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alm Kmn

`mcXns im]w
cmwZmkv Kmn
Malayalam Translation of A.P Madans famous book

Mahatma Gandhi

A curse for Bharat


-Ramdas Gandhi
(son of mahatma Gandhi)
Malayalam Translation
By

Sathya swaroopa
ISBN: 978-1-329-70508-1
FIRST EDITION (JAN 2016)
PRICE RS : 350.00/Genere : History
www.lulu.com
www.scribd.com
copy rights reserved@ Sathya swaroopa
*********************************************

kaWw
`mcXns hn`P\Imev knbmtImn (Cs
]mnkvXm\n) hv acWs Fs hyamXmhv {ioaXn
IkvXq_ KmnbpsS Hmbvmbv kanpp. 1947
G{]n aytmsS hSp]Snmd ]mnkvXm AXn
n {]hiybnep "tZcm Ckvabn' Pnbnse Ipemn
]Wnep lnpfpsS Dqe\min\v kmyw hln
tijw 1947 sabv BZyhmcw shv ]m_nse anbmhmen
Pnbnse"Zcym Jm' dbnth tj\n Fm RfpsS
IpSpw_w knp\Zn ISp. Zcym Jm\n \npw Ipnbm hgn
eme aqkbneqsS kcnv emtlmdneqsS thWambncpp
Rv knbmtImnsem. Amev AhnsS Fs
]nXmhv lnpfpsSbpw knJpImcpsSbpw k\miw ImWm
tkh\w \Sppmbncpp. 1947 BKkvXn Atlns
ITn\amb {iaw ^ew ImWpIbpw sNbvXp. Zcym Jm\n \npw
emtlmdntebvv hfsc ssZLytadnb bm{Xbmbncpp.
Xohnbnse AXnbmb Xnpw Xncpw aqew Fs amXmhn
s\bpw ktlmZcnsbbpw h\nXImbv {]tXyIap Imv
san Ibn Ccpnbtijw R bm{X Bcw`np. h\nX
Imbp Impsan XmcXtay\ Xncv Ipdhmbncp
p. h\nXmImpsan apow kv{XoI Bcpw Xs
Dmbncpn. Fm hgn aty Hcp tj\n \npw Hcp
apow kv{Xo I_mvsan IbdpIbpw _nlmdn lnp
aposf sIme sNbvXXn Aajw ]qv Dds lnp
sXnsc Ibv kwkmcnm XpSpIbpw sNbvXp.
Impsanepmbncp lnpkv{XoI Duabmb Bn]
sftmse Fmw tIv anmXncpp. Bpw Xs Ahsc
FXnm\p ss[cyw Dmbncpn. Fs Abvv CXv
A[nIt\cw klnv tIncnphm Ignn. _wKmfn
i

lnphwilXyv XpSw IpdnXv apofmbncpp Fv


A XncnSnp. IqSmsX _wKmfnse lnp A`bmnI
Xe Nmbvm CSn\mbn _olmdn Fnbtm AhnsS
D apov t\scbpmb {]XnIcWw XnIpw kzm`mho
Iw am{Xambncpp Fpw lnpsf ]gnNmcm\p ss[cyw
\nv FhnsS \nv Inn ?.Fpw IqSn tNmZnpIbpmbn.
tijap bm{Xbn B apow kv{XobpsS hmbv aqSnsm
C{Xbpw [mcmfambncpp.
cmwZmkv Kmn

ii

Nnnq a\nemq DWcq!


1.Cv cmPys GsXmcp ]mnbnsebpw, hn`mKnse
bpw GXv t\Xmhmbncpmepw icn, A[nImcin m\
fnsem am{Xw thmn\p thn P\fpsS apn Ip\n
bpIbpw A[nImcnsenb tijw Aphjw Ahsc
NqjWw sNpIbpw sImbSnpIbpw sNpp. A[nImc
nsenb t\Xm, t]meokpImcpsSbpw KpIfpsSbpw
klmbtmsS AhcpsS Ioibpw _mv _mekpw hnIkn
npXn hym]rXcmIpp.
2.kzmX{env 48 hjn\v tijhpw (hn`PnsXv
kXyn cmPyw asmcp t]cnembncpp) Cu t\Xm
P\sf Zcn{Zcpw, ]nWnmcpw, DSpXpWnv adpXpWnbnm
hcpw, \ncccpambn \ne\nn. IqSmsX `mjbpsSbpw,
tZinsbpw, aXnsbpw, PmXnbpsSbpw, hnsbpw
t]cn Hcp cmPyns Dnep ]ecmPysftmse kzw
kzm Xmev]cyv thn Ahsc `nnnv `cnp
sImncpp.
3.Ah \nb{Ww, kwhcWw, s]anv, tdj, hnev\
\nIpXn, B`yc \nIpXn, sXmgn \nba, tZikm
cWw XpSnbhbneqsS cmPys AgnaXnbpsS Iqcmn
amn. AhkchmZnIfmb Cu t\XmfpsS \mSIw ]cn]q
kXykcmbn Bcpan Fv hcpn XopIbpw AXphgn
XfpsS knwlmk\w kpcnXampIbpw Bbncpp.
4.AhcpsS ]XnI P\ AhcpsS ASnaIfmWv
Fv Hmnnpw hn[w Bbncpp Asn AXp Xs
Bbncnmw Ah B{KlnncpXv. AXns\ Ah ASw
F Hma\tcn hnfnpsImv P\sf AhiyhkvXp
pw Imcypw thn HutZymXoI ]cnanXnI
Inv aWnqdpItfmfw hcnIfn \nn IsSpn
sImncpp.
iii

GsXnepw Hcp cm{ob t\Xmhv kamPoI kaXzhmZ


n Ddp \npsImv kzw tdj\pthnbpw, as
XpSn Bhiyv thnbpw hcnbn \nnptm? C\n
\nevptam?
Nnnq, a\nemq, Cu KqVmtemN\IsXnsc
\nfpsS iw Dbq. Asn ChnsS Hcp cmPyhpw,
[hpw, kaqlhpw, hnizmkhpw \ne\npIbn. \msamw
ASnaIfmb hfparKsftmse \oNhpw \nyhpamb Cu
hyhIfpambn CWnttcn hcpw.

iv

Cwojv ]Xnns BapJw


KmnbpsS A\pbmbnI Atls ssZhambn IcpXp
Ibpw hnizknpIbpw CUy hfsc A[nIw {]iv\
t\cnpsImncnpIbmWv Fpw hnizknncpp. Fm
R Kmnb Bib kzoIcnncpn. Cu teJ\
neqsS hkvXpXIfneqsSbpw IWpIfneqsSbpw Nne
bmYmXy kXy NqnmWnm\p efnXamb {iaamWv
\SnbncnpXv. 1947 \v tijw kzmX{ enXw Fv
tLmjnsSp ImebfhpIfSw \mw Cv A`napJoIcn
p Fm {]iv\pw ImcWw \mw Kmnsb A\pKan
XpsImv am{XamWv. s{]m. Dt]{ _mIvkn Cu kmlNcy
sf apgph\mbpw Iqnsnsmv Cs\ ]dbpp.
taml Zmknsbpw Phlem s\{lphnsbpw A\pbmbn
I CUysb A]lcnp. Cv CUysb XnsbSppIbpw
sNbvXp sImncnpp.
\mw KmntbmSv bm{Xmsamgn C\nbpw ]dnsn
\s ImncnpXv IqSpX IpgfmWv. eyw Atl
s A]IonsSppI F eytmsS hntcm[w
ImpIb, adnv cmPys P\sf Atlns cmPy
hncp \bv FXnscbpw hnncsXnscbpw
t_m[hcnpI FXmWv. Atlns t]cn\p ap]n
se alm F hntijWw t]mepw tNmZyw sNsSp
XmWv. Atlns Zpjv{]hnIsf Ipdnv Hcp henb
]pkvXIw Xs cNnm Ignbpw. hfsc Xpamb Afhn
cNn Atlns Nne \ {K cmPyns\Xncmbn
Atlw sNbvX {]Xnhn[nbnm lo\IrXyv aptmSn
bmbp \nmcamb AXnhcpI am{Xambncpp. Cu
{Kw Atlns Zp\Snsbpw Zpjv{]hnIsfbpw
ImWnp Hcp sNdp shfnw am{XamWv.

B\v {]Imiv aZ
v

aebmfw ]Xnns BapJw


BhnjvImc kzmX{w. Cv hfsc \mw A[nIw tIp
Hcp hmmWv AXv. BhnjvImc kzmX{nt ISp
Ibw DmIpp Fv {]Jym]\ \Snbpw {]Xnt[
ambn Innb ]pckvImc XncnsI \Inbpw hnhn[ taJe
Ifnep FgppImcpw IemImcmcpw tZiobX ASnm\
amn {]hnp Hcp Khsns\ A]am\nm\pw
temIns apn CUy hfsc AklnjvWpX \nd
cmPyamWv Fv hcpnXov av cmPyv apn
`mcXs Icnhmcn tXbvm hnLS\hmZnI {ia
\Sn hcp Cu Ahkcn BhnjvImc kzmX{saXv
GsXnepw Hcp hn`mKn\v am{Xw A\phZnsnp H
Fv ]dbphm am{Xa a\knemn Xcphm IqSn B{Kln
pIbmWv. Cv kaqlnepw tkmjy aoUnbIfnepw
lnpsfbpw, lnp tZhXI, lnp \thmm\ \mbIm
Fnhsc ]cnlknpIbpw A]am\nm {ianpIbpw
sNpXv temIsamSpap ktlmZcsf \n ImWp
XmWtm?. CsXmw Xs BhnjvImc kzmX{amIpIbpw
apaXcpsS Imcyn BIptm AXv hnizmkn
taep ISp Ibw BhpIbpw sNpXv Fns\bmWv?.
AXpsImpw Xocpn AXv sNbvXhs\ {Iqinpw Ahs
Ipw Imepw shnbpw Poh\pw kzn\pw FXnsc XpSbmbn
thbmSn cknpXpw GXv klnjvWpXbpsS t]cnemWv.
Fm Ccnep Imcy ImWptm tIp
tm I]SatXXccmb _pnPohnIfpw am[yafpw \nba
]meIcpw AXns\Xnsc Ccmv \bfmWv kzoIcnpXv.
Fmhpw Htc \nbaw F Im]Sy\mSIw IfnpIbpw
]Whpw A[nImchpw Dhs Imcyw hcptm \ymbhpw
\oXnbpw Imn ]dpIbpw A\ymbn\v FXnsc Ipw
ImXpw hmbpw sImn ASbvp \nba]oTfpw \nba
]meImcpw D \mn kXyambnp Imcy ]dbp
tm am{Xw AXns\ ASnam thn Immf \nba
ns ]pkvXImfpI adnm lrZbw XpSnp \nba
]meIsc \n Bm`nam\w ]Wbw hv tIhew `bns
vi

t]cnepw Inp ]Wsns t]cnepw cmPys A]IS


sWnbntebvv apnmgvn sImncnpp FXv Hcp
kXyw am{XamWv. ASnam\pw sImp Xm\pw ]dbp
aXhpw AXn hnizknp Hcp P\Xbpw DnStmfw Imew
lnp P\XbpsS PohnXw IqSpX Aklyambn Xocpw FXv
hmkvXhamWv. {]IrXnhncp hnizmk {]amW apdpsI
]nSn P\X kam[m\ PohnXn\v hnepXSn Bbnocpw.
ImcWw ]ckv]c hncpamb cv hnizmk kamcambn
kcnpIbpp. AXvv Hcnepw tbmPnpIbn. hnizmkw
FXv ImeN{In\\pkcnv IqSnbpw Ipdpw Ccnpw
FmsX CmXmIm t]mIppan. Kmn]p{X\m Xs
i]nsh\mb Kmnsb Ipdnp Cu {Kw B\v
{]Imiv aZs hnhmZamb Kmn F Igvkv t^m `mcXv F
]pkvXIs ASnm\sSpnbpXmWv. Cu ]pkvXIn
]dnp hkvXpXI a\nemm\pw AXns\ ]n
Nnnv sXpw icnbpw hniIe\w sNphm\pw D t_m[w
Cs Xeapdbvv Dv. BbXn\m Cu ]pkvXIns\
]n Nnnv Icp hnfnm _pnPohnI Fv kzbw
hnizknph aptmv htc Imcyan. kmam\yt_m[hpw
_pnbpw BcpsSbpw IpIbpa. AXn\m s\pw ]Xncpw
hmb\m thXncns. XInSw adn \nbahyhbpw
AgnaXn\nd `cW hyhbpw I]SatXXcpw ]Wn\p
ta hmI krnp am[yafpw \nd cmPyns
Cu Ahbvv ImcWw Fv FXv P\w Xocpam\ns!
ImcWw AXv AhcpsS kzmX{amWv. CXv Fs BhnjvImc
kzmX{hpw.

hnhI

vii

kqNnI
Aymbw1
AXncpIhn Kmnb {IqcXI ........................................................ 11
*40 ew lnpfpsS sIme]mXIw : Kmnbpw s\{lp
IpSpw_hpw DchmZnI.............................................................................14
*sIm lnpsf sImm apnw sIme]mXInIv
KmnbpsS XpW ...............................................................................................18
*]Snmd ]m_nse apn ]mnkvXm\ntev
IpSntbdpXv Kmn XSp. am XmcmknwKv Kmnsb
FXnp. ............................................................................................................. 20
Aymbw2
Imivao {]iv\w ; Kmns\{lp krn lnpIqsmebpsS
DchmZnI ...................................................................................................... 22
Aymbw3
KmnbpsS Im]Syw \nd A{IacmlnXyw(Alnwk)\mSIw.... 26
*Kmn ]ipfpsS IimpImc ............................................................ 27
Aymbw4
KmnbpsS lnn hntcm[hpw DdpZphnt\mSp arZp kao]\hpw.. 31
*Zp_e hn`mKw lnptfmSv {InkvXy, Cmw aXw
kzoIcnm KmnbpsS Blzm\w. lnp \n
DhcmbncntXv tUm. Awt_ZvIdnt\mSv am{Xw. ..................... 32
Aymbw5
cma\pw IrjvW\pw Pohnncpn ; Kmn ............................................ 36
*Kmn BcykamPsbpw kzman Zbm\ns\bpw \nnpp. 37
*ckmnIfmb kzman {im\v, kZm `KXv knwKv
Fnhv taep KmnbpsS hnizmk h\.............................. 39
*BcykamPnsbpw lnp almk`bpsSbpw kam[m\]c
amb {]Xnt[ hnbsapw cmPyt{Zml]csapw
viii

ap{ZIpp Kmn sslZcm_mZnse CmaoI `cWm[nImcn


bmb \nkmans\ ]npWbvpp. ........................................................... 40
Aymbw6
]mnkvXms cq]nIcWw Fs PUn\p aosX am{Xw; Kmn
bpsS h\ \nd kXykX ............................................................. 43
*Kmn Hcp `ocp.""tl! cmw''Fv ]dnn. ]s aq{Xsamgn
pIbpw hmbn \nv \pcbpw ]pIbpw hcpIbpw sNbvXp. ........ 46
Aymbw7
Pnv \ymbapmbncpp. Fm Kmn lnpsf hnp 49
*Kmnbpw s\{lphpw lnpfpsS {]Xn\n[nb Fn
hn`PnX CUybpsS m\am\ B{KlnXpw Aecn
Xpw Fn\v?......................................................................................................51
*ssk\oIsc A]am\np Kmn ; ssk\oI Iqkv
hrnbmWw Fv KmnbpsS Iev]\ ........................................... 53
Aymbw8
Kmnbpw Kmnbcpw cmPyns Ghpw henb i{Xp ........ 59
*""\nfpsS PohnXw lnp PmXnv im]ambnoncnpp''
Kmnv ]p{X cmwZmkv KmnbpsS imk\. .................................. 60
*Kmnbpw Kmnkhpw CUyv \Inb Zn\fpw (15
BKkvXv,26 P\phcn) {Xnh]XmI F A]am\hpw. ............. 62
*Kmn ssZhZqX Fv \Snpp. ...................................................... 63
Aymbw9
BkvXpXnbn canpIbpw cm{]nXmshv \ymbnIcnm
{ianph\pamb Kmn............................................................................... 64
*Kmn ]m]hpw, Iphpw A[hpw sNm ss[cyw ]Icpp.
................................................................................................................................... 65
*1947 BKkvXv 14,15 Acm{XnI; KmnbpsS Phl
aZyn apnmW cm{XnI ............................................................... 67
Aymbw10
KmnbpsS efnX PohnXw F Xnv .................................................... 69
ix

*temInsbpw UNO bpsSbpw In CUysbbpw


lnphns\bpw XcwXmgvnb Kmn....................................................... 70
*Pn ]mnkvXm Kh P\d F \nebn Xs
ImWqhm Kmnsb A\phZnn. ......................................................... 72
Aymbw11
Kmn h[hpw \mYqdmw tKmUvsktbmSp BZcmenbpw ...... 76
*KmnbpsS Fm A\pbmbnIfpw ]m]nIfmb IphmfnI ..... 79

Aymbw1

AXncpIhn Kmnb {IqcXI


KmnbpsS A\pbmbnI Atls IcpWbpsSbpw
AlnwkbpsSbpw A{IacmlnXynsbpw ssZhZqX\mbn
{]iwknp. Fm CUy Ncn{Xn IphmfnIfpsS
klmbnbpw {Iqc\pw Bb Kmnsb AmsX Rv Ah
AhImisSp Xcnep Hcp Kmnsb ImWm
Ignn. CUym hn`P\ Imebfhn (194648) sImn
Acnbs knJv, lnp P\pw ]mnkvXm apn
fm _emwKw sNshcpw, Xnsmp t]mIsXpw,
{Iqcamb bmX\I Gtn hhcpamb AhcpsS kv{Xo
Ipw t\sc bmsXmcp hn[nepw D ImcpWyhpw
Kmnbn Ahtijnncpn. hfsc A[nIw lnp, knJv
kv{XoIfpw bphXnIfpw AhcpsS Poh I\mepIfnepw, \Zn
Ifnepw, InWdpIfnepw Ahkm\nnp. Cu hn[nep
Imcy kw`hnp sImncnptm ImcpWynsbpw
kvt\lnsbpw aqo`mhw Ahsc klmbnm\mbn Hpw
Xs sNbvXn. AtXkabw Atlw t\mJen (Cs
_wmtZin) bnse A`bmnItfmSv Poh`bm AhnsS
\npw ]meb\w \ScpXv Fpw aSn hon sNv Ahsc
sImm hcphsc kvt\lnpIbpw AhcpsS \ B{Kln
pIbpw sNpI F kmtcm]tZiamWv \InbXv.
Insbcnbp emtlmdneqsS (Cs ]mnkvXm\n)
bm{XsNsh t]Snc lnptfmSv Atlns D]tZiw
...""emtlm acnpIbmsWn AXnt\msSmw acnpI''
FXmbncpp. (]moj BUv B^vaXv satambnkv
Hm^v B Aw_mknU, tIh knwKv, t]Pv 49)
23 sk]vXw_ 1947 se {]m\m tbmKn Kmn
]dp ""tZcm Kmkn Jm apXepw dmh]nn apXepw Rm
lnpfpsSbpw knJvImcpsSbpw \ntbmKw Ip. Atmgpw
Kmnv ]mnkvXm\nse Hmtcm `mKfnepap lnp

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


pw knJvImpw ]mnkvXm A[nIrX ]q kwc
Ww \Ipw FXn bmsXmcp kwibhpw Dmbncpn.
Atlw Xs D]tZiw C{]Imcw Bhnp; "\n
hoSpI Dt]nv t]mIpXn\v ]Icw BWpsftmse
acnm XmdmIWw. A`nam\tmSpw ss[cytmSpw
hocNcaw {]m]np Iebvv {]tXyI ]cnioe\ns
Bhiyan.'.(t]Pv 33, Uln Ubdn F If Hm^v
kv]ovkv ss_ Fw.sI. Kmn {^w 10091947 Sp 30011948
\hvPoh ]ojnwKv lukv, AlZm_mZv).
Ccn hyYhpw D]tbmK iyq\yhpw Bb D]tZi
fmWv Kmn \ncmbp[cpw, {]Xntcm[in Cmhcpw,
\nlmbcpamb kv{XoIfpw IpnIfpw ASp lnp, knJv
kaqln\v \evInbncpXv. Ccnep ImcpWyhpw
AlnwkbpamtWm Atlw Ahv \evtInbncpXv?.
AtXkabw Kmn Xs Zp_ehpw, ipjvInv Fn
tXmSmbXpw, cv s]IpnIfpsS klmbanmsX \nhv
\nevm tijnbnmXpamb Xs icocs 125 hjw hsc
tXPkpXmphm thn ipamb ]iphn ]mepw, tX\pw,
DW ]ghfpw \pIcpXn hym]rX\mbncpp.
KmnbpsS Ccnep {]hn F{Xtbm emIcamWv
Fv BtemNnv t\mpI. kzman i\v Ulnbnse
Nmv\n Nun Xs A\pbmbnIv thn {_nojv
ssk\yns tXmn Ipgen \npXn shSnbpI
s\v hncnv t\cnXpt]mse dmh]nnbntepw tZcm
Kmkn Jm\ntebvpw sNv sImv apntfmSv Xs
A\pbmbnIfmb lnpsfbpw knJvImscbpw sImesNp
Xn\v apmbn Fs sImq Fv ]dbpXn\v ]Icw Fn\v
Ccnep \n`bamb A\pI_bpw aphtcmSv acnp
hm \ntinp [`mjWhpw \In?. AXn{Iqc\mb
HudwKtk_v F apnw `cWm[nImcnbpsS Z\fn
\nv Imivaocn ]npIsf cnm\mbn Kpcp tXJv _lZq
PohXymKw sNbvXp. FpsImv Kmn Ccnep
DZmlcW A\pIcnm Iqmnbn?. Ccn
acnm `bap `ocphmbncpp Kmnsbn X\nv
hnt[b\mb, Hcnepw A\pkcWtSv ImWnm Khs
nt\mSv ]mnkvXm\nse lnpfpsSbpw knJvImcpsSbpw

