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Alicia Jun
Part 4: Individual Assignment
8 November 2015
Annotated Bibliography
Introduction: Below are sources that I have come across while researching the crime rate in
International District. I thought of this topic when I had found articles of the Wah Mee massacre
that occurred in the gambling club located in Seattles Chinatown. I became curious and found
sources that could explain International Districts high crime rate and the reasons behind it; for
example, the low socioeconomic status of the populations that reside in Chinatown. I also did
research on Asian-American groups, because it seems as though International District had a large
population of Asian groups, specifically a strong presence of Chinese individuals.

Gibbons, Don C. "Review Essay: Race, Ethnicity, Crime, and Social Policy." Crime and
Delinquency 43.3 (1997): 358. Web.
Don Gibbons, a professor of Urban Studies and Sociology at Portland State University,
examines the ways in which the components of race, ethnicity, and crime are all
intertwined. In his essay, he defines race and ethnicity, explains garden variety crime
among racial and ethnic groups, recounts racial and ethnic factors in law enforcement,
and addresses his coined phrase racial-ethnic conflict crime. Gibbons remains generally
objective throughout his piece, using historical facts (ethnic conflicts in Bosnia, Northern
Ireland, Sri Lanka) as evidence for his claims. Race, Ethnicity, Crime, and Social
Policy was beneficial for me personally as it helped me understand the issue of racial
and ethnic discrimination in the criminal justice system, however, the essay was not

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specifically about International District, which made it more difficult to apply to my
research of the crime rate in International District.
Hayner, Norman S. "Social Factors in Oriental Crime." American Journal of Sociology 43.6
(1938): 908-19. Web.
Hayner, a sociologist from the University of Chicago, discusses the variation in crime
rate among Asian subgroups. He mentions the possible reasoning behind the low and high
rates among the different communities. For example, he compares Japanese low rates of
crime to Filipino high rates of crime. Hayners piece was especially helpful for my topic
of crime rate in International District because the majority of the population of
International District is Asian. Hayner establishes some of the differences in the rates
using statistics as well as general cultural beliefs among each Asian subgroup. However,
Hayners piece includes some bias as he portrays Japanese populations to be more
civilized than others; I am curious to know where he received information on the cultural
beliefs of each group.
Sue, Stanley, and Wagner, Nathaniel N. Asian-Americans: Psychological Perspectives. Ben
Lomond, Calif.: Science and Behavior, 1973. Web.
Sue and Wagner include multiple components in their novel, such as assimilation and sex
roles, personality, mental health, and contemporary issues all pertaining to AsianAmericans. The purpose of their writing is to provide a better understanding of the AsianAmerican community, which is very helpful in that there is little research and
representation for this community compared to other communities. Sue and Wagner have
some bias, however, I would say without the negative connotation of the word bias. It is

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difficult to be completely unbiased when writing about a specific group of people,
especially when the authors have a particular interest in this group of people.