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HEIP U$ SERVE YOU BEITER


TELI--US ABOUI YOUR RECENT
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I ACCEPT YOUR CHARGES FOR VALUE & CONSIDERATION AND RETURN THIS ITEM TO
YOU FOR FULL DISCHARGE, CLOSURE AND SETTLMENT OF THE ACCOUNT. POST FULL
CLOSURE AND SETTLEMENT OF ACCOUNT NUMBER OOOOO17748 & AUTOTRIS & CUSIP
ACCOI-INT NUMBER 313565048, IN ACCORD WITH UCC 3.401, UCC 3-419, HJR I92IPUBLIC
LAW 73-IA,UNCITRAL, TINILOS & tIN CHARTER, CONRESSIONAL RECORD page A3220 of
May 11, 1955, Title 31 U.S.C. Sec. 5118(d)2.
PLEASE USE MY EXEMPTION FOR FULL SETTLEMENT & CLOSURE OF THIS ACCOLINT AS
THIS ACCOUNT IS PRE-PAID AND EXEMPT FROM IEVY.

oate:

V/n#.atrnlr*u t*7, U$

By:
Tiyemerenaset Ma'at El @rM,
authorized representative for:
BRENDA BRYA}\JT OTM
Riverdale, Grcgia [30296]

or#*Uhts

of Indigenous Peoples
( http ://www. un. org/esa/socdev/unpfi i/documents/DRlPS-en.pdfl
United Nations Conventisn on Economico Social & Culturat Rights, United Nations
Charter; Articles 55 & 56, UNCITRAL, LINILOS, Presidential Proclamation 7500, H.J,R.
194, S. Con. Res. 26, S. 1200, H.J.R. 3, U.S. Department of the Treasury.

United Nations Declaratioo

Affirmed to and subscribed before me this day of

Personally

Known

-{/*lt "o !, /r/ , i?,

.2CI75,

Produced ldentification

Type of

ID

My Commission Expires

'*State Home Mortgage


P.O. Box 133049, Atlanta, Georgia 30333

| 4A4-679-5294 I 1-800-781-8346 | www.statehomemortgage.net

Sent Via

Brenda Brvant

Riverdale, GA 30295
RE: Loan No- 0000017748
Property Address:

4, 31? . 38

6330

River

Mo

,*

Dear Mortgagor(s),

Be advised that as
Secured Debt, we aa

i1

this breach, if

Gr must crive certain


of t3fr,Nole and t.he lender

Said Deed to

notices to
hall be

te and Deed of
.1egal action Lo cure

'.#:
o)bq

Lhis is notice to

you

ched as a resul-t. of your


Iy. Our records i-ndicate
1l_- 09- 1s .

Lotal due in t,he form of CERTIFIED


You rnust
rom the date of this letter.
o)
'ei
thirty
t.hj-s
during
p:fiE;tl ra\ charges that. become due
"t
your
to
bring
y period, along with the amount shown above,

".M:AH:;
i$ffiq$ty {:
"'

t current.
Fliture Lo cure said breach on or before L2-09-15, may result in the
acceleration of the total surns secured by said Deed to Secure Debt and
a foreciosure saie of your pr'operty, ES wel-t as other remedies avarlabLe
to your lender
In the event your loan is accelerated due to failure to cure the breach,
you have the iight to have your loan rej-nstated under the terms provided
in the Deed to Secure Debt.

State Home Mortgage


Box 133049, Atlanta, Georgia 30333

4A4-679-5294

I 1-800-781-8346 | www.statehomemortgage.net

Loan.

No.

000003-7748

Your further have the right lo bring court action to assert the
non-exist.ence of Your deiault. or any other defense you may have to
acceleration and sale,
incurred
A deficiency judgement could be soughL agd"inst, yoy'for losses
is
your
loan
in a foreclosure action. As of the date of this letter
Repositories.
3LZ days delinquent and is being reported. to Credit
thereof,
Unless you dispute t,he validity of the debt or any portionvalid
by
be
within i0 aaysl in writ.ing the debt will be assumed t.o

the debt collector.


If you have any questions, please conLact our office.