12

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


Poh kwcnm FpsImv \ntiw \evInbn?.
FpsImv Ahsc cnm Hcp sNdphnc t]mepw
A\nbn. Fncpmepw ]mInkvXms\Xnsc kw`hn
Imcyns {]Xn[z\n CUybn apgnbtm hr
DS\Sn acWw hsc D]hknm Xmdmbn. lnphn\pw, apk
am\pw cv \b kzoIcnp, Ccmv Xtbm
almmhmIm\p tbmKyX?.
HcpImcyw hfsc hyambncpp, Atlw lnptfmSv
{Iqcamb \ne]mSmWv kzoIcnncpXv. AXn\p asmcp
DZmlcWamWv amnf elf. Cu elfbn 2500 lnpsf
apnw hnbhmZnI shnbcnv sImesSppIbpw 20000
t]sc apnw _ew {]tbmKnv aXw ampIbpw sNbvXp.
Jnem^v {]m\ns aptn\v kw`hn tXmhnv
tijw Xs {]kwKn Kmn Ahsc A`nkwt_m[\
sNbvXXv " [ocmcmb Fs amnf ktlmZcsf' FmWv.
lnpsf Iqsme \SpXmtWm [ocX? hoc kmlkw?.
FsXs A\p`hn \np Hcp kw`hw ChnsS
hnhcnpXv {]kamWv Fv tXmpp. 1972 Unkw_dn
Rm\pw `mcybpw IqSn \ ]Wn \npw AhfpsS
Amhn Xmaknp ^ntdmkv]q ]Wntebvv t]mbn.
Hcp RmbdmgvN R Xpcn _kmdnse BcykamPn hv
\S kwKn ]sSpp. hfsc XWpp Znhkamb
Xn\m ]pt] am{Xta kwKn ]sSppp. CSbvv
kzm`mhoIambn RfpsS {i GItZiw 60 hbv {]mbw
tXmnp S_m [cnncnp _lpam\y\mb Bcy
kamPw {]knUns t\v Xncnp. kwKn\v tijw
Atlw RtfmSv kckhpw kvt\l]qhpamb `mjbn
kwkmcnpIbpw Rsfn XncpIbpw sNbvXp. Rm
Xncnv Atlsn BcmbpIbpw sNbvXp. Atlw ]dp,
1947 hsc Ah tjJv]pc (]mnkvXm\nse emtlmdn \npw
40 In.an.)bn Bbncpp XmaknncpXv. Atlw henb
tIm{Kv {]hI Bbncpp. KmnbpsS D]tZihpw
D]tZihpw A\pkcnv {]tZis lnpsfbpw knJvImsc
bpw kpcnXamb m\tbvv t]mIm A\phZnmsX
AhnsS Xs Xm Atlw t{]cnnp. ^ew lnp
]pcpjmsc apgph\mbpw apn sImsmSpn. kv{XoIfpw

13

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


s]IpnIfpw Xnsmv t]mIsp. HcpIWn\v Atl
ns IpSpw_w csp. am\koIambn hfsc Bgn
apdnths Atln\v Xm\mWv Cu ]mXIn\v
DchmZn Fv tXmn. 1947 BKkvXn \S Cu lo\amb
B{IaWn 22000 (Ccp]n cmbncw) lnpsf 48
aWnqdn\pn apn, apow ssk\oI, t]meokpIm
FnhcpsS klmbm \nZbw h[np. Cu bYmXyw
CUybpsS {]Ya {][m\a{n Phlem s\{lp AwKoIcn
npXmWv. (HmKss\k, 14--sabv 1995, Imt_Pv BUv
InwKvkv ss_ hn.]n. _mnb).
kXyn BcykamPw {]knUv sXpImc\. Atlw
KmnbpsS D]tZin\v A\pkcnv {]hnpI am{XamWv
sNbvXXv. Fncnbmepw Atln\v Xm AXns
`mKambXn Atbw Ipt_m[apv. B Ipt_m[m
Atln\v Xs tPmenbn {inm IgnbmsX hp.
Ans\ Atlw Xs PohnXw kmaqloIhpw aX]chpamb
tkh\mbn Nnehgnpp. t\scadnv tImSnWn\v
P\sf sXmbn hgn \bnnpw Kmnv AXns Ipt_m[w
ehteiw Hcntmepw tXmnbnn. 10 ew lnpfpw
knJvImcpw sImesNsnpw Atlw Xs hnnXzw \nd
D]tZiw XpSv sImncpp. Atlns\ kw_nnS
tmfw lnphns Poh\v Hcp hnebpw Dmbncpn.
apnfpsS tahpw Zp_eamb Xs icocw 125 hbphsc
Fns\ Poht\msS Ccpmw FXns\]nbpamWv Atlw
BIpesncpXv.

40 ew lnpfpsS sIme]mXIw : Kmnbpw s\{lp


IpSpw_hpw DchmZnI
Kmnbpw s\{lphpw tIm{KpImcpamWv 1947 10
ew lnpfpw knJvImcpw sImsXn\pw, tijw 1971
30 ejw lnp Cuv _wKmfn (Cs _wmtZiv)
sImsXn\pw DchmZnI. Ncn{X]camb hkvXpXI
A\pkcnv lnp apow ASnm\w A\pkcnmWv cmPyw
hn`PnsXv. {InkvXym\nI FhnsSbmtWm hn`P\n\v
ap]v AhnsSXs Xmaknpw Fv IcpXnbncpp. Cu
ASnm\ hkvXpXI tIm{Kpw, Kmnbpw, s\{lphpw

14

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


ASw AwKoIcnXmWv. BbXn\m CUybn Dhcpw
]mnm\n \nv hh ASap k lnp knJv
P\XbpsSbpw tahpw kpcbpw CUy Khsns
[moI DchmZnXzn\pw Apdw \nba]camb ISa Xs
Bbncpp. Fm Kmnbpw s\{lphpw CUy apnans
tanepw kpcbnepw am{Xw Xevccmbncppp. ]mv
A`bmnIfmbn Fnb lnpsfbpw AhcpsS kpc
sbbpw ]nbp ISaIfpw NpaXeIfpw Ah ]msS AhKWn
pIbmWv DmbXv.
apnw eoKnsbpw PnbpsSbpw Blzm\ns A\c
^eambn (UbdIvv B) 1946 BKkvXn htXmXn
lnpsf _wKmfn sImsmSpn. IqSmsX shv ]m_n
lnpsfbpw knJvImscbpw 1947s Bcw`n sImsm
SppIbpmbn. Cu kw`hfpsS ASnm\ Dn
hpsImv Nne {_nnjv sP\d DtymK lnp, knJv
P\Xsb kpcnXamb av {]tZifntebvv amn]mn
phm s\{lphnt\mSv D]tZinp. Fm Cu \ntisf
s\{lp ]msS AhKWnpIbmWv DmbXv. (F se ss_
_n.hn. enamsb HmKss\k 20/09/2000).
C\n \apv Kmn apnfpsS tan F{Xam{Xw
Xevc\mbncpp Fv t\mmw. {_nnjv Kh _sdmhvkv
m\w Hgnbsh, DS\Sn shv _wKmfn Khsd \nbanp.
kZm ]t sI.Fw apjnsb \ntinsnepw, apn
Xv bmsXmcp A\pI_bpw e`npIbn Fv Nnnp
Ibpw AmcWm Xs Atls \ncmIcnpw Fv
Kmn A`n{]mbsXv sImv kZmPn B m\tbvv
cmPmPnbpsS (kn.cmPtKm]memNmcn) t] \ntinp. Kmn
bpw s\{lphpw B \ntitmSv ]cn]qamb ]npW
{]Jym]np. cmPmPn shv _wKm KhWdmbn \ntbmKn
sSpIbpw lnpsfbpw knJvImscbpw shnbcnv ]mn
kvXm Dmnb apow eoKnse apnfpsS Xmev]cysf
kwcnpIbpw sNbvXp.(cmPmPn tmdn 1937 Sp 72 ss_ cmPv
taml Kmn ]njvUv ss_ `mcXob hnZym`h).
CXn \npw ]qambpw hn]coXambn an. {io{]Imi
(]mnm\n \ntbmKns {]Ya CUy sslnjv
W)v ]mnm hnSp lnpfpsS Imcyn bmsXmcp

15

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


Xmev]cyhpw Dmbncpn Fv am{Xa CUybn \npw
]mnkvXm\ntebvv IpSntbdp apnfpsS Imcyfn
Atlw AXoh Xevc\mbncppXm\pw. AXv Atlw Cu
]pkvXIn AwKoIcnppapv.( ]mnm _v
BUv Ffn tUbvkv, t]Pv 43, `cWLS\m]cambn
]dbpIbmsWn ]mnkvXm\nse lnptfm (Ah
]mv Khsns DchmZnXzamWv) Rm Ahcn
(apow) IqSpX Xevc\mWv. ImcWw Ah CUybn
\np apnfmWv . "Atlw CUy aposf CUy
bntev Xs aSphm t{]cnnpIbpw AXn\v klmbw
sNbvXv sImSppIbpw sNbvXncpp. Ah AXn\v XmdmIp
Ibm XncnsI CUybntebvv t]mcphm\p s]anv
\ncmIcnp taeptymKkvXtcmSv sU]v.sslInjvW,
sF.kn.Fkv Hm^v^nk; Ibvp \ndXpw hntZzjw
IeXpamb _fmWv {io{]Imi \ne\nnbncpXv'
(t]Pv31).
Ulnbn apnfpsS Bhiy{]Imcw {Smknv
Iym_pIfn \npw dbnth tj\nse A`bmn
s{Sbn\pIfn \npw A`bmnIsf XncnsI hon
Fnncpp. (Imt_Pv BUv Invkv, ss_ hn.]n. _mnb,
HmKss\k 24041994). IqSmsX apov thn Kmn
bpsS acWw hsc \ncmlmchpw Ahv \ Imemhbpw
]cnNcWhpw \In sImncpp. AhcpsS Hgnhms
efnepw hoSpIfnepw ]Snmd ]mnm\n
\np lnp, knJv P\X Xmaknp. Fncpmepw
apofpsS CanmsX Hcp apnw km{X \nd
{]tZifnepw lnp Xmaknm Iqmnbncpn.
(nwskkv Hm^v _mp- ss_ a\ps_ Kmn, t]Pv 18889).
ChnsS Hcp kw`hw IqSn NqnmpXv \mbncnpw.
lnpalmk`m t\Xmhv tUm.Jmsc `cWLS\m Akwnbn
tNmZnp."]mnkvXm\nse Fm lnpsfbpw knJvImscbpw
CUy ]ucmcmbn {]Jym]nv Ahv kwcWw Ddv
hcpWsav..... Fm kZm ]t adp]Sn ]dXv '
Khsv Bpw thn Acn Hcp {]Jym]\w
\Sm Xmd Fmbncpp. ({Sn_yq,09/12/1947). ChnsS

16

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


kZm ]ten \apv ]mnkvXm\n ZmcpWw acnv hoWp
sImncnp lnpsf klmbnm Xmdm Dcpp
a\pjys\ Zinm km[npw. CXv Xobmbpw KmnbpsS
ss]imNoIamb {]`mhhpw No IqpsIpw sImmWv Fv
a\nemm km[npXv. AXv XsbmWv Atls
Xs [mnIhpw \nba]cambXpamb ISabn \nv ]nncn
npXpw. Fns\bmWv ]mnkvXm\nse atZIamb
Ahbn \nlmbcmb lnpv kZm ]tens
apn hcphm\pw CUy ]ucXzn\v thn At]
kanphm IgnbpXpw. AXv Nnv Xs ApdamWv.
]mnkvXm lnpsfbpw knJvImscbpw CmXmm
{ianp Cu kmlNcyn CUy `cWm[nImcnI
AhcpsS ISaI a\qw adp. GItZiw 10 ew (Hcp
aney) lnpknJv P\Xsb apn 1947 (IqSpXepw
]Snmd ]mnkvXm\n) sImsmSpn. tijnp Hc
(1.5) tImSn lnp P\X HcpIWn\v CUybn Fsp.
`oIcamb Cu Zpcns ImcWmc Xobmbpw
KmnbmWv. ( ]mnjv Z... t^kv Hm^v Z I{n ss_ FNv.
Un. jqco, Z {Sn_yq 11121997).
Kmn 1947 10 ew lnpsf sImXn\v BWvv
ImcWmc\mbsXn, Kmnb cX\amb aIfpw, Phl
em s\{lphpw, CncmKmnbpw IqSn 30 ew lnpsf
Ing ]mnkvXm\n 1971 sImesNbvXXn\v ImcW
mcmbn. (_wmtZiv Khsnt\mSv ]mnkvXm CXn\v
am]Ww \Sn. {Sn_yq 29P\phcn1998, 14sk]vXw_
2000). ^en 30 ew t]cpw lnpfmbncpp. Pnkv.
lwZq dm Inj dntmv hyampXv {io. AS
dmhv, 3sk]vXw_2000 HmKss\kdnse teJ\n
Nqnmpp."" CUym SptU DcnpXv Hcp DtymKkvX
Injt\mSv ]dbpXv sP\d \nbmkn, F{Xtbmfw lnp
sf \mw sImp Fv kzbw tNmZnpXns\n BWv.
sabv amkn lnpsf sImm HmU Dmbncp
Xn\m ]mnkvXm Ban apnfn \npw Xncndn
bm lnpfpsS hoSn\p ta 'H' Fv a s]bnn
ASbmfsSpnbncpp.

17

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


ASnm\]camb tNmZyw CXmWv; CncmKmn {][m\
a{nbmbncp thfbn FpsImv Ing ]mnkvXm
\nse lnpfpsS Poh\v kwcWw \evInbn?. \psS
kpcm tk\ ]nSnp sInb Hcp ew ]mnm\nIfmb
]mfmsc innpXn\v ]Icw Ahsc Dknnpw \
`Whpw knIcWfpw sImSpv Xr]vXnsSpnb
tijw ]mnkvXms\ XncnsI Gnp. Ahscmhcpw 30
ew lnpsf sImXn\pw av lo\IrXy {]hn
Xn\pw h[inv Alcmbncpp. 1946 se UbdIvv B
ASw k`\pkcnv 30 ew lnpsf sImsSp
nbXn\v DchmZnIfmb apnv Cuv _wKm
ssIamdn. IqSmsX _paXmcpsS km{XIqSnb Nntmv
lnpw IqSn Cu apov ]Ipv sImSpp. Cv _paX
m A`bmnIfmbn AhnsS \npw CUybntev hcpp.
GXv amnemtWm _wmtZiv \mw Ahv \evInbXv.
AXn\p ]Icambn ssk\yn\pw \appw henb hneXs
sImSptnhp. kXyn _wmtZiv \nnv \Inb
Xn\v ]Icw shv ]m_ntebpw Cuv _wKmfntebpw apnw
sf ]ckv]cw XneSnm A\phZnpIbmWv thnbncp
Xv. Cv _wmtZiv asmcp ]mnkvXm\mbn hfp
sImncnpp. CUy ]mnkvXm hn`P\ \ymbw \ncn
CUybn Ipgapmm ]mInkvXm\v IqSpX kabhpw
Duhpw hn\ntbmKnWsan hfp hcp _wmtZin
\v AXv thn hcpIbn.

sIm lnpsf sImm apnw sIme]mXInI


v KmnbpsS XpW
]mnkvXms cq]oIcWn\v thn Pnbpw apnw
eoKpw IqSn Blzm\w sNbvX 16BKkvXv1946 se UbdIvv
Bs ^eambn shdpw cv Znhkn\pn 20000 lnp
sfbmWv apn shnsmesSpnbXv. 15000 t]v
apdnthsp. B kabv kp{lmhZn \bnp apnw
eoKv KhsmWv _wKm `cnncpXv. kp{lmhZn kzbw
t]meokv No^v It{m dqw \nnpIbpw nXnKXnIsf
\nb{npXmbn hcpn XopIbpw sNbvXp. \ntiw

18

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


e`nmXn\m t]meokv cv Znhkw Hcp duv shSn
t]mepw DXnmsX \njv{Iobcmbn t\mn \np. sP\d
_SvN (Ban Iam) I kin temUv hmshen
t\mSv dntmv sNbvXXv kp{lmhZnbpsS ]qmambpw
aX]camb Nmbvhns\ ]nbmWv (cmPmPn tmdn, t]Pv 123124)
apt ]dXpt]mse KmnPn sIm lnpsf
sImsmSpnb cmPmPnsb BWv apofpsS kpcmbn
_wmtZins KhWdmbn NpaXe GnXv. AXpsImpw
Kmn Xr]vX\mbn. Atlw sImbnsen. kp{lm
hZntbmSv Kmn \apv Hcpanv Xmaknmw Fv ]dp.
kp{lmhZn AXv AwKoIcnp. Kmn s_nbLmbn
FnbXv I 200 Hmfw lnp {]hI "KmntbmSv Xncnv
t]mIpI' Fv ap{ZmhmIyw apgn. (cmPmPn tmdn,t]Pv 143)
BKkvXv 15 \v tijw sImbn apow tN_ Hm^v
tImtagvkn\v apm {]kwKnth cmPmPn hyn]cambn Hcp
{]Xn sNbvXp."Fs sXpIfpw Zqjyfpw FpXs
Bbncpmepw, Rm \nv Ddv \evIpp, taem Fs
PohnXs a\qw Hcp aXn\pw PmXnpw thn A\oXn
sImv IfsSppIbn AXv GXv kmlNcyn Bbncp
mepw". kzmX{n\v aqmgvNv tijw sImbnse
apnv FXnsc lnp {]XnImcw sNpIbpw Ipdv
apo acWsSpIbpw sNbvXp. Fmbntmgpw Ft]mse
Kmn AXns\Xnsc iapbn hjfmn. Ip]nXcmb lnp
{]hI KmnbpsS `h\w B{IanpIbpw lnp
A\p`hnXv IqSn Hv HmpXv \mbncnpsav Kmnsb
iImcnpIbpw sNbvXp. Hcp Ipw hSnbpw Kmnv t\sc
]mp sNsnepw AXv eyn \npw Aev]w amdn
tmbn. Bqs imamm\p almmhns {ia
hn^eambnop. Atlns {]XnIcWw... \ncmlckac
{]Jym]\n Ahkm\np. (t]Pv 148)
\ncmlmcns \memw \m GItZiw 500 Hmfw hcp
sIbnse apgph t]meokpImcpw, {_nnjv, Bwtm
CUy DtymK ASw UyqnnsS 24 aWnq
D]hmkw \Sn. sshIptcw Ccpn XpSnbtmtgpw
cmPmPn, {In]mem\n, kp{lmhZn, tKmjv Fnh hv nXn
kam[m\ ]qamnbnpv Fv Adnbnp. NbvnsS

19

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


tkmjyenv t\Xmhv cmw at\ml temlnb Bbp[w hv
am]Ww \Sn IogSnb 5 bphmsf apdnbntev sImv
hp. cm{Xn 09:15 Bbtm Kmn \ncmlmcw Ahkm\nnp.
F{X sImSpw IphmfnIfmbncpmepw kw{`aP\Iamb Bthi
tmSpIqSn apnwsf kcnm\p X{XmSv Kmnbn
Fpw {]ISambncpp.

]Snmd ]m_nse apn ]mnkvXm\ntev


IpSntbdpXv Kmn XSp. am XmcmknwKv Kmn
sb FXnp.
Kmnbn \np FXnn\v hncpambn s\{lp,
auem\m BkmZv, knJv t\Xmhv am XmcmknwKv Fnh
5sk]vXw_1947 emtlmdn hv CUybpw ]mnkvXm
\pw Xn Hcp DSSn Hphp. AX\pkcnv Cuv ]m_v
(Cs ]m_v, lcnbm\, lnamN kwm\
tNXv), shv ]m_v, NWFP (t\mv shv t{^mnb
s{]mhnkv) FnhnSfnse lnpsfbpw apnsfbpw
]cn]qambn Ccp cmPyfpw ssIamw sNWambncpp.
Fm Cu Icmdns\ ]qambn AhKWnp sImv Kmn
]m\nn FpIbpw apnw IpSntbw XSbpIbpw sNbvXp.
KmnbpsS Almcn\v XSbnSm am XmcmknwKpw
AhnsS Fn. 06Unkw_1947 se {Sn_yqWn h hm
A\pkcnv "shv ]m_nse lnpfpsSbpw knJpImcp
sSbpw kzpfpw hoSpIfpw kwcnpXn CUym
Khsv ]cmPbsXn\v FXnsc amk XmcmknwKv
tIm{Kv Khsns\ IpsSppXv dntmv sNsn
cnpp. IqSmsX Kmnbpw ap Nne Khsv DtymKkvXcpw
]m\nn apnw IpSntbw \ncpmlsSppXpw Nqn
mnbncnpp. Cu Icm {]m_eyn CcnpXn\m
Cuv ]m_n \npw shv ]m_n \npw ]qambpw
apnsf Hgnnpsav Atlw Hmnnpp. ]m_v,
lcnbm\, lnamN FnhnSfnse apnsf HgnnXns
]qamb A`n\\w am XmcmknwKn\v am{Xw Alnp
XmWv. Fncpmepw Cv Cu kwm\fn apn
Xnn \ndncnpp. AXn\v ImcWw apn Ffpn

20

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


s]ps]cpIpXv t{]mmlnnp Hcp PmXn BbXn\m
XsbmWv.
Cuv ]m_v A`bmn]p\c[nhmk a{n Bbncp
kZm Cuiz aPvssl _mwKbn hv Hcp s]mXp{]kwK
n C{]Imcw ]dp. "" Ccp cmPy F Bibns
cq]Im (]mnkvXm\pw, apnwfpw) CUybn
\npXpw ]mInkvXm\nepXpamb apnsf ]p\c[nhkn
npXn h {]XnknbmWv t\cnSpXv. ({Sn_yq,
18101947, {^v t]Pv)

21

Aymbw2

Imivao {]iv\w ; Kmns\{lp krn


lnpIqsmebpsS DchmZnI
Kmn ImcWw am{XamWv s\{lp {][m\a{n ]Zn
FnbXv. Asn B m\w kZm ]t Aecnp
ambncpp. AXn\m kzw ]m]v D]cnbmbn s\{lp
sNbvX sXpIpw DchmZn Kmn am{XamWv. 20 sabv 1948
se {]m\m tbmKn Kmn ]dp."" at\mlcamb Cu
]pWy`qan XymKhpw, tkh\ XevcXbpw \nd Hcp al
mb Bmhn\v Pw sImSpXn `mcX`qanbpsS afpsS
lrZb lj]pfIw sImtXmWv. Phlem s\{lp
aphtcm tim` \nd cXv\amWv "". (Uln Ubdn,
t]Pv 362). s\{lphns\ Ipdnv Ccnep ]pIgvepI
KmnbpsS {]`mjWfn Ftmgpw {]ISambncpp.
almcmP lcn knwKns\ m\{`v\mn ssjJv Ap
bvv A[nImcw ssIamw sNbvXXv KnbpsS KqVmtemN\
bpsS `mKambncpp. 25121947 se {]m\m {]kwKn
Kmn ]dp. "tjJv Apsb Rm Imivaocns
bYm t\Xmhmbn ]cnKWnpp. Imivaocnep Fmhcpw
Atls A\pIqenWw. FXncnm hensbmcp apow
kaqlns ]npW Atln\pv. Pphn Dmbnp
apnw IqsmeIpw s]IpnIsf Xnsmv t]mbXv
XpSo ZpJIcambnp Fm kw`hpw ]cn]q
DchmZnXzw almcmP lcn knwKn\mWv. BbXn\m
AXns ]cn]qamb DchmZnXzw GsSpv almcmPm
lcn knwKnt\mSv KmnPn A[nImcw Hgnbphm\pw tjJv
Apv Ahkcw sImSpphm\pw \ntinp. (Uln
Ubdn, t]Pv 283). apnw hobhmZnIfpsS Bhiysfm
hfsc A]ISw \ndXmbncpp KmnbpsS {]mh\I.
Imivao Xmgvhcbnse CmaoI hKob hmZnIsf kwXr]vXcm
phm thn Pphnse lnp `qcn]sbpw eUmnse
_paX `qcn]sbpw ]msS AhKWnv sImv Kmn

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


aponSbn A\pIqe {]`mhap tjJv Apv
Imivao kwm\w \Iphm\pw A[nImc ssIamw \Sp
hm\pw ISpw]nSpw \Sn. FpsImv lnp `qcn]
{]tZinse lnpv thn AhcpsS t\Xmhns\ ]msS
AhKWnp. Kmn clkyambn aXw amdnbncptm???.
bYmXyn Zpmcmb ]\nIfpw knhn thjw
[cnsnb ]mnkvXm\n ]mfhpw PpImivao B{Ianv
Ah\obamb Xcnep {IqcXIfpw sIme]mXIfpw
lnp, knJv P\XInSbn Hmtcm ]W tI{oIcnv
\Sn. lnpsf Iqsme sNpXv XSbm\pw \pgp
Ibw CmXmm\pw IqSpX ssk\ys Pp Imivaocn
tebvbm s\{lphns\ D]tZinpXn\v ]Icw Kmn
IpaSv lnpsf ]gnp. ]]mX]camb Cu kao]\w
Hcp ]mv GPns\tmse Bbncpp. Ans\ cv aSv
]m]amWv Kmn AhnsS \SnbXv. Hv lnpv t\sc
\S sIme]mXI adbvv hbvm {ianp. AXns\Xnsc
Hccw annbn. cv lnp Pphn apnsf
sImpp F \m Infnm \pW ]dv ]cn.
Kmn sXfn hgnbneqsSbpw hc hcbneqsSbpw Xs
Xs Xe KmnbpsS Imogn hv s\{lphpw {]hnp.
s\{lp alcmP lcnknwKnt\mSv m\w Hgnv tjJv
Apsb A[nImcw Gnm shnpdv ]dp.
tijw Imivao Dt]nv kwm\n\v ]pdv t]mIph
\ntinp. Ans\ m\mtcmlWw kzoIcnsSpIbpw
ssk\yw {io\Kdn FntcpIbpw sNbvXp. (IshUv
Imivao ss_ \tc{ tkKm, t]Pv 320)
AXns A\c^eambn ]W ]Wfmbn
sImbSnpw sImesNbvXpw lnpv t\sc A\h[n
AXn{Ia sNbvXpw FhnsSbpw XSbsSmsX ]mnkvXm\n
\pgpIbm {io\Kdn Fn. ]mnkvXm\n \pgp
Ibm an]qcn \mSnb A{Iav Kmnbpw
s\{lphpw am{XamWv Ipm. Ah Fv sNbvXp shv
ImWnp Hcp kw`hw Rm ChnsS ]dbmw.
an]q ]Ww, ]mnkvXm AXnnbn aetbmc
{]tZimWv nXnsNpXv. PpImivaocnse Hcp Pnm
Xem\ Imcymebw {]hrnncpXpw ChnsS Bbncpp.

