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Word A thesis or dissertation[1] is a document submitted in support of candidature for an

academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.[2] In
some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course,
while "dissertation" is normally applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is
true.[3] The term graduate thesis is sometimes used to refer to both master's theses and doctoral
dissertations.[4] Dissertations and theses may be considered to be grey literature.
The required complexity and/or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by
country, university and/or program, therefore, the required minimum study period may vary
significantly in duration.
The word dissertation can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an
academic degree. The term thesis is also used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar


1 Etymology

2 Structure and presentation style

o 2.1 Structure
o 2.2 Style

3 Thesis committee

4 Regional and degree-specific practices and terminologies

o 4.1 Argentina
o 4.2 Canada
o 4.3 France
o 4.4 Germany
o 4.5 India
o 4.6 Italy
o 4.7 Pakistan
o 4.8 Poland

o 4.9 Portugal and Brazil

o 4.10 Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Ukraine
o 4.11 Slovenia
o 4.12 Slovakia
o 4.13 Sweden
o 4.14 United Kingdom
o 4.15 United States

5 Thesis examinations
o 5.1 Examination results
o 5.2 Australia
o 5.3 Germany
o 5.4 Philippines
o 5.5 Portugal
o 5.6 North America