SincerelY,

Default Department
State Home MorLgage
60 Execut,ive Park South,
At.lanta, GA 30329
THIS IS AN ATTEMPT TO COLLECT
WILL BE USED FOR THAT PURPOSE
SM6

NE

DEBT AND ANY INFORMATION OBTAINED

LIFFL{Ri'OF CCIIGT.E55
(

)ttct

<,itlu+iaras

[ir(trprir-i

Dupfictrri<rn Sr rrict s Sccdrxr

CERfifY that ths collf,ctions of the tibrry of Congrm cortair a publicetion


And thAt
CNTitTEd TIIE STATUTES AT LARGE OT TIIE UNITEI} STATES OF AIITERICA''
rhea*achedphotocopies(fromPART I.VOL.XLYIII)-thetitlepagsandpages lt2and I13

THIS IS TO

upf* Hj. ne*. 192. a JOINT RESOLUTIOI.f Ts asswe uniform value to the coins

en whieh
and cuneucies

oftfu United States,

June 5, 1933 - are a true represeritation &om tlrst work-

IN WT1NESS WHEREOF, the


Muy 2,201?.

seal of the Library of Cougress is affixed trcreto orr

Office of Business Enterprises


LibraryofCongrcss

Illl

fnrfuptrrilencr .ivenue.

sll

\f,.ishi::5ton, D(: 2l]5-t0J91* l'ct AE 70:.56i8 r]$B."lrr{ist'; tlupEeation*errices{.giil{,r-.gtrv

THE

STATUTES AT LARGE
OT

UNITED

IIIE

STAT

OFAMERICA

MABCH $33 to JUNE r9S4

coNcunasllr aEsoill'fi

oN$
RECENT TNEITIE} AND Co$YENTIONS, EXECUTVE PAOfr.AMAfiONS
AI{D AGREETilTFIIB, TWENTT-flNST .${ENDME}TT
TO THE CONSTITTIrION

ErrD,!il!fis,4!{D
IIRD86

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Br alrlroffrr o! oorqs
1E6E3Ilr ffi OIEXIE

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DIBIGITO!. OT

YOL.

XTYIII

IN ?TTO PANTS

P.*nr

Prrr

l-R$tic

Acdsord Resolutbas.
Z*kivato Acts ard Reeolutbas, Corcurelrt Reolntions
?rmtic and Conventiom, Erecutive Ptoclamatiors
and Agremots, Tronty-firet A.medmcst to the

Cmt'itutior.

PART

os 310 '$
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1938'
S'
Juae
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and t&

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fcramEB S.l

JOINT BgSOLImOil
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TffiEErrGffirrhercrs thc hol irg q{or rlealing i" s"I{ f{$-1q*-*S:,ltt1

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TI?LE 9&-JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDUR,E

1867

EpFEO?ryE DA?E oT. 19BO AMENDNENT

Amendmeat by pEb- IJ. B-ql? alAttcable .!,ritli reslleet


to eivil aetion$ *ornmenced on or &fter tho goth-d*y
eftr Nov, 1, Ulm, sBe Bscfion T01(CX1XB) of pub. L.
9&1?, sot out as B soto undor sectio1l 2dl'ot thie tit]e.

f867. I4iuries under Federal laws

The district eoults sbalt }arre orlg:inal juris_


dlotion of any clvil actior commen;ed by any
person to rscover damages for any injury io his
perfon or proper.ty oa accoBrxt of any aot done
by hjm, under any Act of Cone;ress, {Lr the protection or col]eotion of any of tbe revenues, or
to erforee the right of cltizens of the United
$tates to vote in aay State.
(June 25, 1948, cb, 646, 6g Stet. SS4.)
Ii[rSTONrCAr, AI'D REVISION NOTES
Based oe title 20, U.S.C., 19{0 ed., 941(11) (Mar. $,
ch.281, $24, par. 11, gO Stat. 1092.)

WordB .,alxy

sivll actlos" wsrB substituteat. lor

1911.