23

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


1947 10000 t] Bbncpp ChnSps P\km{X. AXn 80%
lnpfpw _mn apnfpw Bbncpp. Icm {]Imcw,
apmse Bkq{XWw sNbvXXv A\pkcnv 1947se hn`P\
kabv apnw IpSp_ Lw Lambn ]Ww Hgnv
t]mbn. CXv kXyn apnsf apgph\mbpw ]Wn
\nv Hgnn tijw lnpfpsS ta B{IaWw \Sm\p
]mnkvXms X{ambncpp. tijw B {]tZiv lnp
A`bmnIfm \ndv P\km{X 25000 Bbnop.
A]ISw (]mnkvXms NXn) a\nemnb an]qcn
\np 200 t] Pp hnam\mhfn sNv s\{lphns\
kinpIbpw an]qcntebvv ssk\ys Abbvphm
At]npIbpw sNbvXp. ]s, "" an]qcntev ssk\ys
Abbvm thpw Fv \ {]hnbmWv \n sNbvXn
pXv'' Fmbncpp s\{lphns adp]Sn. A\c^eambn
23 \hw_ 1947 \v ]mInkvXm\n \pgpIbm an]q
B{Ianp. th{X ssk\yw CmXn\m UnhnjW
Iam dmhp c, ]ucmv B hnizmkw \evIpXn\v
]Icw ssk\oI DtymKkvXcpw IqmfnIfpsamv 25
\hw_dn\v HfntmSn. B.Fkv.Fkv {]hI \pgp
Ibmv FXnsc t]mcmSn \nsnepw htXmXnep
\pgp Ibmv kwL{]hI henb {]Xn_w
Bbncpn. 25 \h_dn\v aoq XISnp. BfpI
FtmsnmsX ]cw ]mp. htXmXn sImbpw
sImnhbvpw _emwKfpw \Sp. kv{XoI A`nam\w
cnm BlXy sNpItbm, Asn PnlmZn ]mv
apnfpsS In AIsv _emwKn\v Ccbmbn
A]am\w kw`hnmXncnm AhcpsS {]obsh Xs
sImpItbm sNbvXp. ASp]qnb hoSpIpn kpcnX
cmsWv IcpXnbh AXn{Iqcambn sIme sNsSpItbm
\njvTqcamb kmlNcyfn XShnemsSpItbm sN
sp.
NnXdntbmSnbh XfpsS IpSp_fpambn Pp ey
amn \on. Fm ]mnkvXm\nIfm hfbs Ah
Ip{]knamb Aens_Kv Imn Fsp. PqXmsc
k\miw sNbvX sP\nbnse Husjhnn \npw
Hpw hn`nambncpn Aens_Kv Imnse Ah.

24

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


bphXnIfpw kpcnIfpw sNdnb s]IpnI DsSbph
ltcan (CkvemaoI shmn `h\w) FsSpItbm Ad_n
Iv hnevsSpItbm sNsp. ]pcpjmsc ]oUnnv
sImpItbm ASnaIfmb themcmpItbm sNbvXp.
Ahkm\w \nlmbcmb A`bmnIsf csSpp
hm\mbn Amcm{ sdUv t{Imkv Fnsbnepw 25000
lnpfn shdpw 4600 lnpsf am{Xta Ahv Isp
hm\mbpp. _mn 20400 lnp FhnsStmbn Fp
Xn\v Cpw Hcp Dcw C. Aens_Kv Imnsenb
`qcn]w kv{XoIfpw s]IpnIfpw ]noSv Qew I\men
NmSn BlXy sNbvXp. (^m Hm^v an]q ss_ Fkv.
Ipam almP, HmKss\k,04011998, ss_ A\p]a
almP BUv kkm Ns, Z {Sn_yq kmtU kv,
291197, Snb^p saadokv Hm^v an]q ss_ kk Ns
Bkv A hnnw, Z {Sn_yq, 21111998).
lnpfpsS Poh cnpI F ISabn \npw
s\{lp a\qw ]namdnbXmWv Fv Bpw Ffpw
a\nemmhpXmWv. BbXn\m Kmnbpw s\{lphpw
hyn]cambn Cu lnpIqsmeIfn IpmcmWv F
Xn ehteiw kwiban. BbXpsImv Ahscbpw Iphmfn
IfpsS KWn Xs s]SptXmWv.

25

Aymbw3

KmnbpsS Im]Syw \nd


A{IacmlnXyw (Alnwk) \mSIw
KmnPnsb kw_nnStmfw apn Iqsme
\SpXns\ FXnmsX lnp kzbw acnp hogm
XmdmIpXns\ A{IacmlnXyw Fv hnfnmw. AXv
XsbmWv Kmn lnpnSbn {]kwKnv ^ennm
{ianncpXpw. hn\btmsSbp CXns A\pjvTm\anm
bva lnpsf KmnbpsS In CmaoI hntcm[nIfmn.
sI.Fw. apjn Atlns {Kn FgpXn ( ]n{KntaPv
Sp {^oUw, `mcXob hnZy`h, t]Pv 7576)"" ASp Znhkw
Rm KmnPnv FgpXn. ""hob {`mv \ndh lnp
pw AhcpsS `h\n\pw, kv{XoIpw, IpnIpw
FXnsc A{Iaw \Sptm lnp A`bw tXSpItbm,
AXns\ sNdpv tXmevnpItbm thXt?... Kmn
FtmSv Atls ImWphm ]dp. Fnpw Atlw
FtmSv ]dXv, ""\nv Ans\ tXmpp Fn
AXv tIm{Kn \npw ]pdv t]mbnv aXn.'' (Imt_Pv
AUv Invkv ss_ hn.]n. _mnb, HmKss\k,31121995).
sI.Fw. apjnbpsS Cu ImgvNmSmWv Atls Kmn
bpsS In apnw hncp\pw shv _wKmfns Kh
m\w Aecnm sImcpXmh\pw Bn XoXv.
KmnbpsS Cu s\dnsI Nn XsbmWv lnp LmXIcmb
amnfamsc ""Fs [ocmcmb amnf ktlmZcsf'' Fv
A`nkwt_m[\ sNnXv. FpsImsm apo
lnpsf (Im^n) sImpXnsmv AhcpsS aXs
kXykambn ]npSv t]mncpp.
Kmnv Ccmv \bfmWv DmbncpXv. Hv
lnppw XnIpw hyXykvXamb asmv apnpw.
Ans\ Kmn ]dv ]dv ""]mnkvXm\nse lnp
pw knJpImpw FXnsc apn sNbvXsXmpw
henb Imcya'' Fp hsc Fn.(Uln Ubdn, t]Pv 57,

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


Kmokv t{]b kv]ov, 07101947 ) KmnbpsS Im]Syw
\nd apJ]Sw CUypw lnppw FXnsc F{X
A]ISw \ndXmbncpp Fv Aev]sanepw _pnbp
Bpw Nnnm a\nemmhpXmWv.

Kmn ]ipfpsS IimpImc


Kmn ]dp, "" tKmfpsS kwcWw temIn\v
lnpaXns kw`mh\bmWv. ]ipsf kwcnm
lnp DnStmfw B aXw \ne\nevpIbpw sNpw.
tKmsf kwcnptm DmIpsav ]dbp tamw
(apn), kzm`mhoIambn hnImcw D GsXmns\bpw
kwcnptm DmIpXv IqSnbmWv ''. ( HmKss\k,
09021997). tKmsf Iimv sNpXns\Xnsc Kmn
Ftmgpw {]kwKnp sImncpp. AXv kzmX{kacns
`mKamn XopIbpw sNbvXp. 1921 tKm]man BtLmj
thfnSbnse Hcp ktf\n ]ipsf Iimv sNpXv
XSbpXn\mbn \nba \nmWw \Snbnsn cmPy
samSpw {_nnjv Khsns\Xnsc \nlIcWw \Spw
Fv Kmn Hcp {]tabw aptmv hp. Cu ktf\w
Ulnbnse ]uUn lukn hv {]apJcmb lnw
AJm, tUm. Akmcn, emem ePv]Xv dmbv, ]nv
tamn em s\{lp, ]nv aZ taml amfhy, av
tIm{Kkv t\Xm FnhcpsS kmnyn hmWv
\SXv. AXn\p tijw tIm{Kkv ktf\tfmsSmw
tKmcm ktf\hpw kwLSnnv t]mp. tKmkwcWw
kzmX{ns Hcp D]m[n BsWv FSpv ImWnsp.
(teJ\w,' hn Ejn Zbm\v kckzXokv hmWnv Iw {Sq?
ss_ cmw i Antlm{Xn, HmKss\k 26021995). ]s
CsXmw lnpsf Kmnv Iogn sImv hcnI F
eytmsSbp KmnbpsS hioIcWw am{Xambncpp.
15 BKkvXv 1947 \v tijw tKmsf Iimv sNpXv
\ntcm[nphm At]np sImv eWn\v sSe{Kmap
Ifqw BbncWn\v IpIfpw Kmnv e`np. Kmn
lnpsf imknpIbmWv DmbXv. tKmsf Iimv
sNpXv IpIfneqsSbpw sSe{KmapIfneqsSbpw \ntcm[n
m\mhnpw Ans\ sNpXv apntfmSp henb

27

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


A\oXnbmWpw Atlw ]dp. 4 BKkvXv 1947 se
{]m\m tbmKn {]kwKnth tKmsf Iimv
sNpXn\v \ntcm[\w GsSpXns\ FXnpsImv
KmnPn ]dp. "CUy bqWnbs\ ]utcmlnXy `cW
ntev \bnpIbpw lnpfpsS hnizmk Alnp
fn ASntnm {ianpIbpamtWm sNpXv?. Rm
(Kmn) tKm]qP Dt]npn. Fm Fs `n \nbaw
A\pkcnv aphcn ASntevnm IgnbpIbn.' (t]Pv
13940 Uln Ubdn). ChnsS BcptSbpw a\n kzm`mhoI
ambn DSseSpp Hcp tNmZyw Dv. Kmn Fn\v tKmh[
\ntcm[\ \nba \nmWw \SWsav {_nojv Khsn
s\ \n_np?. B kabv CUybn apn Dmbn
cpnt?. tKmh[ \ntcm[\w Fv ]pe_nbncpp Fnepw
KmnbpsS Dn ehteiw BmX Dmbncpn.
lnpsf himn Xs P\kXn hnnpI F
kzm eyw am{XamWv AXn\v ]nn DmbncpXv.
P\sf hnhn[ Xcnep hmKvZm\ \vIn hnp
Cs AgnaXnmcmb t\Xmmcn \npw Hpw
hyXy\mbncpn Kmnbpw Fv XsbmWv KmnbpsS
Hmtcm {]hnbpw AhtemI\w sNptm a\nemm
IgnbpXv.
{_nojv `cWImev CUybn \npw amndntbm, av
arKfptStbm, ]nIfpsStbm amwktam IbpaXn sNbvXncp
n. {]mtZioIambn sNdnb tXmXn ]ipsf sImv
apnfpw {InkvXym\nIfpw AhcpsS kzw Bhiyv
D]tbmKnncpXv Hgnm tKmh[n\v henb {]m[m\yw
Dmbncpn. {_nnjv Khspw tKmh[w t{]mmlnnn
cpn. ]s 1947 \ptijw KmnbpsS cXv\amb Phlem
s\{lp CdnbpsS DXv]mZ\w hnnphm thn ]Xn
I Bcw`np. hymhkmboIambn Iimv imeIv A\paXn
\evIn. Ccnep {Iqcamb kw`mh\I CUybvv
AXn{Iqc\mb apnw PnlmZn `cWm[n]\mb HudwKtk_v
t]mepw sNbvXnn. Cv AXym[p\oIamb b{knIc
WtfmSv IqSn 18 Iimv imeIfpw 36000 sNdpInS Iimv
imeIfpw CUybnepv. AhbneqsS 3 tImSn ]ipfpw
t]mpIfpw 10 tImSn BSv, tImgn, Xmdmhv apXembhbpw Hmtcm

28

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


hjhpw Iimv sNsSpp. Cu alm]m]fpsS apgph
im]hpw Kmn, s\{lp, AhcpsS A\pbmbnI, tIm{Kn
s\ thmv sNvXv hnPbnnp Hmtcmpw ASw
AlnsXmWv. tIm{Kpw Kmnbpw s\{lphpw tNv
lnpsf \innm A[n\nthi inIfpsS ]npS
bmbn \Sntm IpSne X{ns ImemImefmbp
A\ph\w am{XamWv Cpw CUybn XpSv t]mbn
sImncnpXv.
hnhn[ lnp kwLS\Ifmb B.Fkv.Fkv, BcykamPv,
B CUy Bn Ihv tmtkv In XpSnbh
{]tm`w Bcw`npIbpw tKmh[ \ntcm[\n\mbn s]mXp
P\fpsS A`n{]mbw BcmbpIbpw sNbvXp. Fm s\{lp
]mesan Hcp {]kvXmh\ ]pdsSphnp."" Hcp ]s Rm
cmPnhmepw tKmh[w \ntcm[npIbn''. 2 G{]n1955 \v
temIk`bn s\{lp BSnp.""kwm\ KhspI
Akwnbn tKmh[w sImv hcnItbm AXns\ ]mkmp
hm A\phZnpItbm sNcpXv''. 1955 s^{_phcn s\{lp
kmdns BtcmKya{n ]ip, Imf apXembhbn \npw
\nnmhp acppIsf kw_nv kwm\ kmdp
Iv IsgpXn. IqSmsX Uln, t_mwt_ FnhnSfn
]pXnb Iimv imeI XpSpXn\p GmSpI sNbvXp.
(HmKss\k, 26021995)
KmnbpsS A\pbmbnI lnpsf ]gnpsImncpp.
lnp apn ]mIw sNp `W Hpw Xs
kzoIcnmdn Fpw Ahsc hrnsIhcmbmWv lnp
ImWpsXpw Kmnb A\pbmbnI Btcm]np. lnp
IrXyambn Acn Xs sNbvXp sImncpp.
apn ]ipsf tamkvpIv Dn hv Iimv
sNbvXncpp. {]tXyInv _{IoZn\v, AXv hfsc alcw Fv
IcpXpIbpw sNbvXncpp. hn`P\n\v ap]v hSv ]Snm
d ]mnkvXm {]hiybn nXnsNp tZcm Ckvabn
Jm Pnbnse Ipemn ]Wn RfpsS hoSn\v ap]n
hfsc henb Hcp tamkvIv Dmbncpp. AhnsS _{IoZn\v
]ipsf Iimv sNpXv ]Xnhmbncpp. Fns\bmWv
kwkvImc k\b Hcph\v kwkvImc iyq\ycmb Cc
nep P\tfmSv kaqln BtcmKyIcamb _w

29

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


\ne\nm IgnbpXv. IqSmsX Bbncw hjtmfambn
lnp apnfm {IqcXI klnp sImncnpp.
hmevaoIn cmambWn evaW amXmhv IukeybpsS
apn i]Yw sNpXv; ]iphns\ ImepsImv NhnpXv
t]mepw ]m]ambn Xm IWmpp Fpw AXn ]mfn
Bsm cmas\bpw \mSpISWsapamWv. ]iphns\
Im sImv NhnpXpt]mepw sImSnb ]m]ambn Incp
lnp kwkvImcn kzm`mhoIambpw kwkvImc iyq\ycmbn
]ipsXnsc {IqcX \Sntmncp apnsf lnp
A]hn{Xcmbn IWmntmp. Bscbpw {]tIm]nn
phm\snepw Hcp ssN\okv ]gsamgn ChnsS HmpIbm
Wv." Cu Pn \Xv sNph Btcm Ah Pn
`mcXn P\npXmWv.

30

Aymbw4

KmnbpsS lnn hntcm[hpw


DdpZphnt\mSp arZp kao]\hpw
1947 hn`P\n\v ap]v Kmn lnn s]mXp`mjbmbn
D]tbmKnpXns\n {]kwKnncpp. Fv am{Xa lnn
kmlnXy ktf\n cv hw sNbam\pw Bbncpp
Atlw. Fm 15BKkvXv 1947 ASpv hp sImncns
Kmn lnnsb FXnm XpSn. 24 Pqsse 1947 se
{]kwKn Kmn ]dp."" cv hw lnn kmlnXy
ktf\ns sNbam Bbncpp Rm Fnepw, Fs
ImgvNmSn lnnbpw tZh\mKncnbpw tZiob `mj Bphm
Ignbn ''. (Kmn kmlnXy {]m\m {]hN, ]mv1, t]Pv
286)
Cu kabv bp.]n. Khsv HutymKoI `mj lnn
Bbn {]Jym]nncpp. CXns\Xnscbp ASm\mhm
tZjyw Kmn 15 Htm_ 1947 se {]m\m {]kwKn
{]ISnnp."" s{]n hv C\n apX bp.]n bpsS HutymKoI
`mj tZh\mKncn en]ntbmSv IqSn lnn BbncnpsaXv
Atlw Incpp. AXv Atlns\ thZ\nnm
ImcWw CUy bqWnb\nse samw apnw P\kwJybpsS
\men Hv bp.]n bn BWv XmaknncpXv.'' icnbmb coXn
tZh\mKncnbpw t]jy\pw \ne\nWw. GXmWv HutymKo
Iambn A\ptbmPyw FX\pkcnv kzoIcnWw. apn
sfbpw Xpey kaXzap ]ucmcmbn \ne\nWw. AhcpsS
Bhiyw ]cnKWnv Dphn\pw BZchv \evIWw. apnsf
ASnapIbpw, HmSnpIbpw, Ahsc \ncmIcnpIbpw,
AhcpsS PohnXw tiIcampIbpw sNp Hcp kwm\
n\v cq]w \evIcpXv "". ( Uln Ubdn, t]Pv 88)
KmnbpsS Cu {]kvXmh\ D{Khnjabhpw, {]tIm]\w
\ndXpw apow hobhmZnI ]pdsSphnp {]kvXmh
\Ifn \npw Hpw hn`nhpw Bbncpn. Fncpmepw
Pnpw apow eoKn\pw CXnepw t`Zhpw kwXpenXhpamb

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


ImgvNmSpIfmWv DmbncpXv. ]mnkvXms cq]oIcW
n\v tijhpw ]eXhW Ah apnfpsS amXrcmPyw
]mnkvXm\mWv Fv {]Jym]nncpp. CUybvv sslh
kwkvImchpw kwkvIrXnbpw A\pkcnv hnIknphm\p
AhI \ne\nncpp. ]s KmnbpsS ta ]d
Xcnep apnw {]oW\hpw hntYbXzw \ndXpamb
\ne]mSpI apnw eoKn\pw hobhmZnIpw AwK`wKw
h CUybn ]pXpPoh \evIn. AXns ^e \apv
Cv ImWm IgnbpXmWv. apn ]pXnb amXrcmPyw
CUybn \nnpXv kz]v\w Iv XpSnbncnpp.

