616

1 2

15
(b) Arc length AC = (2.214)
4

= 8.303 cm

3
ABE = tan1
4
= 3652

1 2

y
x + = 1

3
6

Hence, A(0, 6) and C(3, 0).
AE = AO EO
15
= 6
4
9
= units
4
EB
= 3 units

Arc length BD = 2 2

= 4 cm

## The perimeter of the diagram

= Arc length AC + Arc length BD + AO + CO
+ DO + BO
=2+4+4+4+8+8
= 30 cm

(c)

## (c) Area of the shaded region

= Area of ABC Area of sector ADE
180
1

=
52.362 sin 0.2292

2
2
1
52.36 (0.2292)

2
2

= 232.9 cm2

E
B

8 cm
O

In BOE,
1
180
BE
sin =
4
8

1 180

Chord BD = 2 8 sin
4

= 3.958 cm

## 20. (a) Area of sector ABC = 4 Area of sector ADE

1
1 2

R q = 4 r2q

2
2
2
R

=
4
r2
R 2

r = 4
R

r = 2
R = 2r

Given arc length BC = 12 cm
R.R
q = 12.................. 1

## Area of sector ADE = 25

1 2

r q = 25
2
1
R 2

q = 25
2 2
R2
1

q = 25

2 4
2
R
q = 25................ 2

8
12

From 1, q = ............................... 3
R

1 r2 sin q
1. (a) Area of AOB =
2
1

= 42 sin 2
2
180

= 8 sin 2
p

= 7.274 cm2

Substitute 3 into 2,
R2 12
= 25

8 R
25 8
R =
12

= 52.36 cm

1 2

1 r2q
(b) Area of sector ADE =
2
1

= 162 BAO
2
p2
1

= 162
2
2

= 73.06 cm2

52.36 q = 12
12

q =
52.36

## Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Therefore, OB = 8 cm

1 2

## (c) Area of sector OCD

2 2
= Area of sector AOB
3
4
= 32
9
128 cm2
=
9

1 2

## Given the area of sector AOB = 32 cm2

1 2

r (1) = 32
2

r2 = 64
r = 8
2
CO
2 BO and
(b) Given CO =
=
3
3
BO
2

Arc length CD = Arc length AB
3
2

= OA
3
2

= (8)
3
16

=
cm
3

1 2

Arc length AB
21. (a) = AOB
OA
OA

AOB =
OA

1 180

BE = 8 sin
4

10

## Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 8

1 42 BOC
Area of sector BOC =
2

= 8 (p 2)

= 9.133 cm2

A
9 cm 30
30 9 cm

## Area of the shaded region

= Area of sector ADE Area of AOB Area of
sector BOC
= 73.06 7.274 9.133
= 56.65 cm2

60
P
60
9 cm

9 cm

## 2. Perimeter of sector AOC = Arc length BC

r + r + r(p q) = rq
2r + r(p q) = rq

2 + p q = q
2q = 2 + p
2+p
q =

2

= 14718

## Area of segment AOB

= Area of sector APB Area of APB
p
1
1
= 92 120 92 sin 120
2
2
180
1
120

p
= 81 sin 120
2
180

= 49.76 cm2

= Area of circle AOB 2 Area of segment AOB
= p 92 2 49.76

= 154.98 cm2

1 82 (p q)
Area of sector AOC =
2
2+p

= 32 p
2
p2

= 32
2

= 18.27 cm2

1
1

60
60

(b)

Let
OC = r

rq = 3r

q = 3

## The perimeter of the shaded region

= The perimeter of a circle
= 2p(9)
= 18 3.142
= 56.56 cm

5. (a)

rq = 2(10q)

r = 20

\ OC = 20 cm

## Area of the shaded region

= Area of sector OCD Area of sector OAB
1
1
= 202 3 102 3
2
2
3
2
2
= (20 10 )
2

= 450 cm2

D
A

E
C

Since OA = AC = OC,

therefore AOC is an equilateral triangle.

AOC = 60
=
3

In AOB,
8

cos 30 =
OA
8
OA =
cos 30

= 9.238 cm

8 cm

4. (a)

30

11

1

r2 1 = 32
2

r2 = 64
r.0

r = 8

= 8 cm

Hence, OA = 8 cm

p
= 9.238 60
180
= 9.674 cm

## (c) Area of the shaded region

= Area of AOC Area of sector DOE
1
1
p
= 9.2382 sin 60 82
2
2
3

= 3.443 cm2

## (b) AOB = 1 rad.

= 1 180
p

= 5718

Arc length RS
2
6. (a)
=
3
Arc length PQ
2

Arc length RS = 8
3
16
= cm
3

(c)

8 cm

3 RQ
(b) OQ =
5
3
= 10
5

= 6 cm

1 (5718)
POA =
2

= 2839

Arc length PQ = 8 cm

OQ POQ = 8
6 POQ = 8
8
POQ =
6
8

= 180
p
6
= 7624

In APO,

AP
sin 2839 =
8
AP = 8 sin 2839

= 3.836 cm

\ AB = 2 AP

= 2 3.836

= 7.672 cm

1 r2q
(c) Area of sector POQ =
2
4
1

= (6)2
3
2

= 24 cm2

1 2

8. (a)
A

7. (a)

A
P
O

B
6 cm

C
Q

Arc length AB = rq
= OA q

A
10 cm

Arc length AB

q =
OA

Since arc length AB = OA,

10 cm

In PAR,
p
AR = 10 sin
6

= 5 cm

12

5 cm

6 cm

In BSQ,
BS = AR

= 5 cm
5

sin q =
6
5
q = sin1
6

= 5627

## (b) Arc length BC = 6q

8 = 6q
8

q =
6
4
3

1 2

(b) (i)

In PAR,
p =

cos
6
PR =

4
(c) Arc length AD = 3
3

= 4 cm

PR

10
p
10 cos
6
= 8.66 cm

In BSQ,
QS = 6 cos 5627

= 3.316 cm

## The perimeter of the shaded region

=4+8+3+3
= 18 cm

y
x
10. (a) + = 1
6
8

\ A(0, 8) and B(6, 0).

