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Technical Information 33

Slag Defects in Grey Iron

Slag defects in grey iron is typically found in the cope side or dispersed due to turbulent
mold filling. Grey iron slag inclusions are typically a result of improper separation of base
metal slag or oxidation of the metal during processing. Defects can also occur as a result
of reactions between metal and mold materials.

Grey iron slag inclusions are typically high in manganese, silicon and iron, and sometimes
other slag forming constituents such as Ca and Al from alloy additions can be found. Slag
inclusions common also coexist with sand grains from reactions with the mould.

Example of grey iron slag inclusion cluster. Close-up of slag cluster showing various phases.

Possible causes: Possible cures:

• Inadequate slag separation from melting • Improve slag removal procedures.
and pouring systems. • Proper draining of ladles and received to
• Cold metal heels in ladles and receivers. avoid cold metal heels.
• Lack of slag traps or filters. • Review gating system and avoid
• Low pouring temperature. turbulent mould filling.
• Excess addition of slag forming • Use filters in the gating system.
materials. • Increase pouring temperature.
• Turbulent mould filling. • Use an inoculant with low contents of
slag forming elements such as Ca and
• Use inoculants with fast dissolution
characteristics and the correct sizing.
• Avoid adding silicon carbide at a late
stage of processing.

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