Zp_e hn`mKw lnptfmSv {InkvXy, Cmw aXw


kzoIcnm KmnbpsS Blzm\w. lnp \n
DhcmbncntXv tUm. Awt_ZvIdnt\mSv am{Xw.
1932 {_nnjv {][m\ a{n kapZmboI _lpaXnI
{]Jym]np. AXn\mbn lnp, knJv, apnw, {InkvXy, ]nI
PmXn Fn hn`mK {]tXyIw kaqZmboI t\Xmsf
XncsSptnbncpp. Kmn CXnt\mSv Hcp A`n{]mbhpw
]dbmsX acWw hsc \ncmlmcw Blzm\w sNbvXp. ]noSv
Kmn ]dp. ]nIPmXn hn`mKw lnpXzw Dt]nv Cmw,
{InkvXy aX kzoIcnpXmWv A`nImayw. (tUm.
Awt_ZvI hyn Hu hnNm, t]Pv 10)
tUm. Awt_ZvI \ncnn hkvXpX CXmWv. "" Fs
Zp:Jw htai ktf\n almPn FpsImv Cu
A`n{]mbw {]ISnnn. Fs ImgvNmSv A\pkcnv Atl
hpw Htc ]cnKW\ ]nIPmXn hn\v \evInbncpp Fn
Zu`mKyIcamb \ncmlmcntebvv AXv \bnsSpambn
cpn.''ChnsS Nqnmt asmcp hkvXpX tUm.Awt_Zv
I sska Inj\v kanm\ncp dntmn ]nI
PmXnhpw AhcpsS {]Xn\n[npw {]tXyI kwhcWw
thWsav \ntinncpp Fnepw sXmpIqSmbvabpw Xon
qSmbvabpw nXn IqSpX hjfmpw F apmtmv
\ymbw \ncn Kmn ]nIPmXn hmbp t\Xr
khcWw AnadnpIbmWv DmbXv (Awt_ZvI t]mfn
kokv BUv sjUyqUv Imvkv ss_ {]Imiv, Bjnjv
]pnjnv lukv, \yqUln, t]Pv 141)

32

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


""almXa Kmn tIm{Kpw, apnfpambn Hcp Icm
Dmm ]cn{iaw \Sn. AX\pkcnv apn aptmv
h 14 Bhiyfpw Atlw AwKoIcnmw Fpw ]Icw
Atlw tUm.Awt_ZvIdns\Xnsc aptmv h Bhiyn\v
Zp_e hn`mKv thn AtltmsSmw tNcWw
Fpambncpp Icm'' (t]Pv 139). Kmn F{Xbpw \oNamb
Nnbph\mbncpp Fpw Zp_e hn`mKfpsS AhImi
A]lcnm apnfpsS Alnm Bhiy
AwKoIcnv sImv Atln\v F{Xbpw Xcw Xmgm Ignbpw
Fpw Cu kw`hw sXfnbnpp. Zp_e hn`mK Cmw,
{InkvXy aX]cnh\w \SpXn\v Atln\v FXn
npw AXmWv icnsbpw lnphmbncns Ahv
AhImiw Hpw Xs e`nnpw Bnom KmnPn
bpsS Zp_pn {]hnpXv \apv ChnsS ImWmw.
]nIPmXnhns lnp aqv ImcWfm
tUm.Awt_ZvIdnt\mSv AXohamb \nbpw Iqdpw Dhcmbncn
tXmWv. BZyambn Atlw apnfpsS IqsS tNv
Zp_e hn`mKv thn hmZnpXmbn \Snn. Fm
Kmn apntfmSv tNv Zp_e hn`mKv FXnsc
kwLSnp KqVmtemN\ \Sn. Hcpthf tUm.Awt_ZvI
KmntbmSv tbmPnv Zp_e hn`mKtfmSv aX]cnh\
n\v hnt[bcmIphm ]dp Fn Zp_e hn`mK
Atls ]gnpambncpn. ]s Atlw Acn
{]hnmXn\m Xs Fmcnepap A`n\
\hpw Alnpp.
cmaXmbn, 1940 tUm.Awt_ZvI "" tXmvkv Hm
]mnkvXm'' F t]cn Hcp {Kw {]Imi\w sNbvXp.
apgnh lnpfpsSbpw apofpsSbpw {Ibhn{Ibw ]mn
kvXm AwKoIcnWw Fv AXn Atlw A`n{]mbs
ncpp. CXn \npw Atlw F{Xbpw _pnbpw hnthI
imenbpw Bbncpp Fv thWw a\nemm. bmYXys
a\nemn Hmtcm kmlNcysfbpw AhtemI\w sNbvXv
lnpv thtm apdnbnv \IpIbpw sNbvXncpp
tUm.Awt_ZvI. Atlw FgpXn;
apnfpsSbpw lnpfpsSbpw BNmcfnsebpw coXn
Ifntebpw s]mXphmb khntijXI Fv ]dbsSph

33

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


A]qamb aX]cnh\ns `mKw am{XamWv. AmsX
s]mXphmb kwkvImca. \qmpIfmbn {_nnjv `cWns
Iogn A[n\nthihpw aX]cnh\hpw Bgnten
apdnhpI adphmt\m imamphmt\m Cpw Ignnn.
CmaoI PnlmZn `cWm[nImcnIsXnsc ]Ss]mcpXnb hoc
\mbImcpsS HmI lnp Xmtemenpp. ]mnkvXm
CUybpsS {]Xntcm[ insb Zp_esSpn F
hmZKXn bpn lo\amWv. ImcWw CUy ssk\yw AXns
LS\bn \qdv hjambn kpihpw {]_ehpambncpp
{]tXyInv ]m_nepw hSv ]Snmd ]mv AXnn
bnepw ssk\yn apnfpw Dmbncpp. ]m_nepw
hSv ]Snmd ]mv AXnnbnepw A^vKm\nkvXm
B{IanpIbmsWn Cu apnw ssk\oI F{]Imcambn
cnpw {]XnIcnpI FXv {]khpw ImtWnbncnp
Xpamb Hcp tNmZyhpw hnjbhpw Bbncpp. AXv F{X
Zu`mKyIcambncpmepw kpcnXcmb Hcp ssk\yamWv
kpcnXamb Hcp AXnnsbm {][m\yw FXn\m
]mnkvXms\ thtcmsS XIp Abp[ hmpI F
Xv hfsc Bhiyambncpp. (sP\nknkv Hm^v ]mnkvXm
ss_ hn.hn. \K, t]Pv 32830)
IqSmsX tUm.Awt_ZvI A`n{]mbsSpp; " bpn
klPamb Imcy a\nemn ]mnkvXms cq]oIcW
tmsSmw hn`P\ kabv ]mnkvXm\nep apgph
lnpsfbpw CUybnep apgph apnsfbpw {Ib
hn{Ibw sNphm XmdmIWw'. Cu D]tZiw \mw kzoIcn
ncpp Fn 194648 se hn`P\ ImeLn \S
lnpIqsmebpw Hgnhmm Ignbpambncpp. IqSmsX
IpSntb P\XbpsS {Ibhn{Ibw kam[m\ ]qhpw {Ia
nepw \Spambncpp. {ioam. Pnbpw AXv XsbmWv
B{KlnncpXv. Ans\ Fn hnb Iem]fn
\npw apambn kpihpw ]ptcmKXnbpap Hcp `mcXw
Dmhpambncpp. Fm F{X henb NXnbmWv Kmn
\tmSv sNbvXXv Fv t\mpI. Kmnsb A\pKanXv hgn
lnp kzcmPys \innpIbpw Fmhn[nepw I
\ t\cnSpIbpw sNbvXp sImncnpp.

34

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


tUm. Awt_ZvItdmSv IrXXbph BbncntXn
s apmas ImcWw, Bcym ]pdta \nv h A[n\nth
icmb A{IaImcnIf Fpw Ah `mcXob Xs Bbn
cpp Fpap Atlns \nKa\amWv. AXv Atlw
Xs "" lq sh iq{Zmkv?'' F {Kn {]Xn]mZnnpv.
(Bcy PKv (teJ\w) tZth{kzcq]v, 10091995). Xe
Xncn bqtdmnb FgppImsctmse KmnbpsSbpw
s\{lphnsbpw A\pbmbnI Cpw Bcy A[n\nthi
knmw icnbmsWv hnizknpp. \psS Ncn{XtcJI
A\pkcnv ]ucmWoI Ncn{Xns sXv Xncpphm
Xp\nbptm Kmnb sXmSnI AXns\Xnsc inp
hm XpSpw. Awt_ZvIdns\ FXnpsImv KmnbpsS
]pdtI t]mIp lnp shdpw ipw`mcpw cmPyt{ZmlnIfpw
am{XamWv.

35

Aymbw5

cma\pw IrjvW\pw Pohnncpn ;


Kmn
Fm lnp hn`mKfpw k\mX\ [w A\pjvTnncp
p. Bcy kamPhpw, knJv, _p, ssP\ aXmcpw cmasbpw
IrjvWsbpw Ncn{Xn hnizknncpp. Fm Kmn
bpsS A`n{]mbn cmat\m IrjvWt\m Pohnncphc
FgppImcpsS `mh\m krnam{Xambncpp. Kmn 27Pqsse
1937se lcnP ]dp. " Rm cmastbm IrjvWs
tbm t] ]dbphm B{Klnpn. ImcWw Ah Ncn{X
]pcpjm Bbncpn. ]s Rm A_p_dnsbpw
Dadnsbpw t] ]dbphm B{KlnpIbmWv.' Kmn 5
Htm_ 1925 se tXPv \Snb {]mh\ C{]Imc
ambncpp. "alm`mcXn ]dncnp IrjvW `qanbn
P\nnn'.
cmasbpw IrjWsbpw Ncn{Xn hnizknm
{InkvXym\nIfmb bqtdmnb FgppImcpsS kam\amb
NnmKXnbmWv Kmn hv ]penbncpXv. Ah
CUybpsS Ncn{Xhpw kwkvImchpw eWn\v hj
]gapsv hnizknm XmdmImh Bbncp
tm!. lnp bpK IWv IqepI A\pkcnv, `qanbpsS
cq]oIcWn\v tijw DmbnpXpw 2000 aney hjw
]ghpapv lnp kwkvImcn\v. IrXyambn ]dm
1,97,29,49,102 hjhpw `qanbptSXv 4,32,00,00,000 hjhpamWv
thZ A\pkcnpw tPymXnjhpw {]Imchpw. temIn
Cphsc Dmbnp aX kwkvImcfn lnp am{X
amWv `qanbpsS Bbppw cq]nIcWhpw IrXyambn tcJsSp
nbncnpXv.
KmnbpsS P\sf I_fnnp cmacmPyw F
{]mh\sb ASnm\amn GsXmcph\pw Dbnmhp
tNmZyamWv. cma Dmbncpnn ]ns Fns\bmWv
cmacmPyw DmhpI FXv? AXns {]kn Fsp

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


Xpw?. P\sf hnnbmm AXnka\mbncpp Kmn
FXv am{Xa B Ignhv Fns\ icnbmb coXnbn
D]tbmKnWw FXn\p Ip_pnbpw Atln
Aeo\ambncpp. KmnbpsS cXv\ambncp s\{lp, Xs
"" Phlem s\{lp B Hmtm_tbm{K^n, t]Pv 72 ''
cmacmPyw F Bibs ]cnlknncnpp. s\{lp
]dbpp ."KmnPnbpsS cmacmPyw kphImeLambncpp
Fpw AXmWv Xncnv htcsXpap Nne ]Z{]tbmK
Fn AklyX Dmnbncpp. ]s F\nv FXnp
hm\p in Dmbncpn. KmnPn C{]Imcnep
hmpI D]tbmKnpXv AXv P\ a\pIfn Bgn
]Xnnphbpw a\nemshbpw BbXn\memWv Fv
Rm kam[m\nm {ianncpp. IqSmsX Atln\v
P\fpsS a\v Adnv Ahsc InseSpphm\p
Ignhpmbncpp.'
apIfnse hcnIfn \npw s\{lphn\v cmacmPyw Fm
]pw Bbncpp Fpw, Kmn P\sf InseSpm
D]tbmKnncp Hcp D]m[n am{Xambncpp B hmv Fpw
s\{lp Nnnncpp FXpw a\nemmhpXpamWv. asm
cp Xcn ]dm Kmn Xs A\pbmbnIsf Iqphm
thn cmacmPyns t] ]dv P\sf acmn
bncpp Fv s\{lp Nnnncpp. BbXpsImv Xs
s\{lphns kw_nnStmfw Kmn Hcp henb \bhI
\mbncpp.

Kmn BcykamPsbpw kzman Zbm\ns\bpw \nn


pp.
BcykamPns m]I\mb kzman Zbm\ kckzXn
Fmesbpw almb hynXzamWv. {_nnjv `cWns
XpSn Xs kzmX{spdnv DZvt_m[\w \Sp
Ibpw kzbw`cWns BhiyIXIsfpdnv a\nemn
XcpIbpw sNbvX hynbpamWv. Atlw lnp kaqln\nS
bn \ne\nncp XnIv FXnsc {]hnpIbpw
aX]camb Ahnizmkfpw A\mNmcfpw Dqe\w \S
m {]bXv\npIbpw sNbvXp. apnw `cWm[nImcnIfpsS
bpw {_nnjv `cWnsbpw Bbncw hjw ASnaIfms

37

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


lnp kaqln\nSbn DSseSp A]IjXm t_m[w aqew
henb tXmXn lnp apnw, {InkvXy aXfntebvv
]cnh\w sNsSm XpSn.
Atlw lnptfmSv AhcpsS aXw thZfn AXnjvTn
Xhpw, Cv temIv DXn hv Ghpw ]gw tN
aXhpw, khym]oIhpamWv Fv ]dp. Atlw apnw
aXsbpw {InkvXy aXsbpw shphnfnp. lnp [w
XsbmWv DXsav bpnsImv sXfnbnpIbpw sNbvXp.
Atln\v lnpnSbn \SpsImncp aXw amw
XSbphm km[nncpp. ]pcmX\amb B kwkvImcns\
Adnbphm Xmev]cyaphv thn sslh kwkvImcn
s hmXmb\ Atlw lnp P\Xbvv apn Xpdnp.
CUybntebvv lnpsf aX]cnh\w sNphms\n
b Nne aX]cnhI BcykamPns De {]`hm
lnpfmbn amdn. KmnbpsS kz`mhipnbnm aI lcn
em Kmn Cmw aXntev ]cnh\w sNpIbpw Bcy
kamPw Atls lnp aXntebvv XncnsI aSn
sImv hcnIbpw sNbvXp.
A{Xbvv bpK{]`mh\pw alm\pamb Zbm\ kckzXnsb
]nbpw BcykamPv kaqls ]nbpw hnainv Kmn ""
bv CUy'' bn (28sabv1924) FgpXn. "" kXym {]Imiv
t]mep C{Xbpw \ncmimP\Iamb Hcp {Kw Rm
CXphscbpw Inn."" XpScpp.'' kzman Zbm\ hnimeamb
sslh kwkvImcs kpNnXamb at\m`mhapXmn
Xoncnpp. am{Xa Bcy kamPm s]IpnIsf
Xnsmv t]mIphcmWv. (Bcy PKv, 13111994)
apn Xnsmv t]mb lnp s]IpnIsf Bcy
kamPw cnv sImv hcnIbpw Ahv thn A\h[n
B{iafpw ]p\c[nhmk `h\fpw \nnpIbpw sNbvXn
cpp. CXns\Xnsc Ifpw Ip{]NcWfpw \Snb
Kmn GXp Xcn s]h\mWv CXn\Iw hmb\mv
a\nembnmWpw. NXnb\pw \pWb\pamb Atlw cncn
]m]fmWv sNbvXpIqnbXv. HmaXmbn apn sNbvX
]mXIv Iqv \nv Ahsb adbvpIbpw cmaXmbn
BcykamPns\Xnsc sXmb Ipmtcm]Ww \SpIbpw.

38

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


Cu cv ]mXIfpw Atln\v P\fn \npw
adbvm km[nmepw Cuizc\n \npw adbvm Ignbn.
Fm Cs anhmdpw Bcy kamPm shdpw
hnnIfWv. AhcpsS `qcn`mKw ]nXcpw, {]`mjIcpw, Fgp
pImcpw Aambn Kmnsb ]npScphcmWv. {]mtbmKo
Iambn `qcn`mKhpw av lnpsf t]mse Kmn alm\mWv
Fv hnizknphcmWv. Ahcn ]ecpw ]dbpXv Kmn
cm{]nXmhpw kzman Zbm\v cm{ns ap\pamWv
FXmWv. Ans\sbn Kmn kzman Zbm\ns\
]npStcXt?. C{]Imcw BcykamP Kmnb hn`mKw
kzman Zbm\ns {]Xnmbsbbpw Akns\bpw hnIeamn
Htc \pIn sInbncnpp. CcnephcmWv lnp
aXn\pw cmPyn\pw D]{ZhImcnIfmbncnp {]hn
sNbvXp sImncnpXv. KmnbpsS PohnXw apgph ]m]
]neamb {]hnIfm `cnXamWv. Atlns injycpw
A\pbmbnIfpw B ]m]s ]p hv sImncnpIbpw
sNpp. alm\mb ]nX\pw DX hynXzns DSa
bpamb kzman Zbm\ kckzXnbpsS Hcp km[mcW injy
t]mepw BIm\p tbmKyX Kmnbn C FXmWv kXyw.

ckmnIfmb kzman {im\v, kZm `KXv knwKv


Fnhv taep KmnbpsS hnizmk h\
kzman {im\v BcykamP t\Xmhmbncpnvv IqSnbpw
Kmnbpambn \ _n Bbncpp. 1919 Pmenb
hmem_mKv Iqsmebvv tijw AarXvkdn tIm{Kv
ktf\w kwLSnnm\p ss[cyw Bpw Dmbncpn.
\nmbIamb B Ahkcn kzman {im\v apJy
AYnXnbpw sNbam\pambn AarXv kdn hnPbIcambn
tIm{Kv ktf\w \Sn. cmaXmbn Ulnbnse
LmLdn Atlw kXym{Klw \bnpIbpw {]tm`Imcn
Isf shSnhbvm {_nnjv ]mfn\v B e`ntm
Atlw "" \ndsbmgnpsan BZyw Fs s\n \nd
sbmgnpI'' Fv Bt{IminpIbpw sNbvXp. AXn\m
{_nnjv ]mfw kXym{KlnIsf \ndsbmgnm ss[cysn.
kXym{Kl aptn KmnbpsS heXp ssI F t]mse

39

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


{]hnv BZyambn {]Xn sNbvXXv kzman {im\v
Bbncpp.
23 Unkw_ 1925 apnw hob hmZnbmb Ap
djoZv kzman {im\ns\ arKobambn sImesSpnbtm
Kmn kzXknamb sNcw ImWnp. apn Atl
ns acWw BtLmjnp. Kmn `oIcamb Cu sIme]mXI
s A]e]npItbm IphmfnIsf innWsav Bhiy
sSpItbm sNbvXn. AXn\v hn]coXambn Atlw sIme]mX
Inbmb Ap djnZn\vv ""]ymsc `mbv djoZv'' ({]ob
ktlmZc djoZn\v) Fv A`nkwt_m[\ sNbvXpsImv
IsgpXpIbmWv DmbXv. ]noSv Acmn djoZp
ambn Kmn ktlmZc_w m]npIbpw sNbvXp. {_nnjv
`cWambXn\m Ccw Imcyfn Xobmbpw \oXn
e`npsav Ddpmbncpp. ]noSv Ap djoZns\ Adv
sNpIbpw Xqnsm hn[npIbpw sNbvXp. Kmn
sIme]mXInv thn CXns\Xnsc ssht{kmbnv Zbm lPn
kanp. Fm ZbmlPn XpIbpw Iphmfnsb Xqn
smpIbpw sNbvXp. (F hyq Hm^v Kmnkw ss_ F._n.
tIev, HmKss\k,221997)
CXn\v kam\ambn, eme ePv]Xv dmbnsb AXoh
KpcpXcamb coXnbn XnXXns {]XnImcambn {_nojv
t]meokv DtymKkvXs\ sImesNbvXXn\v acW inbvv
hn[n kZm `KXv knwKns in Poh]cyamphm\p
At] Kmn \ncknpIbmWv DmbXv. `KXv knwKn\v
thn ssht{kmbntbmSv At]nm Kmn Xmdmbncp
n Fv am{Xa. `KXv knwKpw Iqcpw Cu ]m]]neamb
Ipn\v innsSpIXs thWw Fv {]Jym]npIbpw
sNbvXp. ( Bcy PKXv,13121994, Imt_Pv BUv InwKvkv
ss_ hn.]n. _mnb, HmKss\k, 16121997).

BcykamPnsbpw lnp almk`bpsSbpw kam[m\


]camb {]Xnt[ hnbsapw cmPyt{Zml]csa
pw ap{ZIpp Kmn sslZcm_mZnse CmaoI
`cWm[nImcnbmb \nkmans\ ]npWbvpp.
sslZcm_mZnse CmaoI `cWm[nImcnbmb \nkmw
BcykamPw {]knoIcn kzman Zbm\kckzXnbpsS

40

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


kXym {]Imiv F {Kw \ntcm[npIbpw. kwm\
s Fm lnp t{Xfnsebpw Bcm[\Iv hfsc
A[nIw hnepI GsSppIbpw CmaoI Xocpam\
ASntevnpIbpw sNbvXp. BbXn\m 1939 hfsc
kam[m\]qambn BcykamPhpw lnp almk`bpw tNv
sslZcm_mZnse \nkmw `cWns\Xnsc kacw Bcw`np.
AtX ImeLn KmnbpsS \nlIcW kachpw
\Sppmbncpp. Kmn DSs\ sslZcm_mZv kwm\
tIm{Kkvt\mSv \nlIcW kacmsc ]cn]qambpw
kac`qanbn \npw ]nhenm Bhiysp. "Bcy
kamPnsbpw lnp almk`bpsSbpw kacamWv AXv Fv
sXpcnm CSbpXn\m BWv Ans\ sNbvXXv. "
lnp almk`bpsSbpw BcykamPnsbpw kacn\v
hob\ndw BWv DXv. \nlIcW kacw CXnt\msSmw
XpSm AXns tZiob kz`mhw \sSpw' (lcnP,20
P\phcn,18 s^{_phcn,27 sabv,1939, Imt_Pv BUv Invkv
ss_ hn.]n. _mnb, HmKss\k 03121955)
Kmn CXns\n hnioIcWw \Insmv ]noSv
cmPIpamcn AarXv Iudn\v FgpXn ; "" F\nv klmbnm
IgnbpnStmfw Imew al\ob\mb \nkmw Khsn\v
bmsXmcp hn[nepap hnjafpw t\cnScpXv Fv Rm
NnmIpe\mbncnpp.''( HmKss\k,3121955)
{]XnIcWtijnbp lnpsf tZihncpscpw ho
bhmZnIsfpw ap{ZIppIbpw aX{`m\pw lnpsf ASn
am {ianph\pamb \nkmans\ ]npWpIbpw
sNp KmnbpsS I]mSyw \nd ss]imNoI apJs
GsXmcph\pw apIfn ]d hcnIfn ZinmhpXmWv.
KmnbpsS A\pbmbnIfpw tIm{KpImcpw CtX amw
]npScphcpw 1947 se hn`P\nep tijw AkvXanp Fv
IcpXnb apow `oIcXsb t{]mmlnnphcpamWv Fv
kaqlnse AhcpsS hmpIfn \npw {]hnIfn
\npw a\nemmhpXmWv. CXp XsbmWv CUysb
Zp_eamn XopXpw.
Kmnbpw A\pbmbnIfpw Pphn cmPm lcnknwKnt\mSv
]dXp t]mse \nkmant\mSv kwm\w Hgnv ]pdv
t]mIm\pw `cWw lnp t\Xmv ssIamdm\pw Kmn

41

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


FpsImv ]dn. ChnsS {imlamb Hcp Imcyw
ssjJv A_ppw apnpw thn \nesIm Kmn
lnphns\ Fpw NXnpIbmbncpp. \nkmw sNbvXXv
t]mse cmP lcn knwKv Hcnepw apnv aX]cambn Hcp
hn[nepap {]Xn_fpw GsSpnbncpn.

