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Raven Jordan
Mrs. Crist
English 4
September 24
Research Annotated Bibliography
Essential Question: Why Do Puppy Mills Exist?
Working Thesis: Puppy Mills plays into the factor of farmers needing an alternative to make
Refined Thesis: Puppy Mills came into existence when there was a widespread failure of
traditional crops and farmers needed an alternative way to generate revenue.

Berek, Daniel L., MAT. "Puppy Mills." Salem Press Encyclopedia (2013): Research Starters.
Web. 14 Sept. 2015.
Daniel Berek's article offers details on what puppy mills are and how they grew after
World War II. Dog ownership rose in the decades following World War II and as a result
demanded dog breeds skyrocketed. The United States Department of Agriculture stated there was
a widespread failure of traditional crops, and that prompted raising puppies as an alternative for
farmers. Farmers took to the idea to use their farms as large-scaled commercial dog breeding
operations. These extensive dog breeding operations placed profit over the well-being of their
puppies. For example, these puppies were put in filthy cages that had no bottom. Bereks article
supports my paper because it provides key points towards how puppy mills got started.

Unti, Bernard Oreste. Protecting All Animals: A Fifty-year History of the Humane Society of the

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United States. Washington, D.C.: Humane Society, 2004. Print.

Bernard Untis puppy mills section had a wide variety of information on puppy mills. In
his section it claims that the selling of these puppies became known as a second crop for most
farmers. The term Puppy Mills was used for the first time by the Humane Society of the
United States in 1965. In this passage it says that the midwestern states became known for
harboring substandard mass breeding operations that produced purebred animals wholesale for
the pet store market. Some Midwestern states would produce these animals wholesale for the pet
store market would include Iowa, Missouri, and Kansas. Untis section on puppy mills
summarizes when the term Puppy Mills became a concept, and what states puppy mills started

The Global Guide to Animal Protection. Urbana, IL: U of Illinois, 2013. Print.
The Global Guide to Animal Protection provides more information towards what the
atmosphere of the puppy mills were. The book states that the owners of puppy mills constantly
bred dogs to have puppies on hand all year long. There was not a time they did not have new
puppies to sell. These dogs and some of the puppies lived their entire life in dark warehouses.
Not only were the warehouses dark, but tiny and overcrowded; not to mention indescribably
filthy. These warehouses contained refurbished chicken coops and rabbit hutches. Farmers often
eschewed veterinary care because they could not afford to pay. I believe this book represents my
thesis by illustrating what the puppy mills were actually like on the inside.