,.a.ll

suits," in view of Rulo 2 of th6 Federat Rules of Ctvil

Procedure.
Mtuor changes wete made

iu phraseology,

lIS68. Rrirrpot{onai1

lte district cororts shall h&ve or'iginal juriediotlon of all proceedlngs to condemn-real eitate
for the use of the United States or its depart-

ments or ag:etcles,
(June 25, 79$, cb.846,

0E

Stat. 9gf.)

HrsToRrcAL AND Rrwgro$ NorTEs


2E? of title {0, U.g,g.. 1g{0 ed., puuic
!_ulttllns*, Proprty. and. lVorks (Aus. 1. 1989. ch. ?ZS, g1,
2E t . 3bY: }la.r. 8, 1911, ch, ZS1, $991, SS Srei. USi).
The voaue prorriBlois of secEior 25? of tltle {0, U,S.C,,

Based on section

1940

ed,, {rre incorporeted

in eeotioE

Other proyiilons of seotlon 26? of

i!

1d0B

title

ed.. are retaiaed


Eaid titlB 40.
CLa.BgeB were &ade
Bbraseology.

of thtB ;itle,
{0, U.S.C., lg40

it

s6s-5?r.)

court.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 640, 62 $tat, 9Bi.)


HIs?oRIoAL AITD REw$IoN NoTEs

qryga on flrle 20, u.s.c., 19110 ed. gg41(r) affl 80 (Mer,


fl, oo stat.-iosi,'ross; Mat r+.
L_le1lr al. 281, Sg24(1),
1934, cb. 28{1, $1. 48 grat. ??6; Aus. 21, rse?, eh, i26,
$ir, Eo
Stat. TB8; ADr. 20, 1g{0, cb. 1n, B{ Srat. 149).
prol'lslons
section
of
4l(1)
of title Zg, U.S.C.,
_Other
iS9 $:' are toeorporated in sections ragr, llisZ, i8*i,
13{2, 1345, and lii4 of thi$ riue.
ProYlsloqs of sgotior 80 of title ZA, U.S.C., 18rt0 ed,, for
s*{m?n!. o{ cost8 upon disnrtssal of ax acrion for iack
of Jurietuoilon are lncorporated in Beotioll f8fg of tus
title. Other provlsiotrs of sald secuor g0 aplrea,r ia sec_

lll. IJar Be.t.. Jenuary 1g41. pp"

tlon wlthiB its tsrms from reEorilng to the Federel


courts unless there is juriBauctlon to suppori the assignee-plaintiffs case and e showlrg thefihere wout<l
have beeu jurisdietion if the assignor had tlrought the
sctloB iR lieu of the asslgnee-plahtiff. Since lbe **-

glg'nee clause deals wlth the bona flde assignge, there


h1l !"ul much litigatioa to determlna tho a;signmenta
wllch should or Bbould rot bs wlthltr ihe pulrrlJr of the

clauso. Thus [he courts have thoughb li advisable to


th6 term ,.chose in aetioa" aad sxolude from lts
scope-(l) aa iruplled ln law duty or promise, and (?) a
translsl of e pro$rty interesU and to exclude ar assignlnent by o]}eratJo! of law llom the covem:e o{ th
elause" Itrtarrrcdiate asslgrnert. asd reaxiigmrneat
Bkc giy8 ilitrioulty.

linit

over other civil causes of action, and those clvll


larvs of such $tate that are of Eieneral appllcato- prlvate persons or private poperty shau
-tlon
have the same force and. effeat, uAtha srich Indian country as thoy have elselrhere wtthlr. the
State:
Srate of

Alaska

Cailfo'nia

motioll.

The &E$lguee olause in $cfion {l(1) of tiile tB, U.g,C..


1040 ed., "ls a Jruuble of leglslativo jar?:on.'r (i.or fur
thsr refereDces to the coqsequolrcee of ..tts ohscure

ac,tious to whir:h

(a) Each of tbe Btates listed in the foltowhg


table shall. have Jurisdlction over civil causes of
ection betweeu Iadians or to wbich Inrlians are
parties which arise ln the areas of Iadian coujxtry ltsted opposite the name of tho State io the
same extent that such State has jurlsdlction

tioD 144? of thls title.