42

Aymbw6

]mnkvXms cq]nIcWw Fs
PUn\p aosX am{Xw; KmnbpsS
h\ \nd kXykX
Kmn Xs eLp BIYm kw{Klamb ""kvin]vXv
BIY'' t]Pv 226227 FgpXnbncnpp."Rm kXys
Cuizc\mbn IcpXpp'. Alnwkbpw kXyhpamWv Fs cv
izmktImi. Ah CmsX F\nv \ne\nm Ignbn
Fv Atlw km[mcWbmbn ]dbpp. F{Xbpw Im]Syw
\ndXpw h\mIhpmWv Atlns Alnwkbpw
kXyhpw Fv \mw ap]v a\nemnbXmWv. B hmpI
lnpsf NXnm thn am{Xw Kmn D]tbmKnncp
XmWv. AXns\ a\nemm Xmsg]dbp Htc Hcp DZml
cWw am{Xw [mcmfamWv.
1943 cmPmPn ( kn. cmPtKm]memNmcn ) ]mnkvXms
cq]nIcWn\v thn ]Xn XmdmpIbpw KmnbpsS
A\paXn t\SpIbpw sNbvXp. Kmn, cmPmPnsb Pnbpambn
IqSnbmtemN\ \Sm NpaXesSpn. cmPmPn Pnbpambn
N sNbvXp Fnepw N ]cmPbambntmbn. Fsm
Pnbvv apgph ]m_pw, _wKmfpw, Bkmapw, _eqNn
m\pw, knpw.... Fmw thWambncpp. cmPmPnbpsS ]Xn
A\pkcnv 1947se ]mnkvXm (\nehnep) t]mse Xs
cq]nIcnm\mbncpp Dtiyw. 1944 cmPmPnbpsS ]Xn
A\pkcnv Kmn kzImcyambn Pnbpambn 9sk]vXw_1944
apX 27 sk]vXw_1944 hsc PnbpsS apw_bnep
ae_m _wmhn hv ]Xn\mev (14) XhW N \Sn.
]mnkvXms cq]nIcWn\v tijhpw {]Xntcm[w AS
ap aqv taJeIfn s]mXphmb DS_SnI Dmsav
Kmn Pnbvv Ddv sImSpp. Fm Pn AXv ]msS
\ncmIcnpIbpw ]mnkvXms cq]nIcWn\v tijw Xm
av cmPysf Iqv ]nSnv CUysb A{Ianpw Fv adp]Sn
\IpIbpw sNbvXp. (UnsshUv BUv Iznv, t]Pv 45 ss_

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


]msUd aq e, Imt_Pvkv BUv Invkv ss_
hn.]n. _mnb HmKss\k 22091996)
apIfn ]dncnp Imcyfn \npw 1943
]mnkvXms cq]nIcWn\mbn Kmn kXw \IpI
am{Xa, Pnbpambn hfsc Kuchambn NI \Sn
bncpp FXv hyamWv. Fm 194546 se XncsSpn
hnPbw ssIhcnm thnam{Xw ]mnkvXms cq]nIcWw
Fs ihicocn\v aosX am{Xw \SpIbpp F I
{]Jym]\w \Sn lnpsf ]msS NXnpIbmbncpp.
]mnkvXms cq]oIcWn\v ap]v hsc B {]tZifn
Xmaknncp lnp Ahkm\ \nanjw hsc KmnbpsS
hmpIsf hnizknp. ]mnkvXms cq]nIcWn\v tijw
Xsf ImncnpXv PnlmZns hmfpIfmWv Fv Ah
Adnncpn. Amev Rm knbmtmnse (Cv
]mnkvXm\n) sslkvIqfn ]TnpIbmbncpp. hn`P\w
DmIpIbn Fv hnizknv ]mnkvXms cq]nIcWn\v
cpaqv amkv ap]v AhnsS ]pXpXmbn apdnI
Dmnbncpp. Fm NXnb\pw hI\pamb Kmn Hv
]dbpIbpw AXn\v FXncmbn {]hnpIbpw sNpXns
^eambn htXmXnep lnpfpsSbpw knJvImcpsSbpw
IqsmeIv AXv ImcWambnop. bmYmXy
Atlw P\tfmSv ]dn. Fv am{Xa Atlns
kz`mhn kpXmcyXtbm ipntbm Dmbncpn. Ans\
Dmbncpsn ]mnkvXm\n \npw csSm P\
th knIcW Hcppambncpp. ChnsS kqNnn
t HcpImcyw As ssht{kmbn Bbncp auv
_m apo `qcn]ap P\hmk {]tZi am{Xta
]mnkvXms cq]nIcWn\mbn e`npIbpp Fpw AXv
Kmnsb sImv km[npX Fpw Pnsb ]dv
t_mysSpnbncpp. ]mnj BUv B^vaXv, t]Pv75
ss_ tIh knwKv. CXn C{]Imcw ]dncnpp. ""Hcp
Znhkw sshIptcw sshs{kK temUvPn hv Wn
s Hcp Ukt\mfw hcp av AYnXnItfmsSmw Rv
Hcp kmcw Dmbncpp. kmcapdnbpsS hmXn
auv_m Pnsb hnfnp \nn ]njs cq]s
Ipdnv hnhcnp. hn`Pns ]mnkvXms {]hiyIfmb

44

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


_wKmfpw ]m_pw CUypw ]mnkvXm\pw CSbnemW
kXyw a\nemnb Pn sRntmbn. Pn Atm Xs
Ccn hnIeams ]mnkvXm Rm kzoIcnm
Xmd Fv auv_mt\mSv ]dp. AXn\v adp]Snbmbn
auv_m ]dp. an.Pn \n ]mnkvXm tNmZnp.
\nv AXv e`npIbpw sNbvXp. C\n AXn aw Dmhp
Ibn. apnw `qcn] {]tZi ]mnkvXmt\mSv tNcWw
Fv ]dbptm lnp `qcn]{]tZi CUytbmSv
tNcpI FXv AhcpsS AhImiamWv.''
apIfn ]d kw`hfn \npw Nne tNmZy
Dbcpp
1.Kmn lnpfpsS {]Xn\n[n BbnmtWm PntbmSv
N \SnbXv?. Ans\ A Fn Fv am\Zns
ASnm\nemWv/ A[nImcns t]cnemWvv Atlw
PntbmSv N \SnbXv?. apnfpsSbpw lnpfpsSbpw
IqSn {]Xn\n[nbmbmWv Kmn PntbmSv kwkmcnsXn
Fns\bmWv CUybpsS apnw `qcn] {]tZi
]mnkvXms cq]nIcWn\v hnpsImSpm Atln\v
IgnbpI?
2.lnpfpsS {]Xn\n[nbmbmWv Kmn PntbmSv kwkm
cnsXn AXv FpsImv s]mXphmbn {]Jym]nn.
AXn\ptijw lnpfptSXmb Xmev]cy ImWphm\pw
kwcnm\pw Xmdbn?. \Xv Fv tXmnnp hn[
nep Fm kwc`fpsSbpw ]nnse ]pIadbvIpn
IgpI IpIfpw Dnsemfnnv NXnbpsS apJhpambn Kmn
Fpw Dmbncpp.
3. auv_m {]tbmKn bpn PnbpsS hmbv aqSns
m XcnfpXmbncpp. thWsan Kmnpw AXn\v
Ignbpambncpp. CXv Kmn bpnlo\ Fv shfnhmp
Xpw {_nnjpIm apow A\pIqenItfm lnp hncptcm
A \ymbns ]mbncpp Fv sXfnbnpXpamWv.
AXpsImv Xs Kmnbpw A\pbmbnIfpw kzw hnnXz
pw ]cmPbpw {_nojpImsc ]gnsNmcnbpXv
\ymbnIcnmhpX.
Ahkm\ambn, _pniyq\ycmb lnpfpsS hnnc
n\v AXncpIfn Fv ASnhcbnv Ddnp Imcyw, Ah

45

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


NXnb\pw \pWb\pw \bhI\pw 10 ew lnpfpsSbpw
knJvImcpsSbpw Iqsmebvv DchmZnbpw cmPyn\pta
sXmb A\h[n Imcy ASntevnpIbpw sNbvX Hcp
hynsb almb t\Xmhv apX cm]nXmhv hsc Bn
Xop FXmWv. av Ipn ssZhfmb IdIf Kmnb
Fv kzbw hntijnnp cmtP{ {]kmZv, samdmPn
tZimbv, hnt\m` `msh, em _lZq imkv{Xn Fnh
KmnbpsS sXpIpw NXnpw Iqv \nv lnpsf NXn
Htc KWns IphmfnI XsbmWv.

Kmn Hcp `ocp.""tl! cmw''Fv ]dnn. ]s aq{X


samgnpIbpw hmbn \nv \pcbpw ]pIbpw hcpIbpw
sNbvXp.
Kmn Xs BIYbn (lnn BIY) t]Pv 19
kzbw kXnpp."" Rm Hcp `ocphmWv. Imscbpw,
]mpIsfbpw, t{]Xsfbpsamw F\nv `bamWv. Fp
am{Xa cm{Xnbn Hbvv ]pdv t]mIphm\p ss[cyw
F\nn. cm{Xnbn apdnbvpn ssev CSmsX Ddphm
F\nv IgnbpIbn. F\nv Fs Cu Zp_eXsbn Fs
`mcytbmSv ]dbphm ebmbncpp. Ipnbmbncptm
am{Xa apXntmfpw KmnbpsS am\koImtcmKyw CtX
Xcn DXmbncpp. B `ocpXzw PohnXImew apgph
Ans\ Xs XpScpIbpw sNbvXp.
18011948 se {]kwKn Kmn ]dp."" Rm Hcp
{]hmNI\. Fncpmepw HcpImcWm Asn asm
cp ImcWm Ahv (lnp) CUybnse apn
fpambn
kulrZn
Ignbphm
km[npIbn.
temInep apn Fmw Ahv i{Xpfmbv
XocpIbpw CUy Ahv \sSpIbpw sNpw Fv
a\nemm\p Ignhpw _pnbpw ssZhw thpthmfw
F\nv \evInbnpv''. (Uln Ubdn, t]Pv354)
apIfn ]dXn \npw Kmn temI apnfpsS
sFIyw FXv kzm`mhoIhpw {]IShpamb B{Klhpambn ]cn
KWnncpp FXv hfsc hyamWv. Fn FpsImv
HcmPyn\pnep (CUy) lnpfpsS sFIyw Atlw
B{Klnncpn Asn AXn\v FXncmbncpp?. hn`Pn

46

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


s CUybnep lnptfmSv ]mnkvXm\n \npw
{]mW`bm HmSntmcp lnpfpsS Imcys Ipdnv
NnntXn Fv D]tZinXv Fn\v?. kzbw Hcp `ocp
BbXn\m Kmn _mn lnpfpw `ocpfmbncnphm\pw
apnsf `bsv PohnWw Fpw B{Klnncpp. ]s
Atlns A\pbmbnI Kmnsb ]cn]q\mbpw
ss[cyimenbmbpw Nn{XoIcnncpp. shSntbv hoW \nanjw
t]mepw ]q cma`\pw acW kabv ""tl! cmw'' Fv
]dXmbpw D IYIfpw \pWIfpw {]NcnnpIbpw
sNbvXp.
Fm kXymh 01Pqsse1996 "" in kamNm,
16 amIkv ebn, sIm7 ]pdv hnncpp. CXn
hmbnmhpXv Fw.sI. Kmn, \mYqdmw tKmUvskbpsS
shSntbv hoWv acWsSpXn\v ap]v "tl! cmw' Fv
]dnn FXmWv. adnv izmkw appt_m DmIp
"^qppkv' FXcneq iw am{Xta ]pdv hpp.
tKmUvsk hnNmcW kabv CXv ]dsnepw Bcpw B
kabv Atls hnizknn. acWstmepw `bmsX
Ay \nanjn NppIfn cma\maw DcphnpsImv
[oc\mb a\pjys\tmse Kmn acnv hoWp F coXnbn
s]mSnpw sXmepw \nd \pWYI A\pbmbnIfpw
tIm{KpImcpw {]Ncnnp sImncpp. kXyn shSn
tbv acWsSp kabv t]Snv hndv apn aq{X
samgnpIbpw hmbn \nv \pcbpw ]pIbpw hcnIbpw
DcpfIngv kn t]mse \nev hogpIbpamWv DmbXv''.
Cu kXyw KmnbpsS ap AwKcI\mbncp an. hn.
IeymWw ]pdv hnncpp. 08 s^{_phcn 1999 _p[\mgvN
a{Zmknse (sNss) t^mdw Hm^v euUv Xnnn kwkmcn
sh hn. IeymWw ]dp."" Fs ta \npw shSnbp 6
Cv hyXymkn eyw sXpIbmWv DmbXv. FmWv
bmYmXyn B Znhkw \SsXv F\ndnbmw. kw`hn
m Hns\ Ipdnv ]dv temIs apgph hnnIfm
pIbmWv sNbvXncnpXv "".
KmnbpsS {]XntbmKnbmb an.Pn Atls BSns\
t]m `ocphmbmWv IWmnbncnpXv. Kmnsb Ipdnv
hfsc bmYmXyhpw Xmev]cyw DWpXpamb Nn{XamWv

47

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


ssktejv Ipam D]mymbv bpsS ''aplZv Aen Pn BUv
{Intbj Hm^v ]mnkvXm"" F ]pkvXIn ]dbpXv.
t]Pv 244 C{]Imcw hmbnmw. '' Htm_ 10 \v Izo eoKv
kwLSnn s]mXpkt\n hv Atlw KmnbpsS
A{IacmlnXy kXym{Kl kacs ]ckyambn \nnncn
pp. IqSmsX cqambn ]cnlknp sImv Cs\ ]dbp
p. t\Xmhmbnocm t]meokns emnbpsS a\w
klnv Hcp BSns\tmse CcnpIbpw, ]noSv Pbnen
t]mIpIbpw, icoc`mcw Ipdp shv BhemXnspsImv
Pbn tamN\n\mbn {ianpIbpw sNpp (Ddsbp
NncnI ]Scpp)....
Kmnsb F{X IrXyambn Pn Afncnpp Fv
\apv a\nemmw.

48

Aymbw7

Pnv \ymbapmbncpp. Fm
Kmn lnpsf hnp
an. Pn kXyk\pw ss[cyimenbpw Bb hyn Bbn
cpp. Fm Kmnv Iw ]dbpXpw bmYmXysf
hfsmSnpXpamb ioew Dmbncpp. amv 1940 \v
emtlmdn apnw eoKns 27aXv ktf\n {]knU
jy A`nkwt_m[\ sNptm Pnv Xs Bibw
hfsc hyambncpp. ""\, 100 aney /AXn IqSn
bmepw/ (hn`PnpXn\v ap]v `mcXnse BsI apnw P\
kwJy 100 aney Bbncpp) hcp apn Hcp cmPyamWv.
\ptSXmb \mKcoIXbpw, kwkvImchpw, `mjbpw, kmlnXy
hpw, Iebpw, hmkvXphnZybpw, \mahpw, kwIfpw, aqeyhpw,
Hmlcnbpw, \nbahpw, [moI kwlnXIfpw, BNmcfpw,
Iedpw, Ncn{Xhpw, kw{_Zmbfpw, ImgvNmSpIfpw, B{K
lfpw Fmap cmPyw. Npcpn PohnXs Ipdnpw
CXcamb Imcysf Ipdnpw \ptSXv am{Xamb hyamb
ImgvNmSpXpw Fm Anepw Amcm Xenep
Hcp cmPyw. ({Sn_yq, kt doUnv, 23111993, Atbmy
BUv B^v, ss_ APbv AlqP, teJ\w)
apnw eoKpw Pnbpw ]mnkvXms cq]nIcWn\v
thn \ncnb hmZ {]XnhmZfn F{Xbpw \oXnbpamb
ImcWfmWv DbnpXv FpXv ap Aymbnepw
Pao DZv Zns "kw Bkvs]Ivvkv Hm^v ]mnkvXm F
{Knepw, em _lZqdns '{Kn Hm^v ]mnkvXm,
t]Pv 235 epw ImWm Ignbpw. Ahkm\tXn C{]Imcw
FgpXnbncnpp ""eoKv aptmv hbvp asmcp IcWw
]mnkvXm FXv lnpfpsSbpw apnfpsSbpw ]q
kzmX{yw BWv. lnp BhiysSp GIoIrX CUy
FXv lnp `cnp, apo IogSn Pohnp
CUybmWv. eoKv eyanSpX,v lnppw apnpw
]cam[nImcap AhcptSXmb amXrcmPyamWv. AXphgn

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


kz`cWhpw, kzw Ignhn\pw _pnpw kwkvImcn\pw
k{Zmbpw A\pkcnv kzcmPyns `mhnv thn
{]bXv\nm\p Ahkchpw e`npw""
IqSpX kwm\ thWsa Zpcm{Klw Dmbncp
snepw Pn apnfpsS amXrcmPyambn ]mnkvXms
cq]nIcWw am{Xa. AtX Ahkcw lnpv AhcpsS
amXrcmPyamb hn`PnX CUybpsS cq]n e`npXn
a\ph\mbncpp FXv hyamWv. Ans\ Ccns
Xs Pn 10 P\phcn 1941 \v apw_bn hv \S apnw
FUyptIj khokv eoKns ktf\n {]ISnn
ImgvNmSv C{]ImcamWv."" CUybnep Fm cm{ob ]mn
Ifpw ]mnkvXm aptmv sh ]Xn AwKoIcnv sImv
lnpsfbpw aposfbpw AhchcpsS amXrcmPyfn
]p\c[nhknnpXn\v D \S]Sn FSpWw. (sP\nknkv
Hm^v ]mnkvXm ss_ hn.hn. \K, t]Pv 332)
]mnkvXms cq]oIcWw GItZiw Xocpam\nsSth,
Pn hopw C{]Imcw Hcp {]Jym]\w \Sn."" Hcp kwibhpw
th ]mnkvXm\n hknp lnpv amXrcmPyamb
lnpm\ntebvv t]mIWsan Ahv AXn\p
]cn]q kzmX{apv. adnv lnpm\n hknp
apnv ]mnkvXm\ntebvv IpSntbdWsan AXn\v
th Ahkcw e`nWw. DS\Sntbm ]nntSm Cuhn[ap
amn]mnepI \SWw. AXn\mbn lnpmsbpw
]mnkvXmsbpw `cWIqS IqSnbmtemNnv Cmcyw
Kuchambn ]cnKWnv ^ehmb coXnbn P\fpsS
{Ibhn{Ibw \SpIbpw thWw (t]Pv 457, sP\nknkv Hm^v
]mnkvXm)
an. PnbpsS {]kvXmh\ hfsc hyhpw kwXpenXhpw
Bbncpp. lnptfmSv Hcp A\oXnbpw AXn ImWphm
Dmbncpn. t\scadnv Kmn 24sk]vXw_1947
Atlns {]m\m ktf\n C{]Imcw ]dp.
"tIm{Kpw {_nWpw kXw aqfnbn Fn Cv
]mnkvXm Dmhpambncpn. ]mnkvXm\nse apn
AXv AlnsSpIbpw Cmbncpp. (Uln Ubdn, t]Pv
35). AXn\m Kmnsb kw_nnStmfw ]mnkvXm
FXv ]mnkvXm\n hknncp apnv thn

50

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


DXmbncpp. AmsX CUybn hknp apnan\v
thnbptXm, ]mnkvXm\n hknp lnphn\v thn
bptXm Ambncpp. Ans\ CUy FXv Fmhpw
Xmaknmhp Hcp [imetbm, k{Xtam Bbncpp. Kmn
]ehw Dund cv Imcy CUy "" lnp cmPya''
Fpw "]mnkvXm\nse lnp,knJv P\v Fp Xs
kw`hnmepw AXv \psS {]iv\a"" FXpw (Uln Ubdn,
t]Pv 5771).
Ans\ Kmn lnpv AhcpsS amXrcmPyw Cm
Xmn. Fm Pn Ccphpw AXv e`nphm kX
{]ISnn hnime a\ph\mbncpp. KmnbpsS hn{Iob
IfpsS A\nc^eambn temInse Ghpw ]gtadnb
ss]XrIns DSaIv aXrcmPyw Cm Ah
kwPmXambn. _wmtZin \ntm ]mnkvXm\n \ntm
hcp Zcn{Zcmb lnpsf Xncnpt\mm t]mepw Cv
Bcpw Xmd. A\[nIrX CmaoI \pgp Ibmsc
_wmtZin \ntm ]mv A\[oIrX CUybn \ntm
HmSnm Bpw ss[cyhpw C. CUy Zp_eamb
cmPyambn ]cnWanXn\v ImcWw, ]mnkvXm\n \pgpIb
mcpsS {IqcXI XSpm Ignhnmh BbXn\memWv.
FpsImsm ]Xn\v tImSn apo CUybnepv.
lnp a\qw Ipg Wnv hcpphm ss[cy
sSpn.

Kmnbpw s\{lphpw lnpfpsS {]Xn\n[nb Fn


hn`PnX CUybpsS m\am\ B{KlnXpw Ae
cnXpw Fn\v?
Kmnbpw s\{lphpw s]mXpP\tfmSv PohnXn Hcn
epw Ah lnpfpsS {]Xn\n[n BsWv ]dnn.
AhsXnscbp KpcpXcamb Hcp Ipw ""PnbpsS {]m
h\ A\pkcnv DXv ASw lnpfpsS amXrcmPyamb
hn`PnX CUy `cnm\pw m\ GsSpphm\pw Fv
ASnm\ AhImiamWv Kmnpw s\{lphn\pw Dmbncp
Xv?. Aev]sanepw Bm`nam\w Ahcn Dmbncpp
Fn Ah ssht{kmbntbmSv X lnpfpsS {]Xn
\n[nI A Fv ]dbWambncpp. Fnv cmPy`cWw

51

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


lnpfpsS {]Xn\n[nIv ssIamdWambncpp. ImcWw
cmPyns hn`P\w lnppw apopw {]tXyIw
amXrcmPyw F Bibnsbpw am\Znsbpw am{Xw
ASnm\n Bbncpp.
{_nnjv Khsv Hcpthf s\{lphn\pw tIm{Kn\pw
lnpfpsS {]Xn\n[n F [mcWbn `cWw ssIamdn
Fn Xs Unkw_ 1946 _tZhv knwKv, s\{lp, Pn
Fnh e\n t]mIpIbpw, {_nojv s{]n Ah
bYm{Iaw knJv, lnp, apnw {]Xn\n[nIfmWv {]kvXmhn
pIbpw sNbvXncpp. ({Sn_yq, 27011948). CXn \npw
s\{lp lnpfpsS {]Xn\n[nbmbmWv e\n t]mbXv Fv
hyamWv. Fm PohnXn Hcnepw lnptfmSv D
ISa \ndthnbn. Ftmsgmw Ah {_nnjv Khspw,
Pnbpambpw ktf\fnepw tbmKnepw ]sSpptm
lnpfpsS Hmlcn e`nphm thn am{Xw lnp {]Xn\n[n
BbncnpIbpw, tijw lnpsf kaambn NXnpIbpw
sNbvXncpp. Cu t\XmfpsS kz`mhipn Cmbvav
A\pbmbnI hnioIcWw \evIWw.
30 sk]vXw_ 1947 se {]m\m ktf\n Kmn
]dp. "" {]`mXn Nne kplrp anbhmenbn
(shv ]m_v ) shv Atls kinpIbpmbn.
anbmhmenbn \np B kplrp ]dp R
Dt]nv t]mh _eambn aX]cnh\w sNsSpI
tbm, sImesSpItbm, Zmcn{Zw A\p`hnsSpItbm, kv{Xo
Ifpw s]IpnIfpw Xnsmv t]mIsSpItbm sNsn
pmImw Fv R `bsSpp.
B kplrp KmntbmSv tNmZnp. Ahsc kwcn
tXv CUym Khsns NpaXe Bbncpnt?.
KmnbpsS adp]Sn ]mnkvXm\nse \yq\]s kwcn
m cv am Dmbncpp. Ghpw \ amw IzbvZv
CBkmw Pnbpw Atlns a{namcpw \yq\]
fpsS kpc DdmpIbpw Ahv in ]IcpIbpambn
cpp thXv. Atm Ahv CUybntebvv IpSntbd
Xns\n Nnnv DXvIWvTstSn hcpambncpn. Hgnv
t]mb {]tZi Hgnshv Xs DdmpI FXv
]mnkvXms Xmev]cys B{ibnncnp ImcyamWv.