AB = PQ PR SQ

= 16 8.66 3.316

= 4.024 cm

0+6 8+0
D = ,
2
2

= (3, 4)

1
= 5 (4.024 + 16)
2

= 50.06 cm2

OB = 3 + 3
= 6 cm

(b)

1
p
= 102
2
6

= 26.18 cm2

8 units

1
p
= 62 5627
2
180

= 17.73 cm2

cm

D
5 units

xc

5 units

3 units P

In DOP,

3
sin q =
5
q = 3652

ODB = 2 3652
= 7344

8 cm

D
C

4
=
1
1
(3 + x)2q
2
= 4
1
32 q
2

(3 + x)2 = 36

3 + x = 6

x = 3

In AOB,
AB = 10 units

\ DB = 5 units

## Area of the shaded region

= 50.06 26.18 17.73
= 6.15 cm2

9. (a)

6 units

## (c) Area of sector ODB

1
p
= 52 7344
2
180

= 16.09 unit2
1

Area of ODB = DP OB
2
1

= 4 6
2

= 12 unit2

x.0

13

= 4.09 unit2

12. (a)

B
C

## 11. (a) x2 + y2 = 100

When x = 0, y = 10

When y = 0, x = 10

8 cm

## \ A(10, 0), B(0, 10), C(10, 0), D(0, 10).

3
= Area of circle ABCD
4
3

=
p(10)2
4

= 75p unit2
(b)

8 cm

8 cm

1.6
AOB =
2

(b)

y
B
x 2 + y 2 = 100

P
C

In ROD,

In AOB,
AB2 = 102 + 102
200 units
AB = ABBB

ABBB
200

\ AP = units
2

1

Area of semicircle APBO = pr2
2
ABBB
200
1

= p
2
2
50

= p unit2
2
1

Area of AOB =
10 10
2

= 50 unit2

p
= 5.574 cm

13. (a)

50
= p 50 unit2
2

r cm

## Area of the shaded region

= Area of sector OADCB Area of segments BO
and OA
50
= 75p p 50
2
50
= 75p p + 50
2
= 50p + 50
= 50(p + 1) unit2

T
0.2

OC = 2 5.574

= 11.15 cm

8 cm

RO
cos 0.8 =
8
RO = 8 cos 0.8

8 cm

The length of RS
1
=
2
The length of ST

14

\ SOT = 2 0.2

10 cm

## Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 8

1 17.322 sin 60
(c) Area of OAB =
2

= 129.9 cm2

## Area of sector ORST = Area of sector OPQ

1 2
1

r (0.6) = (10)2(0.4)
2
2
100 0.4

r2 =
0.6

r = 8.165 cm

\ OT = 8.165 cm

## (b) Arc length ST = 8.165 0.4

= 3.266 cm

\ Area of segment AB
= Area of sector OAB Area of OAB
= 157.1 129.9
= 27.2 cm2

15. (a)

1 8.1652 0.4
(c) Area of sector OST =
2

= 13.333 cm2

## Area of shaded region PQTS

= Area of sector OPQ Area of sector OST
= 20 13.333
= 6.667 cm2

10 cm
120

## BPO = APO = 120

\ POB = 30, POA = 30

AOB = 60

10 cm

## (c) Arc length CD = 40(0.48)

= 19.2 cm

In POC,

16. (a)

OC
sin 60 =
10
OC = 10 sin 60

= 8.66 cm

\ OB = 2 8.66

= 17.32 cm

O
A

p
1 (17.32)2
Area of sector OAB =
2
3

= 157.1 cm2

1 2

6.5 cm

p
(b) Arc length AB = 17.32
3

= 18.14 cm

1 2

## Perimeter of sector AOB

= 2x + 2x + (2x)(0.48)
= 4.96x

## (b) Area of the shaded region

= Area of sector EOF + Area of sector AOB
1
1
= (10)2(0.48) + (20)2(0.48)
2
2

= 120 cm2

## 2.48x + 4.96x = 74.4

7.44x = 74.4
74.4

x =
7.44
= 10

60 60

m
xc

Perimeter of sector EOF
= x + x + 0.48x

= 2.48x

10 cm

14. (a)
A

B
cm
2x
A

40 40

6.5 cm

= 38.14 cm

15

R
70

70

1
p
= 6.52 80
2
180

= 29.5 cm2

6.5 cm

## (d) Area of PAO + Area of POC

1

= 2 6.52 sin 40
2

= 27.16 cm2

40

In APR,
AR

cos 70 =
6.5
AR = 6.5 cos 70

= 2.223 cm

p
Arc length AOC = 6.5 80
180

= 9.076 cm

= 17.07 + 9.076
= 26.15 cm

= 29.5 27.16
= 2.34 cm2

## Area of the shaded region

= Area of sector OABC 2.34
1
p 2.34
= 4.4462 220
2
180

= 35.61 cm2

## Therefore, the radius of sector OABC is

4.446 cm.

p
(b) Arc length ABC = 4.446 220
180

= 17.07 cm

AO = 2 2.223

= 4.446 cm

16