Provleione of sec,tion g0 of blfie A, U.S.C., 1940 ed., for Mirrnesota
dismissel of ar a.ction not roally aarl eubsiartiatty frvolyi{g a dispute or coBtroversy }yithla the Jqrtsdiction
of B. distrlct court. woro omitted as unnecissary.'Any
court w-lll diSmls$ a. oas tlot wtthrn lts jurisiietiou Nebrasba
wben its atteniloa ls atra$'I? to tha fa,ct, or oven on lts Orrsgon

o\irn

346

The renised ssetloD ehaoges this cleus6 by eo;rfinitrg


its aBplicaticn to q*ses wherolu the assignirent iB l!n_
gron-erlV or collusiveiy rutrde to lnvoke Jurtsdiotlor.
!-urthermore, the difficuliy of applying ihe original
clause is overcomo and ths origiqal purpose of such
clause 1s bgtter ssrr,od by suirrtiutialri iiilo*i"s u""fio4 80 of tltle 28, U.8.C., 1040 ed.
The assignee clause was ircorporated ln the ortginal
J-lqiciary
Aai of t?89, Such seciton to was;Dectia in
fhe history of tb.e assi8lneo clause ,,shows clearly
_1P?6,
that its purpose and effect, at ths tlrns of lts enaetmgsi were to preYeBt the coDfering of jur.isdictlori on
tle Feder.al courts, ort grounds of ihvsrslty of citlzenahlp, by a,ssigntnont, lu cass $here it wouid not othor_
wlse exiet.,' (Soaelt a, Feiterul Reserae Bank, Ig2g, 45
q.ch. b2B, s29, :08 u.s. 449, 4sB. 6s r,.Ed. 1041, rd4a.) ?bus
trAo pTrDoe of-the-&ssigl1ee clause lvas to proyent th
menufaotuf of Federal Juri*dlction by the device of as.
Bignmetrt. It achielres thls purpose only partially. For
sx&mpl6, the asslgrxes elause excepts iwo types of
choses iu actlon Itom itB qoveragei i1) Foreten liiU of
exehange; anil (t) corporaLe bearei paper. But-thi* tloes
not prever}t tho use of assigo&ent of these choses in ac_
Uion to create the recessary dlveralty or allenag:e for
lurisdicttonal purglses. guch sectlos -gO does, boiever.
pnevert that. (gee Bunarit & CitA at Cisr, f$}3, 54 B.ct.
1??, 290 U.S. 1?9. ?8 t.E{t. 254, Sg A.L.S. 141.) Irs covera^se
a8:el!st coilusive jtrrlsdlcuon is unllmiti,, and tts ay
proasb is drrect. fho &ssignee elauss, oa tJre other
haad, prevonts the bosa fide assigaee oi a chose tn ac-

f8e. Partier oolladvely loired or nde


Statc slviliuridstioa ia
A distrtct ccurt slatl rot &ave jurisdictioa of lf$flt
Ildians are partiee

eivil actian ia whlsh eny Farty, by assfunmeut


or othorwiee, has been tmpropeily or eoliiretvety
made or joind to lnvoke the Jur*oiction of sucl
a

Bbraseology,,, s*e, 85

Page

.Wlsconsla

Indiaa couniry affected

Ali India,a countly witbin


State.
All tudiaa couatry witldn
Sta,te.

the
th6

AII Indtan couBtry wlthin tho


Stat6, except tho Red Lake
neservation,

All Iadian country within th8


Statc.
All Inttlan country wlEhtn tho
State, excgpt the Warm
SpritrSis R6servatlon,
All Indiaa couatry q'lthin the
State.

r3c!