52

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


Ans\ hcptm Xobmbpw Xnsmv t]mIepItfm
aX]cnh\tfm DmhpIbn. (Uln Ubdn, t]Pv 50)
F{Xbpw \mWwsI coXnbnemWv Kmn klmbw \nt[n
pXv Fv Ghpw a\nemmhpXmWv. Ccn
Im]Syhpw h\bpw temINcn{Xn asmcnSpw ImWm
km[nn. Npcpn sNmbv BSpIfpsS kpc
DdmpIWw FXmWv Kmn ]dp hcpXv. ChnsS
Hmnnt asmcp {][m\ Imcyw, lnp apnw P\XbpsS
{Ibhn{Ibns Icm \ne\np ImebfhnemWv CXv
NXnb Kmn ]dbpXv FXmWv. 5sk]vXw_ 1947
emtlmdn shp am Xmcm knwMns {]bXv\ns
^eambn Hv h Cu Icm A\pkcnv Ingv ]Snmd
]m_n\nSbn D lnpapnw, knJv P\Xsb ]qambn
amWambncpp. shv ]m_n \npw lnp, knJv P\X
sb Cuv ]m_ntebvv ampI FXv CUym Khsn
s NpaXebpambncpp. CUym Khsns ISaIsfbpw
NpaXeIsfbpw \ndthpXn\v \ntiw \evIpXn\v ]Icw
A`bmnIfmbn h lnpsfbpw knJpImscbpw XncnsI
AbXv KmnbpsS in AlnpXpw \nemIchp
amb {]hnbmWv.

ssk\oIsc A]am\np Kmn ; ssk\oI Iqkv


hrnbmWw Fv KmnbpsS Iev]\
GsXmcp `cWIqSnsbpw {]m[aoIhpw Fhpw {]m[m
\yalnpXpamb NpaXebmWv cmPyns AXnnI
fnse kwcWw DdmpI FXv. ]pdta \np A\h[n
A[n\nthi B{Iav ]e Imefmbn CUy Ccbm
bnpv. AXn CmaoI A[n\nthiw hfsc {]m[m\yw A
lnpp. a\pjyXz clnXamb {IqcXIfmepw Zp{]hn
Ifmepw ISpIbmcmb Cu A{IaImcnI lnpfpsS
ta B[n]Xyw m]np. lnp A\p`hn Zpcn\v
kam\ambpw kamcambpw temIn Fpw Xs Hcp
Ncn{Xhpw \ne\nppan. ]pcmWfn `mcXns
AXnn ISv h Akpcmcmbn Nn{XoIcns ImSm
cmb ]Snmd cmPym apX {_nojv A[n\nthiw hsc
B A{Ia]c_cIfpsS Ncn{Xw \ov \nhv InSpp. Hcp

53

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


Imev CUy _paX kmlnXy A\pkcnv Kmmcw
apX (A^vKm\nm) Imwt_mPw hsc (Gjy) ]Sv
InSncpp. GItZiw Bbncw hjpnemWv Cv
ImWpXv t]mse ]IpXnbmbn ]cnWannpXv. Fnepw
Cmepw Kmnbpw, s\{lphpw AhcpsS A\pbmbnIfpw
ssk\oIsc ]qambpw AhKWnpIbpw AhtcmSv hntcm[w
ImpIbpw sNpp. KmnbcpsS {]hnIfn [occmb
ssk\oItcmSv Fpw Ahbpw ]phpamWv DmbnpXv.
hn`P\n\v DS\Sn, cmPys hgn]ngn Kmn Hcp
{]kvXmh\ \Sn. "" ssk\nIcmb `SmcpsS tPmen A{Xbvv
_lpam\w AlnpXmWv Fv ]dbphm Rm B{Kln
pn. Ah \new DgpIWw, InWdpI IpgnWw, Iqkp
I hrnbmpIbpw thWw.'' ( Z Un^kv BUv t^mdn
t]mfnkokv Hm^v CUy ss_ hn. tem env
]ntjkv, (A dnhyq C Z {Sn_yq 250699)
5sk]vXw_ 1947 \v Atlw ]dp."" Rm\ CUym
`cnpXv. Rm `cnncpp Fn cmPyv t]meotkm,
anedntbm DmhpIbn.'' (alm ss_ Un.Pn. sSp
t]Pv 138/ HmKss\k 08061947)
04121947 se {]kwKn Atlw hopw C{]Imcw
]dp,"" CUybpsS ssk\oIhcWw FXv cmPyn
s \miamWv. AXphgn temInsbpw ( alm, t]Pv 213,
HmKss\k 08061997), It_Pv BUv Invkv ss_ hn.]n.
_mnb ). Cu Zu`mKyIcamb ]cmaiw Kmn \SnbXv
]mnkvXm Imivao B{IanpIbpw henb tXmXn lnp
sf Iqsme \SpIbpw lnp kv{XoIsf Xnsmv
t]mIpIbpw sNbvX thfbnemWv.
BZys Kmnb {]knUv Bbncp tUm. cmtP{
{]kmZv , 1950 Kmn ]okv ^utj\n kwkmcnth
]dXv "" temIkam[m\n\v amXrIbmbn CUy AXns
ssk\ys ]ncnv hnSWw Fmbncpp.'' (se ss_ tUm.
Achnv Fkv tKmUvt_mse, HmKss\k 27101996)
Kmnb k{_Zmbw A\pkcnv s\{lp, PpImivao
B{Ian ]mInkvXm\n ssk\ys A`napJoIcnm hfsc
sNdnb ssk\ysbmWv AbXv. CUybpsS BZy
{_ntKUns Iamdmb eyps\v P\d sF.]n. sk 18

54

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


Znhks {]bXv\w sImv ]mnkvXm ISnb Imivao
Xmgvhc apX Dcn hscbp tKm{X AXnn HgnnpIbpw
apkm^d_mZn \npap apts XSbpIbpw sNbvXp.
Atlns ""sU BUv s{XUv'' F ]pkvXIn
]dbpp. "Ulnbn \npw D cm{ob t\XrXzns
]npWbnepw Zp_es ssk\ys _esSpm IqSp
X ssk\ys AbpXnepw \ncmimP\Iamb XWp
{]XnIcWamWv DmbncpXv"". eyps\v sP\d sF.]n.
sk Atlns ]pkvXIn ]dbpp. \nmbIamb
k`fn CUy ssk\yns A\p]mXw ]mv
ssk\yns Bdn Hmbncpp. av kabfn aqn
Hn\v aosX Hcnepw Bbncppan. Fncpnpw CUy
ssk\yn\v ap]n ]mnkvXm F ]pXnb cmPyn\v
Pbnphm Ignn.'' (HmKss\k, 19071998, Imt_Pv
BUv Invkv ss_ hn.]n. _mnb). s\{lp CUybpsS
{]Xntcm[s Ipdnv ]cn]q hnkvarXnbn Bbncpp.
Ftm aphcm AXns\pdnv Hmnnspthm
Atm ""BsXnscbp {]Xntcm[w Fmbncpp At
lns adp]Sn. (Fw.Fw tImmcnbbpsS HmKss\kdnse
teJ\n \nv, 06121998).
em_lZq imkv{Xnbpw sNbvXXv kam\amb ImcyamWv.
\psS hocmcmb ssk\oI cw \evIn ]mnkvXm\n
\npw ]nSnsSp Pp Imivaodns `mKhpw, knv {]hiy
bnep lnp `qcn] Pnbmb X]dpw 1965 XjvIn
hv em_lZq imkv{Xn ]mnkvXm\v Xncnv \IpIbpw
lrZbkvX`\m AhnsS hv Xs acnpIbpw sNbvXp.
`ocphmb Cu a\pjys\ Kmnb A\pbmbnI ckmn
bmn. XjvIn t]mIpXn\v ap]v Atlw acnncpp
Fn \psS ssk\oIcpsS Poh \In ]nSnsSp
{]tZifpw {]bXv\hpw Hcnepw hyambn t]mhpambncp
n. Cbmsftmse _pnlo\\pw kmayanmh\pamb
Hcm {][m\ a{nbmbncpXv \psS Zu`mKyw HpsImv
am{XamWv. CncmKmnbpsS kzImcy D]tZmhmb {ioaXn.
cmPv X], em _lZq imkv{Xnsb ]n hfsc bmYmXy
ambXpw Xmev]cyapWpXpamb Hcp Nn{XamWv ]phbvp
Xv. B kv{Xo ]dbpp. " thymatk\bpsS B{IaWsfbpw

55

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


t_mw_nns\bpw Ipdnv hnhcnm XpSptm Xs
imkv{Xn \Spn hndbvpIbpw DS\Sn cm{Xnbn Xs
hontebvv ]mbpIbpw sNbvX IYI Cncm KmnbpsS
am{oI hebn \np Xs ]phbvsXmWv. Cncm
Kmn Xsbmbncpp Ccnep AdnhpIfpsS {][m\
DdhnShpw. ""hndbvp Hcp FenbpsS Nn{Xw hcpXn\mbn
Ah hfsc {]bXv\nncpp. AbmfpsS NpSv hfsc sNdp
XmbXn\m AXn\v thn Ahv A[nIw bXv\ntn
hncpn ''. (Imt_Pv BUv Invkv ss_ hn.]n. _mnb,
HmKss\k, 14121997)
CXnt\mSv A\p_nv Rm asmcp kw`hw ChnsS
hnhcnm B{Klnpp. CXv Aw_me \ntbmPI ae
nse Fw.]n.bpw, lnamN {]tZiv Khdpw Bbncp
tUm.kqcPv `m AhnSps {]mtZioIamb Hcp t{Xn
hv Hcp hjw ap]v hnhcnXmWv. P\kwLnsbpw
B.Fkv.Fknsbpw {]hI F \nebn Atlw
1965se bpn apdnths ssk\oIsc kinm\pw
AhcpsS taw At\zjnm\pw Ah sNbvX almb
{]hnsb A`n\nm\pambn anendn tlmkv]n kin
pIbpmbn. Ipiemt\zjWw tNmZnth Xm hfsc kpJ
ambncnpp Fv Ifn aqSnpX Hcp ssk\oI
adp]Sn ]dp. Xm kpJambncnpp Fn FmWv
Bip]{Xnbn XpXv F tUm. kqcPv `ms tNmZyn\v
adp]Snbmbn ssk\oI Ifw amn. Atlns cv
ImepIfpw bpn \sncpp. tUm. kqcPv `m Atl
tmSv tNmZnp. Fns\bmWv Xmv kpJambncnpp
Fv ]dbm IgnbpXv?. ssk\oI adp]Sn ]dp; Ctm
RfpsS \nb{Wnembncnp emtlm knbmtImv
taJebn bpw sNbvXv sImncnptmgmWv F\nv Fs
cv ImepIfpw \sXv. AXn\m Rm hfsc ktmj
hm\mWv. ImepIfpsS \w Fs AeptX C.
em _lZq imkv{Xn bmsXmcp DSSnIfpw t\hpw
CmsX B taJeI ]mnkvXm\v ssIamdptm Cc
nep [occmb ssk\oIcpsS ITn\amb ZpxJw GsXnepw
Hcph\v knm Ignbptam?. Ccnep {][m\
a{namcmWv ssk\yns [moIX \innpXv.

56

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


CncmKmnbpw Hpw hyXykvXbmbncpn. _wmtZin
lo\amb Ip sNbvX ({]tXyInv lnpsXnsc)
Hcp ew hcp ]mnkvXm\n bpXShpImsc innmsX
hnbp. _wmtZiv _wKmfn apombn \ntem`w hnp
sImSpp. Cv AXv asmcp ]mInkvXm\mbn Xoncnpp.
FmWv Cncv Dmb t\w?. AXn\v ]Icw ]m_n apo
sfbpw _wKmfn apnsfbpw ]ckv]cw t]mcSnm hnSpI
bmbncpp Fn \apv t\apmtbs\. CXns ZpJIcamb
Xpw IgnhptISv \ndXpamb asmcp hiw FXv Hcp ew
]mnkvXm\n bpShpImsc shdpsX hnbtm ]Icw
]mnkvXm\n Pbnen Ignbp CUy ssk\oIsc
hnbbvWsav ]dbphm Cnc sa\sn. Ah Cpw
]mnkvXm\nse PbnepIpn \cI bmX\I A\p`hn
pp.
CncmKmnbpsS aI cmPohv Kmn hnnXzns Hcp
]ShpIqSn apn Bbncpp. CUy ]okv Ionv t^mkv
(IPKF) t\mSv knlfIfpsS XojvW hnthN\v CcIfmb
lnp Xangv hn`mKamb LTTE msc B{Ianm Dchnp.
{ioebnse lnp CUymsc t]mse Bn]fmWv
Fv Atlw [cnncnWw. Fm Atln\v Ahsc
\innm Ignn. Ah ]penIfmbn. 1000 ssk\oIcpsS
acWn\v ImcWamb Cu hnISkmlkn\v cmPohv Kmn
am{XamWv DchmZn. bpw aqew hfsctbsd ssk\oIv
apdnthsp. 100 tImSn cq]bpsS \amWv Khsn\v
kw`hnXv. lnpfmb XangtcmSp knlfm Khsns
\bn hfsc hnimeX Cu bpn\m hp. cmPohv
KmntbmSp {]XnImchpw B cmhpw LTTEm
cmPohv Kmnsb sImesSpn.
Ahkm\ Kmnb {][m\a{nbmbncp {io. sF.sI.
KpPvdm Hcp ApXPohn Bbncpp. ]mnkvXm\n Xo{hhmZn
ItfmsSmw tXm tNv hn{Klmcm[Icmb lnpv
FXnsc PnlmZv \Snb A^vKm\nkvXm\nse Xmen_m\v
Atlw hnam\ \ndsb acppI hnXcWw sNbvXp.
lnpsf sImesSppI am{Xa GXm\pw hjv
ap]v lnpsfbpw knJvImscbpw A^vKm\nkvXm\n

57

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


\npw Ah ]pdw Xnbncpp. Kmnbm ssZhstm
se ImWpIbpw BibtfmSv B`napJyw ]pepXpamb
_p {]XnaI apgph\mbpw A^vKm\nm Xo{hhmZnI
XIpIfXn bmsXmcp ApXhpan. Fv {]Xn^e
amWv _p hn{Kl \innpXn\mbn KmnbpsSbpw
s\{lphnsbpw A\pbmbnI Xmen_m\v \evInbXv?. Cc
nep Zpjv]rhnIfn \npw GsXmcph\pw Ffp
n Kmn, s\{lp, AhcpsS A\pbmbnI Fmhcpw
cmPyt{ZmlnI Xs Fv A\pam\nmhpXmWv.

58

Aymbw8

Kmnbpw Kmnbcpw cmPyns


Ghpw henb i{Xp
apnw `cWImev HudwKtk_v Bbncpp CUybnse
Ghpw {Iqc\mb `cWm[nImcn. PnbpsS A\pbmbnI
Atls ""HudwKtk_v cma'' FmWv hntijnnXv.
(Um, 26121946 t]Pv 8, 27121946 t]Pv 1, {Kn Hm^v
]mnkvXm ss_ em _lZq t]Pv 260) lnptfmSv
{Iqcmcmbncnph BcmtWm AhcmWv \ `cWm[nImcn
FmWv apn IWmnbncpXv Fv CXn \npw
hyamWv.
Amev (G{]n 1947) ssht{kmbnbpsS P\d No^v
Bbncp "sP\d Ckvan' bpsS A`n{]mbn Pnbn
{]ISambncp Hcp kz`mhw lnptfmSp shdpv \nd
Ah Bbncpp. apov kaqln IqsSPohnm
km[nm Xcnep a\pjycnepw Xmsgbp PohnIfmWv
lnp Fv Pn Hcp]s NnnncpncnWw. (t]Pv
318, aplZv Aen Pn BUv {Intbj Hm^v ]mnkvXm
ss_ Fkv.sI. _mtm]mZymb, senwKv ]ntjkv).
Kmnsb apnfpsS i{Xphpw hI\pambmWv Pn IW
mnbncpXv. Kmnv Cmcyw \mbn Adnbmambncpp.
apIfnep hnhcWn \npw temInse Ghpw
{Iqcmcmb aXkvXcpw lnpfpsS Ghpw henb i{Xphpw
apofmWv FXv hyamWv. ]s lnp \matYbcmsW
nepw Kmnsbbpw KmnbmcpamWv IqSpX A]ISIm
cnI. lnp Fmbvtmgpw Ahcm NXnsSpp. Htc
Hcp DZmlcWw aXn CXv sXfnbnm.
G{]n 1947 se BZyZnhkw almKmn, \ne\np
kvXw`\mh XcWw sNpXn\v thn Akm[mcWamb
Hcp t]mwhgn aptmv hp. ssht{kmbn CSme Khsns\
]nhenWsapw kzw C{]Imcap AwKsf hv
Khsv cq]oIcnm Pnsb WnWw Fpambncpp

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


AXv. am{Xa, tIm{Kkv Khsns lrZbw \nd
]npW PnbpsS Khsn\v DmIpw Fpap \nb
ZmUytmsSbp {]Xymi KmnPn ssht{kmbnbpambn ]v
hp. (aplZv Aen Pn BUv {Intbj Hm^v
]mnkvXm, t]Pv 317) kwkvImcw \ndXpw DchmZnXzw
DXpamb {_nnjv Khsns\ A[nImcm\v \npw
amnsmv, ASnaphcpw {Iqcmcpw Iem]ImcnIfpw
\nd cmw HudwKtk_v (Pn) \bnp Khsns\
A[nImcn GpI F KmnbpsS \ntiw F{Xbpw
A]ISw \ndXmbncpp Fv Nnnm \nthpw
a\nemmhpXmWv. lnpsf A]ISsWnbnemp
Xcnep Cu \ntiw {]ISnnm Fv A[nImcamWv
Kmnv DmbncpXv?. KmnbpsSbpw A\pbmbnIfpsSbpw
Ncn{Xw Acn Im]Syhpw h\bpw ]]mXhpw
\nd {]hnIfm \n`cnXambncpp. temUv auv
_m Xs kzImcy tcJIfn KmnbpsS Cu \ntis
"{`mv' tcJsSpnbncnpp. \mw Atlnt\mSv CXn\v
\n]dbWw. (auv _m thkkv alm, ss_ sI.B.
F. kzman, {Sn_yq 22072000)

"" \nfpsS PohnXw lnp PmXnv im]ambnoncn


pp'' Kmnv ]p{X cmwZmkv KmnbpsS imk\.
KmnbpsS ]p{X cmwZmkv Kmnv Xs ]nXmhns
Zpjv{]hrnIfn ASm\mhm Aajw Dmbncpp.
Atlw Kmnsb `mcXnsbpw lnpfpsSbpw im]ambm
Wv IWmn CcpXv. CXns\n kv]amb Hcp hnio
IcWamWv kapX\mb apnw t\Xmhv Nu[cn JmenIv
kkam Atlns ""]mvth Sp ]mnkvXm'' F
]pkvXIns 404Bw t]Pn \evInbncnpXv, Atlw
FgpXnbncnpp. "" 9 hjv tijw 1947 sk]vXw_dn
Rm Kmnsb ImWpIbpmbn. Atlw kulZ]cambn
Fs BtjnpIbpw tijw R s]mw Ipd
Atlns taibvv kao]ambn CcnpIbpw sNbvXp.
taipdv \npw Hcp Fgpv FSpp Xnv Atlw
FtmSv AXv hmbnphm Bhiysp. AXv Atlns
aI cmwZmkv Kmn FgpXnbXmbncpp. hr\mb Xs

60

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


]nXmhns\ i]nphm C\n B In hmpI HpwXs
anapmbncpn. Npcpn HhmIyn ]dm
KmnbpsS PohnXw lnpPmXnv im]amWv FXmbncpp
Ins kwn]vXw. ]nXmhns ta D ]p{Xs hnImc
tm`w kzm`mhoIambpw Fs kv]inp. Rm Atl
tmSv tNmZnp. Av FmWv sNphm t]mIpXv?. Kmn
]dp. Rm Fs PohnXw sImv CXns\ {]Xntcm[npw.
CUybpsS sXcphpIfn apnsf \pgp Ibdm Rm
A\phZnpIbn. Ah Bm`nam\tmsS \SWw."" Cu
sNdpkw`mjWn\v tijw Kmn ]dp. JmenIv \n
Hcn ]dbpIbpmbn ]t Fs FXnm Fs
`yXys\tmse BWv Fv. Fm Cv ]t Fs `rXy
\.. Rm KmntbmSv ]dp. F\ndnbmw ]t Ctm
XmfpsS `rXy\ Fmepw Atlw lnp almk`bpsSbpw
tIm{Knsbpw {]Xn\n[nbpw XmfpsS Hmtcm NphSpIfn
epw {]Xn_w Dmph\pw BWv.''
Hcp ew lnp kv{XoIsf Xnsmv t]mIpIbpw Hcp
aney lnpsfbpw knJvImscbpw Iqsme sNpIbpw
hKobamb AXn hcpIfm CUysb cmbn hn`Pnp
Ibpw sNbvX IdIf apnw eoKv t\Xmhnt\mSv PohnXw
apgph KmnbpsS A\pbmbnbpw Bbpkv A{Xbpw kzmX{
kacn\mbv Nnehgnh\pamb ]tens\ ]nbp Ip
]dp sImSpp Kmnsb \apv ChnsS ImWmw.
emlo\\mb KmnbpsS {]hnI ]mnkvXm apnw
eoKv GPns\ t]msebpXmbncpp. Fm `qcn`mKw
P\pw Cmcyw AdnbpIbn. Kmnb `cWIqShpw
FgppImcpw \pWI {]NcnnpIbpw IpnIsf sNdp
n apX Kmn kam[m\ns ZqX\pw, AlnwkmhmZn
bpw, kzmX{w t\Snh\pamWv XpSnb Iph \pWI
]TnnpI am{Xta ChnsS \Sppp. kXyw Adnbm\p
AhImiw kzmX{tmsSmw Zu`mKyhmmcmb CUym
v e`nn FXv ZpJIcamb kXyambn Cpw Ahtijn
pp.