(b) Notbtuxg ln this sectlon shall authorlze the


allenatlon, encumbratrce, or taxation ofany real
or personal property, tncludlng water rights, betongin$ to any Indlan or any Indian tribe, band.

sucb a$sumption of Jurisdiccion by any such S6ate

until

agalnst alien&tlon imposeal by ibo United


States; or shall authorize regulatlon of the use
of such property ln a manner inconsistsBt with
any Federal treaty, agreemeut, or statuto or
wlth any reeiulation made pursuaat tbereto.' or
shall confer Jurisdlction upon the State to adjudicate. in probate proceeding:s or otherwise, the
ownershlp or right to possession of such property or any trteregt tberel*.
(c) Any tribal ordinance or custom heretofore

Act AuE. 15.1s5s, sh. 806, t?,6T gtat. B9o. which gave
corsent of the United State8 to eBy other St8.tB not
bavlng jurisdlctiotr wlth respeet to crimlnal offonsos or
civll causes of a,ctiotr, or wlth respect to both, as provlded for iu this section and section 1162 of Tit1e 18,
Crrmes and Crlrullral Procedurc, to assurne Jurlsdlotlon
at such tine and in such ma$ner as lhe peoplB of the

Page

TrILE z8.-IUDICIARY AND JUDICIAI,

34?

or commuuity that is held ln trust by the


Urited States or is subject to e restriction

or hereafter adopted by an Indian tribe, band, or

colrlmunity in tbe exerclse of any authority


which it mey posse$s shall, if not incoDsistent
with any applicable civil law of the State, be
given full force ancl effect in the detelrninatlon
of civil causes ol action pursuant to tbis section.
(Added Aus. 15, 1953, cb, 5S5, 94. 6? Stat. 589',
amended Aug. 24, 1954, ch. 910, $2, 68 $tat. ?95;
Pub. L, 85_615, $2, Aus. 8, 1958. 72 gtat. 545; Pub.
L. 95-598, title II, $239, Nov.6,1978,92 Stat.2668;
Pub. L. 98-!53, title I, $110, July 10, 1984, 98 Stat.
342.)
AI,{ENDMENTS

1984!--SBbsec. (a), Pub.

98-953

to rtlaska "$itbln the State" for "witun the Territory", whlch amondment dld not

the people thereof have approprlateiy arnended tbeir


State con$titution or statutes as the cs,se may be."

CONSENI OF UNITED STATES TO OTHEB gTATS"g TO

AssuME JuRisDIcrIoN

State sba]], try iegislative action. obligaie and blnd the


State !o a8sumllloB thereof. was repealed by section
{03(b) of Pub. L. 90-284. title fV, Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat.
?9. s]Ich repea.l not to affect ar:y cessloa ol Jurisdictlou

to such section prior to lts rapaal.


of Judsdietion by State a.cquired by
State pursuaat to section ? of Aet Aug. 15, 195,3, prior
to ifs repeal, see sectlotr 13?3 of Title 25, Iudians.
made pursuant

B,etrocession

186f. Action to compel atr officer of the Unitsd


States to lxdorm hir duty

'l[ho distrist courta shall have orlglnal Juvlsdictiou of any aetion in the nature of mandamus
to compel au offtcer or employee of the United
States or any agerrcy thereof to perform a duty

owed to tbe plaiattff.


(Added Pub. L. 8?-?48, $1(a), Oct. 5, 1962, ?6 Stat.
744.)

struek out "or TerrltorlBs" after "Each of thB SlateB", strtlck out "or Tsrritory" after "Siate" in 5 places, aud substltuted
''R-irhin the State" for "wlthin the Terltory" ill it6m
relating !o Alaska.
l9?8-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95-598 directod the ame:rdmen6 of sBbsec. {a) by EubstitutiBg: iB the ltem relatiBg

L.

PROCEDURE

become effeciive

pul-

suant to $ection 4f2(b) of Pub. L. 95-598, as amerlded, set


out as au Elfective Date aote precedlag rection 101 ol

Title ll, Baokrrrptcy.

lgs$-Subsec. (a). Prlr. L. 8Hf5 gave Alaska jurtsdictioE over clr'll causes of actios betweeu Indians or to

{1$62" Indian

Shea

The district courts shall have original jurisdictioa of aU civil s,ctions, brought by any Indian tribe or band with a coverni]lg body duly
recognfued by the Socretary of the Interlor'
wberein the matter ln controversy ari8e$ under
tho Consiitution, laws. or treaties of the United
States.
(Adoed Pub.

L.

8s-635, $1,

Ort.

10, 1966, B0 Bta,i.

880.)

which Indians are parties which arise in all lldian

EFFECTryE DATE oF 1S84 AMEIDME}iT


Ame[dr.aetrt bV Pub. I]. S&-B$3 ef{ectl$e Jul} 10,1984.
see sectlon 122(s,) of Pub. L. 08-353, Bet out as atr Effective Date note under Bection 151 of uds tirle.

?he district courts shall have orlginal jurlsdlction of aEy civl1 action brought for the protection of julom' employment under sectlon 1875
of thls title,
(Adaled Pub. L. 95-5?2, $6(bX1), Nov. 2, 1978, 92
$tat. 2rl5?")

country withjE the ?$ritory of Alaska.


195**Sutrsec. (a), Act Aug. 34, 195!,, brought the Menomlnee Tribe withtn the proviiious of this sectlon,

l8&9. Jurors' employnsnt

ADIIISSIoN oF At-asKA As STATE

Admissioa of Alaska ilrto the Unioo was 4cco]11plishod Jan. 3, 1959, on issuance of Proc. No. 3269, Jan,
3. 1S5S, 211 I'.R. 81, ?3 Siat. c16. as required by Bections
1 and 8(c) of Pub. L. 85-508, July ?, 1958. ?2 $tat, 339, seE
out a$ notes precediog Eeetign 21 of Titte 48, TerritorleB
aad lnsular Posge$ioa'sAMESDMENT OF STA:rE COIiSTITUTIONS TO REMO\"T'
IiEgAI, TVPEDLUENT; EFFECTIVE DATE

Section 6 of act Aug, 1S, 1950, provided thatr "Not-

rryithstanding the provi8ion8 of aay Enebiitrg

Ast for

the admis$lo[ of a State, the consent of the United

gtates iB horeby gtven to thB people ol any State to


their State constltutiou or extsttag statuteB, as the c&Be rBay be, to remolre auv legel
impedimenE to the a.Esumption of clvll enti criruinal Juri3dictiotr 1r accordance with the provlston8 of thls Act
[addhC this $ectioa ard section 118 of Titte 18, Crimes
and Climioal Proced.urel: kou;ded, That the provisious
of thi8 Act shall aot tecome effoctlve with respect to

amead, where neceseary,

rfdrts

PR.I0R PBoYr$IoNs

A prior

this tltle,

Bection 1363 was renumbered section 1466 of

EFFnc$vE DATE
of Puir, L, 05-5?2 Frovided tba,t:
"(a) Except as provlded in subsestlotr (bi of tbis sectio[, the amendmetrts made by this Aci len&cting this
Bectiorl and sectioB 10?5, renumberiug Eection 1363, relatlas to coastructlott of references to laws of the

gection

United Sta.tes or Acts of Congress, as section

1864, aad

amendlng sectionB 1863, 1865, 1866, 18{t9, and 18?1 o{ thls


titiel shali apply with reBpect to eay graud or petit
Juror summorled for service or actually sorvlng on or
attr the dDte o{ er1aqt:Retrt of tbi$ Act [Nov. 2, lgl8l,
"(b) The &meBdment made by socuon E of this Act
larnendirg section 18?1 of this tltlel shall apply with reEpect Lo any gfaad or petit iuror ser!'la8 oI! or after ihe
sixtleth day followiag the date of eaactmelt of Nhis Act
lNov. 2, 19781."

http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/faqs/Currency8agesllegal-tender.aspx

I "" ,', i ,i '. I

, i ,i,

.l 'r-l

':