61

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w

Kmnbpw Kmnkhpw CUyv \Inb Zn\fpw (15


BKkvXv,26 P\phcn) {Xnh]XmI F A]am\hpw.
Fm hjhpw BKkvXv 15 Dw P\phcn 26 Dw tZiotbm
hambn BtLmjnpIbpw FmbnSpw {Xnh]XmI
DbpIbpw sNpXv \psS Adnhnep ImcyamWv.
Fm 15 BKkvXv 1947 CUy cmbn hn`PnsSpIbpw
tijw henb tXmXn lnpsf ]mnkvXm\n apn
Iqsme sNpIbpw sNbvXp FXpw Hmncnt
ImcyamWv. lnpv Cpw kzmX{w e`nnn. Fm
KmnbpsS NXn aqeambn apnv kzambn amXrcmPyw
(]mnkvXm) e`npIbpw hn`PnX CUybnep apn
hfsctbsd kzmX{w A\p`hnpIbpw sNpp. kzambn
amXrcmPyanm \apv FmWv C{X ktmjnphm\p
Xv?. kXyn Cu Zn\; \mw lnpsf kw_nnS
tmfw izmkw app Cu kmlNcyn \npw c
t\Sm\p D]mb BtemNn\p Zn\ am{XamWv.
`cWLS\m]cambn apnv ]mnkvXm, lnp
v CUy F ASnm\n hn`PnmWv {_nnjvIm
cmPyw ssIamw sNbvXXv. lnpfpsS {]Xn\n[n BbmWv
NXnb s\{lp AXv kzoIcnXpw. Fm 26 P\phcn 1950
lnpfpsS amXrcmPyw [imebpw k{Xhpw Bb asmcp
ZpJ Zn\amWv. \psS kzImcy kzv Bscnepw ]nSnsSpv
s]mXpkzv Bphm {ianm \mw AXn\v FXnscbmbn
tImSXnbn tIkv \evIpItbm Asn Ahs Xe ASnv
XIpItbm sNpw. Hv BtemNnv t\mq. 26 P\phcn
e IqSmsX Bm`nam\tmsS BtLmjnphm \n
v Fns\ Ignbpp?.
Ahkm\ambn, lnpms Nnambn DbsSm\n
cp ImhnsmSnv ]IcamWv {Xnh ]XmI. Imhn hw
lnp kwkvImcnsbpw BNmcfpsSbpw {]XoIamWv.
Fm {Xnh ]XmIbn aqn Hcp m\w am{Xta
Imhn \ndn\pq. _mn shfpv {InkvXym\npw, ] \ndw
apopw Bbn amn hncnpp. CUybnse 2/3 hcp
t{X \innv ]nIfpw tamkvpIfpw \nnpI
bmsWn \n Fns\bmWv ktmjhmmcmbncnp

62

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


Xv? kXyn Cu {Xnh ]XmI lnpXzns\ A]am\n
m thn am{Xw DmnbXmWv. ImcWw,BbncWn\v
hjfmbn `mcXns ZzP Imhn hnepXv
Bbncpp.

Kmn ssZhZqX Fv \Snpp.


kzw sXpIv hyamb hnioIcWw CmsX
hcptm Kmn, ssZhn \npw t\cnv kti
e`np ssZh ZqXs\tmse \Snncpp. Ccnep
IpSne X{fmWv Kmn ]cnioenncpXv.
16011948 se {]m\m {]kwKn Kmn ]dbpp""
Hcnepw sXp]mh\pw, ki\pw, GIm[n]Xnbpamb
ssZhhpw Fs Bmhns hgnImnbpw...''(Uln Ubdn,
t]Pv 350). 29011948 hopw, _mphn \npap \mev]
tXmfw A`bmnIsf cnm\mbn \ntbmKnsh\mbn
\Snsh, AXn Hcph BcysSpIbpw Ah XsbmWv
AhcpsS ZpxJv ImcWsapw Xsf D]{ZhnmsX
X\nsb hnSWsapw Ah lnamebntev aSpIbmWv
Fpw KmntbmSv ]dp. Fm Kmn AbmtfmSv BcpsS
WmemWv \n aSm DtyinpXv Fv tNmZnp.
KmnbpsS `mjWw tIv Nne Aklycmbn, Nne Nohnfn
bpsS Atbw ISp, Nne Atlns {]bXv\s
hmgvn. Htc Hcp hgn Atls ssZhZqX\mbn IpsImv
A\pKanpI FXmbncpp"" (Uln Ubdn,t]Pv 389).
bpnbpw, ImcWhpw tIm {ianpXn\v ]Icambn
ssZhs ]n ]cmainv Kmn \nlmbcmb A`bmn
Isf am\koIambn Xfnfncpp. 1948 P\phcnbnse
\ncmlmcs \ymboIcnm IgnbmsX htm Kmn
]dp.'' Cu \ncmlmckacw A\pjvTnphm\p t{]cW
ssZhn \nmWv F\nv e`nXv"" (Z {Sn_yq 16011948).

63

Aymbw9

BkvXpXnbn canpIbpw
cm{]nXmshv \ymbnIcnm
{ianph\pamb Kmn
Kmn kvXpXn ]mSI Atls cm]nXmhv Fv
hmgvn. Atlw AXv \ymbnIcnm {ianp. temInse
Ghpw ]pcmX\amb cmPyhpw ZieWn\v hjfpsS
kwkvImchpw ]mc_cyhpap `mcXn ASpnsS P\n
Hcphs\ cm{]nXmhv Fv hnfnpXv, \psS cmPysbpw
CUybpsS ]p{X F coXnbn Hcnepw CWmh\b
B a\pjys\bpw AhtlfnpXn\v XpeyamWv. kXyn
Kmn CUybn P\np FXv \psS Zu`mKyamWv.
1947 \hw_ 15 se {]m\m {]kwKn Kmn
]dp." Fs cm{]nXmhv Fv hnfnpp Fn AXv, 1915
kuv B{^nbn \npw CUybntev aSn
htijw tIm{Kns\ hmsSppXnepw AXv Cv
Fmbv Xoncnpp FXnepw D Fs henb ]ns
ASnm\nemWv'(Uln Ubdn, t]Pv 171). Atlns
B{]iwkv CXnepw henb DZmlcWw thsd C Fp
am{Xa CXv KmnbpsS Aev]cs NqnmpIbpw
sNpp. cm{]nXmhv Fp m\w tIm{Kns Zm\w
am{XamWv Fncpmepw CXv cm{n\v Zpjvt]cpamWv.
Kmn `mcXn P\nnmbncpp Fn kZm ]t
Bhpambncpp {]Ya {][m\a{n. Ans\ kw`hnncpp
Fn ZieWn\v lnp acnnmbncpp. hn`PnX
CUybn \npw apnsf ]qambpw ]pdw Xntbs\!
A{]Imcw Xs ]mnkvXm\n \npw lnpsfbpw ]pdw
Xntbs\!. Ans\ Cv CUy ]ptcmKXn \ndXpw
ihpamb cmPyambn XocpIbpw sNpambncpp.

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w

Kmn ]m]hpw, Iphpw A[hpw sNm ss[cyw


]Icpp.
CUy PohnXnsbpw kwkvImcnsbpw BWn
mWv [w. [w Fhmv hfsc hnimeambXpw Fm
ns\bpw ]pIpXpw, hntijW BhiyanmXpw
Xpeyambn asmcp `mjbnepw CmXpamWv. [w
\oXnt_m[hpw Bob aqeyfpw tNXmWv. k\mX\hpw
{]m]oIhpamWv. a\p [ns evW a\pkvarXn
bn Nqnmpp.
AXv ss[cyhpw, abpw, a\pdpw, kXykXbpw,
_fn D ]hn{XXbpw, C{ob\nb{Whpw, hnthI
hpw, Adnhpw, Ifhv sNmXncnepw, tIm]s \nb{nepw
Fmw BWv. Cu eW Hcp hynsb amXrIm
hynXzamn Xopp. AXpt]mse ]pcmX\amb Bob
{Kamb "]Xen tbmK Zi\w' Bob PohnXn\v
th Av bafpw Av \nbafpw Nqnmpp. Ch
Alnwk (A{Ia cmlnXyw), kXyw, AkvtXyb (Ifhv sNmXn
cnpI), {_Nmcy, A]cn{Kl (aphcpsS km[\
B{KlnmXncnpI), iuNy (a\nsbpw Bmhnsbpw
ipn), ktmjw, X]w, kzmymbw (Bobamb DXnv
thnbp BcoI {Iob), Cuizc{]nWn[m (Cuizc ka
Ww). Cu Fm eWfpw Hcp hynsb ]q\mpw.
CXmWv lnp[ns ASnm\ [w Fv hnfns
SpXv.
Fm Kmn, CmaoI aXnepXmb {Iqchpw ]m]w
\ndXpamb {]hnI [ns AtX \pIn
sInbnSm t\mn. Kmnsb kw_nnStmfw lnp,
{InkvXy, Cmw XpSnb aX Fmw tamns
hyXykvX am Bbncpp. ]ipsfbpw av arKsf
bpw Iimv sNphm ({]tXyInv tamkvIn\pn) ]Tnn
pXv ]pWyambn Ah IcpXpp. tKmsf Iimv sNp
Xn GsXnepw Xcnep XS sImv hm DS\Sn
apgph apnfpw X A]ISnemWv Fv Htc
kzcn ]dbpw. Jpdm\nepw aplZnepw hnizmkw Cm
hsc Im^o Fpw C^nU (hn{Klmcm[I, kXyn

65

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


hn{Kls Bcpw ]qPnpn AXns Dn Cuizc
ssNX\ys Zinm {ianpIbmWv sNpXv. AXmbXv
B hn{Klw \insv IcpXn Cuizc CmXmbn Fv
IcpXpn ]Icw ASpXv hbvpp. Cu {]hrnbn
\np Xs hn{Kls A ssZhw Fv IcpXpXv FXv
hyamWv.) Fpw hnfnv A]am\npIbpw ]cnlknpI
bpw Ahsc sImpIbpw, sImbSnpIbpw, AhcpsS kv{Xo
Isfbpw s]IpnIsfbpw ssewKoI ASnaIfmpIbpw,
ASnabn hnpIbpw _e]cambn aX]cnh\w
sNpIbpw sNpp. Cu {]hnIsf PnlmZv AYh hnip
bpw Fv hnfnpIbpw kzntebvv D Ffp
hgnbmbn CXns\ ImWmpIbpw sNpp. Htc kabw \mev
kv{XoIsf `mcybmn hbvpIbpw IqSmsX ASnaIsf
s]mdpnpIbpw, Xemv Xemv Fv hmv aqv {]hiyw
sNmnbm hnhml_w ths]Spw Fv ]cnKWnpXqw
Cman {]m[m\yw Alnp hkvXpXIfmWv. icobv
\nbasXncmbn GsXnepw \nba GsSpnbm
DS\Sn Cmans t]cn Ah apn FXnpw.
KmnbpsS A`n{]mbn Fm apnfpw {]tXyInv
]pcpjmv Cu {]hnI A\pjvTnpXv hgn (Ah
cpsS aXw A\pimknpXv) Xobmbpw kzw e`npw.
AXpsImv XsbmWv Kmnb `cWIqSw apnw ]pcpj
mv CXn\pthn {]tXyIw kuIcy sNbvXpsImSp
Xv. GsXnepw cm{ob ]mnI Cu \nbafn amw
hcpm {ianm Ah KmnbmcpsSbpw tIm{Kp
ImcpsSbpw (\njv^e Kmnb) i{Xpfpw apnw hncpcpw
lnp hnb hmZnIfpw Bbnocpp. AXpsImv Xs
bmWv _n.sP.]n ASap tZiobX ASnm\sSpnbp
cm{ob ]mnIsf Kmnbcpw apnw hnb hmZnIfpw ]pw
\Jhpw D]tbmKnv FXnpXpw hnbhmZnIfmbn ap{Z
Ipn temIw apgph {]NcWw \Sm {ianpXpw. Ccp
Znibn kamcambn kcnp BfpI Hcnepw Htc
eyn FpIbn. Htc eyn Fpw FXv
km[mcW hyn t]mepw hnizknpIbn. ]s Kmn
hnizknp. CXn \npw Kmn F{Xbpw bpnclnX\pw
t_m[anmh\pamWv FXv hyamWv.

66

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


lnpsf kw_nnStmfw \mw hnXXv \XmsW
nepw NobmsWnepw AXns ^ew Cu Pn
Asn ASp Pn \mw Xs A\p`hntnhcpw
FXv kmam\yt_m[aph Fmhcpw AwKoIcnpp. Hcp
PohnItfmSpw {IqcX ]mSn. kzw `mcysb Hgnv _mn Fm
kv{XoIsfbpw amXmhmbn ImWpI. ssZhamWv Fnsbpw,
Fm ktlmZco ktlmZcmcpsSbpw amXmhpw ]nXmhpw. lnp
[w Cd KpWfm kpambXn\m, lnp
kwkvImc kcpw, klnjvWpXbphcpw, i{XptfmSv
ASw FmhtcmSpw Zbm\pIbphcpw Bbncnpp.
Fm CXn\v hn]coXambn Cmw ASap aX CXc
aXhnizmknIsf shdpphm\p aX{]`mjW \Spp.

1947 BKkvXv 14,15 Acm{XnI; KmnbpsS Phl


aZyn apnmW cm{XnI
1947 BKkvXv 1415 XobXnIfn ]mnkvXm\n lnp
sfbpw knJvImscbpw apo Iqsme \SpXv AXn
s aq\yn \nptm KmnbpsS "cXv\w' Phl
em s\{lphpw, JZ [mcnIfmb av {]apJcpw, Kmnsmn
[cn Kmnb A\pbmbpIfpw aZyn apnmWpIbm
bncpp. {io. cLpth{ Xhm Atlns teJ\n "Z
emv tU Hm^v Z cmPv"",kt doUnv, {Sn_yq, 29061997
Ipdnncnpp. '' 1947 Ppsse 28 se ssht{kmbn m^v aonwKv
thfbn ckIcamb Hcp kw`hw \Sp. BKkvXv 1415
XobXnIfn ssht{kmbn Acm{Xn hsc XpScp kmc
hpw XpSv Amghncppw kwLSnnm \ntiw \In
bncpp. Atlw ""cmPmhns BtcmKyn\v'' s\{lphnt\mSv
aZy]nv BtLmjnm \ntinp. s\{lp AXphsc aZy]n
ncpn. (As av tIm{Kkv t\Xmsftmse)s\{lp
Acm{Xn 2:00 a.m apX aZy]nm XpSn. s\{lphns\
kw_nnStmfw cmPmhn\v thn aZy]npXv henb
Imcyambncpp. s\{lphnt\msSmw av tIm{Kkv t\Xm
fpw aZy]nv Ipgp adnbpXv temUv auv _m Iv
t_m[ysp. Ahsmw AXv hfsc henb Imcyw Xs
Bbncpp. emIcamb Cu {]hn auv _m Hcnepw
{]Xonncpn.

67

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


lnp DXambn IcpXp Fm Imcysf Ipdnpw
( aZy]m\w hnpI, Alnwk, A{IacmlnXyw, {_Ncyw,
cmacmPyw, tKmc, KoX, k\mX\ [w XpSnbh) Kmn
km[mcWbmbn {]`mjWw \Spambncpp. s\{lphn\v
bmsXmcp hn[nepap kmmKoI t_m[hpw, aqeyhpw
Cmbncpp Fv Kmnv \t Adnbmambncpp. s\{lp
aZymk\mWpw, amwkw Ignpambncpp Fpw, \ncoizc
hmZn Bbncpp Fpw, cma cmPys ]pnncph\mbncpp
Fpw Kmnv Adnbmambncpp. cmPyns `cWLS\
bpsS In F \nebn CXn \npw ]namdWw Fv
kZm ]t AtltmSv Bhiysncpp. ]s CXns
Fmw A\c ^ew Fhw s\{lp Xs AkmmKoIX
kaqln t{]mmlnnpIbmWv DmbXv. PohnXn
Fn\v thnbmtWm s\{lp PohnncpXv, Fmbncptm
Atlns kzImcy PohnXw, CXns ]qamb im]w
Kmnv AhImisXmWv. IpdpIqSn hyambn ]dm
KmnbmWv CUym Ncn{Xns \nmbIamb thfbn
`cWns \nb{Ww sXmb Hcp hynsb Gnm
P\sf I_fnnv \n_nXcmnbXv.

68

Aymbw10

KmnbpsS efnX PohnXw F Xnv


Kmn ]mhs sXmgnemfnsb t]msebpw, A\\pw
Zcn{Z\pamb IjIs\tmsebpw thjhn[m\w sNpIbpw
efnXPohnXs ]n {]kwKnpIbpw ]Xnhmbncpp. Fm
]pdta D KmnbpsS emfnXyw hfsc NnethdnbXmbncpp.
Kmnsb Zcn{Z\mn hbvm CUyv hn kmoI
_myXbmWv hcpXv Fv Hcn ktcmPn\n \mbnUp
Nqnmn. (kt ssSwkv,161997, t]Pv18)
]m{SnIv {^v FgpXnb ""ens_n Hm sUv; CUymkv
tPWn Sp CUns]Ukv BUv Unhnj'' F {K
ns Z {Sn_yqWn, 7091997 h \ncq]Wn C{]Imcw
FgpXnbncnpp.""Atlw (Kmn) CUy {KmaoW IjI
s\tmse Pohnm B{Klnp (]s Irjn sNm Xmdm
bncpn). FhnsS Fmw Atlw kinppthm, AhnsS
Huj[kkyfpw, ipamb (DWp) ]dnIfpw Bn
IpnIsfbpw HcpWambncpp. sInSw Npcn sh]qip
Ibpw {]tXyI Xcn AecnpIbpw \n_ambncpp.
{]IrXn NnIm F t]cn Ifnav XWpnv Atln
s hbdn\v ta ]pcWambncpp. h ]cnhmcfpw injy
KWfpw HnmWv Abm bm{X sNbvXncpXv. Ahcn
]ecpw {]ikvX F Almchpw AXpsImpmIp
amSnchpw \mpImtcmSv Imnbncpp. Fnpw Kmn hon
fnbncpXv Xm bmsXmcp hn[nepap {]tXyI ]cnNc
Whpw CsSpn FmWv.
Atlns {]XntbmKnbmbncp aplZv Aen Pn
NqnmpXv ""Rm Kmntbm hfsc Ipd hw
am{Xta Hmw mv Snn s{Sbn\n bm{X sNbvXnpp,
ImcWw F\nv Snv GSpm Rm Xs Imiv
apSWambncpp''.
KmnbpsS Cu {]hWXIsf ]n FgpXm Bscnepw
Xp\nm Ahsc Kmn \nIcmbn Kmnb kvXpXn
]mSI IWmpIbpw h tImemle DmpIbpw

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


sNpambncpp. ]s Cwojv FgppImv Acn
ep Hcp `bhpw Dmbncpn. AXn\m Ah KmnbpsS
I]SapJns bYm Nn{Xw Xpdp Imn.

temInsbpw UNO bpsSbpw In CUysbbpw


lnphns\bpw XcwXmgvnb Kmn.
1948 P\phcnbn Kmn A\pjvTn acWw hscbp
\ncmlmckacns Fm \n_\Ifpw NqnmpXv
lnpIfpw knJvImcpw apntfmSv {IqcXbpw A\oXnbpw
sNpp FXcn Dh Bbncpp. AXnt\mSp
{]Xnt[w F \nebn lnpfpw knJvImcpw Fmbn
tmgpw Atlm Atlns {]m\m {]kwKfn
imknsSpIpw IpsSpepIv CcbmIsSpIbpw
sNsncpp. Fm Hcn t]mepw F{Xhenb Ipam
bmepw, apn lnppw knJvImpw FXnsc
sNp Hcp kw`hhpw kzbw Nqnm t]mepw Kmn
Xmdbncpn. kXyn IqsmeI Bkq{XWw
sNpXpw sImeIv XpSw IpdnpXpw apn
Bbncpp. hfsc Xmaknpam{XamWv AXns {]XnIcW
lnpfpsS `mKv \npw Bcw`nncpXv.
bp.F.H bpsS ]mnkvXm {]Xn\n[nbmb {io.
k^dpmJm, bp.F.H bnse ktf\n aqv aWnq
{]kwKw \SpIbpw AXn\nSbn ]cmainpsImv
C{]Imcw ]dbpIbpw sNbvXp. ""apnw P\kwJy anhmdpw
kwm\fn \npw XpSv amsncnpp.'' cqambn
]cnlmknp sImv Cuv ]m_ns t] FSpv
hnainpp."" anWw, Cuv ]m_n Hpan. Cv
Imev Rm AdnXv AhnsS cv apnfmWv BsI
DXv FmWv''. ({Sn_yq 18011948)
]mnkvXm\n FmWv ]dbphm\pXv?. CUybn
Xs sslZcm_mZn hn]peamb lnp `qcn]s apnw
t\Xmhv \nkmw `cnncptm, \hw_ 25 apX Unkw_
15 hscbp ImeLn apn 3000 lnp `h\
AnncbmpIbpw, 260 lnp kv{XoIsf Xnsmv t]mIp
Ibpw, _emwKw sNpIbpw, 600 lnpsf sImpIbpw, 30
ew hneaXnp (Amev 30 ew henb XpIbmWv)

70

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


AhcpsS hkvXphIIfpw kw_m[yhpw sImbSnpIbpw
sNbvXp. (Z {Sn_yq 18011948)
Fncpmepw, CUybpsS {]Xn\n[n {io. Am
apofpsS X\ncq]w Xpdv ImsSpw FXn\m `bw aqew
kXy hnfnv ]dbm ss[cysn. apnfmWv Iq
smeIv XpSw IpdnpXv Fpw, ]mnkvXm\nse
sImbpw Xnsmv t]mIepIfpw Xnv t\mptm
CUybnse {]XnIcW hfsc sNdpXpw XmaknpXp
amWpw ]dbphm Atln\v IgnbmsX t]mbn. Fp
am{Xa KmnbpsS \ncmlmc kacw aqew ]mnkvXm\nse
apgph lnpP\kwJybpw \mamhtijambn. lnppw
knJvImpw ]mnkvXm apnfm Dmb Ahbvv
Kmnbpw
CUym`cWIqSns
t\Xrm\ncp
s\{lphpw ]cn]q DchmZnIfpw ISncpnbXns
^ehpamWv.
KmnbpsS 15011948 se {]m\m {]kwKw A\pkcn
pw, Uln UbdnbpsS t]Pv 344 hnhcWw A\pkcnpw
C{]Imcw kqNnnncnpp. " \nfpsS \ncmlmc kacw
bpssWUv t\j Iuknens ktf\ Znhkw sshIp
tcw \SsSpw Fv ]dbpp. \nfpsS \ncmlmc
Fpw asm kw`hfpw adnt Dq. CUybn apnw
P\PohnXw Akmyamnb lnp A\pbmbnIv kZv_pn
Dmhphm alm Kmn \ncmlmcw XpSpp FpXvv
]mnkvXm {]Xn\n[nI kt`mPnXambn D]tbmKnn
Fn AhcpsS kt]cn\v bmsXmcp hnebpapmIm
t]mIpn. \nfpsS \ncmlmcw ssZ`mKyIcamb ^eamWv
Dmm t]mIpXv FWv bpssWUv t\js
ImgvNmSn a\nemm IgnbpXv.
CXn\v KmnbpsS adp]Sn ]mnkvXm\nepw CUybnepw
hknp Fmhpw kZv_pn DmIphm Aamp
Hcp \ncmlmc kacn\v, AXns Dtyis hfsmSnm
]pdv \npw h Bpw IgnbpIbn. Cu adp]Sn, Kmn
\pW]dbpXn ka\pw kXy hfsmSnpXn
A{KKWy\pw BWv sXfnbnsSp asmcp DZmlcWw
am{XamWv. bYmXyn \ncmlmcw Ahkm\nnphm\p
DSSnI apt] Kmn aptmv hncpp. AXv CUybn

71

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


hknp lnpsfbpw knJvImscbpw am{Xw kw_nXm
bncpp. AmsX Hcnepw CUybnepw ]mnkvXm\nepw
hknp Fm lnp, apnw, knJv, {InkvXy P\Xsb
DtyinpXmbncpn.