Resource Center
Legal Tender Status

I thought that United States currency was legal tender for all debts. Some businesses or
govemmental agencies say that they will only accept checks, money orders or credit
cards as payment, and others will only accept curency notes in denominations of $20 or
smaller. Isn't this illegal?
The pertinent portion of law that applies to your question is the Coinage Act of 1965,
specificatly Section 3t U.S.C. 5103, entitied "Legal tendero" which states: 'United States
coins and curency (including Federal reserve notes and circulating notes of Federal
reserve banks and national banks) are legal tender for all debts, public charges, taxes, and
dues."
This statute means that all United States money as identifi.ed above are a valid and legal
offer of payment for debts when tendered to a creditor. There is, however, no Federal
statute mandating that a private business, a person or an organization must accept
curency or coins as for payment for goods and/or services. Private businesses are free to
develop their own policies on whether or not to accept cash unless there is a State law
which says otherwise. For exampie, a bus line may prohibit payment of fares in pennies
or dollar bills. In addition, movie theaters, convenience stores and gas stations may refuse
to accept large denomination currency (usualty notes above $20) as a matter of poiicy.
What are Federal Resene notes and how- are they different from United States notes?
Federal Reserve notes are legal tender curency notes. The twelve Federal Reserve Banks
issue them into circulation pursuant to the Federal Reserve Act of 1913. A commercial
bank belonging to the Federal Reserve System can obtain Federal Reserve notes from the
Fedsral Reserve Bank in its distnct whenever it wishes. lt must pay for them in full.
dollar for dollar, by drawing down its account with its distrist Federal Reserve Bank.
http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/faqs/CurrencyPages/legal-tender.aspx
Federal Reserve Banks obtain the notes Ilom our lllit r,,lrir-ti l,tji.:.,* jlj;..i:ril i.l i1riirt;
(BEP). It pays the BEP fbr the cost of producing the notes, r+'hich then become liabilities
of the Federal Reserve Banks, and obligations of the United States Government.
Congress has specified that a Federal Reserve Bank must hold collateral equal in value to
the Federal Reserve notes that the Bank receives. This collateral is chiefly gold
certiflcates and United States securities. This provides backing for the note issue. The
idea was that if the Congress dissolvedthe Iederal Reserve Systern, the United States
would take over the notes (liabilities). This would meet the requirements of Section 411,
but the govemment would also take over the assets, which would be of equal value.
Federal Reserve notes represent a first lien on all the assets ofthe Federal Reserve Banks,
and on the coliateral specifically held against them.
enl'ederal Reserve notes are not redeemable in gold, silver or any other commodity, and
receive no backing by anything This has been the case since 1933. The notes have no

are legal
vaiue tbr themselves, but for what they will buy. In another sense, because they
in the economy.
tender, Federal Reserve notes are "backed" by all the goods and services
notes?
What are United States Notes and how are they different from Federal Reserve
national
the
first
United States Notes (characterized by a red seal and serial number) were
during the
crurency, authorized by the Legal Tender Act of 1862 and began circulating
they
Civil War. The Treasury Depaiment issued these notes directly into circu]ation, and
States Notes is
are obligations ofthe United States Government. The issuance of United
of
limitation
subject Io limitations established by Congress. It established a statutory
to be outstanding and in
$:OO mittion on the amount of United States Notes authorized
a very small
circulation. While this was a significant figwe in Civil War days, it is now
fraction of the total currency in circulation in the United States.
cuffency
Both United States Notes and Federal Reserve Notes are parts of our national
However, the issuing
and both are legal tender. They circulate as money in the s{tme way.
were redeemable in
}.{otes
authority for them comes from different statutes. United States
then, both
goio o,,1ir 1933, when the United States abandoned the gold standatd. Since
value'
same
the
had
iurrencies have served essentially the same purpose, and have
served by
Because United States Notes serve no function that is not already adequately
placed in to
Federal Reserve Notes, their issuance was discontinued, and none have been
eirculation since January 21, 1971-

http://www.treasury.gov/resource-centerlfaqs/Cunency/Pages/iegal'tender'aspx

of Federal
The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 authorized the production and circulation
(BEP) printsthese notes,
Resene notes. Although the ili,rr'iii: ,:i l,l:t.rriti;. ri.i.,o.i illii:rltu
are obligations of
they move into circulaiion through the federal Riserve System. They
On Federal Reserve
botir the Federal Reserve System and the United States Governmenl.
notes, the seals and serial numbers appear in green'
Federal
united states notes serve no function that is not atready adequately served -bl
United States notes'
Reserve notes. As a result, the Treasury Department stopped issuing
and none have been placed into circulation since January 21.1971.

tt 'iu!f"

Tr.[t;l
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