Pn ]mnkvXm Kh P\d F \nebn


Xs ImWqhm Kmnsb A\phZnn.
Pnbpambn CSsSptm Fmw Kmn kzbw Hcp
bmNIs\tmse XcwXmgvXsncpp. Atlw Fpw apo
sfbpw Pnsbbpw `bsncpp. Ahcn \npw Ftmgpw
A]am\Icamb s]cpamamWv Atln\v e`nncpXv.
apn lnpv ta sNp {IqcXI a\qw adv
hv Ahsc {]oXnsSpm Atlw {ianncpp. lnp
{]mWcbvpw sNdpv \nn\pw thn sNp sNdnb
Imcyv hsc Kmn lnpsf IpsSpnbncpp.
]mnkvXm\nse CUy InjW an. {io{]Imi Atl
ns ""]mnkvXm _v BUv Ffn tUbvkv'' F
{Kn 104 apX 109 hscbp t]PpIfn C{]Imcw
FgpXnbncnpp.
"" Pnsb ImWWw F KmnPnbpsS ktihpambn
Idmnbntebvv h cv ]mkn kplrpfpsS ki\w
Rm Hmpp. Rm HmpXv A\pkcnv Cu kplrp
v Pnsb ImWm Ignncpn. Pn hfsc Ipdv
BfpIv am{Xta apJw sImSpncppp. Fpam{Xa
Bmbmepw Pnsb ImWpI FXv A{X Ffpap
Imcyambncpn. (Cu hcnIfn Kmnb\pw Kmnsb cm{
]nXmhv F \nebn ImWph\pamb {io{]Imi F{X
at\mlcambmWv PnbpsS [nmc]camb s]cpams
adbvv ]nSnbvphm {ianpXv Fv ImWmhpXmWv). Cu
kplrp hopw ]ehw Fs ImWpIbpw NpaXe
sh F \nebn FtmSv "Pn KmnPnsb ImWm
XmsdSpv \Snbnn Fpw, Fm KmnPn CUybpsS
Kh P\d Bbncpp Fn Ffpn ImWm
km[npambncpp Fpw Atls kw_nnStmfw
B{Klnm kzmbamm Ignbp m\w am{XamWv
AXv Fpw'']dp. Pnsb A\p\bnnm {ianp sImv

72

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


Cu kplrp Idmnbn Xs Xn. KmnPnbpsS
acW hm Fnbtm \ncmicpw ZpJnXcpabn lrZb`mcw
t]dnsmv Ah hoSpIfntebvv Xncnp.
IqSmsX {ioam. {io{]Imi \nconpp, ""hn`P\
kabSw apnw {]oW\mb KmntbmSp CUy
lnpfpsS kao]\w acWthfbn F{]Imcambncnpw
FXv PnmksSppXmbncpp. apnfpsS bmX\
IfmWv lnpfpsS bmX\Itfm Kmnsb kv]inXv
Fv Ah IcpXn.. 13 Znhks ZpxJmNcWw CUybn
{]Jym]ntm KmnbpsS {]XntbmKn Pn Hcp ]qsv
Anphm NpaXesSpphm Fs hnfnp. GXv
kmlNcyambncpmepw Atlns ap amXrcmPyw AKm[
ZpJn Bncnptm ]mnkvXm Kh P\d
Xsbmbncpp ]qsv kantnbncpXv. Fm
Atlns Cu s]cpamw Fn AXr]vXn Dfhmn.
ZpJmNcWn BbXn\m X\nv hcphm km[nn
Fv ]dv Rm XSnXn. KmnPnbpsS ZmcpWacWn\v
tijw A[nIw XmaknbmsX \S ]mnkvXm Akwn
ktf\n \S Kmnsbpdnp ]cmaiw Rm
Hmpp. Rm Kymednbn Ccnppmbncpp. {][m\
a{n \hm_v kmZm enbmv Aen Jm, knns
apJya{n {io.Jpt{km , av kv]oam Fmhcpw Xs
Kmnsb ""alm'' Fv A`nkwt_m[\ sNbvXpsImv
Xnfam IrXX tcJsSpn. Ahkm\w {ioam.
PnbpsS Ay {]kwKw Bbncpp. hfsc Ipdv
hmpI am{Xta Atlw ]ndp]ndppp. AXn Atlw
KmnbpsS t] ]dtX C. KmnPnsb alm Fv
hnfnm Atlw CsSpn Fv F\nv tXmn.
Atlns `cWIqSnse kl{]hI almXa Fv
A`nkwt_m[\ sNbvXtmgpw Fv kwbmWv KmnPnv
\Im t]mIpXv Fv Adnbnmbncpp. AXpsImv
Xs Pn KmnPnsb Atlw Fv A`nkwt_m[\
sNbvXp. Atlw Atlns kapZmbs \hw
tkhnp Fv Pn ]dp. Rm Pn, CUybpsS Kh
P\dens\ Cu thfbn Xsbpw `cWIqSnsbpw ZpJw

73

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


Adnbnp sImpp. PnbpsS sk{IdnbpsS HtmsS auv
_m\v Ab Iv Rm Cpw adnn.""
t]Pv 179 an. {io{]Imi XpScpp."" Ipdv hjv
ap]v Idmnbnse lnp hym]mcnI m]n KmnPnbpsS
{]Xnabn ]pjv]m\ \Sphm 1949 P\phcn 30 \v Rm
]mnkvXm Khsn\v IsgpXn. AXn\v adp]Snbmbn ; ""
RfpsS aXn\v FXncmbmXn\m s]mXpev hp
Hcp ]qPbvpw A\paXn \Im Ignbn.'' F Iv F\nv
e`np.
apIfn ]dnp Imcyfn \npw \apv Nne
A\pam\fn FntcmhpXmWv.
Hv: lnpfpsS XojvWamb FXnns\ AhKWnv
apnv thn Xm \ncmlmcw A\pjvTnp. BbXn\m
Rm apnfpsS kplrmWv Fv Pnsbsmv
]dbnphm Kmn B{Klnp. AXn\m Idmnbn sNv
Pnsb ImWphm kuIcyw Hcpm ]cnNmcIsc \nbanp.
cv: lnp, {]tXyInv ]mnkvXm\n Xmaknncp
h, apnfpsS B{IaWv Ccbmbhcpw Kmnbm
cm AhKWnshcpw klmbw \nt[nshcpw
BWv. BbXn\m ]mnkvXm\n Ahtijnsncp
lnpfpw knJvImcpw Kmn, Pn Fo cv IpIv
CSbn NXcv acnsp.
aqv: Hcp aney lnpfpsSbpw knJvImcpsSbpw acW
n\v ImcWmc\mbn AhcpsS arXtZln Nhnn\nv
Idmnbn Pnbvv IogSphm B{KlnpXv Kmn
kzbw XcwXmgpXn\v Xpeyhpw Cu {]hrn AtAw
emIchpamWv. Fncpnpw Atmgpw Pn, Kmnsb
]cnKWnpXv A[a\mbnv XsbmWv. Atlw Kmnsb
alm Fv hnfnphm tbmKyXbnmh\mWv Fv
IcpXpp. am{Xa Atls ImWphm\p Ahkcw
\nt[npIbpw sNpp. PohnXImev sNbvXpIqnb
kIe ]m]pw Kmn A\h[n P \cIbmX\I
A\p`hntnhcpw. Hcp a\pjy Xs kapZmbns\bpw
A\pbmbnIsfbpw NXnp Fn Xobmbpw Xs i{Xp
hns\bpw NXnpw FXv Ddp ImcyamWv. Cu am\Zw
XsbmWv Pnsb Kmnbn \npw AIpXv. AXn\m

74

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


Xs Pn hfsc hnthIimenbpw kzw kapZmbtmSv
BmXbph\pw BWv Fv \apv hyamWv.

75

Aymbw11

Kmn h[hpw \mYqdmw


tKmUvsktbmSp BZcmenbpw
Kmnb A\pbmbnI \mYqdmw tKmUvsk F \maw
Atbw shdppp. CImew A{Xbpw \psS cmPyw
KmnbmcpsS `cWw BbncpXn\m kXyw CXphsc
adbvsncpp. bmYmXyn kzImcyPohnXntebvv
t\mnbm \mYqdmw hn\mbIv tKmUvsk hfsc `nbp
h\pw a\n BobX \ndh\pambncpp Fv ImWmw.
Atlns PohnXspdnp tcJmNn{Xw ""{^oUw
Av anUvss\v'' F ]pkvXIn emcn sImfnkv,
tUman\nIv emnb Fo hntZinI \Inbnpv. IqSmsX
Hcp sNdp hnhcWw " chnv Ie ' Xs "tamv Ct^bvakv
Amn' Fp iojIn kvs]{w RmbdmgvN
{Sn_yq, 33102000 \evInbnpv. AXns Nne `mK
Ac{Ian ChnsS ]p\teJ\w sNpIbmWv."" \mYqdmw
tKmUvskbpsS PohnXw hmb\msc hioIcnpXmWv.
amkn 15 cq] hcpam\w e`np {_mW\mb Hcp t]mv
amdpsS ]p{X\mbncpp Atlw. sa{SnIpej\n Cwojn\v
]cmPbw kw`hnXn\m Atln\v kIemimebn
{]thi\w e`nn. kvIq hnZym`ymkn\pdw Atlw
Hn\p ]pdtI asmcp tPmen F hn[n sNbvXp t]mp.
BWn ]mv sNpI, ]g ssknfn sImv \Sv
hnevpI, ]gb SbdpI dnb sNpI XpSnb tPmenI
sNbvXv Ahkm\w \mYqdmw X tPmenbn Ddp.. Atl
ns bYm A`n\nthiw cm{obn Bbncpp.
ZpJIcamb hkvXpX Atlw KmnbpsS XojvW A\p`mhn
bpw A\pbmbnbpw Bbnamdn FXmWv. Kmn \nlIcW
{]m\w Bcw`ntm AXn ]sSpv Pbn hmkw hsc
A\pjvTnp. 1937 Kmn Kmnb apt Dt]nv
hockhdns A\p`mhn Bbn.

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


1944 \mYqdmw tKmUvsk "lnp cm{' F ]{Xns
]{Xm[n] Bbn. kzImcyPohnXn Atlw {_Nmcn
Bbncpp. Xs XISbpsS FXnhip itImem
lew \nd Aconep aTnemWv Atlw
XmaknncpXv. Atlns apdnbn BsI Ib sImp
Hcp In amXamWv ^Wndmbn DmbncpXv.
Atlw FmZnhkhpw {]`mXn 5.30 a.m \v DWcpambn
cpp. A HgnsI asmcp kv{XobpsS kmao]yw Atln\v
Aklyambncpp. Hcn AXnITn\amb thZ\bmSpIqSnb
ssat{K aqew Atls Bip]{Xnbn {]thinnp.
tkh\n\v ]pckvImcw e`nv \gvkns tkh\w tKmUvsk
bvv e`nsnepw ]ckv{Xo kv]iw Hgnhmm Atlw
Bip]{XnnSbn \npw Fgptv hncn FSpv Xs ta
]pX tijw Bip]{Xnbn \npw HmSntmIpIbmWv Dm
bXv. Ccp]n Fmw hbn tKmUvsk {_Ncyw kzoI
cnp.
tKmUvsk F{Xbpw ASppw Nnbpw \nd PohnXamWv
\bnncpXv Fv Ghpw a\nemmhpXmWv. Fm
CXn \npw hn]coXambn Kmnv sNdpw apX Xs ]e
kz`mh Zqjyfpw Dmbncpp. AhbmWv Atls Zp_
e\mnbXv. Atlns icocw Fpw tXmepw am{Xambn
Xotm am{XamWv Atlw {_Ncys Ipdnv {]kw
Knm XpSnbXv. XnIpw Im]Syamb {_Ncyns ]cn
ioe\amWv Atlw A\pjvTnnpXv.
tKmUvsk Xs kzImcy PohnXn ip\pw, Cuizc
hnizmkaph\pw am{Xambncpn, cmPysbpw lnp [
sbpw kwcnpI F XojvW B{KltmSv IqSnb
h\pw Bbncpp. KmnbpsS tZihncphpw lnp hncp
hpamb {]hnI tKmUvskbvv klnmhpXn\pw Apd
mbncpp. BbXpsImv KmnbpsS Zpjv{]hnIv
Atlns PohnXw Xs cmPyn\v _enbmbn \evIWw
Fv tKmUvsk B{Klnp. tKmUvskbpsS {]hnIsf
aphn[ntbmsS t\mnmWm {ianmXncpm Atlw
XnIpw \nc]cm[n BWv Fv ImWmw. tKmUvsk, Kmn
tbmSp kzImcy i{XpXbpsS ]pd Kmnsb sImphm
{ianXv. adnv KmnbpsS tZihncp {]hnItfmSp

77

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


FXnpw AXphgn apofm Dmhm t]mIp lnp
fpsS k\miw XSbphm thnbmWv Fv t_m[ns
Hcp Xncn shfnsanepw akvXnjvIn Dh\v a\nem
mhpXmWv. tKmUvsk Xs Ahkm\ B{Klhpw {]m
h\bpambn ]dp. " Fs IpSpw_n\v thn \evIphm
Fs NnXm`kvaw am{XamWv DXv. B NnXm`kvaw GsXnepw
\Znbn HgpcpXv. Fv hn`Pns `mcXw hopw Hmbn
Xocppthm Av knp \Znbn HgpWw. AXphsc Xeapd
If\pkcnv AXv kwcnsSWw. ""CmcWm Xs
Ftm CUy lnp `cWn Iogn hcppthm Av
tKmUvsk hocmcmb ckmnIfpsS KWn Bcm[n
sSpw''.
Rm am{Xa tKmUvsk Ipmc\ Fv hnizkn
pXv. KmnbpsS sIme]mXI tIkv tI PUvPn tJmkvse
Atlns ""Z aU Hm^v alm'', t]Pv 234
FgpXnbncnpXv "" t{imXm Ipw ImXpw Iqnncpp.
tKmUvsk kwkmcnm XpSnbtm hnkvXmc apdnbn
\niX \ndp \np. anhmdpw kv{XoIfpsS IpIfn
\npw Ip\o [mcbmbv HgpInbncpp. ]pcpjm Npabvp
Ibpw Xqhme ]cXpIbpw sNbvXp. \niX A{Xbpw L\ap
Xmbncpp Fv am{Xa bmZroIambpmIp aqp]ngnb
epIfpw ASnnSn Npabpw B \niX IqSpX AKm[
amnnncpp''.
""Fncpmepw, `qcn]w P\fm kans
"tKmUvsk \nc]cm[n'BWv F lPn ]cnKWnsSpsav
Av tImSXn apdnbn IqSnbncp t{imXmfmb Fmhcpw
hnizknncpp FXn F\nv sXpw kwiban.'' ChnsS
Nqnmt {][m\s Hcp Imcyw Av AhnsS tImSXn
apdnbn kn[cmbncp t{imXmfmbncph hnZymk
cpw, Khsv DtymKkvXcpw _pnPohnIfpw AhcpsS `mcy
amcpw IpSpw_fpw Fmambncpp.
anhmdpw kv{XoI Bm`nam\ap IpSpw_fn
\nphcmbncpp. Ah ASp lnbdnv Znhkw (tIkv
hnfnp Znhkw) [cnv hcWsa A`y\tbmsS kzw
ssII sImv Xpnb skz kvt\l]qw tKmUvskv
\Inbncpp. tKmUvsk AhtcmSp ISmSv F hw Ah

78

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


[cnmWv lnbdnn\v tImSXnbn FnbncpXv. (CUym
hnkv {^oUw, t]Pv 235, Kmn hmZv Hu taw, ss_ tKm]m
tKmUvsk, t]Pv 97). henb Hcp Imcyn\v thn PohXymKw
sNbvX tKmUvsk Xobmbpw Hcp [oc\mbncpp.

KmnbpsS Fm A\pbmbnIfpw ]m]nIfmb Iphmfn


I
13011948 se KmnbpsS {]mh\ Uln Ubdn
tcJsSpnbncnpXv A\pkcnv,""Atln\v klXm]w
apntfmSv am{XamWv Fpw Ahv thn am{XamWv
Atlw \ncmlmcw A\pjvTnXv Fpw Nne hynI
IpsSpn. Ah hfsc icnbmWv. BmtWm Bhiyw
AXmbXv ,Fmhcpw ]npWbvt \yq\]n\v thn
Xs BWv Kmn Xs PohnXw Hgnv hXv. CUy
apnfpsS A`nam\hpw Bss[cyhpw IhpsImv
]mnkvXm cq]nIcnsp. AXv A{]Imcw Xs Fv
Nnnptm Atlw s\mcsncnp''.
""Ahkm\ izmkw hsc Atlw ]dXv lnppw
knJvImpw FXnsc ]mnkvXm\n FmWv kw`hnXv.
AXns {]XnImcambn apnsXnsc Ah Hcp sNdp
hnc t]mepw Dbnbn Fv [ocXtbmsS ]dbphm
lnppw knJvImpw IgnbWw FmWv.''
P\phcn 13 Kmn \Snb {]mh\bvv bmsXmcp
aqeyhpan. ImcWw kocnb \ 28 tcJsSpnbnp
Xpw CXn\v cv Znhkw ap]v \SnbnpXpamb
{]mh\ CXnt\mSv XnIpw hn]coXamWv. AXmbXv "" Fs
\ncmlmcw CUybnepw ]mnkvXm\nepw Xmaknp
P\v kZv_pn Dmhm\mWv''. Kmn lnpsf
hnph\pw, \pWb\pw, bYm hkvXpXI hfsmSn
ph\pamWv FXn\p Da DZmlcWw IqSnbmWv CXv.
ChnsS Dundtb asmv, hn`PnX CUybnse
apnfpw IqSnbmWv ]mnkvXm cq]oIcWn\v IcW
mcmbnpXv. 194546 XncsSppIfn apgph apnw kop
Ifpw apnw eoKv ]nSnSnbncpp. Hscm kov t]mepw
tIm{Kn\v Innbn. AXmbXv ]mnkvXms cq]oIcWw
B{Klnp P\lnXw IqSnbmbncpp CXv. Fncpnpw

79

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


Kmn apnfpsS Bm`nam\snbpw Bss[cys
nbpw BtemNnv IpTnXsv A\amb \ncmlmcw Bcw`n
phm t]mbn. kXyn AhcpsS Poh\pw kzn\pw
bmsXmcp `ojnWnbpw Dmbncpn.
Fm Kmnsb kw_nnStmfw ]mnkvXm\n
s]pt]mb Zu`mKyhmmcpw Zu`mKyhXnIfpamb lnpfp
sSbpw knJvImcpsSbpw kznsbpw Pohsbpw Imcyn
bmsXmcp hnjahpw Dmbncpn. "" ]mnkvXm\n Fv
kw`hnmepw '' ""lnpfpw knJvImcpw hnkvacnWw'' Fo
{]mh\I AXmWv NqnmpXv. Atlw AXns\
Ipdnv NnnpXn \npw hfschfsc AIse Bbncpp.
]mnkvXm\nse Cu lnpfpw knJvImcpw Kmnsb ]cn
]qambn hnizknpIbpw Atlns \ntZi
A\pkcnpIbpw ""almm Kmn \oWm hmgs'' Fv
ap{ZmhmIyw hnfnpIbpw ]ebnSpw Kmn {]XnaI m]n
pIbpw sNbvXp. Fnpw Ah Iqsme sNsSpIbpw
apofn \npw ]eXcnep {IqcXI A\p`hnv
acWsSpIbpw sNbvXp. Nnnm t]mepw Ignbm hn[
nep {IqcXIfpw A]am\hpw Xnsmv t]mIepIfpw
lnpfpw knJvImcpamb kv{XoIfpw s]IpnIfpw A\p`hn
sp. A]am\nshcpw PohnXw \cIXpeyamsv
BlXysNbvXhcpw A\h[n. AXpsImv Xs Kmn
bpsS A\p`mhnIfpw, injycpw, ]npWbvphcpw, Kmnsb
A\ptamZnphcpw KmnbpsS I]SmIamb h\bp
sSbpw {IqcXIfpsSbpw Hmlcn Alnphcpw ]m]nIfpw
BWv.
""aplZv tKmdnbpsS ]w tNv NXnv ]rYzncmPv
Nulms\ tXmnpIbpw Atlns IpI NqgvsSp
Xv ASw ]e {IqcXIfpw sNbvX cP]pv Ncn{Xnse
Pbv Nns\tmse, Kpcp tKm_nv knwKns cv \njvIf
cmb IpnIsf {Iqcmcmb apnv ssIamw sNbvXv
]m_nse kmlnn `nnbn Nmcn \nn CnII
Fdnv sImm klmbn KwKp {_mns\ t]mse'' CUy
bn lnp cmPyw m]nsSp \m Kmnbpw Kmnbm
cpw cmPyt{ZmlnIfmbn IWmsSpw FXv XobmWv.

80

81

alm Kmn `mcXns im]w


B\v {]Imiv aZ
No^v Cn\ob (dn)

************************
htamXcw
************************

Ncn{XmfpIfn Im]Syw \nd Hcp apJw aqSn IqSnbmWv


alm Kmn `mcXns im]w F Cu {KneqsS
kaqlayn NosSpXv. Ign 68 hjambn `mcX
Ncn{Xn XpSv sImncnp h\bpsSbpw NXnbp
sSbpw t\mgvbpw sXfnhpIfpsSbpw hkvXpXIfpsSbpw
ASnm\n Ahsb Aanv \ncnbncnpXpamb
Hcp tcJbpw IqSnbmWv Cu {Kw. temInse {]Ya
kwkvImcn\pSaI Fp _lpaXnbpsS DSaIfmb
lnp kzambn amXrcmPyw t]mepw CmsX \inp
sImncnp Hcp hwiw am{XamWv Fv Cu {Kw
ASnhcbnSpp....

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